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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 72-82, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984183

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of DNA methylation detection techniques, studies on age-related methylation sites have found more age-specific ones across tissues, which improves the sensitivity and accuracy of age estimation. In addition, the establishment of various statistical models also provides a new direction for the age estimation of tissues from different sources. This review summarizes the related studies of age estimation based on DNA methylation from the aspects of detection technology, age-related cytosine phosphate guanine site and model selection in recent years.


Subject(s)
DNA Methylation , Forensic Genetics/methods , CpG Islands , Forensic Medicine
2.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 601-607, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009393

ABSTRACT

Age estimation based on tissues or body fluids is an important task in forensic science. The changes of DNA methylation status with age have certain rules, which can be used to estimate the age of the individuals. Therefore, it is of great significance to discover specific DNA methylation sites and develop new age estimation models. At present, statistical models for age estimation have been developed based on the rule that DNA methylation status changes with age. The commonly used models include multiple linear regression model, multiple quantile regression model, support vector machine model, artificial neural network model, random forest model, etc. In addition, there are many factors that affect the level of DNA methylation, such as the tissue specificity of methylation. This paper reviews these modeling methods and influencing factors for age estimation based on DNA methylation, with a view to provide reference for the establishment of age estimation models.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation , CpG Islands , Forensic Genetics , Neural Networks, Computer , Linear Models , Aging/genetics
3.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 441-446, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the forensic application value of an age estimation model based on DNA methylation in eastern Chinese Han population, and to provide a theoretical basis for exploring age estimation models suitable for different detection platforms.@*METHODS@#According to the 6 age-related methylation sites in the published blood DNA methylation age estimation models of Chinese Han population, the DNA methylation level of 48 samples was detected by pyrosequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS). After submitting DNA methylation levels to the age estimation model, the DNA methylation ages were predicted and compared with their real ages.@*RESULTS@#The 6 DNA methylation sites in both detection techniques were age-related, with an R2 of 0.85 and a median absolute deviation (MAD) of 4.81 years when using pyrosequencing;with an R2 of 0.84 and MAD of 4.41 years when using NGS.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The blood DNA methylation age estimation model can be used under pyrosequencing and multi-purpose regional methylation enrichment sequencing technology based on NGS and it can accurately estimate the age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging/genetics , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , East Asian People , Forensic Genetics/methods
4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 728-733, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935451

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the type, length, and CG loci of HBV DNA CpG islands in HBsAg positive maternal C genotype and its relationship with intrauterine HBV transmission, so as to provide a new perspective for the study of intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: From June 2011 to July 2013, HBsAg-positive mothers and their newborns who delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan were collected. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face questionnaires and electronic medical records. Serum HBV markers and serum HBV DNA were detected by electrochemiluminescence and quantitative fluorescence PCR, respectively. Intrauterine transmission of HBV was determined by positive HBsAg and/or HBV DNA in femoral venous blood before injection of HBV vaccine/Hepatitis B immunoglobulin within 24 h of birth. A total of 22 mothers and their newborns with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml in intrauterine transmission were selected as the intrauterine transmission group, and 22 mothers with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml without intrauterine transmission were chosen as the control group by random seed method. The distribution prediction of CpG islands of HBV DNA in 39 mothers with genotype C by HBV DNA sequencing was analyzed. Results: Among 39 mothers with HBV C genotype, 19 were in the intrauterine transmission group, and 20 were in the control group. The HBV DNA of 39 patients with genotype C traditional CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ, while the control group had traditional CpG island Ⅰ and novel CpG island Ⅳ and Ⅴ. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ and the number of CG loci of CpG island Ⅱ in the intrauterine transmission group differed from those in the control group (P<0.05). The CpG island Ⅱ length ≥518 bp and the number of CG loci ≥40 in the intrauterine transmission group (11/19) were significantly higher than those in the control group (2/20) (P<0.05). The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG loci in the X gene promoter region (Xp region) were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the HBV intrauterine transmission group, most of maternal (12/19) HBV DNA CpG island Ⅱ completely covered the Xp region, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (5/20), and the number of HBV DNA Xp region CG loci was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The distribution of maternal C genotype HBV DNA CpG islands is related to intrauterine transmission. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG sites may increase the risk of intrauterine transmission of HBV.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Biomarkers , CpG Islands , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 55-60, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common neoplasm in the world. Methylation of tumor related genes in CpG islands can cause gene silencing and been involved in the development of cancer. The potential role of DKK2 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the profile of methylation and RNAm expression of DKK2 as potential predictors of colorectal cancer diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: Expression of mRNAs encoding DKK2 in 35 colorectal cancer tissues was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The DNA methylation was studied by high resolution melting analysis. The general characteristics of the patients were collected. DKK2 methylation and expression were compared to clinical, pathological aspects and overall survival. RESULTS: Among the 35 patients studied, 18 were male, 10 were on right colon and 25 on left colon. Among the 20 patients with high hypermethylation, 15 of them had mRNA low expression of DKK2. There was no significant association between DKK2 promoter methylation and mRNA DKK2 expression and clinical or pathological features. DKK2 promoter methylation (P=0.154) and DKK2 RNA expression (P=0.345) did not show significant correlation with overall survival. CONCLUSION: DKK2 promoter methylation and DKK2 RNA status appear to be biomarkers of cancer diagnosis but not predictors of prognosis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer colorretal é a terceira neoplasia mais comum no mundo. A metilação de alguns genes nas ilhas CpG podem causar silenciamento gênico e estar envolvida no desenvolvimento de câncer. O potencial papel de DKK2 como um biomarcador no diagnóstico precoce de CCR permanece incerto. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o perfil de metilação e expressão de RNAm do gene DKK2 para identificar preditores potenciais de diagnóstico e prognóstico de CCR. MÉTODOS: A expressão de mRNAs que codificam DKK2 em 35 tecidos de câncer colorretal foi quantificada por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real e a metilação do DNA foi verificada por análise de alta resolução. As características gerais dos pacientes foram coletadas. A metilação e expressão de DKK2 foram comparadas aos aspectos clínicos, patológicos e à sobrevida global. RESULTADOS: Entre os 35 pacientes estudados, 18 eram do sexo masculino, 10 tumores eram do cólon ascendente ou transverso e 25 do descendente ou reto. Entre os 20 pacientes com hipermetilação, 12 deles apresentaram baixa expressão de RNAm do gene DKK2. Não houve associação significativa entre a metilação do promotor de DKK2 e a expressão de RNAm de DKK2 e características clínicas ou patológicas. A metilação do promotor de DKK2 e a expressão do RNA de DKK2 não mostraram correlação com sobrevida global dos pacientes com CCR. CONCLUSÃO: A metilação do gene promotor e a expressão do RNAm do gene DKK2 parecem ser biomarcadores de diagnóstico de câncer, mas não se mostraram úteis na avaliação prognóstica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Methylation , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , CpG Islands , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics
6.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 127-134, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the correlation between cytosine-phosphoric-guanylic (CpG) site of Septin 9 gene and colorectal cancer, and to develop a real-time PCR detection system in plasma in patients with colorectal cancer.@*METHODS@#The methylation of training samples was detected by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the sites highly consistent with the clinical information of colorectal cancer were identified. Then the detection system of real-time PCR was designed to analyze the consistency of plasma and tissue based on methylationa sensitive enzyme digestion. Finally, 100 clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the performance of the detection system with the methylation sensitive enzyme digestion-real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#The highly consistent sites, which were selected by high-throughput sequencing from 71 training set samples, was the 38th CpG. Based on the detection region, the screened methylation sensitive enzymes were @*CONCLUSIONS@#The 38th CpG site of Septin 9 detected by the detection system of methylation sensitive enzyme digestion-real-time PCR can highly predict the occurrence of colorectal cancer with great clinical application value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , CpG Islands/genetics , DNA , DNA Methylation , Plasma/metabolism , Septins/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3310-3322, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921427

ABSTRACT

The effect of altering the promoter region of ubiquitous chromatin-opening element (UCOE) and matrix attachment region (MAR) on stable and efficient expression of genes was investigated. Four different promoters were tested, namely, oct4 containing an enhancer region, sox2 having a CpG island, nanog having no regulatory elements, and CMV containing a CpG island and an enhancer region. Eight reporter plasmids were constructed: pOCT4-UCOE, pOCT4-MAR, pSOX2-UCOE, pSOX2-MAR, pNANOG-UCOE, pNANOG-MAR, pCMV-UCOE, and pCMV-MAR. Stable and efficient expression was observed when UCOE combined with the oct4 promoter, whereas the sox2 was the best promoter suited for MAR. Comparison of the stable clones of oct4-UCOE and sox2-MAR showed that UCOE-regulated expression is more stable and efficient than MAR-regulated expression. When CpG island-containing promoter is linked with UCOE, stable and efficient expression could be observed. These data suggest that an enhancer region in the promoter leads to high, yet unstable expression when combined with UCOE, whereas CpG islands stabilize expression. In conclusion, UCOE and MAR interact with regulatory elements on the promoter by altering the chromatin open state and chromatin loop to regulate gene expression.


Subject(s)
Chromatin/genetics , CpG Islands/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 109-114, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985096

ABSTRACT

In forensic science practice, age is an important individual information, and one of the indicators to be considered first to depict features of the suspect. Recently, DNA methylation has become a research hotspot in age estimation because of its hig accuracy and stability. New progress has been made in specificity of DNA methylation sites, age estimation in multiple tissues, DNA methylation age estimation of minors, sensitivity of age estimation, forensic practical applications, etc. At the same time, several studies also established more accurate statistical modeling methods, eliminated differences between different detection platforms, found appropriate number of sites in models and analyzed the influence of environment and diseases. This review summarizes these to provide references.


Subject(s)
Humans , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Forensic Genetics
9.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 31-31, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Various treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are utilized in clinical practice; however, the prognosis is still poor on account of high recurrence rates. DNA methylation levels of CpG islands around promoters (promoter CpGis) inversely regulate gene expression and closely involved in carcinogenesis. As a new strategy, several chemicals globally inhibiting DNA methylation have been developed aiming at reducing DNA methylation levels and maintaining the expression of tumor suppressor genes. On the other hand, since these drugs nonspecifically modify DNA methylation, they can cause serious adverse effects. In order to ameliorate the methods by targeting specific CpGs, information of cancer-related genes that are regulated by DNA methylation is required.@*METHODS@#We searched candidate genes whose expressions were regulated by DNA methylation of promoter CpGi and which are involved in HCC cases. To do so, we first identified genes whose expression were changed in HCC by comparing gene expressions of 371 HCC tissues and 41 non-tumor tissues using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The genes were further selected for poor prognosis by log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier plot and for cancer relevance by Pubmed search. Expression profiles of upregulated genes in HCC tissues were assessed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Finally, using DNA methylation data of TCGA database, we selected genes whose promoter DNA methylation levels were inversely correlated with gene expression.@*RESULTS@#We found 115 genes which were significantly up- or downregulated in HCC tissues and were associated with poor prognosis and cancer relevance. The upregulated genes were significantly enriched in cell division, cell cycle, and cell proliferation. Among the upregulated genes in HCC, we identified hypomethylation of CpGis around promoters of FANCB, KIF15, KIF4A, ERCC6L, and UBE2C. In addition, TCGA data showed that the tumor suppressor gene P16 is unexpectedly overexpressed in many types of cancers.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We identified five candidate genes whose expressions were regulated by DNA methylation of promoter CpGi and associate with cancer cases and poor prognosis in HCC. Modification of site-specific DNA methylation of these genes enables a different approach for HCC treatment with higher selectivity and lower adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , CpG Islands , Genetics , DNA Methylation , Databases as Topic , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Liver Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1831-1837, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the difference in age estimation based on quantitative analysis of DNA methylation by MassARRAY and pyrosequencing techniques.@*METHODS@#The methylation levels of 9 CpG sites from two independent whole blood sample sets (containing 65 and 62 samples) were detected using MassARRAY and pyrosequencing techniques. Z-score transformation was used to remove the batch effects of different techniques, and a linear regression model was used for age prediction.@*RESULTS@#For age prediction using the MassARRAY system, the 65 samples showed a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 2.49 years before Z-score transformation of the data and 2.44 years after the transformation, similar to the results in the 62 samples (MAD of 3.36 years before and 3.42 years after Z-score transformation). For data typed from pyrosequencing, the 65 samples showed a MAD of 4.20 years before and 2.76 years after data Z-score transformation, also similar to the results in the 62 samples (MAD of 3.92 years before and 3.63 years after data transformation).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Z-score transformation can effectively reduce the system batch effect between MassARRAY and pyrosequencing. Data from the MassARRAY system allows direct age estimation without further data processing, while the pyrosequencing data may increase the error in age estimation, which can be corrected by Z-score transformation of the data.


Subject(s)
CpG Islands/genetics , DNA Methylation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Linear Models , Sequence Analysis, DNA
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 425-431, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CPG) sites associated with fas-ting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in twins.@*METHODS@#In the study, 169 pairs of monozygotic twins were recruited in Qingdao, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Heilongjiang in June to December of 2013 and June 2017 to October 2018. The methylation was detected by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. According to the Linear Mixed Effect model (LME model), fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c were taken as the main effects, the methylation level (β value) was taken as the dependent variable, continuous variables, such as age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, components of blood cells, surrogate variables generated by SVA, and categorical variables, such as gender, smoking and drinking status, hypoglycemic drugs taking, were included in the fixed effect model as covariates, and the identity numbers (ID) of the twins was included in the random effect model. The intercept was set as a random. Regression analysis was carried out to find out the CpG sites related to fasting blood glucose or HbA1c, respectively.@*RESULTS@#In this study, 338 monozygotic twins (169 pairs) were included, with 412 459 CpG loci. Among them, 114 pairs were male, and 55 pairs were female, with an average age of (48.2±11.9) years. After adjustment of age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, smoking, drinking, blood cell composition, and other covariates, and multiple comparison test, 7 CpG sites (cg19693031, cg01538969, cg08501915, cg04816311, ch.8.1820050F, cg06721411, cg26608667) were found related to fasting blood glucose, 3 of which (cg08501915, ch.8.1820050f, cg26608667) were the newly found sites in this study; whereas 10 CpG sites (cg19693031, cg04816311, cg01538969, cg01339781, cg01676795, cg24667115, cg09029192, cg20697417, ch.4.1528651F, cg16097041) were found related to HbA1c, and 4 of which(cg01339781, cg24667115, cg20697417, and ch.4.1528651f) were new. We found that cg19693031 in TXNIP gene was the lowest P-value site in the association analysis between DNA methylation and fas-ting plasma glucose and HbA1c (PFPG=2.42×10-19, FDRFPG<0.001; PHbA1c=1.72×10-19, FDRHbA1c<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#In this twin study, we found new CpG sites related to fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, and provided some clues that partly revealed the potential mechanism of blood glucose metabolism in terms of DNA methylation, but it needed further verification in external larger samples.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin , Twins, Monozygotic
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 172-181, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038837

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La función inmunológica de las células dendríticas plasmacitoides durante las infecciones bacterianas, como la de Salmonella spp., es poco conocida. En ese contexto, se analizó su función efectora para presentar antígenos de Salmonella Typhimurium ante linfocitos T citotóxicos. Objetivo. Analizar la respuesta de los linfocitos T citotóxicos específicos para Salmonella evocada por las células dendríticas plasmacitoides. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron células dendríticas plasmacitoides marcadas con éster de succinimidil-carboxifluoresceína, pulsadas con el epítopo de Salmonella OmpC73 Kb- restringido o infectadas con S. Typhimurium como blanco en ensayos de citotoxicidad. Resultados. La lisis específica tuvo significación estadística usando células dendríticas plasmacitoides positivas pulsadas con OmpC73 en todas las relaciones de células efectoras y blanco (E:B) (p≤0,05); en cuanto a las células dendríticas plasmacitoides positivas para S. Typhimurium, solo se observó significación estadística en la relación de 1:100 (p≤0,05) usando las células efectoras OmpC73. Conclusión. Las células dendríticas plasmacitoides pueden evocar la respuesta de los linfocitos T citotóxicos durante la infección con S. Typhimurium.


Abstract Introduction: The immunological role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in bacterial infections such as Salmonella has been poorly documented. Therefore, we analyzed the effector function of these cells by presenting cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with Salmonella Typhimurium antigens. Objective: To analyze the Salmonella-specific CTL response evoked by pDCs. Materials and methods: We used plasmacytoid dendritic cells stained with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and pulsed with OmpC73, Salmonella Kb- restricted epitopes or S. Typhimurium as targets for cytotoxicity assays. Results: Specific lysis was shown to be statistically significant in pDC + OmpC73 for all effector:target ratios (p≤0.05). For pDC + S. Typhimurium, statistical significance was only observed at a 1:100 ratio (p≤0.05) using OmpC73. Conclusion: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells evoke CTL response during S. Typhimurium infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Salmonella Infections, Animal/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Salmonella typhimurium , Immunization , CpG Islands , Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 17-22, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To screen the DNA methylation loci associated with the age of Han males in northern China and to construct an age estimation model.@*METHODS@#Twenty-one candidate methylation loci were screened. The DNA methylation levels of 476 blood samples from Chinese Han males were detected for 21 amplicons using EpiTYPER technology platform, and data on 153 DNA methylation loci were obtained.@*RESULTS@#After correlation analysis, 8 age-related DNA methylation loci were finally screened. CpG1, CpG2, CpG4, CpG7, CpG8 were located on TRIM59, RASSF5, Clorf132, CSNK1D, ELOVL2,CpG5, CpG6 on PDE4C, and CpG3 on chr17:21452808. Based on the 8 loci, 352 samples were used for model construction. A multivariate linear regression age estimation model was constructed (R2=0.93), with mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 2.69 years old. When 109 samples were used for model validation, the MAD was 3.80 years old. The test was repeated 3 times in 15 new samples, with MADs of 4.08, 4.68 and 3.93 years old, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The age estimation model on Han males in northern China constructed in this study can be used to estimate the age of victims and suspects and to narrow the scope of investigation, and therefore has practical application value.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Asian People , China , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Linear Models , Membrane Proteins , Metalloproteins , Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins , Tripartite Motif Proteins
14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 235-238, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763437

ABSTRACT

Conventional adenomas have historically been considered to be the only screening-relevant colorectal cancer (CRC) precursor lesion. The prevailing paradigm was that most CRCs arise along the chromosomal instability pathway, where adenomas accumulate incremental genetic alterations over time, leading eventually to malignancy. However, it is now recognized that this “conventional” pathway accounts for only about two-thirds of CRCs. The serrated pathway is responsible for most of the remainder, and is a disproportionate contributor to postcolonoscopy CRC. Hallmarks of the serrated pathway are mutations in the BRAF gene, high levels of methylation of promoter CpG islands, and the sessile serrated polyp (SSP). Accumulating evidence shows that SSPs can be considered adenoma-equivalent from the standpoint of CRC screening. SSPs have a higher prevalence than previously thought, and appear to have a relatively long dwell time similar to that of conventional adenomas. In addition, SSPs, whether sporadic or as part of the serrated polyposis syndrome, are associated with increased risk of synchronous and metachronous neoplasia. These features collectively support that SSPs are highly relevant to CRC prevention.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Chromosomal Instability , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , CpG Islands , Mass Screening , Methylation , Polyps , Prevalence
15.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 225-235, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although colorectal sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) with morphologic dysplasia are regarded as definite high-risk premalignant lesions, no reliable grading or risk-stratifying system exists for non-dysplastic SSA/Ps. The accumulation of CpG island methylation is a molecular hallmark of progression of SSA/Ps. Thus, we decided to classify non-dysplastic SSA/Ps into risk subgroups based on the extent of CpG island methylation. METHODS: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status of 132 non-dysplastic SSA/Ps was determined using eight CIMP-specific promoter markers. SSA/Ps with CIMP-high and/or MLH1 promoter methylation were regarded as a high-risk subgroup. RESULTS: Based on the CIMP analysis results, methylation frequency of each CIMP marker suggested a sequential pattern of CpG island methylation during progression of SSA/P, indicating MLH1 as a late-methylated marker. Among the 132 non-dysplastic SSA/Ps, 34 (26%) were determined to be high-risk lesions (33 CIMP-high and 8 MLH1-methylated cases; seven cases overlapped). All 34 high-risk SSA/Ps were located exclusively in the proximal colon (100%, p = .001) and were significantly associated with older age (≥ 50 years, 100%; p = .003) and a larger histologically measured lesion size (> 5 mm, 100%; p = .004). In addition, the high-risk SSA/Ps were characterized by a relatively higher number of typical base-dilated serrated crypts. CONCLUSIONS: Both CIMP-high and MLH1 methylation are late-step molecular events during progression of SSA/Ps and rarely occur in SSA/Ps of young patients. Comprehensive consideration of age (≥ 50), location (proximal colon), and histologic size (> 5 mm) may be important for the prediction of high-risk lesions among non-dysplastic SSA/Ps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , CpG Islands , Diagnosis, Differential , DNA Methylation , Methylation , Phenotype
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 769-772, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of differentially methylated genes and gene ontology associated with neural tube defects (NTDs).@*METHODS@#Twelve subjects from 3 NTDs pedigrees were enrolled. Patients with NTDs have served as the case group, while their family members with normal phenotypes have served as the control group. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood samples of the families and used for DNA methylation analysis. Pairwise comparison was carried out primarily for patient-offspring pairs, and co-segregation of methylation pattern with NTDs was analyzed. Pathway related to differentially methylated genes was predicted with DAVID software.@*RESULTS@#Pairwise comparison indicated that VTRNA2-1 was the only gene in which all CpG sites were methylated. Co-segregation of VTRNA2-1 gene methylation with NTDs was found in all pedigrees. Pathways of hypermethylated genes included plasma membrane component, regulation of cellular protein metabolic process, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization, while the pathways of hypomethylated genes have included transcription regulator activity, cell adhesion, and neuronal differentiation.@*CONCLUSION@#Methylation of the VTRNA2-1 gene has co-segregated with NTDs in the studied pedigrees. The pathways of differentially methylated genes has involved with mechanism of neural tube development.


Subject(s)
Humans , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Gene Ontology , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Neural Tube Defects , Genetics , Pedigree
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1540-1547, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression, mechanism and methylation level of miR-28-5p in multiple myeloma (MM), so as to provide the expirement basis for searching new targeted therapy.@*METHODS@#RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR-28-5p and potential target CCND1 in CD138 cells of the patients with MM and bone marrow mononuclear cells of patients with iron defficiency anemia(IDA) as control, Methylation-specific PCR(MSP) was used to detect methylation levels of CpG island in LPP/miR-28-5p promoter region and the correlation with other clinical indicators was analyzed. The 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC,DAC) was used to treat MM cell line U266; after drug treatment,MSP was used to analyze the methylation status of the CpG islands in LPP/miR-28-5p promoter; the qPCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR-28-5p,and the regulatory mechanism of miR-28-5p expression was explored furtherly.@*RESULTS@#The methylation level of CpG island in LPP/miR-28-5p promoter region of MM patients was significantly higher than that of IDA patients. The relative expression level of miR-28-5p in MM patients was significantly lower than that of IDA patients. The relative expression level of miR-28-5p in newly diagnosed MM patients was higher than that in relapsed/progressive patients. The miR-28-5p target CCND1 was expressed at high levels in MM patients with LPP / miR-28-5p methylation, the expression level of miR-28-5p in MM patients correlated with β-MG concentration. 5-aza-dc could significantly inhibit the growth of U266 cell line, arrest the cell cycle in G phase, inhibit the biosynthesis of cellular RNA and protein and promote cell apoptosis. At the same time, up-regulation of miR-28-5p expression was found.@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of miR-28-5p in MM patients is regulated by methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of the genome.miR-28-5p may act as a tumor suppressor gene, and its low expression may be involved in the occurrence and development of MM, suggesting that miR-28-5p may become a new target for the treatment of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Multiple Myeloma , Genetics
18.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 280-285, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718754

ABSTRACT

For many years, developmental and physiological differences have been known to exist between anatomic segments of the colorectum. Because of different outcomes, prognoses, and clinical responses to chemotherapy, the distinction between right colon cancer (RCC) and left colon cancer (LCC) has gained attention. Furthermore, variations in the molecular features and gut microbiota between right and LCCs have recently been a hot research topic. CpG island methylator phenotype-high, microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancers are more likely to occur on the right side whereas tumors with chromosomal instability have been detected in approximately 75% of LCC patients and 30% of RCC patients. The mutation rates of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes also differ between RCC and LCC patients. Biofilm is more abundant in RCC patients than LLC patients, as are Prevotella, Selenomonas, and Peptostreptococcus. Conversely, Fusobacterium, Escherichia/Shigella, and Leptotrichia are more abundant in LCC patients compared to RCC patients. Distinctive characteristics are apparent in terms of molecular features and gut microbiota between right and LCC. However, how or to what extent these differences influence diverging oncologic outcomes remains unclear. Further clinical and translational studies are needed to elucidate the causative relationship between primary tumor location and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms , Chromosomal Instability , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , CpG Islands , Drug Therapy , Fusobacterium , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Leptotrichia , Microsatellite Repeats , Mutation Rate , Oncogenes , Peptostreptococcus , Prevotella , Prognosis , Selenomonas , Treatment Outcome
19.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 19-25, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739551

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emerging evidence indicates that runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is an important tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the clinical significance of RUNX3 inactivation in CRC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between clinicopathologic factors and RUNX3 hypermethylation/expression in CRC. METHODS: Sixty-two CRC patients who were treated at the Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine were recruited in this study. The hypermethylation of CpG islands in the RUNX3 promoter and the expression of RUNX3 mRNA were identified by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR, respectively. The expression of RUNX3 was determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Of the 62 CRC tissue samples, 20 (32.3%) presented hypermethylated RUNX3 promoters. Aberrant RUNX3 hypermethylation was found to be associated with vascular (P = 0.006) and lymphatic (P = 0.002) invasion. Hypermethylation of RUNX3 was associated with poor survival outcomes (P = 0.038). However, expression of RUNX3 was not a prognostic factor (P = 0.363). CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of RUNX3 may be a predictor of a poor prognosis in CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit , CpG Islands , Epigenomics , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Immunohistochemistry , Methylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor 3
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1750-1759, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776293

ABSTRACT

To explore the activity of the pmel core promoter of Bashang long-tail chickens, we constructed dual-luciferase expression vectors and transiently transfected into DF1 cells with Lipofectamine 2000. We measured the luciferase activity with the dual-luciferase detection kit. The 1 268 bp fragment in 5-flanking region of the pmel gene in Bashang long-tail chickens was cloned. The region from -1 200 bp to +68 bp included 2 CpG islands and multiple transcription factor binding sites. We constructed 9 expression vectors with different promoter regions and a mutant vector of the core promoter region of the pmel gene of Bashang long-tail chickens. The core promoter region from -840 bp to +68 bp was identified in the pmel gene. The region from -590 to -525 bp negatively regulated the pmel gene during the transcription process. The -840--590 bp and -525--266 bp regions were positive regulatory regions. The polymorphic sites (-456, -435, -410, -374 and -341) had a significant effect on the promoter activity of the pmel gene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , CpG Islands , Luciferases , Promoter Regions, Genetic , gp100 Melanoma Antigen , Genetics
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