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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 424-426, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131622

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of complex strabismus syndromes that present as congenital and non-progressive ophthalmoplegia. The genetic defects are associated with aberrant axonal targeting onto the motoneurons, development of motoneurons, and axonal targeting onto the extraocular muscles. We describe here the surgical management of a 16-year-old boy who presented with complex strabismus secondary to hypoplasia of the third cranial nerve and aberrant innervation of the upper ipsilateral eyelid.


RESUMO Os distúrbios de inervação craniana congênita en­globam um grupo de síndromes associadas a estrabismos complexos, que se apresentam como oftalmoplegia congênita e não progressiva e são frequentemente herdadas. Os defeitos dos genes estão associados a erros no desenvolvimento ou direcionamento axonal dos motoneurônios, e erros no direcionamento axonal para os músculos extraoculares. Este caso descreve o caso de um menino que apresenta estrabismo complexo secundário à hipoplasia do terceiro nervo craniano e inervação aberrante da pálpebra superior ipsilateral, bem como o resultado após a correção cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Ophthalmoplegia , Strabismus , Cranial Nerves , Strabismus/surgery , Strabismus/etiology , Cranial Nerves/pathology , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Oculomotor Nerve
2.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 62-71, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126195

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La anatomía de la base del cráneo es compleja. Numerosas estructuras neurovasculares vitales pasan a través de múltiples canales y agujeros ubicados en la base del cráneo. Con el avance de la tomografía computarizada (TC) y la resonancia magnética (RM), es posible la localización cada vez más precisa de lesiones y la evaluación de su relación con las estructuras neurovasculares adyacentes. El trayecto de los nervios craneales sigue un recorrido conocido y se transmiten a la cara y cuello por los forámenes de base de cráneo. La tomografía computada y la resonancia magnética son complementarias entre sí y, a menudo, se usan juntas para demostrar la extensión total de la enfermedad. La segunda parte de esta revisión se centra en el estudio radiológico de los nervios craneales.


Abstract: The skull base anatomy is complex. Many vital neurovascular structures course through the skull base canals and foramina. With the advancement of CT and MRI, the localization of lesions has become more precise as their relationship with adjacent neurovascular structures. There is a known course of the cranial nerves as well as their skull base exiting foramina to the head and neck. CT and MRI are complimentary modalities and are often used together to map the full extent of disease. The second article in this review focus on the radiologic study of the cranial nerves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skull Base/innervation , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Cranial Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cranial Nerves/anatomy & histology
3.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 145-148, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123387

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los aneurismas cerebrales de la circulación posterior, representan solo del 8 al 10 % del total de los aneurismas cerebrales, y de estos los de la arteria cerebelosa anteroinferior (AICA) son muy poco frecuentes, por lo que no hay algoritmo de manejo para estas lesiones, se requieren conocimientos anatómicos de vascular y de base de cráneo para el tratamiento de estos, hablando del abordaje quirúrgico, podemos mencionar, el extremo lateral, retrosigmoideo, orbitozigomatico y presigmoideo, que depende del tamaño y localización del aneurisma, ya sea distal o proximal. Presentamos este caso, que tratamos mediante un abordaje retrosigmoideo convencional, el cual nos ofreció un corredor quirúrgico suficiente, sin necesidad de un abordaje mas amplio, en este caso fue un aneurisma distal de la AICA, localizado en el segmento meatal, que se encontró en el complejo neurovascular medio del ángulo pontocerebeloso, muy próximo a los nervios craneales V, VII y VIII. Objetivos: Demostrar que los aneurismas distales de la AICA se pueden manejar mediante un abordaje retrosigmodeo convencional con éxito. Materiales y métodos: El paciente se colocó en posición park bench, bajo fijación esquelética de 3 puntos, con el asterion como punto mas elevado. Se realizo una incisión en forma de C en la mastoides y se realizo un abordaje dirigido hacia el ángulo pontocerebeloso. Resultados: Se logró realizar el clipaje del aneurisma de forma satisfactoria, con un buen resultado clínico del paciente, quien fue egresada a los 4 días sin déficit neurológico. Conclusión: El abordaje retrosigmoideo es una opción terapéutica para el manejo de los aneurismas ubicados en el ángulo pontocerebeloso, específicamente del AICA distal y también se puede usar incluso para los aneurismas distales del PICA.


Background: Cerebral aneurysms of the posterior circulation, representing only 8 to 10% of the total cerebral aneurysms, but the aneurysms of the anteroinferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are very rare, so there is no management algorithm for these lesions, anatomical knowledge of vascular and skull base are known for the treatment of these lesions, in relation of the surgical approach, we can identify, the far lateral, retrosigmoid, orbitozigmatic or presigmoid approaches, which depends on the size and location of aneurysm, either distal or proximal. We present this case, which we treated through a conventional retrosigmoid approach, which offers us a sufficient surgical corridor, without the need for a broader approach, in this case it was a distal AICA aneurysm, located in the meatal segment, which was found in the middle neurovascular complex of the pontocerebellar angle, very close to the cranial nerves V, VII and VIII. Objective: Demonstrate that distal aneurysms of AICA can be managed using a successful conventional retrosigmoid approach. Results: The clipping of the aneurysm was achieved satisfactorily, with a good clinical result of the patient, who was discharged at 4 days without neurological deficit. Conclusion: The retrosigmoid approach is a therapeutic option for the management of aneurysms located in the pontocerebellar angle, specifically of the distal AICA and can also be used even for distal aneurysms of the PICA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aneurysm , Arteries , Intracranial Aneurysm , Cranial Nerves
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 20-25, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179293

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una breve revisión los nervios olfatorio, trigémino, facial, glosofaríngeo y vago, el primero funcionalmente relacionado con la inervación quimiosensitiva olfativa en la mucosa nasal, los siguientes para el registro de dolor endocraneal y para la mucosa orofaríngea, a efectos de transducción sensitiva gustativa. Estos nervios se vinculan con los síntomas en pacientes positivos para Covid-19, que manifiestan como dolor de cabeza, disosmia, anosmia, disgeusia, ageusia entre otras características neurosemiológicas. Se concluye que estas características semiológicas se puedan deber a mecanismos neurotrópicos y transinápticos por lo que se debe realizar un examen neurológico más riguroso sobre síntomas y signos de pacientes con Covid-19.


A brief review of olfactory, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves is presented, the first one functionally related to odoriferous chemosensory innervation in the nasal mucosa, the following four cranial nerves to endocranial headache and oropharyngeal mucosa for purposes of gustatory sensory transduction. These nerves are associated with symptoms in Covid-19 positive patients, which dysosmia, anosmia, dysgeusia, ageusia manifestation, among other neurosemiological characteristics. It is concluded that these semiological characteristics may be due to neurotropic and transynaptic mechanisms, therefore a more rigorous neurological examination should be performed on symptoms and signs of Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Cranial Nerves , Betacoronavirus , Olfactory Nerve , Trigeminal Nerve , Vagus Nerve , Facial Nerve , Glossopharyngeal Nerve
5.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 19(4): 34-37, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253637

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Síndrome da Fissura Orbital Superior (SFOS) é uma condição de ocorrência rara, inicialmente descrita por Hirchfield em 1858. Caracterizada pela presença de oftalmoplegia, ptose da pálpebra superior e midríase, podendo ocorrer parestesia da pálpebra superior e da região frontal, associada à lesão dos pares de nervos cranianos: oculomotor, troclear, abducente (III, IV e VI) e, por vezes, o nervo trigêmeo (V). A identificação da SFOS é importante, visto que sua incidência é rara no trauma, e sua identificação pode ajudar a direcionar o tratamento de forma mais adequada. Relato de caso: O presente trabalho descreve dois casos da SFOS associados a traumas craniofaciais, cita as possíveis etiologias relacionadas a essa síndrome e descreve a situação de trauma agudo. Considerações Finais: A avaliação das condições sistêmicas do paciente e de exames complementares, como tomografias computadorizadas, auxilia o diagnóstico diferencial entre patologias que acometem a região orbital e a base de crânio, fraturas e traumas craniofaciais. A identificação da SFOS no trauma agudo orienta a abordagem imediata ou precoce quando indicada, como nos casos de hematomas retrobulbares ou em grandes deslocamentos ósseos maxilofaciais com necessidade de redução cirúrgica. Nos casos com indicação de abordagem tardia, as fraturas craniofaciais são tratadas de forma conservadora, e o paciente é encaminhado para atendimento especializado... (AU)


Introduction: The superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) is a rare condition and initially described by Hirchfield in 1858. Characterized by the presence of ophthalmoplegia, upper eyelid ptosis and mydriasis, and there may be paresthesia of the upper eyelid and forehead associated by the injury of the cranial nerves like: oculomotor, trochlear, abducens (III, IV and VI) and sometimes the trigeminal nerve (V). The identification of SOFS is important, since its incidence is rare in trauma, and its identification may help to target the treatment more adequately. Case report: The present study describes two cases of SFOS associated with craniofacial trauma, cites the possible etiologies related to this syndrome and describes the situation of acute trauma. Final considerations: The evaluation of the patient's systemic conditions and complementary exams, such as computed tomography, help the differential diagnosis between pathologies that affect the orbital region and the skull base, and fractures and traumatic head injuries. The identification of SFOS in acute trauma guides the immediate or early approach when indicated, as in cases of retrobulbar hematomas or large maxillofacial bone dislocations requiring surgical reduction. In cases with indication for late approach, craniofacial fractures are treated conservatively and the patient is referred for specialized care... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Trigeminal Nerve , Ophthalmoplegia , Cranial Nerves , Diagnosis, Differential , Craniocerebral Trauma , Orbital Diseases , Skull Base
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 65-67, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report documents an unusual phenomenon. A 6-year-old girl with trochlear-oculomotor synkinesis presented with superior oblique and palpebral levator co-contraction. The literature was reviewed and the possibility of classifying this entity as a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder was speculated.


RESUMO Este relato descreve um fenômeno incomum. Uma menina de 6 anos com sincinesia troclear-oculomotora apresentou co-contração do oblíquo superior e do levantador da pálpebra. A literatura foi revisada e especulou-se a possibilidade de classificar essa desordem como um distúrbio da congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Ocular Motility Disorders/congenital , Cranial Nerves/abnormalities , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/congenital , Synkinesis/congenital , Oculomotor Muscles/innervation , Ocular Motility Disorders/classification , Ocular Motility Disorders/pathology , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/classification , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/pathology , Rare Diseases , Synkinesis/classification , Synkinesis/pathology , Eyelids/abnormalities
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most-common initial manifestation of Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is diplopia due to acute ophthalmoplegia. However, few studies have focused on ocular motility findings in MFS. This study aimed to determine the pattern of extraocular muscle (EOM) paresis in MFS patients. METHODS: We consecutively recruited MFS patients who presented with ophthalmoplegia between 2010 and 2015. The involved EOMs and the strabismus pattern in the primary position were analyzed. Antecedent infections, other involved cranial nerves, and laboratory findings were also reviewed. We compared the characteristics of the patients according to the severity of ophthalmoplegia between complete ophthalmoplegia (CO) and incomplete ophthalmoplegia (IO). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (15 males and 10 females) with bilateral ophthalmoplegia were included in the study. The most-involved and last-to-recover EOM was the lateral rectus muscle. CO and IO were observed in 11 and 14 patients, respectively. The patients were aged 59.0±18.4 years (mean±SD) in the CO group and 24.9±7.4 years in the IO group (p<0.01), and comprised 63.6% and 21.4% females, respectively (p=0.049). Elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein was identified in 60.0% of patients with CO and 7.7% of patients with IO (p=0.019) for a mean follow-up time from the initial symptom onset of 3.7 days. CONCLUSIONS: The lateral rectus muscle is the most-involved and last-to-recover EOM in ophthalmoplegia. The CO patients were much older and were more likely to be female and have an elevation of cerebrospinal fluid protein than the IO patients.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cranial Nerves , Diplopia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Jupiter , Male , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Ophthalmoplegia , Paresis , Strabismus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764165

ABSTRACT

Möbius syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by abducens and facial nerve palsy, resulting in limitation of lateral gaze movement and facial diplegia. However, to our knowledge, there have been few studies on evaluation of cranial nerves, on MR imaging in Möbius syndrome. Herein, we describe a rare case of Möbius syndrome representing limitation of lateral gaze, and weakness of facial expression, since the neonatal period. In this case, high-resolution MR imaging played a key role in diagnosing Möbius syndrome, by direct visualization of corresponding cranial nerves abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Cranial Nerves , Facial Expression , Facial Nerve , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paralysis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764164

ABSTRACT

Upon review, it is noted that recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (RPON) is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by recurrent unilateral headaches and painful ophthalmoplegia of the ipsilateral oculomotor nerve. As seen on brain MRI, thickening and enhancement of the oculomotor cranial nerve can be observed in these cases. We experienced a case of RPON in an adult patient who showed thickening and enhancement of the oculomotor nerve on gadolinium-enhanced 3D-FLAIR image. The authors report a case of RPON with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cranial Nerves , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oculomotor Nerve , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Ophthalmoplegia , Paralysis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To understand the ophthalmic clinical features and outcomes of facial nerve palsy patients who were referred to an ophthalmic clinic for various conditions like Bell's palsy, trauma, and brain tumor. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 34 eyes from 31 facial nerve palsy patients who visited a clinic between August 2007 and July 2017. The clinical signs, management, and prognosis were analyzed. RESULTS: The average disease period was 51.1 ± 20.6 months, and the average follow-up duration was 24.0 ± 37.5 months. The causes of facial palsy were as follows: Bell's palsy, 13 cases; trauma, six cases; brain tumor, five cases; and cerebrovascular disease, four cases. The clinical signs were as follows: lagophthalmos, 24 eyes; corneal epithelial defect, 20 eyes; conjunctival injection, 19 eyes; ptosis, 15 eyes; and tearing, 12 eyes. Paralytic strabismus was found in seven eyes of patients with another cranial nerve palsy (including the third, fifth, or sixth cranial nerve). Conservative treatments (like ophthalmic ointment or eyelid taping) were conducted along with invasive procedures (like levator resection, tarsorrhaphy, or botulinum neurotoxin type A injection) in 17 eyes (50.0%). Over 60% of the patients with symptomatic improvement were treated using invasive treatment. At the time of last following, signs had improved in 70.8% of patients with lagophthalmos, 90% with corneal epithelium defect, 58.3% with tearing, and 72.7% with ptosis. The rate of improvement for all signs was high in patients suffering from facial nerve palsy without combined cranial nerve palsy. CONCLUSIONS: The ophthalmic clinical features of facial nerve palsy were mainly corneal lesion and eyelid malposition, and their clinical course improved after invasive procedures. When palsy of the third, fifth, or sixty cranial nerve was involved, the prognosis and ophthalmic signs were worse than in cases of simple facial palsy. Understanding these differences will help the ophthalmologist take care of patients with facial nerve palsy.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Cranial Nerves , Epithelium, Corneal , Eyelids , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Paralysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus , Tears
12.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 21(supl.1): e80, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099125

ABSTRACT

La paquimeningitis es un raro desorden caracterizado por engrosamiento focal o difuso de la duramadre, siendo una potencial manifestación de la enfermedad relacionada con IgG4. Presentamos 11 pacientes, seis hombres y cinco mujeres, entre 39-73 años, que consultaron por cefalea, alteraciones visuales, acúfenos, hipoacusia, pérdida de peso, agrandamiento de glándulas salivales, dorsalgia, cuadriplejía y compromiso de nervios craneales. Algunos de ellos presentaron elevación de la proteína C reactiva o del valor de sedimentación globular, mientras que la mayoría presentó niveles séricos normales de IgG4. Todos los pacientes mostraron engrosamiento de la duramadre en la resonancia magnética. La biopsia de duramadre, de vesícula biliar, hipófisis o glándula lagrimal, mostró un infiltrado linfoplasmocitario con o sin fibrosis estoriforme, con más de 10 plasmocitos IgG4 (+) y un rango IgG4: IgG que osciló del 20 al 60 por ciento. Los pacientes recibieron prednisona sola o con rituximab, metotrexate, ciclofosfamida o azatioprina, con respuesta favorable(AU)


Pachymeningitis is a rare disorder characterized by focal or diffuse thickening of the dura mater, being a potential manifestation of the disease related to IgG4. We present 11 patients, six men and five women, aged 39-73 years, who consulted for headache, visual disturbances, tinnitus, hearing loss, weight loss, salivary gland enlargement, dorsalgia, quadriplegia and cranial nerve involvement. Some of them presented elevation of the C-reactive protein or the erythrocyte sedimentation value, while the majority had normal serum levels of IgG4. All patients showed thickening of the dura in magnetic resonance imaging. The biopsy of dura mater, gallbladder, pituitary gland or lacrimal gland showed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with or without storiform fibrosis, with more than 10 IgG4 (+) plasmocytes and an IgG4: IgG range that ranged from 20 to 60 percent. Patients received prednisone alone or with rituximab, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, with favorable response(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cranial Nerves , Dura Mater , Meningitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1337-1340, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975705

ABSTRACT

In various neuroanatomy texts and articles related to this area of knowledge, there is a conceptual vacuum associated with the precise sites where the roots of the cranial nerves emerge. The objective of the study was to establish the exact location of the apparent origin of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory cranial nerves in the medulla oblongata of the human being 120 human brainstems, previously fixed in formalin solution at 10 % were assessed, the location where such nerve roots emerge was identified by direct examination and once the piamater was removed at both right and left sides as it has been stated in the literature. It was found that in 100 % of the studied brainstems their nerve roots emerge on average at about 2.63 mm behind the retro-olivary groove, different to what has been stated in the literature. Glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory human nerves do not emerge directly from the retroolivary groove, as commonly reported; instead, they emerge behind the said groove, specifically in the retro-olivary groove area, where they form a continuous line of nerve roots.


En diversos textos de neuroanatomía y artículos relacionados con esta área del conocimiento, se evidencia un vacío conceptual asociado con los sitios precisos por donde emergen los pares craneales. El objetivo de este estudio fue stablecer la ubicación exacta del origen aparente de los nervios craneales glosofaríngeo, vago y accesorio en el bulbo raquídeo de 120 tallos cerebrales humanos, previamente fijados en solución de formalina al 10 %. Fueron evaluados, el lugar donde surgen tales raíces nerviosas se identificó mediante examen directo y una vez que se retiró la piamadre tanto en el lado derecho como en el izquierdo como se ha dicho en la literatura. Se encontró que en el 100 % de los troncos cerebrales estudiados, sus raíces nerviosas emergen en promedio a unos 2,63 mm detrás del surco retroolivar, diferente a lo que se ha dicho en la literatura. Los nervios humanos glosofaríngeos, vago y accesorio no emergen directamente de la ranura retroolivar, como se informa comúnmente, sino que emergen detrás de dicha ranura, específicamente en el área de surco retroolivar, donde forman una línea continua de raíces nerviosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Vagus Nerve/anatomy & histology , Brain Stem/anatomy & histology , Glossopharyngeal Nerve/anatomy & histology , Accessory Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cranial Nerves/anatomy & histology
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(supl.1): 61-75, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Swallowing is a motor process with several discordances and a very difficult neurophysiological study. Maybe that is the reason for the scarcity of papers about it. OBJECTIVE: It is to describe the chewing neural control and oral bolus qualification. A review the cranial nerves involved with swallowing and their relationship with the brainstem, cerebellum, base nuclei and cortex was made. METHODS: From the reviewed literature including personal researches and new observations, a consistent and necessary revision of concepts was made, not rarely conflicting. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Five different possibilities of the swallowing oral phase are described: nutritional voluntary, primary cortical, semiautomatic, subsequent gulps, and spontaneous. In relation to the neural control of the swallowing pharyngeal phase, the stimulus that triggers the pharyngeal phase is not the pharyngeal contact produced by the bolus passage, but the pharyngeal pressure distension, with or without contents. In nutritional swallowing, food and pressure are transferred, but in the primary cortical oral phase, only pressure is transferred, and the pharyngeal response is similar. The pharyngeal phase incorporates, as its functional part, the oral phase dynamics already in course. The pharyngeal phase starts by action of the pharyngeal plexus, composed of the glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) and accessory (XI) nerves, with involvement of the trigeminal (V), facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX) and the hypoglossal (XII) nerves. The cervical plexus (C1, C2) and the hypoglossal nerve on each side form the ansa cervicalis, from where a pathway of cervical origin goes to the geniohyoid muscle, which acts in the elevation of the hyoid-laryngeal complex. We also appraise the neural control of the swallowing esophageal phase. Besides other hypotheses, we consider that it is possible that the longitudinal and circular muscular layers of the esophagus display, respectively, long-pitch and short-pitch spiral fibers. This morphology, associated with the concept of energy preservation, allows us to admit that the contraction of the longitudinal layer, by having a long-pitch spiral arrangement, would be able to widen the esophagus, diminishing the resistance to the flow, probably also by opening of the gastroesophageal transition. In this way, the circular layer, with its short-pitch spiral fibers, would propel the food downwards by sequential contraction.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A deglutição é um processo motor com muitas discordâncias e de difícil estudo quanto a sua neurofisiologia. Talvez por essa razão sejam tão raros os artigos sobre esse tema. OBJETIVO - Descrever o controle neural da mastigação e a qualificação do bolo que se obtém durante a fase oral. Revisar os nervos cranianos envolvidos com a deglutição e suas relações com o tronco cerebral, cerebelo, núcleos de base e córtex. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura com inclusão de trabalhos pessoais e novas observações buscando dar consistência a necessária revisão dos conceitos, muitas vezes conflitantes. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Em relação a fase oral da deglutição consideramos o controle neural em cinco distintas possibilidades. Fase oral nutricional voluntária, fase oral cortical voluntária primaria, fase oral semiautomática, fase oral em goles subsequentes e fase oral espontânea. Em relação ao controle neural da fase faríngea da deglutição, pode-se observar que o estímulo que dispara a fase faríngea não é o toque produzido pela passagem do bolo, mas sim a distensão pressórica, tenha ou não conteúdo em passagem. Na deglutição nutricional, alimento e pressão são transferidos, mas na fase oral da deglutição primária cortical somente pressão é transferida e temos resposta faríngea similar a nutricional. A fase faríngea incorpora como parte de sua dinâmica as atividades orais já em curso. A fase faríngea se inicia por ação do plexo faríngeo composto pelos nervos glossofaríngeo (IX), vago (X), e acessório (XI), com envolvimento do trigêmeo (V), do facial (VII), glossofaríngeo (IX) e hipoglosso (XII). O plexo cervical (C1, C2), e o nervo hipoglosso, a cada lado, formam a alça cervical de onde, com origem cervical, um ramo segue para o músculo gênio-hioide, um músculo que atua na dinâmica de elevação do complexo hiolaríngeo. Foi também considerado o controle neural da fase esofágica da deglutição. Além de outras hipóteses foi considerado que é possível que a camadas musculares consideradas como longitudinal e circular para o esôfago sejam a longitudinal composta por fibras espirais de passo longo e a circular por fibras espirais de passo curto. Essa morfologia associada ao conceito de preservação de energia, nos permite admitir que a contração da camada longitudinal por seu arranjo espiral seja capaz de alargar o esôfago diminuindo sua resistência ao fluxo e provavelmente e também abrindo a transição esofagogástrica. Desse modo a camada circular, espiral de passo curto, pode propelir o bolo por constrição sequencial de cranial para caudal.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem/physiology , Cerebral Cortex/physiology , Cranial Nerves/physiology , Deglutition/physiology
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(supl.1): 30-34, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Esophageal manometry is the most reliable method to evaluate esophageal motility. High resolution manometry (HRM) provides topographic contour colored plots (Clouse Plots) with simultaneous analysis from the pharynx to the stomach. Both solid state and water-perfused systems are available. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determinate the normative data for a new water-perfused HRM. METHODS: HRM was made in 32 healthy volunteers after 8 hours fasting. HRM system used consisted of a 24-channel water-perfused catheter (Multiplex, Alacer Biomedica, São Paulo, Brazil). The reusable catheter is made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with 4.7 mm of diameter. Side holes connected to pressure transducers are spaced 2 cm for the analysis from the pharynx to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Holes are spaced 5 mm and 120° in a spiral disposition in the LES area. The sensors encompass 34 cm in total. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) parameters studied were basal and relaxation pressures. Esophageal body parameters were distal contractile integral (DCI), distal latency (DL) and break. LES parameters studied were basal pressure, integrated residual pressure (IRP), total and abdominal length. Variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range) and percentiles 5-95th. RESULTS: All volunteers (17 males, aged 22-62 years) completed the study and tolerated the HRM procedure well. Percentiles 5-95th range were calculated: Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) basal pressure 16.7-184.37 (mmHg), DL: 6.2-9.1 (s), DCI: 82.72-3836.61 (mmHg.s.cm), break: <7.19 (cm), LES basal pressure: 4.89-37.16 (mmHg), IRP: 0.55-15.45 (mmHg). CONCLUSION: The performance and normative values obtained for this low-cost water-perfused HRM seems to be adequate for clinical use.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Manometria esofágica é o exame mais confiável para avaliar motilidade esofágica. Manometria esofágica de alta resolução (MAER) apresenta um gráfico dinâmico e colorido (Clouse plots) com análise simultânea da faringe ao estomago. Dois tipos de manometria estão disponíveis: estado sólido e por perfusão de água. OBJETIVO: Determinar os valores de normalidade de um novo sistema de manometria de alta resolução. MÉTODOS: MAER foi realizada em 32 voluntários saudáveis após jejum de oito horas. O sistema utilizado é de perfusão de água com 24 sensores (Multiplex, Alacer Biomedica, São Paulo, Brasil). O catéter permanente é feito de cloreto de polivinil (PVC) com 4,7 mm de diâmetro. Os orifícios laterais para conexão com os transdutores de pressão são espaçados de 2 cm para análise da faringe ao esfíncter esofagiano inferior (EEI) e são esparçados em 5mm em forma espiralada com 120° entre orificios. Os sensores no total englobam 34 cm. Para o esfíncter esofágico superior (EES), os parâmetros estudados foram às pressões basal e de relaxamento. Os parâmetros do corpo esofágico foram: integral de contratilidade distal (DCI), latência distal (DL) e quebra. Os parâmetros do EEI inferior foram pressões basal e de relaxamento e pressão de relaxamento integrada (IRP). As variáveis foram expressas em medias ± desvio padrão, medianas (variação de interquartis) e percentis 5-95. RESULTADOS: Todos os voluntários (17 homens, com idade variando entre 22-62 anos) terminaram e toleraram o exame. A variação dos percentis 5-95 foi calculada: pressão basal do esfíncter esofágico superior (EES) foi 16,7-184,37 (mmHg), DL: 6,2-9,1 (s), DCI: 82,72-3836,61 (mmHg.s.cm), quebra: <7,19 (cm), pressão basal do EEI: 4,89-37,16 (mmHg), IRP: 0,55-15,45 (mmHg). CONCLUSÃO: A realização dos testes e os valores de normalidade determinados por este estudo parecem ser adequadas para a prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem/physiology , Cerebral Cortex/physiology , Cranial Nerves/physiology , Deglutition/physiology
16.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 24(3): 105-111, jul. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978163

ABSTRACT

La anatomía de la base del cráneo es compleja. Numerosas estructuras neurovasculares vitales pasan a través de múltiples canales y formámenes de la base del cráneo. Con el avance de la tomografía computarizada (TC) y la resonancia magnética (RM) es posible la localización cada vez más precisa de lesiones y la evaluación de su relación con las estructuras neurovasculares adyacentes. El trayecto de los nervios craneales sigue un recorrido conocido y se transmiten a la cara y cuello a través de los forámenes de base de cráneo. La TC y la RM son complementarias entre sí y, a menudo, se usan en conjunto para demostrar la extensión completa de la enfermedad. La primera parte de esta revisión se centra en generalidades del estudio radiológico y anatomía de base de cráneo.


The skull base anatomy is complex. Many vital neurovascular structures course through the skull base canals and foramina. With the routine use of CT and MRI, the localization of lesions has become more precise as well as their relationship with adjacent neurovascular structures. There is a known anatomical course of the cranial nerves and their skull base s they course through the foramina towards the head and neck. CT and MRI are complimentary modalities and are often used together to map the full extent of disease. The first part of this review article series focus on the radiologic approach to disease and the skull base anatomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skull Base/innervation , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Cranial Nerves/anatomy & histology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cranial Nerves/diagnostic imaging
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761272

ABSTRACT

Ramsay-Hunt syndrome is an infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. It is usually associated with facial and vestibulocochlear nerve palsy, but other cranial nerve dysfunction can be accompanied. We present a 68-year-old woman with abducens nerve palsy associated with Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. She showed abduction limitation of left eye with peripheral facial palsy and vestibulopathy of the left side. Varicella zoster virus polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid was positive and internal auditory canal magnetic resonance imaging was revealed enhancement of labyrinthine segment of left facial nerve. Although abducens nerve palsy is uncommon feature of Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, but it can be developed by several different mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Abducens Nerve , Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Communicable Diseases , Cranial Nerves , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Female , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paralysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vestibulocochlear Nerve
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761266

ABSTRACT

Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system is a rare disease, which is caused by the accumulation of iron from the hemoglobin in the superficial layer of the brain, spinal cord, and central parts of cranial nerves. The etiology of SS is the accumulation of hemosiderin in the subarachnoid space due to chronic or repeated hemorrhage resulting in progressive and irreversible neurological dysfunction. The cause of the disease is aneurysm, trauma, tumor, and vascular malformation. In most cases, the cause of bleeding is unknown. Clinical features include sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy. Until now, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has only been diagnosed and there is no standardized treatment. We will investigate clinical features and MRI findings of SS disease in the central nervous system using 2 patient cases.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cerebellar Ataxia , Cranial Nerves , Dizziness , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Hemorrhage , Hemosiderin , Humans , Iron , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rare Diseases , Siderosis , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Subarachnoid Space , Vascular Malformations , Vertigo
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716758

ABSTRACT

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the head and neck may manifest as various clinical symptoms and signs which depend on the combination of involved multiple cranial nerves. Involvements of cranial nerve IX and X by VZV are very rare compared to cranial nerve V, VII, and VIII. We present a case of VZV infection of multiple mucosal erosions in the pharynx and larynx, which was confined to the left side without any associated motor dysfunction. VZV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction on the eruptional mucosal lesions and blood. The patient was treated with an antiviral agent, leading to a complete recovery of multiple mucosal lesions after 2 weeks without any sequela.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Cranial Nerves , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Head , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Larynx , Neck , Pharynx , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trigeminal Nerve , Vagus Nerve , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Vocal Cords
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765255

ABSTRACT

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues. First, obtaining stable and reliable responses in children of different ages requires detailed understanding of normal ageadjusted brain-spine development. Neurophysiology, anatomy, and anthropometry of children are different from those of adults. Second, monitoring of the brain may include risk to eloquent functions and cranial nerve functions that are difficult with the usual neurophysiological techniques. Third, interpretation of signal change requires unique sets of normative values specific for children of that age. Fourth, tumor resection involves multiple considerations including defining tumor type, size, location, pathophysiology that might require maximal removal of lesion or minimal intervention. IOM techniques can be divided into monitoring and mapping. Mapping involves identification of specific neural structures to avoid or minimize injury. Monitoring is continuous acquisition of neural signals to determine the integrity of the full longitudinal path of the neural system of interest. Motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials are representative methodologies for monitoring. Free-running electromyography is also used to monitor irritation or damage to the motor nerves in the lower motor neuron level : cranial nerves, roots, and peripheral nerves. For the surgery of infratentorial tumors, in addition to free-running electromyography of the bulbar muscles, brainstem auditory evoked potentials or corticobulbar motor evoked potentials could be combined to prevent injury of the cranial nerves or nucleus. IOM for cerebral tumors can adopt direct cortical stimulation or direct subcortical stimulation to map the corticospinal pathways in the vicinity of lesion. IOM is a diagnostic as well as interventional tool for neurosurgery. To prove clinical evidence of it is not simple. Randomized controlled prospective studies may not be possible due to ethical reasons. However, prospective longitudinal studies confirming prognostic value of IOM are available. Furthermore, oncological outcome has also been shown to be superior in some brain tumors, with IOM. New methodologies of IOM are being developed and clinically applied. This review establishes a composite view of techniques used today, noting differences between adult and pediatric monitoring.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, General , Anthropometry , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Child , Cranial Nerves , Electromyography , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Evoked Potentials, Motor , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Humans , Infratentorial Neoplasms , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Longitudinal Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Motor Neurons , Muscles , Neurophysiology , Neurosurgery , Peripheral Nerves , Prospective Studies
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