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1.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(109): 38-47, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392519

ABSTRACT

La criptococosis es una micosis grave que se manifiesta, en el 90% de los casos, como una meningoencefalitis, especialmente en las personas con VIH. El objetivo de este estudio es describir los casos de criptococosis extrameníngea en personas viviendo con VIH y conocer cuántas de estas padecen compromiso meníngeo concomitante. Además, determinar la relación con el título de antígeno polisacárido capsular de Cryptococcus en suero. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, observacional y analítico. Se incluyeron personas viviendo con VIH cuyo diagnóstico inicial de criptococosis se había realizado a partir de muestras extrameníngeas en el período comprendido entre 2012 y 2019. Los pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos. Grupo 1, pacientes sin compromiso meníngeo; Grupo 2, aquellos que finalmente tenían compromiso del SNC. De un total de 531 criptococosis registradas en ese período, se incluyeron 113 pacientes (21%), de los cuales en 58 se comprobó el compromiso meníngeo. No se observaron diferencias significativas en cuanto a la mortalidad entre ambos grupos.Ninguno de los pacientes con antigenemia por LFA (antígeno capsular en suero por inmunocromatografía) positiva, pero con antigenemia por aglutinación de partículas de látex (AL) negativa, tuvo compromiso meníngeo. Se observó que títulos de antígeno para Cryptococcus en suero por AL mayor o igual a 1/100 se correlacionaron con un aumento de 30 veces en la posibilidad de padecer meningitis. En todos los casos se debe descartar el compromiso del SNC. La AL sigue siendo una prueba útil y complementaria, debido a que en los casos con AL negativa no se observó compromiso meníngeo


Cryptococcosis is a serious mycosis that manifests itself, in 90% of cases, as meningoencephalitis, especially in AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to describe the extra-meningeal cases of cryptococcosis in people living with HIV and to know how many of them suffer from concomitant meningeal involvement. Also, to determine its relationship with the Cryptococcus capsular polysaccharide antigen titer in serum.A retrospective, observational and analytical study was carried out. HIV-positive patients whose initial diagnosis had been made from extrameningeal samples in the period between 2012 and 2019 were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients without meningeal involvement; group 2: those who finally had CNS involvement.Of a total of 531 cryptococcosis registered in this period, 113 patients (21%) were included, of whom meningeal involvement was confirmed in 58. No significant differences were observed in terms of mortality in both groups.None of the patients with positive LFA antigenemia (Capsular antigen detection by lateral Flow assay) but negative latex particle agglutination (LA) antigenemia had meningeal involvement. LFA was found to be highly sensitive and allows early diagnosis, but it does not replace other diagnostic procedures.Serum Cryptococcus antigen titers for by LA greater than or equal to 1/100 were found to correlate with a 30-fold increase in the likelihood of meningitis.In all cases, CNS involvement must be ruled out. LA continues to be a useful and complementary test, because in cases with negative LA, no meningeal involvement was observed


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Puncture , Concurrent Symptoms , Retrospective Studies , Chromatography, Affinity/statistics & numerical data , HIV/immunology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/therapy , Point-of-Care Testing
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 187-192, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372977

ABSTRACT

O vírus da imunodeficiência humana é o agente etiológico da AIDS, doença crônica que destrói o sistema imunológico e é caracterizada pela baixa contagem de células TCD4, alta contagem de partículas virais no sangue e manifestações clínicas da doença. O diagnóstico se dá com o aparecimento de infecções oportunistas, que levam a contagem de TCD4 a níveis menores que 200 céls/mm³. Os exames laboratoriais para o diagnóstico do HIV foram os principais avanços para o início do tratamento, reduzindo a transmissão. Detecção de anticorpos, detecção de antígenos e amplificação do genoma do vírus são alguns dos exames laboratoriais utilizados para diagnóstico. Os dois principais biomarcadores são os exames de contagem de células TCD4, que verifica o sistema imune, e a quantificação de carga viral, que informa a quantidade de partículas virais, mostrando a progressão da infecção. Quanto maior a carga viral, maior o dano ao sistema imune. Uma carga viral indetectável é inferior a 50 cópias/mL, mas valores menores ou iguais a 200 cópias/mL também impedem a transmissão. Uma declaração de consenso afirma que Indetectável é igual a Intransmissível. Portanto, quando indetectável, a transmissão inexiste. O presente estudo relata e discute o caso clínico de uma paciente diagnosticada com HIV/AIDS aos 28 anos, que sobreviveu, apesar do diagnóstico tardio, e sob presença de doença oportunista com um grave grau de diminuição de células TCD4 (22 cél/mm³). Por meio do diagnóstico, introdução e adesão correta da terapia antirretroviral e monitorização de exames laboratoriais, conseguiu evitar a morte e ter uma vida semelhante à de um HIV negativo. Ultrapassou a expectativa de vida que na descoberta era de 10 anos, com uma qualidade de vida considerável, não sendo transmissora do vírus, diminuindo assim o estigma e preconceito. O biomédico é peça fundamental nesse contexto, considerando que deve fornecer informações precisas e fidedignas, tão necessárias ao acompanhamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV, para que autoridades e profissionais de saúde adotem medidas adequadas, tanto na prevenção, quanto no diagnóstico e monitoramento da doença.


The human immunodeficiency virus is the etiological agent of AIDS, a chronic disease that destroys the immune system and is characterized by low TCD4 cell count, high viral particle count in blood and clinical manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is due to the appearance of opportunistic infections, which lead to TCD4 counts below 200 cells / mm³. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV were the main advances in starting treatment, reducing transmission. Antibody detection, antigen detection and virus genome amplification are some of the laboratory tests used for diagnosis. The two main biomarkers are the TCD4 cell count tests, which checks the immune system, and viral load quantification, which reports the number of viral particles, showing the progression of infection. The higher the viral load, the greater the damage to the immune system. An undetectable viral load is less than 50 copies / mL, but values less than or equal to 200 copies / mL also prevent transmission. A consensus statement states that Undetectable equals Non-Transmissible. Therefore, when undetectable, transmission does not exist. The present study reports and discusses the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with HIV / AIDS at age 28, who survived despite late diagnosis and under the presence of opportunistic disease with a severe degree of TCD4 cell reduction (22 cells / mm³). Through the diagnosis, introduction and correct adherence of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring of laboratory tests, she was able to avoid death and have a life similar to that of an HIV negative. Exceeded the life expectancy that in the discovery was 10 years, with a considerable quality of life, not transmitting the virus, thus reducing the stigma and prejudice. The biomedical is a key player in this context, considering that he must provide accurate and reliable information, which is so necessary for the monitoring of people living with HIV, so that authorities and health professionals adopt appropriate measures, both in prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , Toxoplasmosis/virology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Viral Load , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Anemia/virology , Meningitis/virology
3.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 81-89, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370963

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de pulmón es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo por cáncer, y en Colombia es la segunda. Su pronóstico es pobre cuando se ha documentado enfermedad metastásica en el sistema nervioso central. El diagnóstico se basa en el resultado definitivo de patología. Aunque los hallazgos imagenológicos pueden ser muy sugestivos de malignidad, hay reportes de otras enfermedades que pueden imitar cáncer, tales como infecciones o tumores benignos, los cuales pueden llevar a adoptar conductas terapéuticas inapropiadas. Las infecciones fúngicas como las producidas por Criptococcus neoformans, son capaces de generar lesiones que pueden imitar neoplasias. El objetivo de esta publicación es reportar el caso de un hombre a quien inicialmente se le sospechó un carcinoma pulmonar metastásico al sistema nervioso central, y finalmente se le diagnosticó una criptococosis diseminada posterior a su fallecimiento


Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world and the second in Colombia, its prognosis is bad when the diagnosis of metastatic disease in the central nervous system is documented. The diagnosis is based on the definitive pathologic result. Although the imaging findings can be highly suggestive of malignancy, there are reports of other conditions that can mimic lung cancer, such as infections or benign tumors, which can lead to inappropriate treatment. Fungal infections such as those caused by Criptococcus neoformans are capable of generating lesions that can mimic neoplasms. The objective of this article is to report the case of a man who was initially diagnosed with metastatic lung carcinoma to the central nervous system, and was finally diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis after his death


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Central Nervous System , Cryptococcus neoformans , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210124, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1386128

ABSTRACT

Triatomines are blood-feeding arthropods belonging to the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera; Reduviidae), capable of producing immunomodulatory and water-soluble molecules in their hemolymph, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In this work, we evaluated the antifungal and immunomodulatory activity of the hemolymph of Meccus pallidipennis (MPH) and Rhodnius prolixus (RPH) against Cryptococcus neoformans. Methods: We assessed the activity of the hemolymph of both insects on fungal growth by a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Further, RAW 264.7 macrophages were cultivated with hemolymph and challenged with C. neoformans. Then, their phagocytic and killing activities were assessed. The cytokines MCP-1, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-6 were measured in culture supernatants 4- and 48-hours post-infection. Results: Both hemolymph samples directly affected the growth rate of the fungus in a dose-dependent manner. Either MPH or RPH was capable of inhibiting fungal growth by at least 70%, using the lowest dilution (1:20). Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with hemolymph of both insects was capable of increasing the production of MCP-I and TNF-α. In addition, when these cells were stimulated with hemolymph in the presence of C. neoformans, a 2- and a 4-fold increase in phagocytic rate was observed with MPH and RPH, respectively, when compared to untreated cells. For the macrophage killing activity, MPH decreased in approximately 30% the number of viable yeasts inside the cells compared to untreated control; however, treatment with RPH could not reduce the total number of viable yeasts. MPH was also capable of increasing MHC-II expression on macrophages. Regarding the cytokine production, MCP-I and TNF-α, were increased in the supernatant of macrophages treated with both hemolymphs, 4 and 48 hours after stimulation. Conclusion: These results suggested that hemolymph of triatomines may represent a source of molecules capable of presenting antifungal and immunomodulatory activity in macrophages during fungal infection.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolymph/chemistry , Triatominae/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans/immunology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/physiology
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 245-252, set 29, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cryptococcus neoformans es una levadura encapsulada, que se encuentra en fuentes ambientales, incluyendo excrementos de palomas. Tiene una gran relevancia clínica porque es el agente etiológico de la criptococosis, considerada una causa importante de mortalidad en personas inmunocomprometidas en todo el mundo. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia y susceptibilidad de C. neoformans aislados del suelo y excremento de palomas en la ciudad de Maceió ­ Alagoas, Brasil. Metodología: Se recolectaron 150 muestras (50 de excretas secas, 50 de excretas frescas y 50 del suelo) y cultivaron en Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud. Las colonias aisladas sugestivas de C. neoformans se sometieron a identificación y caracterización mediante análisis morfológicos, actividad de la enzima fenol-oxidasa, sensibilidad a la cicloheximida, desarrollo a 37°C, hidrólisis de urea, asimilación de carbono y nitrógeno y fenotipificación en medio canavanina-glicina-azul de bromotimol. La prueba de susceptibilidad antifúngica se realizó utilizando la técnica de difusión en agar. Resultados: se obtuvieron 36 (24%) muestras positivas para C. neoformans, de las cuales 33 fueron de excretas secas y 3 del suelo cercano al excremento. El perfil de susceptibilidad fue de 100.0% para anfotericina B y 87.4% para ketoconazol, no obstante, hubo un alto porcentaje de resistencia a fluconazol (91.5%) e itraconazol (80.0%). Conclusión: estos hallazgos confirman que las excretas de palomas secas son reservorios de C. neoformans en el medio ambiente, caracterizando un problema de salud única. Además, la anfotericina B exhibió una alta actividad in vitro, representando buena alternativa en el tratamiento de la criptococosis.


Introdução: Cryptococcus neoformans é um fungo leveduriforme encapsulado, encontrado em fontes ambientais, incluindo excretas de pombos. Apresenta grande relevância clínica por ser agente etiológico da criptococose, considerada importante causa de mortalidade em indivíduos imunocomprometidos em todo o mundo. Objetivo: determinar a prevalência e suscetibilidade de C. neoformans isolados do solo e de excretas de pombos na cidade de Maceió, Alagoas. Metodologia: foram coletadas 150 amostras (50 de excretas secas, 50 de excretas frescas e 50 do solo) e cultivadas em Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose. As colônias isoladas sugestivas de C. neoformans foram submetidas à identificação e caracterização por meio de análises morfológicas, atividade da enzima fenoloxidase, sensibilidade à cicloheximida, termotolerância à 37ºC, hidrólise da ureia, assimilação de carbono e nitrogênio e quimiotipagem em ágar L-canavanina-glicina-azul de bromotimol. O teste de suscetibilidade antifúngica foi realizado por meio da técnica de difusão em ágar. Resultados: foram obtidas 36 (24%) amostras positivas para C. neoformans, das quais 33 (91,6%) foram provenientes de excretas secas e 3 (8,3%) do solo próximo a excrementos. O perfil de suscetibilidade foi de 100,0% para a anfotericina B e 87,4% para o cetoconazol, não obstante, verificou-se alto percentual de resistência ao fluconazol (91,8%) e itraconazol (80%). Conclusão: estes achados confirmam que excretas de pombos secas são reservatórios de C. neoformans no ambiente, caracterizando um problema de saúde única. Além disso, a anfotericina B apresentou elevada atividade, in vitro, representando boa alternativa no tratamento da criptococose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Columbidae , Yeasts , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans
6.
Infectio ; 25(3): 159-162, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250086

ABSTRACT

Resumen La criptococosis meníngea presenta alta mortalidad mundial, especialmente en población VIH/sida. La OMS recomienda detectar el antígeno capsular de Crypto coccus como estrategia para un diagnóstico temprano y poder minimizar complicaciones. Objetivo: realizar antigenemia temprana de Cryptococcus mediante in munocromatografía/ensayo de flujo lateral en pacientes asintomáticos VIH+. Material y método: estudio descriptivo observacional; entre julio-2016 y mayo-2019 se procesaron mediante ensayo de flujo lateral, muestras de suero de 169 pacientes asintomáticos VIH+, con CD4 ≤120 cel/μL en Barranquilla, Colombia. Ante resultado positivo, se indicó profilaxis con fluconazol; se hizo seguimiento a todos los casos. Resultados: la antigenemia fue positiva en cinco pacientes (2,96%); uno falleció, cuatro recibieron profilaxis y la prueba se negativizó en dos. Los pacientes con resultado negativo inicial no desarrollaron durante el estudio sinto matología compatible con esta micosis. Discusión: el ensayo de flujo lateral de Cryptococcus está recomendado para el diagnóstico temprano de la criptococosis en población VIH/sida. Conclusión: detectar tempranamente el antígeno circulante de Cryptococcus mediante ensayo de flujo lateral en pacientes asintomáticos VIH+, permitió instaurar profilaxis oportuna, hacer seguimiento y control para reducir la mortalidad asociada con la criptococosis meníngea.


Abstract Meningeal cryptococcosis presents high levels of global mortality, especially in the HIV/AIDS population. The WHO recommends detecting the capsular antigen as an important strategy for early diagnosis and be able to minimize complications. Objective: Perform early cryptococcal antigenemia by immunochromatographic/ lateral flow assay in asymptomatic HIV+ patients. Material and method: descriptive observational study; between July-2016 and May-2019, serum samples from 169 asymptomatic HIV+ patients with CD4 ≤120 cells/μL were processed by lateral flow assay in Barranquilla, Colombia. Given a positive result, prophylaxis with fluconazole was indicated; all cases were followed up. Results: antigenemia was positive in five (2.96%) patients; one died; four received prophylaxis, and the test turned negative in two. The patients with an initial negative result, did not developed symptoms compatible with this mycosis during the study period. Discussion: lateral flow assay for Cryptococcus is recommended for the early diagnosis of cryptococcosis in the HIV/AIDS population. Conclusion: early detection of circulating Cryptococcus antigen by lateral flow assay in HIV+ patients allowed the establishment of timely prophylaxis, follow-up, and control to reduce mortality associated with meningeal cryptococcosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cryptococcosis , CD4 Antigens , HIV , Aftercare , Cryptococcus , Meningitis
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 482-484, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285084

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex show different epidemiological patterns in the infection of immunosuppressed or immunocompetent individuals, and a common tropism peculiarity for the central nervous system. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis is a rare clinical entity, with manifestations that are initially restricted to the skin through fungal inoculation, and the absence of systemic disease. The authors report in the present study the case of a 61-year-old immunocompetent man, with a rapidly evolving mucoid tumor on abrasions in contact with bird droppings on the forearm. The early identification of the polymorphic skin manifestations and treatment are crucial for the favorable prognosis of the infection, which can be life-threatening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Skin , Immunocompromised Host , Early Diagnosis , Middle Aged
8.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(1): 39-46, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381275

ABSTRACT

O transplante renal é uma alternativa eficaz como tratamento da Doença Renal Crônica, dado seu custo efetividade e o aumento na sobrevida dos pacientes. Os imunossupressores também garantem maior sobrevida do enxerto, porém tornam o receptor susceptível a infecções, como as fúngicas. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as infecções fúngicas de pacientes da enfermaria de transplante renal do Hospital de Referência do Maranhão, através de pesquisa dos prontuários destes com diagnóstico de micose entre 2014 a 2018. Foram encontrados 9 casos, 5 de criptococose, 2 de aspergilose e 2 de candidíase, sendo 6 pacientes homems e 3 mulheres; 5 receptores de doadores vivos e 4, doadores falecidos. Em 7 casos, a terapia de imunossupressão prescrita foi metilprednisolona e basiliximab, e em 2 casos, timoglobulina. O exame diagnóstico foi o micológico direto em 6 casos e endoscopia digestiva alta, biópsia de pele e exame clínico em 1 caso cada. As espécies isoladas foram Cryptococcus sp. (3), C. neoformans (2), Aspergillus sp. (2), Candida tropicalis, C. krusei (1) e C. albicans (1). Excetuando-se um caso de candidíase tratado com fluconazol e um caso com a forma desoxicolato, todos os outros foram tratados com anfotericina B lipídica e fluconazol como manutenção. Sete casos tiveram a cura como desfecho, e 2 o óbito. Percebe-se a importância do estudo dessas infecções, o olhar cuidadoso em relação as mesmas e a atuação do farmacêutico para monitorização da farmacoterapia, para maior segurança do paciente. (AU)


Renal transplantation has been an effective alternative as the treatment of Chronic Renal Disease, due to its cost effectiveness and the increase of the patients' survival. Immunosuppressants also ensure the longer survival of the graft, but make the recipient susceptible to infections, such as fungi. The objective of the study was to know as the main fungal infections of patients with transplant renal disease at the Reference Hospital of Maranhão, through the study of the medical records of patients diagnosed with fungal infection in the period from 2014 to 2018. There were 9 cases, cryptococcosis, 2 aspergillosis and 2 per candidiasis, 6 male and 3 female patients, 5 live donor recipients and 4 deceased donors. In 7 cases, a prescribed immunosuppressive therapy was methylprednisolone and basiliximab, and in 2 cases thymoglobulin. The clinical examination was done in 6 cases and upper digestive endoscopy, skin biopsy and clinical examination in 1 case each. The species were Cryptococcus sp. (3), C. neoformans (2), Aspergillus sp. (2), Candida tropicalis, C. krusei (1) and C. albicans (1). Except for one case of candidacy treated with fluconazole and one case with a deoxycholate form, all others were treated with amphotericin B lipid complex and fluconazole as maintenance. Seven cases had a cure as an outcome, and 2 a death. It was noticed the importance of the study of these infections, the careful look at them and the pharmacist's performance to monitor pharmacotherapy, for greater patient safety. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Mycoses/drug therapy , Aspergillosis , Candidiasis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cryptococcosis , Fungi/pathogenicity , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Infectio ; 25(1): 49-54, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154402

ABSTRACT

Resumen La linfocitopenia T CD4 idiopática (LCI) es un síndrome clínico inusual que se caracteriza por un déficit de células T CD4+ circulantes en ausencia de infección por VIH u otra condición de inmunosupresión. Los pacientes con dicha enfermedad pueden presentarse asintomáticos o con infecciones oportunistas, las más frecuentes son por criptococo, micobacterias o virales como herpes zoster. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 32 años, sin antecedentes, en quien se descartó infección por retrovirus, con recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ menor a 300 células/m3; se diagnosticó LCI posterior al diagnóstico de criptococomas cerebrales mediante hallazgos imagenológicos los cuales fueron congruentes con estudios microbiológicos.


Summary Idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is an unusual clinical syndrome characterized by a deficit of circulating CD4 + T cells in the absence of HIV infection or another immunosuppression condition. Patients with this disease may present asymptomatic or with opportunistic infections, the most frequent are cryptococcus, mycobacteria or viral such as herpes zoster. We present a case of a 32-year-old man with no prior disease, in whom retrovirus infection was discarded, with CD4 + T lymphocyte count less than 300 cells/m3; ICL was diagnosed after the diagnosis of brain cryptococomas by imaging findings which were consistent with microbiological studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cryptococcosis , T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections , HIV , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cryptococcus , Herpes Zoster , Lymphopenia
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01692021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340829

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis are usually associated with the infecting agents Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) and C. gattii (CG) species complexes and the host. In this study, non-HIV-infected patients, at a university hospital in southeastern Brazil, had epidemiological and clinical data associated with cryptococcal disease and isolated Cryptococcus species: CN - 24 patients and CG - 12 patients. METHODS: The comparison was comprised of demographic data, predisposing factors, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and outcomes of cryptococcosis patients treated between 2000 and 2016. Immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients were also compared, irrespective of the infecting species. Cryptococcus spp. were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the URA5 gene. RESULTS: Infections by the CN species complex (100% VNI genotype) were associated with drug immunosuppression and fungemia, and patients infected with the CG species complex (83% VG II and 17% VGI genotypes) had more evident environmental exposure and higher humoral response. CN and CG affected patients with or without comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus, other chronic non-infectious diseases, and alcoholism were likely predisposing factors for infection by both CN and CG species. Immunocompetent patients, independent of the infecting Cryptococcus species complexes, showed a higher occurrence of meningitis and a trend toward less fungal dissemination and longer survival than immunosuppressed hosts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil/epidemiology , Genotype
11.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362816

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mortality attributed to fungal infections, in Brazil between 2003 and 2013. Methods: This ecological study relied on official data collected from the Sistema de Informação Sobre Mortalidade ­ Mortality Information System database. The mycoses were identified by the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which included categories B35­B49 in its first chapter. Results: Overall, 11,991,935 deaths were reported in the aforementioned period. The deaths of 4,192 individuals were primarily attributed to mycoses. High annual mortality rates were observed in all Brazilian regions, except in the Northeast. The main recorded mycoses were paracoccidioidomycosis (35.6%) and cryptococcosis (24.1%). There was a downward trend in the number of deaths due to paracoccidioidomycosis. In addition, 10,925 death certificates listed mycoses as an associated cause of death. Cryptococcosis (89.7%) and histoplasmosis (89.4%) were the most common mycoses associated with deaths in HIV patients. Conclusions: There was a downward trend in the number of deaths stemming from invasive fungal infections. However, opportunistic mycoses follow been a significant cause of death, especially in HIV patients.


Objetivo: Investigar a mortalidade atribuída para as infecções fúngicas, no Brasil, entre 2003 e 2013. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, em que os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM), disponíveis na plataforma do DATASUS. As micoses foram identificadas por meio da 10ª revisão da Classificação Internacional de Doenças (CID-10), a qual incluiu as categorias B35-B49 no primeiro capítulo da CID-10. Resultados: No total, 11.991.935 óbitos foram notificados no período do estudo. Os óbitos de 4,192 indivíduos foram atribuídos às micoses. Foram observadas elevadas taxas de mortalidade em todas as regiões brasileiras, com exceção do Nordeste. As principais micoses registradas foram paracoccidioidomicose (35,6%) e criptococose (24,1%). Houve uma tendência na redução do número de óbitos em relação à paracoccidioidomicose. Além disso, em 10.925 declarações de óbitos informavam que as micoses foram causas associadas ao óbito. Criptococose (89,7%) e Histoplasmose (89,4%) foram as micoses mais comumente associadas ao óbito, principalmente em pacientes HIV positivos. Conclusões: Houve uma tendencia na diminuição dos óbitos por infecções fúngicas invasivas. Entretanto, micoses oportunistas continuam sendo importantes causas de morte, especialmente em indivíduos HIV positivos.


Subject(s)
Invasive Fungal Infections , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Patients , Mortality , Cryptococcosis
12.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(suplemento): 56-60, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361396

ABSTRACT

Paciente de 59 años quien ingresa al servicio de urgencias con un cuadro de 2 días de evolución de cefalea holocraneana de intensidad moderada 7/10, picos febriles no cuantificados, disnea grado III, adinamia, hiporexia, ageusia y tos no productiva, refiriendo contacto estrecho con hermana confirmada para infección por COVID-19, por lo que se investiga antígeno para COVID-19 con resultado positivo. Se confirma la existencia del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) con coinfección por Cryptococus neoformans. El manejo con corticoide sistémico genera un importante inmunocompromiso que predispone al paciente a coinfecciones por gérmenes comunes y oportunistas, como lo es la infección por Cryptococcus neoformans/ Gatti. En este caso la infección por COVID-19 y el desarrollo de SARS-CoV-2 fue la etiología de la infección micótica por cryptococo.


Here, we report a case of a 59-year-old patient with a 2-day history of moderate intensity (7/10) holocranial headache, unquantified febrile peaks, grade III dyspnea, adynamia, hyporexia, ageusia and nonproductive cough admitted to the emergency department. He referred close contact to a sister with confirmed COVID-19. His COVID-19 antigen test results were positive. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) associated with Cryptococcus neoformans infection was confirmed. The use of systemic corticosteroid therapy leads to immunocompromise and predisposes the patient to common and opportunistic infections such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatiii infection. In this case COVID-19 infection and the development of SARS-CoV-2 was the etiology of the Cryptococcus fungal infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis , COVID-19 , Headache , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Research Report
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878723

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the CT characteristics of consolidation type of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients,and thus improve the diagnosis of this disease. Methods A total of 20 cases with consolidation-type pulmonary cryptococcosis confirmed by pathological examinations were studied.Each patient underwent breath-hold multislice spiral CT,and 10 patients underwent contrast enhanced CT.The data including lesion number,lesion distribution,lesion density,performance of enhanced CT scan,accompanying signs,and prognosis were analyzed. Results The occurrence rates of single and multiple lesions were 80.0%(n=16)and 20.0%(n=4),respectively.In all the 16 multiple-lesion patients,the occurrence rate of unilateral lobar distribution was 56.0%(n=9).The 76 measurable lesions mainly presented subpleural distribution(71.1%,n=54)and lower pulmonary distribution(75.0%,n=57).A total of 39 lesions were detected in the 10 patients received contrast enhanced CT,in which 31 lesions(79.5%)showed homogeneous enhancement,34 lesions(87.2%)showed moderate enhancement,and all the lesions manifested angiogram sign.Consolidation lesions were accompanied by many CT signs,of which air bronchogram sign had the occurrence rate of 63.2%(n=48),including types Ⅲ(n =37)and Ⅳ(n=11).Other signs included halo signs(43/76,56.6%),vacuoles or cavities(9/76,11.8%),pleural thickening(14/20,70.0%),and pleural effusion(2/20,10.0%).After treatment,the lesions of 7 patients were basically absorbed and eventually existed in the form of fibrosis. Conclusions The lesions in the immunocompetent patients with consolidation type of pulmonary cryptococcosis usually occur in the lower lobe and close to the pleura,mainly presenting unilateral distribution.The CT angiogram signs,proximal air bronchogram signs,and halo signs are the main features of this disease,which contribute to the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 545-550, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156339

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal comprende la enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y la colitis ulcerativa (CU). Esta última es una patología crónica caracterizada por una inflamación difusa de la mucosa colónica, que afecta el recto y se extiende de forma proximal. Su curso clínico es intermitente, con exacerbaciones y remisiones. Su tratamiento, por lo general, es farmacológico, con corticoides, inmunomoduladores e inhibidor del factor de necrosis tumoral (anti tumor necrosis factor, TNF), los cuales causan un estado de inmunosupresión en el paciente, que puede asociarse en algunos casos a infecciones oportunistas. En la literatura se describe la aparición de la criptococosis pulmonar en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). En otros casos se asocia al tratamiento farmacológico de pacientes con EC, así como con otras infecciones oportunistas, tales como la tuberculosis y el herpes. Presentamos uno de los primeros casos de criptococosis pulmonar en un paciente con diagnóstico de colitis ulcerativa, quien recibió tratamiento escalonado con salicilatos, inmunomoduladores y terapia biológica. La infección fue documentada clínica, radiológica e histológicamente. El paciente recibió el tratamiento adecuado y presentó una evolución satisfactoria.


Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the latter being a chronic disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the colonic mucosa that affects the rectum and extends proximally. Its clinical course is intermittent with exacerbations and remissions and its treatment is generally pharmacological, with steroids, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF), which cause the patient to be in a state of immunosuppression associated, in some cases, with opportunistic infections. The literature describes the occurrence of pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in cases associated with drug treatment of patients with CD, as well as with other opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and herpes. This is one of the first cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis reported in a patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, who received step therapy with salicylates, immunomodulators, and biological therapy. The infection was documented clinically, radiologically, and histologically. The patient received the appropriate treatment and had a satisfactory evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Azathioprine , Therapeutics , Prednisolone , Colitis, Ulcerative , Cryptococcosis , Opportunistic Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Crohn Disease , HIV , Immunosuppression Therapy
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 124-128, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126098

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones por levaduras del género Cryptococcus afectan principalmente a pacientes con déficit de la inmunidad mediada por células. Han sido escasos los estudios de sensibilidad realizados para este género en Chile. Objetivos: Determinar la sensibilidad in vitro de Cryptococcus sp a antifúngicos de uso habitual y evaluar la concordancia esencial entre sensibilidad determinada por microdilución en caldo y por difusión en agar con tiras comerciales. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo de 21 cepas aisladas desde liquido céfalo-raquídeo y sangre. Las CIM50 y CIM90 para fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B se determinaron por microdilución en caldo (Sensititre Yeast One®) y por difusión en agar con tiras comerciales (MIC Test Strips). Resultados: Todas las cepas correspondieron a C. neoformans. Los rangos de CIM50 y CIM90 para cada antifúngico estudiado fueron amplios por ambos métodos. La concordancia esencial entre microdilución y difusión en agar con tiras comerciales fue de 24, 62 y 29% para fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La prueba de Sensititre Yeast One® y la de difusión en agar con tiras comerciales, MIC Test Strips, tienen una pobre concordancia esencial para fluconazol y anfotericina B.


Abstract Background: Cryptococcus yeast infections primarily affect immunocompromised patients. There have been few susceptibility studies conducted for this genus in Chile. Aims: To determine the in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antifungals and evaluate the concordance between susceptibility determined by microdilution in broth and commercially available strips. Methods: Descriptive study of 21 Cryptococcus strains, isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood. The MIC50 and MIC90 for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined by broth microdilution (Sensititre Yeast One®) and by commercial drug sensitivity strips (MIC Test Strips). Results: All strains corresponded to C. neoformans. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 for each antifungal studied were wide by both methods. The essential agreement between Sensititre Yeast One test and strips was 24, 62 and 29% for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: The Sensititre Yeast One test and MIC Test Strips exhibited poor essential concordance, especially for fluconazole and amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Chile , Antifungal Agents
18.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(1): 89-91, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1178766

ABSTRACT

La coinfección pulmonar por Cryptococcus neoformans y Mycobacterium tuberculosis es poco frecuente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. El primer reporte de infección concomitante entre tuberculosis y criptococosis fue descripto en el año 19661. La criptococosis es la infección causada por un hongo del género Cryptococcus neoformans, que se divide en variedad gatti y neoformans. Existe evidencia de que la variedad neoformans está asociada a enfermedades debilitantes (enfermedad de Hodgkin, leucemias, linfomas, sarcoidosis, diabetes mellitus), inmunosupresión inducida por drogas (esteroides y citostáticos) y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. Los sitios anatómicos más afectados son el pulmón y el sistema nervioso central. Luego de la inhalación del hongo (asociado a deyecciones de aves), el mismo se anida en los sitios blanco con o sin diseminación hematógena posterior. La tuberculosis es una enfermedad proteiforme. Las manifestaciones clínicas y radiológicas pueden ser atípicas en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Por lo tanto, su diagnóstico puede resultar incierto aún en áreas con alta prevalencia de infección. Presentamos un paciente con diagnóstico de linfoma en tratamiento citostático que desarrolla infección pulmonar concomitante por Cryptococcus neoformans y Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Tuberculosis , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
19.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(1): 20-24, jan.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099957

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Criptococcose é infecção causada pelo Cryptococcus neoformans que acomete predominantemente imunossuprimidos. A transmissão ocorre geralmente por inalação, atingindo inicialmente os pulmões, podendo se disseminar, chamada criptococose disseminada. Caso ocorra apenas lesões cutâneas, denomina-se criptococose cutânea primária. O presente relato visa demonstrar um caso de criptococose cutânea primária com lesão cutânea característica em paciente imunocompetente, condição raramente encontrada. Descrição do caso: Relata-se o caso de um paciente, idoso, morador em área rural, imunocompetente, que desenvolveu lesão compatível com criptococose cutânea primária. Discussão: O envolvimento cutâneo na criptococose disseminada ocorre em cerca de 10% dos casos, por sua vez, a criptococose cutânea primária é rara e controversa. Ambas ocorrem com maior frequência em pacientes imunocomprometidos, entretanto, em alguns casos, nenhuma depressão imune é encontrada. A criptococose cutânea primária se diferencia da criptococose disseminada por características clínicas e particularidades como idade, sexo e área de residência da população acometida. O tratamento depende da extensão do acometimento e do estado imunológico do paciente. Conclusão: Entidade rara, encontramos poucos casos semelhantes na literatura de criptococose cutânea primária em pacientes imunocompetentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Rural Population , Cryptococcosis , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Immunity
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 7-12, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089323

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: This study aims to explore the epidemiology, clinical profile and strain characteristics of cryptococcosis from 2013 to 2017 in a major teaching hospital in China. Methods: Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of 217 consecutive non-repetitive cryptococcal isolates collected from patients of an university hospital in China were analyzed between 2013 and 2017. Of those, 98 isolates were conserved for identification by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to designate molecular types. Clinical characteristics of the 98 patients with cryptococcosis during the period of 2013-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: There was a trend for gradual increase in the MIC range of fluconazole was from 2013 to 2017. The conserved 98 clinical cryptococcal isolates included 97 C. neoformans and one C. gattii, and 90 (91.8%) isolates belonged to ST5 genotype VNI. Out of the 98 patients with cryptococcosis, 28 (28.6%) were HIV-infected and 32 (32.7%) had no underlying diseases. HIV-infected patients had higher mortality than HIV-uninfected patients (28.6% vs 14.3%, p = 0.147). Conclusions: Most of the patients with cryptococcosis were not HIV-infected in this study, while patients with HIV had a higher mortality. Reduced susceptibility to fluconazole was observed among C. neoformans isolates, most of them belonged to ST5 genotype VNI having an impact on the effective dose of fluconazole.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
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