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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(supl.2): S91-S94, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514206

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The Band 3 is a red blood cell protein that carries the Dia and Dib antigens from the Diego blood system. The SLC4A1 gene encodes Band 3; Band 3 Memphis is a polymorphism of normal Band 3 and has two variants, but only the variant II carries the Dia antigen. Objectives: Describe the frequencies of the DI*A and DI*B alleles and the Band 3 Memphis among blood donors, sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and Amazonian Indians. Methods: A total of 427 blood samples were collected and separated into three groups: 206 unrelated blood donors, 90 patients with SCD and 131 Amazonian Indians. We performed DI*A/B, normal Band 3 and Band 3 Memphis genotyping, using the Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The frequency of the DI*A/DI*A genotype was 0.5% in blood donors and it was not found in other groups. The frequency of the DI*A/DI*B was higher in Amazonian Indians (33.6%) and the frequency of the DI*B/DI*B was highest in blood donors (92.2%). All 105 individuals tested were positive for the presence of normal Band 3 and of these individuals, only 5/105 (4.8%) presented the Band 3 Memphis mutation. Conclusion: We observed a higher frequency of the DI*B allele in blood donors and a low frequency of the DI*A/DI*A genotype in all groups studied. The Band 3 Memphis was found in a higher frequency in the blood donor group. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing different population groups to gain a better understanding of the genetic association of blood group antigens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Blood Donors , Crystallization , Erythrocytes
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20918, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429951

ABSTRACT

Abstract Solubility of pharmaceutical drugs in organic solvents is one of the important parameters to understand the equilibrium concentration of solute-solvent, which helps optimize and design crystallization conditions to obtain the desired product crystals. In the present study, Chlorzoxazone (CHZ) is used as a model pharmaceutical compound to investigate the equilibrium solubility, the influence of solvent and the operating conditions on the shape, and the size distribution. The solubility of CHZ is determined in organic solvents like Isopropanol, Ethanol, and 2-Ethoxyethylacetate, Ethylacetate and Ethyllactate using shake flask method from -5ºC to 60ºC. The solubility of CHZ in these solvents shows an increasing trend as the temperature increases in the following order: ethyllactate + water (0.5+0.5) < ethylacetate < isopropanol < ethanol < 2-ethoxyethylacetate < ethyllactate + water (0.75+0.25). The solvents, isopropanol, ethanol, and ethyl lactate, produce needle-shaped crystals, while 2-ethoxyethylacetate and ethyl acetate tend to produce plate shaped crystals. CHZ crystals obtained from 2-ethoxyethylacetate tend to have plate shaped crystals with a lower aspect ratio and are selected for batch cooling crystallization experiments performed at different cooling rates, and agitation. It is found that the agitation at 300 rpm and the cooling rate 0.2ºC/min produce more uniform crystal size distribution


Subject(s)
Solvents/classification , Chlorzoxazone/analysis , Crystallization/classification , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 28-28, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396557

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic preparations in low potencies, containing still measurable quantities of the starting substance, constitute a unique research field in homeopathic basic research. Here a series of experiments is presented carried out by means of the droplet evaporation method (DEM), investigating the specificity of the method, and presumed effects of the succussion procedure applied in the production of homeopathic preparations. Methods:DEM analysis consisted in the evaporation of droplets of the potencies perse placed on microscope slides. Resulting patterns were photographed. Images were evaluated by means of ImageJ software, by measuring grey level distribution, texture, and fractality. The experimentation consisted of four series: (i) screening (1x­6x potencies from 19 substances), (ii) differentiation experiments (2x­6x potencies of Echinacea, Baptisia, Luffa, and Spongia), (iii) differentiation between succussed (100 or 10 times) and unsuccussed samples (Echinacea 2x, Baptisia 3x, Baptisia 4x, Luffa 4x, and Spongia 6x). (iv) investigation of the influence upon the patterns of single compounds present in a remedy complex. The experimental set-up stability was examined by systematic positive control experiments. Results:(i) Homeopathic preparations of mineral origin showed the greatest form variety, whereas those of vegetal origin created fractal patterns in the potency range 2x­4x. (ii) Differentiation of potencies of different origin at the same dilution level was possible from 2x to 4x. (iii) In all potency levels, succussed (100 and 10 times) and unsuccussed variants could be significantly differentiated. Significant differences between all variants were found in some cases in potency levels 4x and higher. In general, application of succussion reduced size, homogeneity, and complexity of the DEM patterns. (iv) Patterns of a remedy complex Luffa 4x -Mercurius bijodatum 9x showed a clear predominance of the Luffa 4x; however also the second component, present in a much lower concentration, influenced significantly the pattern of the remedy complex as also differed significantly from the pattern of succussed water control. Conclusions:The results suggest that DEM is a suitable tool for scientific investigation of homeopathic preparations in the low potency range. DEM might be applied to assess further research questions, such different potentization procedures (vessel shape, overhead volume, material), storing time, and difference between batches.


Subject(s)
Low Potencies , Crystallization , Lipid Droplets
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191024, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394036

ABSTRACT

Abstract Posaconazole exerts an extended spectrum of antifungal activity against various strains of clinically relevant moulds and yeasts. In recent years, antifungal triazole posaconazole has become increasingly important for the prophylaxis and treatment of systemic mycoses. After oral administration of posaconazole, absolute bioavailability has been estimated to range from 8% to 47%. Pharmaceutical co-crystallization is a promising approach for improving dissolution rate or manipulating other physical properties of API. The objective of this study is to improve the dissolution rate of posaconazole by co-crystallization. A 1:1 stoichiometric co-crystals of adipic acid were prepared by solvent assisted grinding method. The prepared co-crystals were subjected to solid-state characterization by FTIR, PXRD and DSC studies. The physicochemical properties of posaconazole and co-crystals were assessed in terms of melting point, flowability and dissolution rate. The results indicated improvement in flow property and dissolution rate. In vitro dissolution profile of co-crystals showed a significant increased dissolution of posaconazole from initial period in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The dissolution efficiency for posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystal was 61.65 % against posaconazole, 46.58 %. Thus, co-crystallization can be a promising approach to prepare posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystals with improved physicochemical properties.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Crystallization/instrumentation , Hydrochloric Acid , Sprains and Strains/diagnosis , Yeasts/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Biological Availability , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Efficiency , Dissolution , Mycoses/pathology
6.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(2): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1177588

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to synthesize and characterize lithium disilicate glass-ceramics through the Li2O-SiO2system for determining the most satisfactory sintering parameter by evaluating the crystalline composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. Material and methods: The glass-ceramics were prepared from a glass precursor by means of the melting/cooling technique with a composition of 33.33 Li2O and 66.67 SiO2 (mol.%). The specimens were compressed by the uniaxial pressing technique and three different thermal treatments were used for sintering: 850 °C (Group 1), 900 °C (Group 2), and 950 °C (Group 3), which were determined based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result. The glass-ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Archimedes method, microhardness and biaxial flexural strength analyses. Results: The results regarding XRD predominantly showed lithium disilicate phase for all the heat treatments performed. Moreover, grains with a needle form were more predominantly observed in the SEM images for Group 3, as well as a higher densification and consequently higher mechanical properties. In contrast, Group 1 presented the lowest mechanical properties and densification, as well as the highest porosity. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated how extremely important it is to follow the heat treatment recommended by the manufacturers of ceramics, including time and temperature, which possess direct effects in the crystalline phase formation, as well as in the material's microstructure and mechanical properties (AU)


Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo sintetizar e caracterizar uma vitrocerâmica de dissilicato de lítio através do sistema Li2O-SiO2para determinar o parâmetro de sinterização mais satisfatório através da avaliação da composição cristalina, microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas. Material e Métodos: As vitrocerâmicas foram preparadas a partir de um vidro precursor pelo método fusão/resfriamento utilizando a composição de 33.33 Li2O e 66.67 SiO2 (mol.%). As amostras foram prensadas utilizando uma técnica de prensagem uniaxial e três tratamentos térmicos diferentes foram utilizadas para sinterização: 850 °C (Grupo 1), 900 °C (Grupo 2), e 950 °C (Grupo 3), que foram determinados através do resultado da análise diferencial de calorimetria. As vitrocerâmicas foram caracterizadas através das análises de difração de raios X (DRX), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), métodos de Arquimedes, microdureza e ensaio de flexão biaxial. Resultados: Os resultados de DRX mostraram predominantemente a fase de dissilicato de lítio para todos os tratamentos realizados. Além disso, grãos com forma agulhada foram mais predominantemente observados por MEV no grupo 3, assim como uma densificação maior e consequentemente valores maiores das propriedades mecânicas. Em contraste, o grupo 1 apresentou os menores valores de propriedades mecânicas e densificação, e também a maior porosidade. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstrou como é extremamente importante seguir o tratamento térmico recomendado pelos fabricantes de cerâmica, incluindo tempo e temperatura, que possuem efeitos diretos na formação da fase cristalina, assim como na microestrutura do material e propriedades mecânicas. (AU)


Subject(s)
X-Ray Diffraction , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Crystallization
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1396-1405, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878641

ABSTRACT

Protein self-assemblies at the micro- and nano-scale are of great interest because of their morphological diversity and good biocompatibility. High-throughput screening of protein self-assembly at different scales and morphologies using protein crystallization screening conditions is an emerging method. When using this method to screen protein self-assembly conditions, some apparently transparent droplets are often observed, in which it is not clear whether self-assembly occurs. We explored the interaction between β-lactoglobulin and the protein crystallization kit Index™ C10 and observed the presence of micro- and nano-scale protein self-assemblies in the transparent droplets. The diverse morphology of the micro- and nano-scale self-assemblies in the transparent droplets formed by mixing different initial concentrations of β-lactoglobulin and Index™ C10 was further investigated by scanning electron microscope. Self-assembly process of fluorescence-labelled β-lactoglobulin was monitored continuously by laser confocal microscope, allowing real-time observation of the liquid-liquid phase separation phenomenon and the morphology of the final self-assemblies. The internal structure of the self-assemblies was gradually ordered over time by in-situ X-ray diffraction. This indicates that the self-assembly phenomenon within transparent droplets, observed in protein self-assembly condition screening experiments, is worthy of further in-depth exploration.


Subject(s)
Crystallization , Lactoglobulins
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18993, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249146

ABSTRACT

A repetitive batch process was employed followed by membrane ultrafiltration system to produce low-cost cyclodextrins (CDs) using commercial enzymes Toruzyme® cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and its kinetic parameters were determined. The ultrafiltration system enabled the removalof inhibitory products from the reaction medium, allowing the enzyme to be recovered for reuse. A 10 kDa membrane was used to separate the different CDs produced by the CGTase. The substrates evaluated were maltodextrin, corn starch and cassava starch at 5, 10 and 15% (w/V), in the presence and absence of 10% (V/V) ethanol. After reaction for 132 h, 10% (w/V) cassava starch in the presence of ethanol provided the best results with 32.1 mg/mL of ß-CD. Maximum production occurred after 72 h of reaction, with a yield of 87.4% of ß-CD and an α-CD, ß-CD and γ-CD production ratio of 1:1:0.08 g, respectively. When eight repetitive batches of 72 h followed by ultrafiltration and crystallization of ß-CD were performed, 2.1 g of precipitate was obtained with a purity of 67.6% ß-CD. The supernatant from the crystallization process was lyophilized and resulted in 35.3% α-CD. The developed model can be used industrially for the production of low cost CDs from easily obtained raw material


Subject(s)
Ultrafiltration/instrumentation , Models, Economic , Low Cost Technology/analysis , Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Starch and Fecula , Crystallization/classification
11.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(1): 85-94, 2020.
Article in Spanish | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1247969

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la Escala de Desarrollo Armónico ­EDA­ como una propuesta innovadora para llevar a cabo la prevención de los trastornos del desarrollo infantil. La escala se construyó para observar el ascenso del paisaje epigenético individual desde el paradigma de los sistemas dinámicos. Para lograrlo, se han estudiado parámetros que pueden explicar la evolución del sistema ­índice de armonía y cociente de desarrollo estable­, un mecanismo del cambio ­tirón cognitivo­ y fuerzas moldeadoras ­velocidad y cristalización­, siguiendo el principio de «armonía¼ para alcanzar el máximo desarrollo potencial. La estructura de la escala es adecuada para funcionar como un test adaptativo informatizado, por lo que resulta accesible, fácil de usar y puede validarse siguiendo la metodología de respuesta al ítem ­TRI­. Las cualidades «orgánicas¼ de la EDA permiten un funcionamiento interactivo a través de Internet ­www.maternal.eu­.


The objective of this work is to present the Scale of Harmonic Development ­SHD­ as an innovative proposal to carry out the prevention of childhood development disorders. The scale was built to observe the individual epigenetic landscape ascent from the dynamic system paradigm. To achieve this, several parameters have been studied, those which that can explain the system's evolution ­harmonic index and stable development quotient­, a change mechanism ­cognitive pull­ and shaping forces ­speed and crystallization ­, following the «harmony¼ principle to achieve the desired potential. The scales structure is suitable to work as a computerized adaptive test, therefore it being accessible, easy to use and it can be validated through the item response theory ­IRT­. The «organic¼ qualities of the SHD allow an interactive operation through Internet ­www.maternal.eu­.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Development , Developmental Disabilities , Systems Theory , Work , Internet , Crystallization , Methodology as a Subject
13.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(2): 296-302, abr.-jun. 2019. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093406

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La secreción cervical cumple una función importante en el proceso reproductivo humano y algunas sus características (e.g., el cristalizar) cambian dependiendo de las variaciones en los niveles de hormonas esteroidales sexuales. Objetivo: Reportar la fractalidad observada en un patrón de cristalización de moco cervical humano. Métodos: El moco fue obtenido de una paciente en período periovulatorio. La imagen de un patrón cristalino de moco cervical fue transformada a blanco y negro y analizada mediante Fractalyse v. 2.4, el cual determina la dimensión fractal (DF) para cada imagen estudiada. Se analizaron tres zonas para la imagen seleccionada. Resultados: Se encontró, para la Zona 1, DF (± desviación estándar) = 1,36 ± 0,02 (r² = 0,9985); para la Zona 2, DF = 1,35 ± 0,02 (r² = 0,9979); y para la Zona 3, DF = 1,36 ± 0,03 (r² = 0,9958). Las DF encontradas para las zonas estudiadas fueron estadísticamente iguales entre sí. Conclusiones: El moco cervical humano en período periovulatorio puede seguir un patrón de cristalización tipo fractal, especialmente en lo referente a la semejanza de sus componentes estructurales (criterio de autosimilitud) (AU)


Introduction: Cervical secretion plays an important role in the human reproductive process and its characteristics (e.g., crystallization) change depending on variations in the levels of sex steroid hormones. Objective: The purpose of this brief communication is to report the fractality observed in a crystallization pattern of human cervical mucus. Methods: Mucus samples were obtained from a patient in the periovulatory period and an image of the crystalline pattern of cervical mucus was transformed to black and white and analysed by Fractalyse v. 2.4, which determines the fractal dimension (FD) for each studied image. Three zones were analysed for the selected image. Results: It was found that, for Zone 1, FD (± standard deviation) = 1.36 ± 0.02 (r² = 0.9985); for Zone 2, FD = 1.35 ± 0.02 (r² = 0.9979); and for Zone 3, FD = 1.36 ± 0.03 (r² = 0.9958). Zones studied were statistically equal to each other regarding their FD. Conclusions: Human cervical mucus obtained at periovulatory period can follow a fractal-like pattern of crystallization, especially in relation to the similarity of its structural components (criterion of self-similarity) (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cervix Mucus , Fractals , Crystallization
14.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1035-1039, abr.-maio 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482094

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo obter um protocolo para descristalização do mel de forma a não alterar os parâmetros físico-químicos. Para o estudo, foram utilizadas amostras de mel que estavam cristalizadas nos locais de compra, sendo estas submetidas em micro-ondas a diferentes níveis de potência (Mínima, Média e Alta) e tempos (5, 10, 15 e 20 segundos). As amostras de mel apresentaram valores de 2,57 a 3,58 mg.kg de hidroximetilfurfural (HMF). Além da análise de HMF, foram avaliados também o teor de umidade, Teste de Fiehe, Prova de Lugol e Lund, sendo obtidos resultados dentro do preconizado na legislação brasileira. Um protocolo adequado para descristalizaçao de mel em micro-ondas foi obtido com uso de potência média e com tempo de 15 segundos.


Subject(s)
Crystallization , Chemical Phenomena , Furnaces/adverse effects , Honey/analysis , Microwaves/adverse effects , Food Quality
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 105 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015323

ABSTRACT

O chocolate é conhecido mundialmente, proveniente do fruto do cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao) normalmente consumido em forma de barra, mas também podendo ser usado de inúmeras formas como coberturas, recheios dentre outras. Um importante componente na produção do chocolate é a gordura utilizada, uma vez que esta é responsável pela textura, brilho e características organolépticas do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar a manteiga de cupuaçu (proveniente do fruto da Theobroma grandiflorum) na elaboração de chocolate amargo. Para tanto a manteiga de cacau foi substituída de forma parcial e total. Foram desenvolvidas duas formulações de chocolate padrão com liquor de cacau (P1) e com cacau em pó (P2), e quatro formulações com substituição parcial da manteiga de cacau por manteiga de cupuaçu a partir de P2(F1 e F2) e de P1 (F3 e F4). As amostras elaboradas e os ingredientes (líquor de cacau, cacau em pó, manteiga de cacau e manteiga de cupuaçu) foram avaliadas por análise térmica (DSC-Differential Scanning Calorimetry), reologia, tamanho de partícula, composição em ácidos graxos e em triacilgliceróis, índice de temperagem e índice de resfriamento, bem como testes de acompanhamento de 112 dias como cor, atividade de água e textura. A manteiga de cupuaçu apresentou maior quantidade de ácido oleico quando comparada com a manteiga de cacau, aproximadamente 11,5%, e também características reológicas diferentes dos padrões: tensões iniciais variaram de 3,4 ± 0,3 a 7,9 ± 2,0 Pa para as amostras e 2,9 ± 1,4 a 6,2 ± 0,7 Pa para os padrões; viscosidade de 1,6 ± 0,1 a 2,9 ± 0,4 Pa*s para as amostras e 1,9 ± 0,8 a 2,9 ± 0,9 Pa*s para os padrões; tamanho de partícula das amostras de 21 ± 2 a 22 ± 2 µm, padrões de 20 ± 2 a 34 ± 4 µm. Durante os 112 dias de estudo de prateleira: Aw variou de 0,405 ± 0,03 a 0,424 ± 0,02 nas amostras e 0,399 ± 0,03 no padrão; textura variou de 16,3 ± 1,2 a 31,6 ± 2,0 N para as amostras e 25,9 ± 3,0 a 28,6 ± 7,2 N para os padrões; WI variou de 24,1 ± 0,6 a 25,4 ± 0,3 para as amostras e 23,0 ± 0,4 a 23,9 ± 0,8 para os padrões; ΔE variou de 0,4 a 2,2 para as amostras e de 0,5 a 1,2 para os padrões. Concluiu-se que: A variação do líquor de cacau para cacau em pó acarretou aumentando do tempo total de processo em aproximadamente 15 min. Os chocolates com maior teor de manteiga de cupuaçu apresentaram aumento em triacilglicerol C54, com redução de POP e POS. A faixa de fusão dos chocolates com maiores porcentagens de manteiga de cupuaçu (F3 e F4) foi maior do que para chocolates formulados apenas com manteiga de cacau (P1 e P2). A manteiga de cupuaçu tem relação direta com a queda da tensão inicial e da viscosidade (sem diferença significativa, p<0,05) nos chocolates produzidos. O baixo ponto de fusão do ácido oleico contido na manteiga de cupuaçu alterou a temperatura final e o valor do índice de temperagem nas amostras com maior teor de manteiga de cupuaçu (F3 e F4)


The chocolate is known worldwide, coming from the fruit of the cacao (Theobroma cacao) normally consumed in the form of a bar, but also can be used in countless ways like coverings, fillings among others. An important component in the production of chocolate is the fat used, since it is responsible for the texture, brightness and organoleptic characteristics of the product. The objective of this work was to use cupuassu butter (from the fruit of Theobroma grandiflorum) in elaboration of bitter chocolate. For this purpose, the cocoa butter was partially and totally replaced. Two formulations of standard chocolate with cocoa liquor (P1) and with cocoa powder (P2) were developed, and four formulations with partial replacement of cocoa butter by cupuassu butter from P2 (F1 and F2) and P1 (F3 and F4). The elaborated samples and the ingredients (cocoa liquor, cocoa powder, cocoa butter and cupuassu butter) were evaluated by DSC, rheology, particle size, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol, temperature index and cooling index, as well as follow-up tests of 112 days such as color, water activity and texture. The cupuassu butter presented a higher amount of oleic acid when compared to cocoa butter, approximately 11.5%, and also different rheological characteristics of the standards: initial tensions ranged from 3.4 ± 0.3 to 7.9 ± 2, 0 Pa for the samples and 2.9 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 0.7 Pa for the standards; viscosity of 1.6 ± 0.1 to 2.9 ± 0.4 Pa*s for the samples and 1.9 ± 0.8 to 2.9 ± 0.9 Pa*s for the standards; sample particle size from 21 ± 2 to 22 ± 2 µm, patterns from 20 ± 2 to 34 ± 4 µm. During the 112 days of shelf study: Aw ranged from 0.405 ± 0.03 to 0.424 ± 0.02 in the samples and 0.399 ± 0.03 in the standard; texture ranged from 16.3 ± 1.2 to 31.6 ± 2.0 N for the samples and 25.9 ± 3.0 to 28.6 ± 7.2 N for the standards; WI ranged from 24.1 ± 0.6 to 25.4 ± 0.3 for the samples and 23.0 ± 0.4 to 23.9 ± 0.8 for the standards; ΔE ranged from 0.4 to 2.2 for the samples and from 0.5 to 1.2 for the standards. It was concluded that: The variation of cocoa liquor to cocoa powder increased the total process time by approximately 15 min. The chocolates with higher content of cupuassu butter presented increase in triacylglycerol C54, with reduction of POP and POS. The melting range of chocolates with higher percentages of cupuassu butter (F3 and F4) was higher than for chocolates formulated with cocoa butter alone (P1 and P2). Cupuassu butter is directly related to the drop in initial tension and viscosity (without significant difference, p <0.05) in the chocolates produced. The low melting point of the oleic acid contained in the cupuassu butter altered the final temperature and the temperature index value in the samples with the highest cupuassu butter content (F3 and F4)


Subject(s)
Rheology/instrumentation , Malvaceae/classification , Cacao Butter , Chocolate/analysis , Crystallization , Fats/analysis
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190004, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease with a majority of asymptomatic individuals and clinical manifestations varying from mild fever to severe and potentially lethal forms. An increasing number of genetic studies have outlined the association between host genetic variations and dengue severity. Genes associated to viral recognition and entry, as well as those encoding mediators of the immune response against infection are strong candidates for association studies. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MBL2, CLEC5A, ITGB3 and CCR5 genes and dengue severity in children. METHODS A matched case-control study was conducted and 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated. FINDINGS No associations were observed in single SNP analysis. However, when MBL2 SNPs were combined in haplotypes, the allele rs7095891G/rs1800450C/ rs1800451C/rs4935047A/rs930509G/rs2120131G/rs2099902C was significantly associated to risk of severe dengue under α = 0.05 (aOR = 4.02; p = 0.02). A second haplotype carrying rs4935047G and rs7095891G alleles was also associated to risk (aOR = 1.91; p = 0.04). MAIN CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to demonstrate the association between MBL2 haplotypes and dengue severity in Brazilians including adjustment for genetic ancestry. These results reinforce the role of mannose binding lectin in immune response to DENV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, CCR5 , Crystallization , Dengue/epidemiology , Aedes
17.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2019. 118 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1024042

ABSTRACT

O desempenho das cerâmicas odontológicas é um aspecto bastante explorado na literatura, uma vez que o aprimoramento das suas características permite desenvolver materiais com maior longevidade. Trincas, delaminações, lascamentos e fraturas catastróficas são as falhas mais encontradas em restaurações cerâmicas. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi conhecer o comportamento mecânico de coroas monolíticas gradadas e avaliar a possibilidade de produzir uma vitrocerâmica experimental a base de dissilicato de lítio com gradiente funcional de porosidade. Este trabalho foi dividido em duas partes: a primeira, teórico/computacional e a segunda, a fabricação do produto. 1) Através de software CAD foi modelado um molar inferior com preparo tradicional para coroa total e uma coroa total monolítica com camada de cimento resinoso entreposto. Quatro grupos foram compostos pela variação da composição das coroas totais: Coroa rígida (E=80 GPa), flexível (E=30 GPa), gradação bioinspirada (de 80 até 30 GPa) e gradação inversa (de 30 até 80 GPa). O modelo foi exportado para o software de análise. Os materiais foram considerados isotrópicos, linearmente elásticos e homogêneos, com contatos ideais. Uma força de 300N foi aplicada na face oclusal, a base do modelo foi fixada em todas as direções. A tensão máxima principal, tensão de Von-Mises e deslocamento foram utilizadas para observar o comportamento mecânico. 2) Uma mistura de óxidos foi homogeneizada e submetida à fusão. As fritas obtidas por resfriamento foram moídas e passaram por diferentes tratamentos térmicos, seguido das análises de DSC e DRX. Seis grupos experimentais foram obtidos: DL-E (vitrocerâmica densa a base de dissilicato de lítio simulando esmalte); DL-D (vitrocerâmica densa a base de dissilicato de lítio simulando dentina); DLGrad (vitrocerâmica gradada a base de dissilicato de lítio); YTZP-E (vitrocerâmica densa reforçada por YTZP simulando esmalte); YTZP-D (vitrocerâmica densa reforçada por YTZP simulando dentina); YGrad (vitrocerâmica gradada reforçada por YTZP). Suspensões aquosas contendo 23 e 30%-vol. de pó de vidro foram preparadas e submetidos à técnica de gel casting para formar um gradiente funcional. As vitrocerâmicas com e sem gradiente funcional de porosidade foram caracterizadas pelas técnicas de DRX, FEG, densidade e porosidade aparentes. Também foram realizados ensaios mecânicos de resistência à flexão biaxial e fractografia. Os resultados obtidos foram estatisticamente avaliados por Anova 1 fator e Tukey (p<0,05). As micrografias mostraram formação de gradiente funcional de porosidade apenas nas vitrocerâmicasa base de dissilicato de lítio. Não houve diferença entre as densidades de todos as vitrocerâmicas estudadas, porém YTZP-E, YTZP-D e YTZP-Grad apresentaram porosidade 10% maior do que as vitrocerâmicassem zircônia. Os defeitos críticos na superfície das vitrocerâmicas são semelhantes em todas condições estudadas, porém a aleatoriedade de poros internos das vitrocerâmicas contendo YTZP proporcionaram diminuição da resistência à flexão, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às vitrocerâmicas sem YTZP. Entre as vitrocerâmicas densas e gradadas não houve diferença na resistência à flexão. Conclui-se que a adição de zircônia em sistema a base de SiO2-Li2O alterou a temperatura de sinterização, o padrão de porosidade, a resistência flexural e comprometeu a formação do gradiente funcional de porosidade. O comportamento mecânico das vitrocerâmicas à base de dissilicato de lítio densas e gradadas são similares(AU)


The performance of dental ceramics is very explorated at literature, once the enhancement of yours features allow the development of materials with higher longevity. Cracks, delamination, chipping and catastrophic fracture are the faillures most finds at ceramics restorations. The aim of this research was knew the mechanical behavior of monolithics graded crows and it was evaluated the possibility to produce a glass ceramic based of lithium disilicate with gradient of porosity. This research was divided into two parts: the first one, theoretical computational and the second, the manufacturing product. 1) Using a CAD software, a lower molar received a full-crown preparation. The monolithic crown was modeled with a resin cement layer of 0.1 mm. Four groups were distributed according to the full crown elastic modulus (E):(a)Bioinspired crown with regressive elastic gradation (from 80 to 30 GPa); (b) Crown with regressive elastic gradation (from 30 to 80 GPa); (c) Rigid crowns and (d) Flexible crown. The model was exported to the analysis software and meshed into 385,240 tetrahedral elements and 696,310 nodes. Materials were considered isotropic, linearly elastic, and homogeneous, with ideal contacts. A 300-N load was applied at the occlusal surface and the base of the model was fixed in all directions. The results were required in Maximum principal stress, Von-Mises Stress and Displacement. 2) A mixture of oxides was homogenized and it was melted at fusion. The glass frits get by cooling were grinded and passed through heat treatment accordin to CSD and RXD. Six groups were obtained: DL-E (glass ceramic dense based of lithium disilicate simulating enamel); DL-D (glass ceramic dense based of lithium disilicate simulating dentin); DL-Grad (glass ceramic graded based of lithium disilicate); YTZP-E (glass ceramic dense reforced by YTZP simulating enamel); YTZP-D (glass ceramic dense reforced by YTZP simulating dentin); YTZP-Grad (glass ceramic graded and reforced by YTZP). Twenty-three and 40% of glass powder were prepared through dispersion water and it was submitted for techinique of gel casting to form functional gradient. The samples with and without functional gradient of porosity were characterized by RXD, FEG, density of all the groups, however YTZP-E, YTZP-D and YTZP-Grad showed porosity 10% greater the groups without zirconia. The critical flaw at surface of the ceramics were similar to the groups, however the random of internal pores at groups with YTZP get the flexural strength lower, with statistical difference with the groups without YTZP. Among the dense and graded groups were not statistical differences at flexural strength. It concluded that add of zirconia at ceramic system based of SiO2-Li2O changed the temperature of sintering, the standard of porosity, flexural strength and compromised the development of functional gradient of porosity. The mechanical behavior of ceramics based at lithium disilicate dense and graded were similar(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Materials/adverse effects , Porosity , Crystallization/methods , Lithium/administration & dosage
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1234-1242, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Formation of struvite stones is associated with urinary tract infection by urease-producing bacteria. Biogenic crystal growth in natural and synthetic materials is regulated by the action of inhibitors, ranging from small ions, molecules to large macromolecules. Materials and Methods: We report the dynamics of in vitro crystallization of struvite in presence of vitamin C in synthetic urine using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate gel of specific gravity 1.05 and the aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were used as the medium for growing the struvite crystals. The crystallization process was induced by a urease positive struvite stone associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa to mimic the infection leading to stone formation. The grown crystals were characterized by ATR-FTIR and powder XRD. The surface morphology was analysed through FE-SEM for comparison between treatments. Results: We observed decrease in number, dimension, and growth rate of struvite crystals with the increasing concentrations of vitamin C. Crystals displayed well-defined faces and dendritic morphology of struvite in both control and biogenic systems. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that, vitamin C can modulate the formation of struvite crystals in the presence of uropathogenic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Urine/microbiology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Calculi/prevention & control , Struvite/chemistry , Time Factors , Crystallization
19.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 11(4): 461-466, dic. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Microwaves are an interesting alternative to process dental ceramics. It is well documented that Microwave Hybrid Sintering (MHS) allows important savings in time and energy consumption. However, little is known about its effect on lithium disilicate glass ceramics, a popular material in dentistry today. We analyzed the microstructure of lithium disilicate glass ceramics sintered with MHS compared with conventional sintering. We sintered lithium disilicate glass ceramics using MHS and conventional furnaces, and we analyzed the samples using X-Ray diffraction and SEM. Samples sintered with MHS showed an increased crystalline phase, with an increased number of crystals. These crystals have larger perimeters compared with samples sintered in conventional furnaces. MHS produced a different crystallization pattern and crystal/ matrix ration in lithium disilicate glass ceramics when compared to conventional sintering. This can be associated with the improved mechanical properties of these materials reported previously.


RESUMEN: Las microondas son una interesante alternativa para procesar cerámicas dentales. Está bien documentado que el Sinterizado Híbrido por Microondas (MHS) permite ahorros importantes de tiempo y energía. Sin embargo, poco se ha publicado respecto a sus efectos en cerámicas de disilicato de litio, un material bastante popular en odontología en estos días. En este artículo analizamos la micro estructura de cerámicas de disilicato de litio sinterizada con MHS comparada con el sinterizado convencional. Sinterizamos muestras de cerámicas de disilicato de litio usando MHS y hornos convencionales, y analizamos las muestras usando difracción de rayos X y SEM. Las muestras sintetizadas usando MHS tienen una mayor fase cristalina, con mayor número de cristales. Estos cristales tienen además perímetros mayores, comparados con las muestras sinterizadas en hornos convencionales. MHS produce patrones de cristalización y proporción de cristal/matrix diferentes a las producidos por sinterizado convencional. Esto puede asociarse a las mejoras en propiedades mecánicas reportadas previamente.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Microwaves , X-Ray Diffraction , Analysis of Variance , Crystallization , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/therapeutic use , Phase Transition , Graphite/analysis
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 124 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875323

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo do estado sólido do ganciclovir (GCV) e suas diferentes formas polimórficas. O GCV é um fármaco antiviral útil no tratamento de infecções por citomegalovírus (CMV). Embora seja um fármaco amplamente usado, poucos estudos têm sido realizados sobre seu estado sólido. Atualmente, o GCV é conhecido por apresentar quatro formas cristalinas, duas anidras (Forma I e II) e duas hidratas (III e IV). Neste trabalho, nós reportamos a solução da estrutura cristalográfica da Forma I do GCV, que foi encontrado durante o screening de cristalização do fármaco, em que nove ensaios de cristalização (GCV-1, GCV-A, GCV-B, GCV-C, GCV-D, GCV-E, GCV-F, GCV-G e GCV-H) foram realizados e os materiais resultantes foram caracterizados por Difratometria de raios X (DRX), análise térmica (DTA/TG) e Hot Stage Microscopy. De todas as cristalizações realizadas foram obtidas quatro formas sólidas, denominadas como Forma I (GCV-1, GCV-B e GCV-H), Forma III (GCV-C, GCV-D, GCV-F e GCV-G), Forma IV (GCV-A) e Forma V (GCV-E). Esta última está sendo descrita pela primeira vez na literatura e indica a presença de outra forma hidratada de GCV. As Formas I, III e IV corresponderam a forma anidra e as duas formas hidratadas do fármaco, respectivamente. Além disso, foi evidenciado por experimentos de conversão de slurry e análise térmica que o cristalizado de GCV-1 (Forma I) foi o mais estável entre os materiais obtidos, e este deu origem ao monocristal da Forma I de GCV, estrutura cristalina anidra do fármaco. Neste trabalho, pela primeira vez, a estrutura cristalina deste composto foi definida por cristalografia de raios X de monocristal. A análise estrutural mostrou que a Forma I do fármaco cristaliza no grupo espacial monoclínico P21/c e está composta por quatro moléculas de GCV na sua unidade assimétrica. Cada molécula está unida intermolecularmente por ligações de hidrogênio, que dão lugar à formação de cadeias infinitas e estas por sua vez se arranjam de maneira a formar uma estrutura tridimensional.


This presented work aims to study the solid state of ganciclovir (GCV) and its different polymorphic forms. GCV is an antiviral drug useful in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Although it is a widely-used drug, few studies have been conducted on its solid state. Currently, GCV is known to have four crystalline forms, two anhydrous (Form I and II) and two hydrates (III and IV). In this investigation, we report a successful preparation of GCV Form I and its crystallographic structure, which was found during the crystallization of the drug, in which nine crystallization tests (GCV-1, GCV-A, GCV-B, GCV- D, GCV-E, GCV-F, GCV-G and GCV-H) were performed and the resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG) and Hot Stage Microscopy. Of all the crystallizations performed, four solid forms were obtained, denoted as Form I (GCV-1, GCV-B and GCV- H), Form III (GCV-C, GCV-D, GCV-F and GCV-G), Form IV (GCV-A) and Form V (GCV-E). The latter is being described for the first time in the literature and indicates the presence of another hydrated form of GCV. Forms I, III and IV corresponded to the anhydrous form and the two hydrated forms of the drug, respectively. In addition, it was evident by both the slurry conversion and the thermal analysis methods that the GCV-1 crystallized (Form I) was indeed the most stable amongst the materials obtained. This gave rise to GCV Form I monocrystal, anhydrous crystalline structure of the drug. The compound was characterized by monocrystal X-ray crystallography. The structural analysis showed that Form I of the drug crystallized in the monoclinic system space group P21/c is composed of four molecules of GCV in its asymmetric unit. Each molecule is linked intermolecularly by hydrogen bonds, which give rise to the formation of infinite chains arranged in a way that form a three-dimensional structure.


Subject(s)
Ganciclovir/analysis , Crystallization , Ganciclovir/chemistry , Differential Thermal Analysis/methods
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