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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 577-583, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887693

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to explore the roles of arachidonic acid cytochrome P450ω hydroxylase CYP4A14 in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. Wild-type (WT) control mice and Cyp4a14 knockout (A14


Subject(s)
Animals , Arachidonic Acid , Cytochromes , Gene Knockout Techniques , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Muscle, Skeletal , Regeneration
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
3.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 516-528, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763776

ABSTRACT

We have previously demonstrated that the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) induces functional potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors via increases in phosphorylation of NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit (pGluN1). However, the modulatory mechanisms responsible for the expression of the DHEA-synthesizing enzyme, cytochrome P450c17 following peripheral nerve injury have yet to be examined. Here we determined whether oxidative stress induced by the spinal activation of nitric oxide synthase type II (NOS-II) modulates the expression of P450c17 and whether this process contributes to the development of neuropathic pain in rats. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve induced a significant increase in the expression of NOS-II in microglial cells and NO levels in the lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn at postoperative day 5. Intrathecal administration of the NOS-II inhibitor, L-NIL during the induction phase of neuropathic pain (postoperative days 0~5) significantly reduced the CCI-induced development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Sciatic nerve injury increased the expression of PKC- and PKA-dependent pGluN1 as well as the mRNA and protein levels of P450c17 in the spinal cord at postoperative day 5, and these increases were suppressed by repeated administration of L-NIL. Co-administration of DHEAS together with L-NIL restored the development of neuropathic pain and pGluN1 that were originally inhibited by L-NIL administration alone. Collectively these results provide strong support for the hypothesis that activation of NOS-II increases the mRNA and protein levels of P450c17 in the spinal cord, ultimately leading to the development of central sensitization and neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Constriction , Cytochromes , Dehydroepiandrosterone , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate , Hyperalgesia , N-Methylaspartate , Neuralgia , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Phosphorylation , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Rodentia , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760353

ABSTRACT

Avian malaria is one of the most important general blood parasites of poultry in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium (P.) juxtanucleare causes avian malaria in wild and domestic fowl. This study aimed to identify and characterize the Plasmodium species infecting in Thai native fowl. Blood samples were collected for microscopic examination, followed by detection of the Plasmodium cox I gene by using PCR. Five of the 10 sampled fowl had the desired 588 base pair amplicons. Sequence analysis of the five amplicons indicated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were homologous to each other and were closely related (100% identity) to a P. juxtanucleare strain isolated in Japan (AB250415). Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree of the cox I gene showed that the P. juxtanucleare in this study were grouped together and clustered with the Japan strain. The presence of P. juxtanucleare described in this study is the first report of P. juxtanucleare in the Thai native fowl of Thailand.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Asians , Base Pairing , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Japan , Malaria, Avian , Parasites , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poultry , Sequence Analysis , Thailand , Trees
5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 107-113, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786397

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most common antipyretic analgesic worldwide. However, APAP overdose causes severe liver injury, especially centrilobular necrosis, in humans and experimental animals. At therapeutic dosage, APAP is mainly metabolized by sulfation and glucuronidation, and partly by cytochrome P450–mediated oxidation. However, APAP overdose results in production of excess reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), by cytochromes P450; NAPQI overwhelms the level of glutathione (GSH), which could otherwise detoxify it. NAPQI binds covalently to proteins, leading to cell death. A number of studies aimed at the prevention and treatment of APAP-induced toxicity are underway. Rats are more resistant than mice to APAP hepatotoxicity, and thus mouse models are mainly used. In the present study, we compared the toxic responses induced by APAP overdose in the liver of ICR mice obtained from three different sources and evaluated the usability of the Korl:ICR stock established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation in Korea. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice enhanced CYP2E1 protein expression and depleted hepatic GSH level 2 h after treatment accompanied with significantly increased level of hepatic malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Regardless of the source of the mice, hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, increased from 8 h and peaked at 24 h after APAP treatment. In summary, hepatotoxicity was induced after the onset of oxidative stress by overdose of APAP, and the response was the same over time among mice of different origins.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Cell Death , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Cytochromes , Glutathione , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Necrosis , Oxidative Stress , Rats
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763043

ABSTRACT

Human cytochrome P450 2C9 is a highly polymorphic enzyme that is required for drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we studied eleven P450 2C9 genetic variants—including three novel variants F69S, L310V, and Q324X—that were clinically identified in Korean patients. P450 2C9 variant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and their bicistronic membrane fractions were prepared The CO-binding spectra were obtained for nine enzyme variants, indicating P450 holoenzymes, but not for the M02 (L90P) variant. The M11 (Q324X) variant could not be expressed due to an early nonsense mutation. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to measure the catalytic activities of the P450 2C9 variants, using diclofenac as a substrate. Steady-state kinetic analysis revealed that the catalytic efficiency of all nine P450 2C9 variants was lower than that of the wild type P450 2C9 enzyme. The M05 (R150L) and M06 (P279T) variants showed high k(cat) values; however, their K(m) values were also high. As the M01 (F69S), M03 (R124Q), M04 (R125H), M08 (I359L), M09 (I359T), and M10 (A477T) variants exhibited higher K(m) and lower k(cat) values than that of the wild type enzyme, their catalytic efficiency decreased by approximately 50-fold compared to the wild type enzyme. Furthermore, the novel variant M07 (L310V) showed lower k(cat) and K(m) values than the wild type enzyme, which resulted in its decreased (80%) catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystal structure of P450 2C9 revealed the presence of mutations in the residues surrounding the substrate-binding cavity. Functional characterization of these genetic variants can help understand the pharmacogenetic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Codon, Nonsense , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Diclofenac , Escherichia coli , Holoenzymes , Humans , Membranes , Metabolism , Pharmacogenetics
7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 645-653, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760984

ABSTRACT

Depression leads the higher personal and socio-economical burden within psychiatric disorders. Despite the fact that over 40 antidepressants (ADs) are available, suboptimal response still poses a major challenge and is thought to be partially a result of genetic variation. Pharmacogenetics studies the effects of genetic variants on treatment outcomes with the aim of providing tailored treatments, thereby maximizing efficacy and tolerability. After two decades of pharmacogenetic research, variants in genes coding for the cytochromes involved in ADs metabolism (CYP2D6 and CYP2C19) are now considered biomarkers with sufficient scientific support for clinical application, despite the lack of conclusive cost/effectiveness evidence. The effect of variants in genes modulating ADs mechanisms of action (pharmacodynamics) is still controversial, because of the much higher complexity of ADs pharmacodynamics compared to ADs metabolism. Considerable progress has been made since the era of candidate gene studies: the genomic revolution has made possible to assess genetic variance on an unprecedented scale, throughout the whole genome, and to analyze the cumulative effect of different variants. The results have revealed key information on the biological mechanisms mediating ADs effect and identified hypothetical new pharmacological targets. They also paved the way for future availability of polygenic pharmacogenetic panels to predict treatment outcome, which are expected to explain much higher variance in ADs response compared to CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 only. As the demand and availability of AD pharmacogenetic testing is projected to increase, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of this evolving area to facilitate informed discussions with their patients.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Biomarkers , Clinical Coding , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 , Cytochromes , Depression , Genetic Variation , Genome , Humans , Metabolism , Negotiating , Pharmacogenetics , Precision Medicine , Treatment Outcome
8.
Biol. Res ; 51: 11, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer occupies the fourth highest morbidity rate of cancers worldwide. Clinical therapies of gastric cancer remain limited because of uncertainty of mechanisms and shortness of effective medicine. Thus, new drug candidates for gastric cancer treatment is urgently needed. RESULTS: In this study, CMPD1 as a wildly used MK2 phosphorylation inhibitor was employed to find its impact on gastric cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle using colony formation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Along with its anti-proliferation effect on gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 and SGC7901, CMPD1 also induced massive apoptosis and significant G2/M phase arrest in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner in MKN-45 cells respectively. Furthermore, Western blot confirmed that the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 was decreased while BAX, cytochrome c release and cleaved PARP were increased. In addition, oncogene c-Myc was downregulated in response to CMPD1 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that CMPD1 has anti-tumor effect on human gastric cancer cell line MKN- 45 possibly via downregulating oncogene c-Myc expression and CMPD1 could be applied as a potential candidate for treating gastric malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of anti-tumor effect of CMPD-1 on human gastric cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , SOX9 Transcription Factor/pharmacology , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Cytochromes/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry/methods
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713223

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Alkylation , Ants , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786739

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Alkylation , Ants , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The renal function of individuals is one of the reasons for the variations in therapeutic response to various drugs. Patients with renal impairment are often exposed to drug toxicity, even with drugs that are usually eliminated by hepatic metabolism. Previous study has reported an increased plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate and decreased plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxy (OH)-cholesterol in stable kidney transplant recipients, implicating indoxyl sulfate as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibiting factor. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of renal impairment severity-dependent accumulation of indoxyl sulfate on hepatic CYP3A activity using metabolic markers. METHODS: Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in this study; based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), they were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. The plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate was quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Urinary and plasma markers (6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol, 6β-OH-cortisone/cortisone, 4β-OH-cholesterol) for hepatic CYP3A activity were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total plasma concentration of cholesterol was measured using the enzymatic colorimetric assay to calculate the 4β-OH-cholesterol/cholesterol ratio. The correlation between variables was assessed using Pearson's correlation test. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between MDRD eGFR and indoxyl sulfate levels. The levels of urinary 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol and 6β-OH-cortisone/cortisone as well as plasma 4β-OH-cholesterol and 4β-OH-cholesterol/cholesterol were not correlated with MDRD eGFR and the plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate. CONCLUSION: Hepatic CYP3A activity may not be affected by renal impairment-induced accumulation of plasma indoxyl sulfate.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Indican , Kidney , Metabolism , Plasma , Spectrum Analysis , Transplant Recipients
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742293

ABSTRACT

Although widely studied, the natural diversity of the hard tick is not well known. In this study, we collected 194 sequences from 67 species, covering 7 genera of hard tick. The 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 region (586 bp) has been used to investigate intra- and inter-species variation and the phylogenetic tree of neighbor joining method has been used for assessment. As a result, by comparing the K2P-distance of intra- and interspecies, 30 samples (15.2%) shown that interspecies distance was larger than the minimum interspecfic distance. From the phylogenetic analysis, 86.8% (49) of the species were identified correctly at the genus level. On deeper analysis on these species suggested the possibility of presence cryptic species. Therefore, further work is required to delineate species boundaries and to develop a more complete understanding of hard tick diversity over larger scale.


Subject(s)
Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Electron Transport Complex IV , Ixodidae , Methods , Trees
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646589

ABSTRACT

Human breast milk stem cells (hBSCs) contain a population of cells with the ability to differentiate into various cell lineages for cell therapy applications. The current study examined the differentiation potential of hBSCs into hepatocytes- like cells. The cells were isolated from the breast milk and were treated with hepatogenic medium containing hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and dexamethasone for 7 days subsequently; Oncostatin M was added to the culture media. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were performed to detect the hepatogenic markers. The glycogen storage and the ability of the cells to absorb and release indocynanin green were also tested. The data showed that most of the differentiated cells formed cell aggregates after the 30th day, with more cells accumulated to form spheroids. RT-PCR revealed the expression of the hepatic nuclear factor, albumin, cytokeratin 18 and 19, cytochrome P2B6, glucose-6-phospahtase and claudin. The functional assays also showed glycogen storage and omission of indicynine green. Our study demonstrated hBSCs are novel population that can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells.


Subject(s)
Breast , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Lineage , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Culture Media , Cytochromes , Dexamethasone , Glycogen , Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Hepatocytes , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratin-18 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Milk, Human , Oncostatin M , Stem Cells
14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 193-200, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cytochrome C oxidase (CcO) in preventing ischemia reperfusion-induced cardiac injury through gaseous signaling molecule pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used CcO inhibitor, potassium cyanide (KCN) to mimic the pre-treatment of gaseous signaling molecules in a global ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury model in rats. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by measuring mitochondrial H2O2 and mitochondrial complex activity. RESULTS: KCN pre-treatment led to decreased infarction area after IR injury and improved cardiac function. KCN pre-treated group challenged with IR injury was associated with reduced ROS production through inhibition of activity and not downregulation of CcO expression. In addition, KCN pre-treatment was associated with enhanced expression and activity of mitochondrial antioxidase, suggesting the role of CcO in regulating IR injury through oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: KCN pre-treatment reduced the severity of IR injury. The potential mechanism could be increased endogenous anti-oxidase activity and consequently, the enhanced clearance of ROS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Down-Regulation , Electron Transport Complex IV , Infarction , Ischemia , Mitochondria , Myocardial Infarction , Oxidative Stress , Potassium Cyanide , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reperfusion Injury
15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 356-364, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke based on cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, blind genotype trial. First time non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke patients were enrolled and screened within 30 days. Participants were randomized to receive either triflusal or clopidogrel for secondary stroke prevention. The primary outcome was the time from randomization to first recurrent ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: The required sample size was 1,080 but only 784 (73%) participants were recruited. In patients with a poor CYP2C19 genotype for clopidogrel metabolism (n=484), the risk of recurrent stroke among those who received triflusal treatment was 2.9% per year, which was not significantly different from those who received clopidogrel treatment (2.2% per year; hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.53). In the clopidogrel treatment group (n=393), 38% had good genotypes and 62% poor genotypes for clopidogrel metabolism. The risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a good CYP2C19 genotype was 1.6% per year, which was not significantly different from those with a poor genotype (2.2% per year; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.26–1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there were no significant differences between the treatment groups in the rates of stroke recurrence, major vascular events, or coronary revascularization, the efficacy of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of stroke according to CYP2C19 genotype status remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Genotype , Humans , Metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Recurrence , Sample Size , Secondary Prevention , Stroke
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 504-511, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Concerns that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) diminish the efficacy of clopidogrel could hamper the appropriate prescription of PPIs. We evaluated the influence of pantoprazole on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel compared with ranitidine, which is regarded as safe, after stratification of the population according to the presence of a cytochrome (CYP) 2C19 polymorphism in Korea. METHODS: Forty patients who underwent dual antiplatelet therapy were randomized to receive pantoprazole (n=20) or ranitidine (n=20). Platelet aggregation was evaluated by impedance aggregometry at baseline (D0) and 8 days after acid-lowering treatments (D9). CYP2C19 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: After co-treatment, the percentage of clopidogrel low-response was 11.1% (2/18) in the pantoprazole group and 10.5% (2/19) in the ranitidine group (p=0.954). The impedance values with adenosine diphosphate stimulus after acid-lowering treatments did not significantly differ between the two groups. In a multiple regression analysis, only ST-elevation myocardial infarction was marginally associated with a reduced antiplatelet effect (odds ratio, 12.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 173.78). However, pantoprazole use did not affect the antiplatelet effect after correction for the CYP2C19 polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that pantoprazole does not increase platelet aggregation in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02733640).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochromes , Drug Interactions , Electric Impedance , Humans , Korea , Myocardial Infarction , Platelet Aggregation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Prescriptions , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Ranitidine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160701

ABSTRACT

The incidence of polypharmacy-which can result in drug-drug interactions-has increased in recent years. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are important polypharmacy modulators. In this study, the effects of bosentan and rifampin on the expression and activities of organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 2C9 and CYP3A4 were investigated in vitro. HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes overexpressing the target genes were treated with bosentan and various concentrations of rifampin, which decreased the uptake activities of OATP transporters in a dose-dependent manner. In primary human hepatocytes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 gene expression and activities decreased upon treatment with 20 μM bosentan+200 μM rifampin. Rifampin also reduced gene expression of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporter, and inhibited bosentan influx in human hepatocytes at increasing concentrations. These results confirm rifampin- and bosentan-induced interactions between OATP transporters and CYP450.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , HEK293 Cells , Hepatocytes , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Organic Anion Transporters , Polypharmacy , Rifampin
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 473-482, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843291

ABSTRACT

AbstractIn India the distribution of genus Triplophysa has been reported only in the upper drainage of the Indus River in Jammu and Kashmir and Lahul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh. There is no study on the taxonomic characterization of this genus from Kashmir Himalaya. Therefore the present study was aimed to characterize two important fish species Triplophysa marmorata and T. kashmirensis from Kashmir valley, by using morphometric and molecular tools. It is difficult to discriminate these two species due to the poor quality of original descriptions, and the lack of good reviews. Keeping this in view, a morphometric and molecular study was conducted. Morphometric data were analyzed by using univariate analysis of variance (ANOvA) and multivariate analyses (Principal component analysis) and mtDNA marker Cytochrome oxidase 1 was used for molecular support. Altogether, 22 morphometric characters were used and 15 characters were found significantly variable (P < 0.05). First two components of principal component analysis (PCA) i.e. PC1 and PC2 grouped these two species into separate clusters. The Cytochrome oxidase 1 analysis showed that the mean intraspecific nucleotide divergence (K2P) was 0.001 and interspecific nucleotide divergence was 0.007. Despite having low K2P divergence, these two species got separated into two distinct clades in both Neighbour joining (NJ) and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) tree building methods. But the pattern of clade formation showed that these species were recently radiated from each other and may have the same ancestor. Furthermore, these two species were found closer to Nemacheilidae than to Balitoridae family in the phylogenetic analysis. The molecular divergence between these species was also supported by variance in morphometric data. This work may build the base for the revision of taxonomic identity of these two important fishes of genus Triplophysa. The present investigation formulated that, based on morphological and mtDNA COI sequences analysis, these two taxonomic Triplophysa species should be considered as valid. The results may further assist to enhance the knowledge of the ichthyologists in understanding the ichthyofauna of Kashmir valley and will help them in planning strategies for conservation and management of these less studied small indigenous species along their natural range of distribution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 473-482. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenEn la India, la distribución del género Triplophysa se ha reportado solo en la parte superior del río Indus en Jammu, Kashmir, Lahul y Spiti en el área de Himachal Pradesh. No existen publicaciones acerca de la caracterización taxonómica de este género en Kashmir Himalaya. Por lo tanto, en este estudio se caracterizaron dos especies del valle de Kashmir: Triplophysa marmorata y T. kashmirensi, mediante el uso de herramientas morfométricas y moleculares. Es difícil diferenciar entre estas dos species debido a las vagas descripciones originales y a la falta de buenas revisiones. Debido a esto se realizó un estudio morfométrico y molecular. Los datos morfométricos se analizaron mediante un ANOvA y un análisis de componentes principales y el marcador del gen de la citocromo oxidasa 1 se usó para apoyo molecular. En general, se usaron 22 caracteres morfométricos y 15 fueron significativos (P < 0.05). Los dos primeros componentes del análisis de components principales (PCA), PC1 y PC2, agruparon estas dos especies en clusters separados. El análisis con citocromo oxidasa 1 mostró que el promedio de divergencia del nucleótido intraespecífico (K2P) fue de 0.001 y la divergencia del nucleótido intraespecífico fue de 0.007. A pesar de la baja divergencia de K2P, estas dos species se separan en dos clados diferentes tanto por el método NJ como por el método UPGMA. Sin embargo, el patrón de formación del clado mostró que estas species radiaron recientemente una de la otra y que podrían tener un ancestro en común. Además, en el análisis filogenético estas dos especies se encontraron más cerca de la familia Nemacheilidae que de Balitoridae. La divergencia molecular entre estas dos especies también fue respaldada por la varianza en los datos morfométricos. Este estudio puede establecer la base para una revisión taxonómica de estos dos importantes peces del género Triplophysa. Esta investigación postuló que, basada en análisis morfológicos y de secuencia de ADNm COI, estas dos especies taxonómicas de Triplophysa deben considerarse válidas. Los resultados pueden contribuir a mejorar el conocimiento de los ictiólogos en la comprensión de la ictiofauna del valle de Kashmir y les ayudará a planear estrategias de conservación y manejo de estas dos pequeñas especies indígenas y poco estudiadas en su rango de distribución natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cypriniformes/anatomy & histology , Cypriniformes/genetics , Phylogeny , Species Specificity , Cypriniformes/classification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Evolution, Molecular , Cytochromes/genetics , Principal Component Analysis , India
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Midazolam is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. Inhibition or induction of CYP3A can affect the pharmacological activity of midazolam. The aims of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model and evaluate the effect of CYP3A-mediated interactions among ketoconazole, rifampicin, and midazolam. METHODS: Three-treatment, three-period, crossover study was conducted in 24 healthy male subjects. Each subject received 1 mg midazolam (control), 1 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 400 mg ketoconazole once daily for 4 days (CYP3A inhibition phase), and 2.5 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 600 mg rifampicin once daily for 10 days (CYP3A induction phase). The population PK analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® 7.2) based on plasma midazolam concentrations. The PK model was developed, and the first-order conditional estimation with interaction was applied for the model run. A three-compartment model with first-order elimination described the PK. The influence of ketoconazole and rifampicin, CYP3A5 genotype, and demographic characteristics on PK parameters was examined. Goodness-of-fit (GOF) diagnostics and visual predictive checks, as well as bootstrap were used to evaluate the adequacy of the model fit and predictions. RESULTS: Twenty-four subjects contributed to 900 midazolam concentrations. The final parameter estimates (% relative standard error, RSE) were as follows; clearance (CL), 31.8 L/h (6.0%); inter-compartmental clearance (Q) 2, 36.4 L/h (9.7%); Q3, 7.37 L/h (12.0%), volume of distribution (V) 1, 70.7 L (3.6%), V2, 32.9 L (8.8%); and V3, 44.4 L (6.7%). The midazolam CL decreased and increased to 32.5 and 199.9% in the inhibition and induction phases, respectively, compared to that in control phase. CONCLUSION: A PK model for midazolam co-treatment with ketoconazole and rifampicin was developed using data of healthy volunteers, and the subject's CYP3A status influenced the midazolam PK parameters. Therefore, a population PK model with enzyme-mediated drug interactions may be useful for quantitatively predicting PK alterations.


Subject(s)
Cross-Over Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Drug Interactions , Genotype , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Ketoconazole , Male , Midazolam , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Rifampin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, binds to a wide variety of synthetic and naturally occurring compounds. AhR is involved in the regulation of inflammatory response during acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We investigated whether nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCOA7) could regulate transcriptional levels of AhR target genes and inflammatory cytokines in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated human bronchial epithelial cells. This study was based on our previous study that NCOA7 was differentially expressed between normal and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lung tissues. METHODS: BEAS-2B and A549 cells grown under serum-free conditions were treated with or without TCDD (0.15 nM and 6.5 nM) for 24 hours after transfection of pCMV-NCOA7 isoform 4. Expression levels of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), IL-6, and IL-8 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The transcriptional activities of CYP1A1 and inflammatory cytokines were strongly induced by TCDD treatment in both BEAS-2B and A549 cell lines. The NCOA7 isoform 4 oppositely regulated the transcriptional activities of CYP1A1 and inflammatory cytokines between BEAS-2B and A549 cell lines. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NCOA7 could act as a regulator in the TCDD-AhR signaling pathway with dual roles in normal and abnormal physiological conditions.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Cytochromes , Cytokines , Dioxins , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins , Transcription Factors , Transfection
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