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Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957


Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)

Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)

Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 245-252, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448343


Asbtract Introduction This study aimed to determine whether cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) antigen expression evaluated using multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) could predict the genotype of CRLF2 and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) status for application in the diagnosis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Methods A total of 321 BCP-ALL bone marrow samples were collected, 291 at diagnosis and 13 at first relapse, while 17 samples were excluded due to low cellular viability. The CRLF2 antigen expression was evaluated using flow cytometry (percentage of positivity and median fluorescence intensity [MFI]). The CRLF2 transcript levels were assessed via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green. The CRLF2 rearrangements (CRLF2-r) were identified using the CRLF2 break-apart probe via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify the JAK2 exon 16 mutations. Results We observed that 60 of the 291 cases (20.6%) presented CRLF2 antigen positivity, whereas the CRLF2 transcript overexpression was found in 19 of 113 cases (16.8%). The JAK2 mutation was found in four out of 116 cases (3.4%), all of which had CRLF2 ≥10% of positive cells and intermediate or high MFI (p < 0.0001). In addition, in the 13 cases with the CRLF2-r, a positive correlation was found with the CRLF2 antigen intermediate (61.5%) MFI (p= 0.017). Finally, the CRLF2-positive antigen was identified in the BCP-ALL subclones. Conclusion The identification of the CRLF2 antigen using the MFC, based on the percentage of positivity and MFI values, is a useful tool for predicting JAK2 mutations and CRLF2-r.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Immunophenotyping , Cytogenetic Analysis , Flow Cytometry
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468964


Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.

As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.

Male , Female , Humans , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/blood
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(6): 419-424, dic. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423744


The coexistence of double aneuploidy of Down and Turner syndromes is rare; most cases have been due to double mitotic errors. The objective of the study was to report a case with monosomy of the X chromosome and trisomy of chromosome 21, in mosaic variety, highlighting the phenotypic effect that the presence of different chromosomal abnormalities can produce and compare with those reported in the literature. A 10-year-old Ecuadorian female, born to a multipregnant mother with 46 years at conception, is seen in consultation with a predominant clinical phenotype of Down syndrome, associated with menarche, presence of pubic and axillary villu, where a karyotype is verified 45 X[7]/47XX+ 21 [3]/46, X, der (X)(: p11.1-> q11.1)[1]/46,XX [1]. The present case is a double Turner-Down aneuploidy, with predominantly X monosomy cell line, who shows important mental retardation and some signs of puberal development not usually in Turner syndrome. These features highlight the clinical importance of doing a karyotype in mental retardation cases and searching low mosaics of another aneuploidies in atypical cases. Its complex chromosomal formula and support with molecular cytogenetics allowed diagnostic confirmation and genetic counseling.

La coexistencia de doble aneuploidía de los síndromes de Down y Turner es rara; la mayoría de los casos se han debido a dobles errores mitóticos. Reportar un caso con trisomía del cromosoma 21 y monosomía del cromosoma en X, en variedad mosaico, que curiosamente presenta un despertar puberal precoz y comparar con los reportados en la literatura. Paciente ecuatoriana de sexo femenino, de 10 años de edad, nacida de madre multigesta con 46 años a la concepción, que es vista en consulta con fenotipo clínico predominante de Síndrome Down, asociado a menarquia y telarquia, donde se constata un cariotipo. El presente caso es el primero informado de mosaicismo de doble aneuploidía de Turner-Down asociado con un despertar puberal precoz. Su fórmula cromosómica compleja y el apoyo con la citogenética molecular permitió la confirmación diagnostica y la asesoría genética.

Humans , Female , Child , Turner Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Turner Syndrome/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Down Syndrome/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Aneuploidy , Mosaicism
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(4): 285-290, ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407855


Resumen Introducción: El Síndrome de Turner (ST) es una alteración cromosómica sexual causada por la ausencia parcial o completa del cromosoma X, además de mosaicismos y otras alteraciones estructurales del cromosoma X o Y; está presente en 1 de 2500 nacidas vivas. Objetivo: Describir las variantes citogenéticas de pacientes con síndrome de Turner y evaluar su asociación con el fenotipo de presentación y la edad del diagnóstico. Método: Estudio retrospectivo de corte transversal de una serie de 82 casos de síndrome de Turner. Los cariotipos fueron realizados utilizando el medio RPMI-1640; las preparaciones de cromosomas se obtuvieron utilizando técnicas estándar y se analizaron mediante bandas GTG con una resolución de 400-450 bandas, donde se contó con 20-50 metafases para reducir la probabilidad de no detección de mosaicismo. Resultados: 45 (55.6%) fueron diagnosticadas, con monosomía clásica del cromosoma X, mientras 29 (35,8%) mostraron anomalías estructurales del cromosoma X y 7 (8,6%) se asociaron a mosaicos numéricos del cromosoma X. Solo 21 (26%) pacientes fueron diagnosticadas por debajo de los 12 años, mientras el resto 60 (74%) se detectaron entre la adolescencia y la adultez. La baja estatura fue una característica universal en todos los grupos de estudio. Conclusiones: Las fórmulas cromosómicas en el síndrome de Turner pueden ser muy variadas y tener diversas implicaciones en el fenotipo; se destaca la baja talla como un criterio clínico relevante en la sospecha clínica.

Abstract Introduction: Turner Syndrome (TS) is a sexual chromosomal alteration caused by the partial or complete absence of the X chromosome, in addition to mosaicisms and other structural alterations of the X or Y chromosome; It is present in 1 in 2,500 live births. Objective: To describe the cytogenetic variants of Turner syndrome patients and to evaluate their association with the phenotype at presentation and age at diagnosis. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study of a series of 82 cases of Turner syndrome. Karyotypes were performed using RPMI-1640 medium; Chromosome preparations were obtained using standard techniques and analyzed by GTG banding with a resolution of 400-450 bands where 20-50 metaphases were counted to reduce the probability of missing mosaicism. Results: 45 (55.6%) were diagnosed with classic monosomy of the X chromosome, while 29 (35.8%) showed structural abnormalities of the X chromosome and 7 (8.6%) were associated with numerical mosaics of the X chromosome. Only 21 (26%) patients were diagnosed under 12 years of age, while the rest 60 (74%) were detected between adolescence and adulthood. Short stature was a universal characteristic in all study groups. Conclusions: The chromosomal formulas in Turner syndrome can be variable and have different implications in the phenotype; short stature stands out as a relevant clinical criterion in clinical suspicion.

Humans , Female , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Phenotype , Turner Syndrome/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Age of Onset , Cytogenetic Analysis , Chromosomes, Human, X , Ecuador , Genotype , Karyotyping , Monosomy
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1661, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408445


Introducción: La leucemia se define como un proceso clonal de células hematopoyéticas, que se origina cuando las células sanguíneas que se producen en la médula ósea, cambian y se multiplican sin control. Esta se caracteriza por su heterogeneidad genética y se explica a través de mecanismos causados por alteraciones cromosómicas utilizados en la práctica clínica diaria como biomarcadores útiles para el diagnóstico, el pronóstico o la predicción de respuesta al tratamiento. Objetivo: Describir las técnicas de citogenética convencional y molecular para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las leucemias. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en inglés y español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google Académico, de artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años. Se hizo un análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Análisis y síntesis de la información: En el transcurso de los años la citogenética ha proporcionado información crucial para el diagnóstico y el pronóstico de las neoplasias hematológicas. Tanto las técnicas de citogenética convencional y molecular, como la hibridación in situ fluorescente, la hibridación in situ fluorescente multicolor, el cariotipo espectral, la hibridación genómica comparada y los microarreglos, participan en el reconocimiento de alteraciones cromosómicas y de genes, así como de interacciones involucradas en el proceso de oncogénesis. Conclusiones: Las técnicas de citogenética contribuyen al diagnóstico, a la estratificación pronóstica y a la aplicación del tratamiento según el tipo o subtipo de leucemia(AU)

Introduction: Leukemia is defined as a clonal process of hematopoietic cells, which occurs when blood cells that are produced in the bone marrow change and multiply uncontrollably. This is characterized by its genetic heterogeneity and is explained through mechanisms caused by chromosomal alterations that are used in daily clinical practice as useful biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or prediction of response to treatment. Objective: To describe the conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques used for the diagnosis and monitoring of leukemias. Methods: A review of the literature in English and in Spanish was carried out, in the PubMed website and using the search engine Google, for articles published in the last five years. We performed analysis and summary of the reviewed bibliography. Analysis and synthesis of information: Cytogenetics over the years has provided crucial information for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematologic malignancies. Both conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization, multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization, spectral karyotype, comparative genomic hybridization and microarrays, participate in the recognition of chromosomal and gene alterations, as well as interactions involved in the oncogenesis process. Conclusions: These cytogenetic techniques contribute to the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and application of treatment according to the type or subtype of leukemia(AU)

Humans , Biomarkers , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , In Situ Hybridization , Genetic Heterogeneity , Hematologic Neoplasms , Cytogenetic Analysis , Carcinogenesis , Aftercare
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386950


Resumen Introducción: las radiaciones ionizantes (RI) son capaces de perjudicar el ADN; para evaluar este fenómeno es posible utilizar la formación de micronúcleos como biomarcador de efecto temprano del daño radioinducido. El ensayo de micronúcleos con bloqueo de la citocinesis (MNBC) es una técnica citogenética que permite demostrar el impacto de agentes genotóxicos. Propósito: en el presente trabajo se describieron mecanismos moleculares involucrados en la radioinducción de micronúcleos, la técnica del MNBC, los criterios de análisis, sus aplicaciones dentro de la investigación biológica y su extensión a la clínica, con énfasis en su empleo como biomarcador del daño genético en grupos sobreexpuestos a RI. Argumentos para la discusión: el MNBC se considera un método confiable, simple y rápido y existe evidencia de su aplicabilidad para el estudio de los efectos biológicos en casos de riesgo ocupacional y en accidentes radiológicos aislados o a gran escala. Conclusiones: el MNBC es una herramienta valiosa que posibilita estimar las consecuencias por dosis bajas de RI en poblaciones involucradas y, a la vez, orientar la toma de decisiones en cuanto a su prevención o atenuación . De igual forma, puede ser utilizado en análisis del campo de la radiobiología, a fin de detallar las incidencias de las radiaciones ionizantes sobre el ADN.

Abstract Introduction. Ionizing radiation (IR) is capable of causing DNA damage. For the evaluation of this phenomenon it is possible to use chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers. The Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus assay (CBMN) is a cytogenetic technique that allows to demonstrate the effect of genotoxic agents.Proposition:in the present review, we will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in micronucleus radioinduction, the micronucleus technique and criteria for analysis, its applications within biological research and its extension in clinical research, with emphasis on its application as a biomarker of radioinduced genetic damage. Arguments for discussion: the CBMN is considered a reliable, simple and fast technique and there is evidence of its applicability in the evaluation of biological effects in occupationally exposed personnel and in isolated or large-scale radiological accidents. Conclusions: the CBMN a valuable tool in estimating radiological risk in populations exposed to low doses of IR, allowing to guide decision-making regarding prevention or mitigation of exposure to IR in populations involved. Similarly, the cbmn can be used in research in the field of radiobiology, as a means to describe the effects of ionizing radiation on DNA.

Humans , Radiation, Ionizing , DNA , Cytogenetic Analysis
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(2): 104-110, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388716


INTRODUCCIÓN: La infertilidad es una enfermedad multicausal y el componente genético representa uno de sus principales eventos. Si bien la distribución de la infertilidad puede variar entre poblaciones, las parejas de los países con bajos y medianos ingresos pueden verse más afectadas por la infertilidad, con una proporción de alteraciones citogenéticas aún no esclarecidas. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia de alteraciones citogenéticas y su correlación con el número de abortos en pacientes peruanas con diagnóstico de infertilidad. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 400 pacientes de 18 a 60 años, de ambos sexos, con diagnóstico de infertilidad. Se registraron las características clínicas disponibles durante el examen genético y el análisis citogenético convencional fue con bandeo GTG en muestras de sangre periférica. El análisis de correlación se realizó con la prueba de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Del total, 389 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, y de estos, 169 (43,44%) tuvieron reportes de abortos (promedio: 2,25, rango: 1-7). Hallamos una correlación significativa ente el número de abortos y las alteraciones citogenéticas (p < 0,000). Reportamos 25/289 (6,43%) alteraciones cromosómicas, de las que 11/25 (44%) fueron heterocromatinas constitutivas y 6/25 (24%) fueron translocaciones reciprocas. Las alteraciones citogenéticas más frecuentes fueron 16qh+ y 9qh+ (ambas con un 16%), y afectaron a 17 (68%) varones. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una moderada frecuencia de alteraciones citogenéticas en pacientes peruanos con diagnóstico de infertilidad, y las alteraciones más frecuentes fueron heterocromatina constitutivas. Además, evidenciamos una correlación significativa ente el número de abortos y las alteraciones citogenéticas.

INTRODUCTION: Infertility is a multicausal disease and the genetic component represents one of its main events. Although the distribution of infertility may vary between populations, couples in low-and-middle-income countries may be more affected by infertility with a proportion of cytogenetic alterations still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of cytogenetic alterations and their correlation with the number of abortions in Peruvian patients with a diagnosis of infertility. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 400 patients between 18 and 60 years-old, of both genders with a diagnosis of infertility. The clinical characteristics available during the genetic examination were recorded and the conventional cytogenetic analysis was with GTG banding in peripheral blood samples. The correlation analysis was performed with the Spearman test. RESULTS: Of the total 389 patients who met the inclusion criteria, of these 169 (43.44%) patients had reports of abortions (mean: 2.25, range: 1-7). We found a significant correlation between the number of abortions and cytogenetic alterations (p < 0.000). We report 25/289 (6.43%) chromosomal alterations, where 11/25 (44%) were constitutive heterochromatin, and 6/25 (24%) were reciprocal translocations. The most frequent cytogenetic alterations were 16qh + and 9qh + (both 16%), and affected 17 (68%) men. CONCLUSIONS: There is a moderate frequency of cytogenetic alterations in Peruvian patients diagnosed with infertility, where the most frequent alterations were constitutive heterochromatin. Furthermore, we evidenced a significant correlation between the number of abortions and cytogenetic alterations.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Infertility/diagnosis , Infertility/genetics , Peru , Heterochromatin , Abortion, Spontaneous/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Abortion
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(2): 97-103, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388725


OBJETIVO: Analizar la implementación de la prueba rápida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa y fluorescente (QF-PCR) para la detección de aneuploidías. MÉTODO: Se incluyeron todas las pacientes que se realizaron una QF-PCR entre septiembre de 2017 y mayo de 2021. En todos los casos se consignaron los datos clínicos, ecográficos y de laboratorio, y se efectuó un seguimiento de quienes se realizaron además cariograma y su resultado fue normal. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 213 procedimientos invasivos genéticos prenatales, siendo 72 para detección rápida de aneuploidía mediante QF-PCR. El promedio de edad de las madres con QF-PCR fue de 37 años y 48 pacientes (67%) tenían menos de 15 semanas de gestación. La QF-PCR demostró aneuploidía de los cromosomas 18, 13 y de triploidía en 21 de 49 casos informados como anormales. De los 22 casos sin sugerencia de alteración, 17 accedieron a proseguir el estudio con cariotipo, que resultó anormal en 6 casos. Hubo 4 casos de discordancia entre la QF-PCR y el cariotipo, que pudo afectar el manejo clínico de la gestación. En 25/72 casos (34,7%) la aneuploidía era letal. CONCLUSIONES: Considerando la necesidad de tener un diagnóstico rápido, pero también completo y que permita un consejo genético apropiado, debería integrarse la QF-PCR a un protocolo de diagnóstico que considere variables clínicas y ecográficas.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of QF-PCR test for the detection of aneuploidies. METHOD: All patients who underwent QF-PCR from September 2017 to May 2021, were included. Clinical, ultrasound and laboratory data were recorded in all cases, as well as follow-up of the cases, including those performing karyotype and the result was normal. RESULTS: 213 prenatal genetic invasive procedures were performed in the study period, 72 for rapid detection of aneuploidy by QF-PCR. 48 patients (67%) were less than 15 weeks at the time of ultrasound diagnosis. The QF-PCR test demonstrated aneuploidy of chromosomes 18, 13, and triploidy in 21/49 cases reported as abnormal. Of the cases without suggestion of alteration (22), 17 agreed to continue the study with a karyotype, which was abnormal in 6 cases. There were 4 cases of discrepancy between QF-PCR and karyotype, which could affect the clinical management of pregnancy. 25/72 cases (34. 7%) corresponded to lethal aneuploidy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results justify the use of QF-PCR. Considering the need to have a rapid diagnosis, but also complete and that allows appropriate genetic counseling, it is that QF-PCR should be integrated into a protocol that considers clinical and ultrasound variables.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Counseling
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 728-732, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350349


Abstract Introduction: Turner syndrome is a frequent genetic disorder that affects female individuals and covers a large phenotypic variability. Scientific literature suggests an association between hearing loss and Turner syndrome, but it remains a controversial topic. Objective: To associate the cytogenetic alteration with the audiometric profile of individuals with Turner syndrome. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a hospital-based, convenience sample. Patients diagnosed with Turner syndrome were included and those with difficulty understanding the audiometry and/or other associated syndromes were excluded. The participants were studied with pure tone audiometry. Results: Of the 65 patients included, 36.9% had X chromosome monosomy and 63.0% had other alterations. Regarding the audiometry, 64.6% had normal thresholds and 35.3% had hearing impairment. Of these, 30.4% had hybrid hearing loss, 26.0% alteration at 6 and/or 8 kHz, 17.3% had conductive hearing loss, 13.0% sensorineural loss and 13.0% had mixed hearing loss. We observed that the mild degree was the most frequent one. There was no statistically significant association between the cytogenetic type of Turner syndrome and the presence or absence of hearing loss, or with the type and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion: The cytogenetic alteration in Turner syndrome was not associated with the audiometric profile, which showed variability regarding the type and degree of hearing loss.

Resumo Introdução: A síndrome de Turner é uma alteração frequente e genética que acomete indivíduos do sexo feminino e abrange grande variabilidade fenotípica. A literatura científica sugere uma relação entre perda auditiva e síndrome de Turner, porém ainda é um tema controverso. Objetivo: Relacionar a alteração citogenética com o perfil audiométrico de indivíduos com síndrome de Turner. Método: Estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência, de base hospitalar. Foram incluídas pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome de Turner e excluídas as com dificuldade para compreender a audiometria e/ou outras síndromes associadas. As participantes foram submetidas à audiometria tonal. Resultados: Das 65 pacientes incluídas, 36,9% apresentaram monossomia do cromossomo X e 63,0%, outras alterações. Com relação à audiometria, 64,6% apresentaram limiares dentro da normalidade e 35,3% alteração auditiva. Dessas, 30,4% apresentaram perda auditiva híbrida, 26,0% alteração em 6 e/ou 8 KHz; 17,3% perda auditiva condutiva, 13,0% perda neurossensorial e 13,0% perda auditiva mista. Observamos que o grau leve foi o mais frequente. Não foi observada associação estatiscamente significativa entre o tipo citogenético da síndrome de Turner e a presença ou não perda auditiva, ou com o tipo e grau de perda auditiva. Conclusão: A alteração citogenética na síndrome de Turner não teve associação com o perfil audiométrico, o qual apresentou variabilidade quanto ao tipo e grau da perda auditiva.

Humans , Female , Turner Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Hearing Loss/genetics , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 302-313, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339269


Resumen | Introducción. La leucemia mieloide aguda es una neoplasia heterogénea caracterizada por la proliferación de células mieloides inmaduras. El análisis citogenético ha revelado la presencia de aberraciones cromosómicas de importancia en el pronóstico del paciente. Objetivo. Determinar los grupos de riesgo citogenético de pacientes pediátricos con leucemia mieloide aguda a partir de la supervivencia global. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se incluyeron los registros clínicos de los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda de novo admitidos en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas entre el 2001 y el 2011 y sometidos a análisis citogenético de médula ósea. Los grupos de riesgo citogenético se establecieron según los criterios del Medical Research Council. Las curvas de supervivencia global se elaboraron con el método de Kaplan-Meier y se compararon mediante la prueba de Mantel-Cox y una regresión de Cox, utilizando el programa R, versión 3.3.2. Resultados. Se incluyeron 130 pacientes, 68 varones (52,3%) y 62 mujeres (47,7%), mayoritariamente del subtipo M2 (33%). La edad promedio fue de 7,7 (rango de 0 a 15 años). Se observaron aberraciones cromosómicas en el 60,8% y la más frecuente fue la traslocación t(8;21). Según el análisis de supervivencia global, se observaron dos grupos de riesgo citogenético: favorable y desfavorable. Conclusión. Se determinaron dos grupos de riesgo citogenético: alto (o desfavorable) y estándar (o favorable).

Abstract | Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by immature myeloid cell proliferation. Cytogenetic analysis has revealed the presence of chromosomal aberrations important to patient prognosis. Objective: To determine cytogenetic risk groups of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia according to overall survival. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, the clinical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with de novo acute myeloid leukemia admitted to the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas between 2001 and 2011 with cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow were included. Cytogenetic risk groups were established according to the criteria of the Medical Research Council. Overall survival curves were generated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the Mantel-Cox test and Cox regression with the software R, version 3.3.2. Results: A total of 130 patients were included, 68 males (52.3%) and 62 females (47.7%), most of them with subtype M2 (33%). The average age was 7.7 years (range: 0-15 years). Chromosomal aberrations were observed in 60.8% of the patients, the most frequent of which was the translocation t(8;21). According to the overall survival analysis, two cytogenetic risk groups were established: favorable and unfavorable. Conclusion: Two groups of cytogenetic risk were determined: high (or unfavorable) and standard (favorable).

Pediatrics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Survival , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Karyotype
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(1): 4-11, jan.-mar. 2021. quad, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247971


Os sinais clínicos da síndrome de Klinefelter foram observados pela primeira vez em 1942, mas sua etiologia só foi definida em 1959. Trata-se de uma condição genética na qual pelo menos um cromossomo X extra é adicionado ao cariótipo masculino normal (46,XY) e acomete cerca de 1 em cada 500 homens. É caracterizada por variabilidade fenotípica que leva a atraso ou ausência de diagnóstico, com uma estimativa de 50% a 75% de homens com Síndrome de Klinefelter nunca obterem o diagnóstico correto. Apesar de o cariótipo clássico (47,XXY) ser encontrado em 80%-90% dos pacientes e o mosaicismo (46,XY/47,XXY) nos 10% restantes, outros cariótipos podem ser encontrados menos frequentemente. Nesse sentido, este estudo tem por finalidade descrever os possíveis cariótipos identificados nos pacientes com Síndrome de Klinefelter. Os resultados mostram que a Síndrome de Klinefelter é usualmente diagnosticada na vida adulta e caracterizada por uma heterogeneidade citogenética quanto aos cariótipos possíveis apresentados pelos pacientes afetados. A condição foi diagnosticada precocemente quando associada à anomalia dos cromossomos autossomos, excesso de cromossomos X extra ou quando foi realizado diagnóstico pré-natal por idade materna avançada. É imprescindível que os profissionais de saúde, em especial os médicos, se familiarizem mais com essa condição, pois o diagnóstico correto e precoce permite a intervenção e tratamento adequados visando melhorar a qualidade de vida desses indivíduos.

Trisomy , Cytogenetic Analysis , Karyotype , Infertility , Klinefelter Syndrome
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5945, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286283


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the results obtained by the classic and molecular methodology in the analysis of products of conception, the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Methods: Retrospective non-randomized analysis of results obtained from product of conception samples submitted to genetic evaluation, from 2012 to 2017. The evaluations were performed using cytogenetics and/or chromosomal microarray analysis or arrays. Results: Forty samples were analyzed using classic cytogenetics, of which 10% showed no cell growth, 50% had normal results and 40% had abnormalities. Of the 41 cases sent for array analysis it was not possible to obtain results in 7.3%, 39.5% were normal and 60.5% had abnormalities. There was no statistical difference among the results (p=0.89). Most abnormal results were seen till 9 weeks' gestation. The later abnormal miscarriage was seen at 28 weeks' gestation, with karyotype 46,XX,del(15)(q26.2-qter). The results are corroborated by the international literature. Conclusion: Classic cytogenetics and array techniques showed comparable results on the type of alteration observed. Array analysis is preferable to cell culture in delayed abortions, while cytogenetics is more able to show polyploidies. Both have the same growth failure rates when product of conception tissue is not properly collected.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados obtidos pela metodologia clássica e molecular na análise de produtos de concepção, além das vantagens e desvantagens de cada método. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva não randomizada dos resultados obtidos a partir de amostras de produto de concepção submetidas à avaliação genética, de 2012 a 2017. As análises foram realizadas por citogenética clássica e/ou análise cromossômica de microarray ou arrays. Resultados: Quarenta amostras foram analisadas por citogenética, das quais 10% não apresentaram crescimento celular, 50% apresentaram resultados normais, e 40% apresentaram anormalidades. Dos 41 casos encaminhados para análise por array, não foi possível obter resultados em 7,3%, 39,5% eram normais, e 60,5% apresentavam alterações. Não houve diferença estatística entre os resultados (p=0,89). A maioria dos resultados anormais foi observada até a nona semana de gestação. Uma perda fetal mais tardia foi observada na 28ª semana de gestação, com cariótipo 46,XX,del(15)(q26.2-qter). Os números observados corroboraram a literatura mundial. Conclusão: As técnicas de citogenética clássica e análise por array mostraram resultados comparáveis no tipo de alteração observada. O array é preferível à cultura de células em abortos tardios, enquanto a citogenética é mais capaz de mostrar poliploidias. Ambos têm as mesmas taxas de falha de crescimento quando o tecido do produto de concepção não é coletado adequadamente.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous , Chromosome Aberrations , Retrospective Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis , Karyotyping
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 117-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877178


@#Background. Accidental radiation exposure can occur anytime. Biodosimeters help in quantifying the absorbed dose of individuals who are not equipped with personal dosimeters during radiation exposure. The dicentric assay can quantify radiation damage by correlating radiation dose exposure with the frequency of dicentric chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes extracted from exposed individuals. Objective. The study aims to present the interim results of the reference dose-response curve for a Philippine radiotherapy facility constructed using a 6MV linear accelerator (ClinacX, Varian). Methods. Samples of peripheral blood from healthy volunteers were irradiated in a customized water phantom of doses 0.10 to 5.0 Gray using a linear accelerator. The irradiated samples were cultured and analyzed following the International Atomic Energy Agency Cytogenetic Dosimetry Protocol (2011) with modifications. Linear-quadratic model curve fitting and further statistical analysis were done using CABAS (Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software Version 2.0) and Dose Estimate (Version 5.2). Interim results of the samples were used to generate these curves. Results. The dose-response curve generated from the preliminary results were comparable to published dose response curves from international cytogenetic laboratories. Conclusion. The generated dose-response calibration curve will be useful for medical triage of the public and radiologic staff accidentally exposed to radiation during medical procedures or in the event of nuclear accidents.

Cytogenetics , Biological Assay , Chromosome Disorders , Cytogenetic Analysis , Radiation
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 771-774, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888392


OBJECTIVE@#To review the clinical data of a fetus with false positive result of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to confined placental mosaicism (CPM).@*METHODS@#Amniotic fluid sample was taken from a pregnant women with high risk for chromosome 16 aneuploidy for karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Genetic testing was also conducted on the fetal and maternal surface of the placenta, root of umbilical cord and fetal skin tissue after induced abortion.@*RESULTS@#Cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid sample yielded a normal karyotype. SNP array revealed mosaicism (20%) of trisomy 16 in the fetus. FISH confirmed the presence of mosaicism (25%) for trisomy 16. After induced labor, all sampled sites of placenta were confirmed to contain trisomy 16 by SNP array, while the analysis of fetal skin tissue yielded a negative result.@*CONCLUSION@#CPM is an important factor for false positive NIPT result. Prenatal identification of CPM and strengthened pregnancy management are important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniocentesis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Fetus , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Molecular Biology , Mosaicism , Placenta , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1757-1762, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922330


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) based on morphology define.@*METHODS@#A total of 180 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed, and marrow cell morphology of 126 patients were re-evaluated. The clinical and cytogenetic characteristics, including ages, sex, WBC count, HGB level, PLT count, blasts percentage, abnormal karyotype detection rate of the patients in AML with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MRC-1), secondary AML from myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) (AML-MRC-2), and AML not otherwise specified (AML-NOS) groups were investigated.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant differences between the patients in three groups in terms of sex, age and platelet count (P=0.898, P=0.365, P=0.853), but AML-MRC-2 group (73.2%) was higher than AML-MRC-1 (60.0%) and AML-NOS (56.4%) in the percentages of patients over 60 years old (P=0.228); there were statistically significant differences on WBC count, HGB level, and blasts percentage (P=0.000, P=0.022, P=0.000, AML-MRC-2

Humans , Middle Aged , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 581-584, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879631


OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the nature and origin of a chromosomal aberration detected in a boy with mental retardation.@*METHODS@#The proband and his parents were subjected to routine G-banded chromosomal karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) analysis.@*RESULTS@#The karyotype of the proband was determined as 46, XX, add(8)(p23). No karyotypic abnormality was detected in either of his parents. SNP-array has identified a 34.9 Mb duplication at 8p23.1q11.1 and a 6.78 Mb microdeletion at 8p23.1pter in the proband. No copy number variation was detected in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The child was diagnosed with 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome, which might be induced by non-allelic homologous recombination between olfactory genes in the 8p23.1 region.

Child , Humans , Male , Chromosome Banding , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Testing , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 238-241, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879561


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient featuring developmental delay.@*METHODS@#The patient and her parents were subjected to G- and C-banded chromosomal karyotyping analysis. The proband was also analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). The result was verified by using fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR).@*RESULTS@#The proband's karyotype was ascertained as 46,XX, r(15)(p11.2q26.3)[92]/45,XX,-15[9]/46,XX, dic r(15)(p11.2q26.3;p11.2q26.3)[4]. SNP-array revealed that she has carried a de novo deletion at 15q26.3 (98 957 555-102 429 040) spanning approximately 3.4 Mb, which encompassed the IGF1R gene. qPCR has confirmed haploinsufficiency of exons 3, 10 and 20 of the IGF1R gene. Both of her parents had a normal karyotype.@*CONCLUSION@#The abnormal phenotype of the proband may be attributed to the microdeletion at 15q26.3, in particular haploinsuffiency of the IGF1R gene and instability of the ring chromosome. Cytogenetic method combined with SNP-array and qPCR can efficiently delineate chromosomal aberrations and provide accurate information for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.

Female , Humans , Chromosome Deletion , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Counseling , Karyotyping , Phenotype , Ring Chromosomes