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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 302-313, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339269

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La leucemia mieloide aguda es una neoplasia heterogénea caracterizada por la proliferación de células mieloides inmaduras. El análisis citogenético ha revelado la presencia de aberraciones cromosómicas de importancia en el pronóstico del paciente. Objetivo. Determinar los grupos de riesgo citogenético de pacientes pediátricos con leucemia mieloide aguda a partir de la supervivencia global. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se incluyeron los registros clínicos de los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda de novo admitidos en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas entre el 2001 y el 2011 y sometidos a análisis citogenético de médula ósea. Los grupos de riesgo citogenético se establecieron según los criterios del Medical Research Council. Las curvas de supervivencia global se elaboraron con el método de Kaplan-Meier y se compararon mediante la prueba de Mantel-Cox y una regresión de Cox, utilizando el programa R, versión 3.3.2. Resultados. Se incluyeron 130 pacientes, 68 varones (52,3%) y 62 mujeres (47,7%), mayoritariamente del subtipo M2 (33%). La edad promedio fue de 7,7 (rango de 0 a 15 años). Se observaron aberraciones cromosómicas en el 60,8% y la más frecuente fue la traslocación t(8;21). Según el análisis de supervivencia global, se observaron dos grupos de riesgo citogenético: favorable y desfavorable. Conclusión. Se determinaron dos grupos de riesgo citogenético: alto (o desfavorable) y estándar (o favorable).


Abstract | Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by immature myeloid cell proliferation. Cytogenetic analysis has revealed the presence of chromosomal aberrations important to patient prognosis. Objective: To determine cytogenetic risk groups of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia according to overall survival. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, the clinical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with de novo acute myeloid leukemia admitted to the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas between 2001 and 2011 with cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow were included. Cytogenetic risk groups were established according to the criteria of the Medical Research Council. Overall survival curves were generated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the Mantel-Cox test and Cox regression with the software R, version 3.3.2. Results: A total of 130 patients were included, 68 males (52.3%) and 62 females (47.7%), most of them with subtype M2 (33%). The average age was 7.7 years (range: 0-15 years). Chromosomal aberrations were observed in 60.8% of the patients, the most frequent of which was the translocation t(8;21). According to the overall survival analysis, two cytogenetic risk groups were established: favorable and unfavorable. Conclusion: Two groups of cytogenetic risk were determined: high (or unfavorable) and standard (favorable).


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Survival , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Karyotype
2.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(1): 4-11, jan.-mar. 2021. quad, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247971

ABSTRACT

Os sinais clínicos da síndrome de Klinefelter foram observados pela primeira vez em 1942, mas sua etiologia só foi definida em 1959. Trata-se de uma condição genética na qual pelo menos um cromossomo X extra é adicionado ao cariótipo masculino normal (46,XY) e acomete cerca de 1 em cada 500 homens. É caracterizada por variabilidade fenotípica que leva a atraso ou ausência de diagnóstico, com uma estimativa de 50% a 75% de homens com Síndrome de Klinefelter nunca obterem o diagnóstico correto. Apesar de o cariótipo clássico (47,XXY) ser encontrado em 80%-90% dos pacientes e o mosaicismo (46,XY/47,XXY) nos 10% restantes, outros cariótipos podem ser encontrados menos frequentemente. Nesse sentido, este estudo tem por finalidade descrever os possíveis cariótipos identificados nos pacientes com Síndrome de Klinefelter. Os resultados mostram que a Síndrome de Klinefelter é usualmente diagnosticada na vida adulta e caracterizada por uma heterogeneidade citogenética quanto aos cariótipos possíveis apresentados pelos pacientes afetados. A condição foi diagnosticada precocemente quando associada à anomalia dos cromossomos autossomos, excesso de cromossomos X extra ou quando foi realizado diagnóstico pré-natal por idade materna avançada. É imprescindível que os profissionais de saúde, em especial os médicos, se familiarizem mais com essa condição, pois o diagnóstico correto e precoce permite a intervenção e tratamento adequados visando melhorar a qualidade de vida desses indivíduos.


Subject(s)
Trisomy , Cytogenetic Analysis , Karyotype , Infertility , Klinefelter Syndrome
4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(1): e200115, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1287434

ABSTRACT

Auchenipteridae is divided into subfamilies Centromochlinae and Auchenipterinae. Parauchenipterus is included in the latter and is subject of taxonomic discussions concerning its validation or synonymization with Trachelyopterus. Herein, three species from two hydrographic basins were cytogenetically analyzed: Parauchenipterus striatulus from Doce River and two sympatric species, P. galeatus and Trachelyopterus coriaceus, from the Araguaia River. Diploid number of 58 chromosomes was verified for all species, but P. striatulus has different karyotype formula from the others. The three species have heterochromatin located in terminal regions of almost all chromosomes and in pericentromeric region on acrocentric chromosomes. Simple NORs was verified on a subtelocentric chromosome for all species. 5S rDNA sites were detected in three submetacentric chromosome pairs in P. striatulus; in a metacentric chromosome pair and submetacentric pair in T. coriaceus; and in one metacentric chromosome pair in P. galeatus. The similarities found in the karyotypes of the three species suggest the existence of only one genus, Trachelyopterus; therefore, our data refutes the validation of Parauchenipterus. Moreover, the differences in 5S rDNA distribution in P. galeatus in comparison with other populations already studied, indicate the existence of a new taxonomic unit, which suggests a species complex in P. galeatus.(AU)


Auchenipteridae é dividida nas subfamílias Centromochlinae e Auchenipterinae. Parauchenipterus encontra-se incluído na última e tem sido alvo de discussões relacionadas com a problemática taxonômica de validação ou sinonimização com Trachelyopterus. Foram analisadas citogeneticamente três espécies de duas bacias hidrográficas: Parauchenipterus striatulus do rio Doce, P. galeatus e Trachelyopterus coriaceus, simpátricas do rio Araguaia. Todas as espécies analisadas apresentaram número diploide de 58 cromossomos, com diferença na fórmula cariotípica de P. striatulus. A heterocromatina foi localizada nas regiões terminais de quase todos os cromossomos e na região pericentromérica nos cromossomos acrocêntricos das três espécies. AgNORs e DNAr 18S detectaram RONs simples em um par de cromossomos subtelocêntricos nas três espécies. DNAr 5S foi detectado em três pares de cromossomos submetacêntricos em P. striatulus; em um par de cromossomos metacêntricos e um par submetacêntrico em T. coriaceus; e em apenas um par de cromossomos metacêntricos em P. galeatus. As semelhanças encontradas nos cariótipos das três espécies analisadas indicam a existência de somente Trachelyopterus (não validação de Parauchenipterus) e a diferença encontrada na distribuição de DNAr 5S de P. galeatus em relação às outras populações já estudadas sugere a existência de uma nova unidade taxonômica, portanto P. galeatus compreende um complexo de espécies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/classification , Catfishes/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Hydrographic Basins/analysis
5.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 117-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877178

ABSTRACT

@#Background. Accidental radiation exposure can occur anytime. Biodosimeters help in quantifying the absorbed dose of individuals who are not equipped with personal dosimeters during radiation exposure. The dicentric assay can quantify radiation damage by correlating radiation dose exposure with the frequency of dicentric chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes extracted from exposed individuals. Objective. The study aims to present the interim results of the reference dose-response curve for a Philippine radiotherapy facility constructed using a 6MV linear accelerator (ClinacX, Varian). Methods. Samples of peripheral blood from healthy volunteers were irradiated in a customized water phantom of doses 0.10 to 5.0 Gray using a linear accelerator. The irradiated samples were cultured and analyzed following the International Atomic Energy Agency Cytogenetic Dosimetry Protocol (2011) with modifications. Linear-quadratic model curve fitting and further statistical analysis were done using CABAS (Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software Version 2.0) and Dose Estimate (Version 5.2). Interim results of the samples were used to generate these curves. Results. The dose-response curve generated from the preliminary results were comparable to published dose response curves from international cytogenetic laboratories. Conclusion. The generated dose-response calibration curve will be useful for medical triage of the public and radiologic staff accidentally exposed to radiation during medical procedures or in the event of nuclear accidents.


Subject(s)
Cytogenetics , Biological Assay , Chromosome Disorders , Cytogenetic Analysis , Radiation
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1757-1762, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) based on morphology define.@*METHODS@#A total of 180 newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed, and marrow cell morphology of 126 patients were re-evaluated. The clinical and cytogenetic characteristics, including ages, sex, WBC count, HGB level, PLT count, blasts percentage, abnormal karyotype detection rate of the patients in AML with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MRC-1), secondary AML from myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) (AML-MRC-2), and AML not otherwise specified (AML-NOS) groups were investigated.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant differences between the patients in three groups in terms of sex, age and platelet count (P=0.898, P=0.365, P=0.853), but AML-MRC-2 group (73.2%) was higher than AML-MRC-1 (60.0%) and AML-NOS (56.4%) in the percentages of patients over 60 years old (P=0.228); there were statistically significant differences on WBC count, HGB level, and blasts percentage (P=0.000, P=0.022, P=0.000, AML-MRC-2

Subject(s)
Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To review the clinical data of a fetus with false positive result of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to confined placental mosaicism (CPM).@*METHODS@#Amniotic fluid sample was taken from a pregnant women with high risk for chromosome 16 aneuploidy for karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Genetic testing was also conducted on the fetal and maternal surface of the placenta, root of umbilical cord and fetal skin tissue after induced abortion.@*RESULTS@#Cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid sample yielded a normal karyotype. SNP array revealed mosaicism (20%) of trisomy 16 in the fetus. FISH confirmed the presence of mosaicism (25%) for trisomy 16. After induced labor, all sampled sites of placenta were confirmed to contain trisomy 16 by SNP array, while the analysis of fetal skin tissue yielded a negative result.@*CONCLUSION@#CPM is an important factor for false positive NIPT result. Prenatal identification of CPM and strengthened pregnancy management are important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Female , Fetus , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Molecular Biology , Mosaicism , Placenta , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the nature and origin of a chromosomal aberration detected in a boy with mental retardation.@*METHODS@#The proband and his parents were subjected to routine G-banded chromosomal karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) analysis.@*RESULTS@#The karyotype of the proband was determined as 46, XX, add(8)(p23). No karyotypic abnormality was detected in either of his parents. SNP-array has identified a 34.9 Mb duplication at 8p23.1q11.1 and a 6.78 Mb microdeletion at 8p23.1pter in the proband. No copy number variation was detected in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The child was diagnosed with 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome, which might be induced by non-allelic homologous recombination between olfactory genes in the 8p23.1 region.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromosome Banding , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Testing , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Male
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient featuring developmental delay.@*METHODS@#The patient and her parents were subjected to G- and C-banded chromosomal karyotyping analysis. The proband was also analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). The result was verified by using fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR).@*RESULTS@#The proband's karyotype was ascertained as 46,XX, r(15)(p11.2q26.3)[92]/45,XX,-15[9]/46,XX, dic r(15)(p11.2q26.3;p11.2q26.3)[4]. SNP-array revealed that she has carried a de novo deletion at 15q26.3 (98 957 555-102 429 040) spanning approximately 3.4 Mb, which encompassed the IGF1R gene. qPCR has confirmed haploinsufficiency of exons 3, 10 and 20 of the IGF1R gene. Both of her parents had a normal karyotype.@*CONCLUSION@#The abnormal phenotype of the proband may be attributed to the microdeletion at 15q26.3, in particular haploinsuffiency of the IGF1R gene and instability of the ring chromosome. Cytogenetic method combined with SNP-array and qPCR can efficiently delineate chromosomal aberrations and provide accurate information for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Deletion , Cytogenetic Analysis , Female , Genetic Counseling , Humans , Karyotyping , Phenotype , Ring Chromosomes
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5945, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the results obtained by the classic and molecular methodology in the analysis of products of conception, the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Methods: Retrospective non-randomized analysis of results obtained from product of conception samples submitted to genetic evaluation, from 2012 to 2017. The evaluations were performed using cytogenetics and/or chromosomal microarray analysis or arrays. Results: Forty samples were analyzed using classic cytogenetics, of which 10% showed no cell growth, 50% had normal results and 40% had abnormalities. Of the 41 cases sent for array analysis it was not possible to obtain results in 7.3%, 39.5% were normal and 60.5% had abnormalities. There was no statistical difference among the results (p=0.89). Most abnormal results were seen till 9 weeks' gestation. The later abnormal miscarriage was seen at 28 weeks' gestation, with karyotype 46,XX,del(15)(q26.2-qter). The results are corroborated by the international literature. Conclusion: Classic cytogenetics and array techniques showed comparable results on the type of alteration observed. Array analysis is preferable to cell culture in delayed abortions, while cytogenetics is more able to show polyploidies. Both have the same growth failure rates when product of conception tissue is not properly collected.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados obtidos pela metodologia clássica e molecular na análise de produtos de concepção, além das vantagens e desvantagens de cada método. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva não randomizada dos resultados obtidos a partir de amostras de produto de concepção submetidas à avaliação genética, de 2012 a 2017. As análises foram realizadas por citogenética clássica e/ou análise cromossômica de microarray ou arrays. Resultados: Quarenta amostras foram analisadas por citogenética, das quais 10% não apresentaram crescimento celular, 50% apresentaram resultados normais, e 40% apresentaram anormalidades. Dos 41 casos encaminhados para análise por array, não foi possível obter resultados em 7,3%, 39,5% eram normais, e 60,5% apresentavam alterações. Não houve diferença estatística entre os resultados (p=0,89). A maioria dos resultados anormais foi observada até a nona semana de gestação. Uma perda fetal mais tardia foi observada na 28ª semana de gestação, com cariótipo 46,XX,del(15)(q26.2-qter). Os números observados corroboraram a literatura mundial. Conclusão: As técnicas de citogenética clássica e análise por array mostraram resultados comparáveis no tipo de alteração observada. O array é preferível à cultura de células em abortos tardios, enquanto a citogenética é mais capaz de mostrar poliploidias. Ambos têm as mesmas taxas de falha de crescimento quando o tecido do produto de concepção não é coletado adequadamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous , Chromosome Aberrations , Retrospective Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis , Karyotyping
11.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 335-342, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138629

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En Chile, la norma técnica de la Ley N° 21.030 de 2017 considera tres aneuploidías como letales; las trisomías 9, 13 y 18, cuyo diagnóstico se confirma con un cariograma. No existe a la fecha registro nacional de frecuencia prenatal de estas patologías. OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de trisomías 9, 13 y 18 en los estudios citogenéticos prenatales en muestras de células obtenidas con amniocentesis y cordocentesis, procesados en el Laboratorio de Citogenética del Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de los resultados de cariograma de líquido amniótico (LA) y sangre fetal (SF), procesados desde enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2017. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 2.305 muestras (402 de SF y 1.903 de LA), de ellas 442 (19%) fueron trisomías letales (TL), dentro de ellas fueron TL libres 416 (95%), TL estructurales 15 (2,7%) y mosaicos 11 (2,3%). La trisomía 18 fue en ambos tipos de muestra la más frecuente (73,5%), seguida de trisomía 13 (24,2%) y trisomía 9 (2,3%). Se desglosan resultados conforme al tipo de TL, muestra, motivo de derivación, edad materna y edad gestacional. CONCLUSIONES: El cariograma confirma el diagnóstico de aneuploidías y aporta datos relevantes para el consejo genético. La cromosomopatía letal más frecuente fue la trisomía 18. Se observó que uno de cada cinco cariogramas referidos por anomalías congénitas y/o marcadores de aneuploidía revelaban una TL.


INTRODUCTION: In Chile, the technical standard of Law No. 21,030 of 2017 considers three aneuploidies as lethal; trisomies 9, 13 and 18, whose diagnosis is confirmed with a Karyotype. To date there is not a national registry of prenatal frequency of these pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of trisomies 9, 13 and 18 in prenatal cytogenetic studies in samples of cells obtained with amniocentesis and cordocentesis, processed in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study of the results of karyotypes of amniotic fluid (LA) and fetal blood (SF) processed from January 2000 to December 2017. Results: 2,305 samples (402 of SF and 1,903 of LA) were included, of which 438 (19%) were lethal trisomies (TL), corresponding to free TL 416 (95%), structural TL 12 (2,7%) and mosaics 10 (2.3%). Trisomy 18 was the most frequent in both types of sample (73,5 %), followed by trisomy 13 (24,2%) and trisomy 9 (2.3%). RESULTS are shown according to the type of TL, sample, reason for referral, maternal age and gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The karyotype confirms the diagnosis of aneuploidies and provides relevant data for genetic counseling. The most frequent lethal chromosomopathy was trisomy 18. It was observed that one in five karyotypes referred for congenital anomalies and / or aneuploidy markers revealed a TL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Trisomy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Fetal Blood , Karyotype , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/epidemiology , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/epidemiology , Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Aneuploidy
12.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 8-15, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115444

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Un número creciente de artículos está llamando la atención en forma consistente sobre la eventual asociación que existe entre los denominados trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a bajos niveles de radiación ionizante (POEs) y una mayor frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas, a nivel Sudamericano estos estudios son escasos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas en linfocitos de sangre periférica de POEs de un hospital y de sujetos sanos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de los artículos que a la fecha abordaron este tema. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se condujo un análisis citogenético destinado a cuantificar las aberraciones cromosómicas en sangre periférica de linfocitos de 6 POEs de la unidad de Cardiología Intervencional y, como controles, 6 muestras de sujetos de la población general fueron analizadas. RESULTADOS: Se observó un importante contraste en el número de aberraciones cromosómicas presentadas en los POEs versus la población general no expuesta a radiaciones ionizantes, siendo esta de una relación de 6:1, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados preliminares indican una mayor frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas en los POEs versus la población general, sin embargo, se deberá esperar los resultados de la segunda fase de investigación, donde al ampliar la muestra en análisis se podrán obtener conclusiones estadísticamente significativas.


BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an increased number of chromosomes aberrations in subjects exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation (POEs). There are few studies on this subject in Latin America AIM: To evaluate the frequency of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood in subjects working in laboratories where low levels of ionizing radiation are present and to compare these findings to those of unexposed subjects. METHODS: A cytogenic analysis to quantify chromosome aberrations was performed in 6 POs subjects from a cardiology invasive laboratory and 6 controls from a general unexposed population. RESULTS: Compared to controls, an approximately 6-fold increase in the number of chromosome aberrations was observed.in subjects exposed to ionizing radiation CONCLUSION: These preliminary results indicate that there is an increased number of chromosome aberrations in subjects exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation, as occurs in people working in a cardiology interventional laboratory. Studies in large numbers of subjects and preferably followed prospectively are needed to evaluate more precisely this effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personnel, Hospital , Radiation, Ionizing , Chromosome Aberrations/radiation effects , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Radiation Dosage , Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Chile , Pilot Projects , Occupational Exposure , Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Chromosomes, Human/radiation effects , Cytogenetic Analysis
14.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e200013, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135383

ABSTRACT

Ancistrus is a specious genus of armored catfishes that has been extensively used for cytogenetic studies in the last 17 years. A comparison of the extensive karyotypic plasticity within this genus is presented with new cytogenetic analysis for Ancistrus cf. multispinis and Ancistrus aguaboensis. This study aims to improve our understanding of chromosomal evolution associated with changes in the diploid number (2n) and the dispersion of ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) within Ancistrus. Ancistrus cf. multispinis and A. aguaboensis exhibit 2n of 52 and 50 chromosomes, respectively. Given that A. cf. multispinis shares a 2n = 52 also found in Pterygoplichthyini, the sister group for Ancistrini, a Robertsonian (Rb) fusion event is proposed for the 2n reduction in A. aguaboensis. 5S rDNAs pseudogenes sites have already been associated with Rb fusion in Ancistrus and our analysis suggests that the 2n reduction in A. aguaboensis was triggered by double strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal rearrangements at 5S rDNA sites. The presence of evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) into rDNA cluster is proposed to explain part of the Rb fusion in Ancistrus. Cytogenetic data presented extends the diversity already documented in Ancistrus to further understand the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of Ancistrini.(AU)


Ancistrus é um gênero rico em espécies de peixes conhecidos como cascudos e tem sido alvo de estudos citogenéticos nos últimos 17 anos. Uma comparação da plasticidade presente no gênero é apresentada com novas análises citogenéticas para Ancistrus cf. multispinis e Ancistrus aguaboensis. Este estudo visa melhorar nossa compreensão da evolução cromossômica associada as alterações do número diploide (2n) e a dispersão de DNAs ribossômicos (rDNAs) em Ancistrus. Ancistrus cf. multispinis e A. aguaboensis apresentaram 2n de 52 e 50 cromossomos, respectivamente. Visto que A. cf. multispinis compartilha 2n = 52 também encontrado em Pterygoplichthyini, o grupo irmão para Ancistrini, um evento de fusão Robertsoniana (Rb) é proposto para a redução do 2n em A. aguaboensis. Sítios de pseudogenes de rDNA 5S já foram associados a eventos de fusão Rb em Ancistrus e nossas análises sugerem que a redução do 2n em A. aguaboensis foi desencadeada por quebras na dupla fita e rearranjos cromossômicos em sítios de rDNA 5S. A presença de evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) em clusters de rDNA foi proposta para explicar parte da fusão Rb em Ancistrus. Os dados citogenéticos apresentados ampliam a diversidade já documentada em Ancistrus visando melhor entender o papel dos rearranjos cromossômicos na diversificação de Ancistrini.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal , Cytogenetic Analysis , Gender Identity
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(3): e200009, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135393

ABSTRACT

Historically, there are divergences in the species allocation between Centromochlus and Tatia. This study aimed to generate the first cytogenetic data about Centromochlus and, by analyzing a population of Centromochlus heckelii from the Amazon River basin, to contribute as evidence to a historical taxonomic dilemma. Diploid number of 46 chromosomes and a heteromorphic pair was found in the female karyotypes, thus characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. Pale blocks of heterochromatin were located in centromeric regions of some chromosomes; however, the exclusive female chromosome (W) is almost entirely heterochromatic. AgNORs were detected in terminal position on the short arms of one acrocentric pair in males and two chromosome pairs in females, the acrocentric plus the sex chromosome pair. Notable differences between Centromochlus heckelii and previous data about species of Tatia are: lower diploid number, presence of a sex chromosome system and multiple AgNORs in Centromochlus, while species of Tatia have simple AgNORs and the absence of acrocentric chromosomes. Results in this study show that chromosomal markers could contribute as evidence to taxonomic delimitation studies.(AU)


Historicamente, há divergências na alocação de espécies entre Centromochlus e Tatia. Este estudo teve como objetivo gerar os primeiros dados citogenéticos para Centromochlus e, através da análise de uma população de Centromochlus heckelii da bacia do rio Amazonas, contribuir como evidência para o dilema histórico taxonômico. Foi encontrado o número diploide de 46 cromossomos e um par heteromórfico nos cariótipos das fêmeas, o que caracteriza um sistema sexual ZZ/ZW. Blocos pálidos de heterocromatina foram localizados na região centromérica de alguns cromossomos; no entanto, o cromossomo exclusivo das fêmeas (W) se apresenta quase todo heterocromático. As AgRONs foram detectadas na posição terminal do braço curto de um par acrocêntrico nos machos e em dois pares cromossômicos nas fêmeas, um par de cromossomos acrocêntricos e o par sexual. Notáveis diferenças entre os dados cromossômicos de Centromochlus heckelii e os dados anteriores das espécies de Tatia são: menor número diploide, presença de sistema de cromossomos sexuais e AgRONs múltiplas em Centromochlus, enquanto espécies de Tatia apresentam AgRON simples e ausência de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Resultados deste estudo mostram que marcadores cromossômicos podem contribuir como evidência para estudos de delimitação taxonômica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Genetic Markers , Amazonian Ecosystem
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1272-1277, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the renal pathology and cytogenetic features in the multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal impairment.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of newly diagnosed MM patients with renal impairment in our hospital from January 2009 to January 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, and the relationship between FISH results and results of renal pathological exanimation was analyzed statistically by using SPSS 20.0.@*RESULTS@#A total of 20 patients underwent renal biopsy, included 12 males and 8 females. FISH result showed that out of 20 patients, 7 cases presented interstitial nephritis, among which 3 cases were negative for FISH, and in the remaining cases the rate of IgH rearrangement, 1q21 amplification, RB1 deletion, D13S319 deletion, and P53 deletion detection was 42.86%, 28.57%, 28.57%, 28.57% and 14.29% respectively, the detection positive rate was statistically significantly lower as compared with total probe positive rate (P<0.01). There were 6 cases of cast nephropathy, among which IgH rearrangement, the rate of 1q21 amplification, RB1 deletion, D13S319 deletion, and P53 deletion detection was 66.67%, 50%, 66.67%, 50% and 0% respectively. Compared with the total probe positive rate, there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). There were 4 cases of acute tubular necrosis, among which the detection rates of IgH rearrangement, 1q21 amplification, RB1 deletion, D13S319 deletion, and P53 deletion was 100%, 50%, 50%, 25% and 25%, respectively. Compared with the total probe positive rate, there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). There were one case of amyloidosis, and one case of tubular nephropathy with amyloidosis, the detection with 5 probes were all positive. One case of light chain deposition disease was positive for RB1 gene deletion + D13S319 gene deletion.@*CONCLUSION@#FISH in the MM patients with different renal pathological changes is characterized by heterogeneity, which can be used to predict the risk of renal damage and speculate possible renal pathological types to guide prognosis.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Male , Multiple Myeloma , Retrospective Studies
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4966, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To validate multilineage score system correlating results of flow cytometry, cytogenetics, cytomorphology and histology from samples of patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or cytopenia of unknown origin. Methods A retrospective study analyzing laboratory data of 49 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or cytopenia of unknown origin, carried out between May and September 2017. The inclusion criteria were availability of flow cytometry results, and at least one more method, such as morphology, histology or cytogenetics. Thirty-eight patients were classified as diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes, whereas 11 were classified as normal. Patients were evaluated based on score systems, Ogata score and flow cytometry multilineage score. Results Comparing the scores obtained in the Ogata score and the multilineage score, it was observed that in four cases the Ogata score was zero or 1 point, while the multilineage score was higher than 3 points. In addition, in 12 cases with Ogata score of 2, the multilineage score was greater than 3. Conclusion The flow cytometry multilineage score system demonstrated to be more effective in dysplasia analysis, by assessing the erythroid, monocytic, granulocytic and precursor cell lineages, apart from the parameters evaluated by the Ogata score.


RESUMO Objetivo Validar ficha de escore multilinhagem correlacionando resultados obtidos de citometria de fluxo, citogenética, citomorfologia e histologia de amostras de pacientes com suspeita de síndrome mielodisplásica ou citopenias a esclarecer. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de análise de dados laboratoriais de 49 pacientes com suspeita clínica de síndrome mielodisplásica ou citopenias a esclarecer realizado entre maio e setembro de 2017. Os critérios de inclusão foram a disponibilidade de resultados de citometria de fluxo e de, pelo menos, outra metodologia, entre morfologia, histologia, ou citogenética. Trinta e oito pacientes foram classificados como diagnosticados com síndromes mielodisplásicas enquanto 11 foram classificados como normais. Os pacientes foram avaliados utilizando sistemas de escore, escore de Ogata e ficha multilinhagem. Resultados Comparando as pontuações obtidas no escore de Ogata e na ficha multilinhagem, observou-se que, em quatro casos, o score de Ogata foi zero ou 1 ponto, enquanto, pela ficha multilinhagem, a pontuação foi superior a 3 pontos. Além disso, em 12 casos com escore de Ogata 2, a pontuação pela ficha multilinhagem foi superior a 3. Conclusão A ficha multilinhagem demonstrou ser mais eficaz na análise de displasia por avaliar as linhagens eritroide, monocítica, granulocítica e células precursoras, além dos parâmetros avaliados no escore de Ogata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Flow Cytometry/standards , Reference Standards , Biopsy , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis/standards , Erythroid Cells/pathology , Flow Cytometry/methods , Granulocytes/pathology , Middle Aged
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 855-859, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055198

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) has as its main characteristic the deterioration of cerebral functions. Its etiology is still complex and undefined despite the progress made in understanding its neurological, infectious, biochemical, genetic and cytogenetic mechanisms. Considering this, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of chromosomal alterations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, and to verify if there was a high frequency of these alterations in patients diagnosed with AD at the University Hospital GetúLio Vargas Outpatient Clinic Araújo Lima in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Among the nine patients in the AD group, only one patient did not have metaphases with chromosomal alterations (2n = 46,XX), while eight patients with AD showed numerical chromosomal alterations, classified as X chromosome aneupLoidy (2n = 45,X) and double aneupLoidy (2n = 44,X,-X,-10; 2n = 44,X,-X,-13 and 2n = 44,X,-X,-21). In the control group, no chromosomal changes were found in the karyotypes of these individuals. Therefore, the karyotypes of patients with AD undergo chromosomal alterations at different levels. These findings are being described for the first time in the population of Amazonas, and they highlight the importance of the inclusion of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of patients with AD.


RESUMO Doença de Alzheimer (DA) tem como principal característica a deterioração das funções cerebrais. Quanto a sua etiologia ainda é complexa e indefinida, apesar do progresso alcançado na compreensão de seus mecanismos neurológicos, infecciosos, bioquímicos, genéticos e citogenéticos. Considerando isto, nós investigamos a presença de alterações cromossômicas nos Linfócitos de sangue periférico e verificamos se há uma alta frequência dessas alterações em pacientes já diagnosticados com doença de Alzheimer no Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas / Ambulatório Araújo Lima, Manaus / Amazonas / Brasil. Assim, dos 09 pacientes do grupo DA, somente 01 paciente não apresentou metáfases com alterações cromossômicas (2n = 46,XX) enquanto que 08 pacientes com DA apresentaram alterações cromossômicas numéricas, sendo classificadas como aneupLoidia do cromossomo X (2n = 45,X) e aneupLoidia dupLa (2n = 44,X,-X,-10; 2n = 44,X,-X,-13 e 2n = 44,X,-X,-21). No grupo controle, não foram encontradas aLterações cromossômicas nos cariótipos desses indivíduos. Estes achados para a popuLação do Amazonas/ BrasiL estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez. Os cariótipos de pacientes com DA sofrem aLterações cromossômicas em diferentes níveis e demonstraram a importância das investigações citogenéticas no manejo rotineiro de pacientes com DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chromosome Aberrations , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Brazil , Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Abnormal Karyotype , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Aneuploidy
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1064-1070, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040062

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The anti-Müllerian hormone triggers the regression of uterus and fallopian tubes in male embryos; if there are problems in the synthesis or action of this protein, Müllerian structures persist in an otherwise phenotypic male. The most frequent clinical presentation of Persistent Mullerian Duct syndrome is cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia. The few cases reported in adults are incidental findings or inguinal hernias. However, we present an adult male with history of bilateral cryptorchidism with unsuccessful orchidopexy, who presents with a large abdominal mass with the finding of a seminomatous tumor and persistence of Müllerian structures, in whom the variant c.916delC (p.Leu306Cysfs*29) in the AMHR2 gene not previously reported was documented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Phenotype , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/genetics , Homozygote , Mutation , Syndrome , Testicular Neoplasms/surgery , Testicular Neoplasms/genetics , Seminoma/surgery , Seminoma/genetics , Colombia , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Cryptorchidism/genetics , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/genetics , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/surgery , Mullerian Ducts/abnormalities , Mullerian Ducts/surgery
20.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e1067, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093277

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mieloma múltiple (MM) es una enfermedad que va precedida por una fase previa conocida como gammapatía monoclonal de significado incierto (GMSI); en esta última existen varias anormalidades citogenéticas, que permiten la progresión a MM, entre estas encontramos reordenamientos primarios del gen de la cadena pesada de la inmunoglobina (IGH), además de células hiperdiploides. Desarrollo: Las alteraciones cromosómicas en el MM se pueden clasificar en dos grupos principales: las que involucran las translocaciones del locus IGH ubicado en el cromosoma 14q32 y cuyos principales reordenamientos se dan entre las regiones cromosómicas 11q13, 16q23, 4p16.3, 6p21 y, un segundo grupo caracterizado por los desequilibrios genómicos. Los pacientes con translocaciones de la IGH, muestran un pronóstico diferente en dependencia del tipo de reordenamiento cromosómico. La t(4;14)(p16;q32) y t(14;16)(q32;q23) se asocian a un mal pronóstico, mientras que los pacientes con t(11;14) (q13;q32) tiene un buen pronóstico de la enfermedad en ausencia de otras anormalidades genéticas. En el grupo con desequilibrio genómico se encuentran deleciones, amplificaciones, y células con números anormales de cromosomas (hiperdiploidas y no hiperdiploides); casi siempre asociadas a mal pronóstico ya que muchas de estas alteraciones involucran perdida de material genómico relacionado con el control de ciclo celular y progresión de la enfermedad, como son las deleciones de los cromosomas 1,13 y 17. Los pacientes con trisomías de los cromosomas impares 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19,21 suelen tener un mejor pronóstico y una tasa mayor de sobrevivencia(AU)


Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease that is preceded by a previous phase known as monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS); in this latter there are several cytogenetic abnormalities, which allow the progression to MM, among these we find primary rearrangements of the heavy chain gene of the immunoglobin (IGH), in addition to hyperdiploid cells. Development: Chromosomal alterations in MM can be classified into two main groups, those involving the translocations of the IGH locus located on chromosome 14q32 and whose main rearrangements occur between the chromosomal regions 11q13, 16q23, 4p16.3, 6p21, and a second group which is characterized by genomic imbalances. Patients with translocations of the IGH, show a different prognosis depending on the type of chromosomal rearrangement, the t(4; 14)(p16; q32) and t(14; 16)(q32; q23) are associated with a poor prognosis while patients with t(11; 14)(q13; q32) have a good prognosis of the disease in the absence of other genetic abnormalities. Within the genomic imbalances we find deletions, amplifications, and cells with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (hyperdiploids and not hyperdiploid), these almost always associated with poor prognosis since many of these alterations involve loss of genomic material related to cell cycle control and progression of the disease, such as deletions of chromosomes 1,13 and 17. Patients with trisomies of odd chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19,21 usually have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Paraproteinemias/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Disease Progression , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Bortezomib/therapeutic use
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