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1.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402989

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la asociación de las variantes en los genes que codifican por citocinas participantes en el proceso inflamatorio con la susceptibilidad y la gravedad clínica de las enfermedades. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio documental con revisión de literatura científica encontrada en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scielo, PLOS, Hinari, Redalyc, Dialnet, Taylor, ProQuest. Se revisaron 84 referencias relacionadas con artículos de investigación, revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis con los términos ''variante'', ''variante en un solo nucléotido'', ''polimorfismo de nucleótido único'', ''citocinas proinflamatorias'', ''citocinas antiinflamatorias'', ''interleucinas'', ''factor de necrosis tumoral'', ''susceptibilidad genética'', ''enfermedades'' y ''patologías''. Resultados: La evidencia señala que las variantes en un solo nucleótido se detectan principalmente en regiones promotoras de genes que codifican para citocinas reguladoras de procesos inflamatorios, como son: IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-22 y el factor de necrosis tumoral. Conclusiones: La expresión y la producción diferencial de estas citocinas desempeñan un papel relevante en la patogenia y la predisposición a sufrir enfermedades, especialmente metabólicas, malignas, autoinmunes e infecciosas. Se mostró también un efecto diferencial de las variantes según las características étnicas, lo que resulta ser una herramienta eficaz en la medicina preventiva.


Abstract Aim: To describe the association of variations in cytokine genes that participate in the inflammatory process with the susceptibility and clinical severity of diseases. Methods: A documentary study was carried out with a review of the scientific literature of the database: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scielo, PLOS, Hinari, Redalyc, Dialnet, Taylor, ProQuest. Eighty-four references were reviewed that included research articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyzes, using the terms ''Variants'', ''Single Nucleotide Variation'', ''Proinflammatory cytokines'', ''Anti-inflammatory cytokines'', ''Interleukins'', ''Tumor Necrosis Factor'', ''genetic susceptibility'', ''diseases'', pathologies''. Results: The evidence indicates that Single Nucleotide Variants are detected mainly in promoter regions of genes that code for cytokines that regulate inflammatory processes such as: IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL -17, IL-18, IL-22 and tumoral necrosis factor. Conclusions: The expression and differential production of these cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis and predisposition to diseases, especially metabolic, malignant, autoimmune, and infectious. A differential effect of variants according to ethnic characteristics is also observed, which turns out to be an effective tool to be used in preventive medicine.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/analysis , Interleukins , Lymphotoxin-alpha , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
2.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(3): 210-217, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414974

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) é um distúrbio multifatorial caracterizado pelo aumento dos níveis de radicais livres. Tanto o estresse oxidativo quanto a obesidade contribuem para um estado inflamatório da doença, principalmente pelo aumento da citocina TNF-α. Sabendo-se que a genética individual pode contribuir para o estresse oxidativo, o estudo avaliou o impacto das variações genéticas de enzimas antioxidantes C262T no gene CAT e polimorfismos nulos dos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 nos níveis de TNF-α, assim como, avaliou se as variantes genéticas atuariam sinergicamente com a obesidade aumentando os níveis da citocina em diabéticos da Grande Vitória/ES, Brasil.Métodos: O polimorfismo no gene CAT foi avaliado pela técnica PCR/RFLP e nos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 por PCR multiplex, em 56 pacientes, sendo 28 obesos e 28 não obesos. Níveis de TNF-α foram medidos pela técnica de ELISA sanduíche.Resultados: Frequências das variantes nulas de GSTM1 e GSTT1 foram 44,6% e 17,9%, respectivamente. As frequências genotípicas C262T-CAT foram 73,2%, 25% e 1,8% para homozigoto normal, heterozigoto e homozigoto polimórfico, respectivamente. Não houve associação entre genótipos polimórficos e aumento dos níveis de TNF-α, assim como, não foi demonstrado aumento significante da citocina quando avaliado o sinergismo entre obesidade e genética individual do paciente.Conclusão: Níveis de TNF-α não se elevam em diabéticos tipo 2 na presença dos polimorfismos nos genes CAT, GSTM1 e GSTT1, e a obesidade não atua no aumento dessa citocina na população estudada, separadamente ou em conjunto com a genética individual de variantes nos genes CAT, GSTM1 e GSTT1.


Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disorder characterized by increased levels of free radicals. Both oxidative stress and obesity contribute to an inflammatory state of the disease, mainly by increasing the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Considering that personal genetics may contribute to oxidative stress, this study assessed the impact of CAT C-262T polymorphism and GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms on TNF-α levels in patients with type 2. diabetes. The study also evaluated whether the genetic variants act synergistically with obesity to increase TNF-α levels in patients with diabetes from Grande Vitória, Brazil.Methods: Fifty-six patients were included, of whom 28 were obese and 28 were nonobese. The CAT gene polymorphism was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, whereas GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were assessed using multiplex PCR. TNF-α levels were measured using the sandwich ELISA technique.Results: Frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 44.6% and 17.9%, respectively. The genotype frequencies of CATC-262T polymorphism were 73.2%, 25.0%, and 1.8% for normal homozygote, heterozygote, and polymorphic homozygote, respectively. Polymorphic genotypes were not associated with increased TNF-α levels, and there was no significant increase in TNF-α levels when evaluating the synergism between obesity and personal genetics.Conclusion: The presence of CAT, GSTM1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms was not associated with increased TNF-α levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity alone or combined with personal genetics of CAT, GSTM1, and GSTT1gene polymorphisms did not promote increased TNF-α levels in the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glutathione S-Transferase pi/genetics , Obesity/physiopathology , Cytokines/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/deficiency , Glutathione S-Transferase pi/deficiency
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 747-751, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349984

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is the current recommended approach for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Visfatin is a type of novel adipokine of interest that mostly participates in glucose metabolism and inflammatory processes. We aim to identify a screening technique for GDM using salivary visfatin levels and to establish this technique's value as a screening method compared to OGTT. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional case-control study. The cohort was formed from the saliva samples of pregnant patients in their 24th through 28th weeks of gestation. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their GDM status. OGTT and visfatin test results were compared and subjected to further analysis to establish a cutoff value for visfatin testing. Results: ELISA results indicated a significant difference between patients with GDM compared to patients without GDM; the values were 18.89 ± 9.59 and 12.44 ± 8.75, respectively (p: 0.007). A cutoff value of 10.5 ng/mL can be used to detect GDM with 78% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Conclusion: Salivary visfatin levels were significantly higher in patients with GDM. The existence of a differential in the concentration of visfatin in saliva can be utilized to develop a new screening method for GDM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Saliva/chemistry , Cytokines/analysis , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/analysis , Blood Glucose , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(3): 244-249, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388153

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los métodos diagnósticos clásicos para la tuberculosis son de baja sensibilidad o son muy lentos en la obtención de resultados (baciloscopía, cultivo de Koch). De ahí nace la necesidad de nuevos métodos diagnósticos para esta enfermedad. Los biomarcadores surgen como una opción a esta problemática, con un buen rendimiento diagnóstico, costo y accesibilidad. Ellos permiten identificar la respuesta inflamatoria y/o metabólica del huésped, extrapolando la presencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis; o identifican moléculas propias del patógeno. En la presente revisión se describen biomarcadores que presentan un buen rendimiento diagnóstico basados en metodologías de investigación de alto nivel (estudio de cohortes, prospectivos, muestreo consecutivo o aleatorizado, comparación de rendimiento diagnóstico frente a cultivo). Es necesario el desarrollo de estas nuevas técnicas con el fin de realizar el diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad y lograr así su tan ansiada eliminación.


The classical laboratory diagnostic methods for tuberculosis have a low sensitivity or take a long time to know their results. New methods are underway. Biomarkers are a good option to improve our diagnostic approach to this disease. They have good performance, low cost and accessibility. They identify a patient's inflammatory or metabolic response to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis or identifies molecules that are typical of the pathogen. In this paper we sum up the biomarkers with a good diag-nostic performance described in well design investigations. Early diagnosis with these new techniques should contribute to the elimination of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , RNA/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies/analysis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycolic Acids/analysis
6.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 166-183, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1353093

ABSTRACT

El cáncer gástrico (CG) es la neoplasia del tubo digestivo más prevalente en el mundo, asociada a factores genéticos del hospedero y externos, como infección por Helicobacter pylori. La patogénesis incluye inflamación crónica mediada por citocinas del microambiente tumoral, detectables sistémicamente. Estudios previos reportan niveles séricos de citocinas y su contribución al diagnóstico de CG. El presente estudio analiza el perfil de citocinas del tipo de Th1(IFNγ), Th2(IL-4 e IL-10), Th17(Th-17A) y otras pro inflamatorias: IL-1ß, IL-6 y TNF-α, en plasma de 70 casos de pacientes con CG comparándolos con 132 sujetos sanos equiparables en edad y sexo. Los casos provinieron del Hospital Roosevelt e Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Guatemala (Incan) y formaron parte de un estudio previo. Se analizó la base de datos clínicos, patológicos y epidemiológicos. Se midieron los niveles de citocinas utilizando el sistema "MSD MULTI-SPOT Assay System". La edad promedio de los casos fue 59.5 años, (DE 13.0), 51%, eran positivos para IgG anti H. pylori. Un 71% presentó adenocarcinoma grado III (Borrman), según clasificación de Lauren 55% tenían tipo intestinal. Las siete citocinas cuantificadas se encontraron significativamente elevadas (p < .05) en el plasma de los casos respecto a sus controles. Los casos de CG tipo difuso presentaron niveles de IFNγ significativa-mente elevados. Por regresión logística, las citocinas IL-6 e IL-10, están asociadas significativamente a CG (p < .05) independientemente del estatus de infección por H. pylori. Se destacan la IL-6 e IL-10 como las principales citocinas asociadas a la presencia de CG.


Gastric cancer (GC) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal neoplasm in the world, associated with host and external genetic factors, such as Helicobacter pylori infection. The pathogenesis includes chronic inflammation mediated by cytokines of the tumor microenvironment, systemically detectable. Previous studies report serum levels of cyto-kines and their contribution to the diagnosis of GC. The present study analyzes the profile of cytokines of the type Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), Th17 (Th-17A) and other pro-inflammatory: IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, in plasma of 70 cases of patients with GC compared with 132 healthy subjects comparable in age and sex. The cases came from the Roosevelt Hospital and the National Cancer Institute of Guatemala -Incan- and were part of a previous study. The clinical, pathological and epidemiological databases were analyzed. Cytokine levels were measured using the "MSD MULTI-SPOT Assay System". The average age of the cases was 59.5 years, (SD 13.0), 51% were positive for IgG anti H. pylori, 71% had grade III adenocarcinoma (Borrman), according to Laurenís classification, 55% had intestinal type. The seven cytokines quantified were found to be significantly elevated (p < .05) in the plasma of the cases compared to their controls. The diffuse GC cases presented significantly elevated IFNγ levels. By logistic regression, the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 are significantly associated with GC (p < .05) regardless of the H. pylori infection status. IL-6 and IL-10 stand out as the main cytokines associated with the presence of GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Plasma/chemistry , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-1/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Th2 Cells , Th17 Cells , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Th1 Cells , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment , Neoplasms/complications
7.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 35(1): 11-17, oct. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366376

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China, and became rapidly the worst pandemic in 100 years. Coronaviruses are respiratory viruses that can cause diseases ranging from mild to fatal lower respiratory tract infections. In a fraction of the affected patients, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, both associated with high mortality. To date, the existing evidence suggests a leading role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, including mechanisms associated with hyperinflammation, immune evasion, cytokine release syndrome, depletion of functional T cells, and ineffective humoral immunity. Here we discuss the current evidence regarding these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunity
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e8-e15, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095409

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los probióticos y prebióticos presentan beneficios potenciales en la inflamacióncrónica de las mucosas, incluida la prevención de la enterocolitis necrosante. No obstante, los mecanismos y resultados de estos efectos inmunomoduladores son confusos. El objetivo fue investigar la respuesta de las citocinas a Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium asociados con fructo- y galactooligosacáridos (simbióticos) y lactoferrina en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer.Población y métodos. Se asignó aleatoriamente a lactantes con ≤32 semanas de gestación y ≤1500 g de peso para recibir simbióticos o 1 ml de agua destilada como placebo desde la primera alimentación hasta el alta. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre los días posnatales 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2 y 28 ± 2, y se midieron interferón-γ, interleucina (IL)-5, IL-10 e IL-17A.Resultados. En el grupo del estudio (n = 25), la concentración de IL-10 disminuyó a lo largo del estudio (p = 0,011), pero no cambió en el grupo de referencia. La concentración de IL-5 se mantuvo constante los primeros 14 días y luego disminuyó significativamente (p= 0,042) en el grupo del estudio, mientras que aumentó en los primeros 14 días (p = 0,019) y luego disminuyó en 28 días (p = 0,011) en el grupo de referencia (n = 25).La concentración de otras citocinas no cambió a lo largo del estudio.Conclusión. El uso combinado de probióticos con oligosacáridos y lactoferrina estuvo asociado con una disminución en la concentración de IL-10, pero no se observó un cambio en las otras citocinas.


Introduction. Probiotics and prebiotics, which are multifunctional agents, have potential benefits in chronic mucosal inflammation, including the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the mechanisms and the results of these immunomodulatory effects are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the cytokine response to the combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides (symbiotic) and lactoferrin in very low birth weight neonates.Population and Methods. Infants ≤ 32 GWs and ≤ 1,500 g were randomly assigned to receive a symbiotic combination or 1 ml distilled water as placebo starting with the first feed until discharge. Blood samples were obtained at postnatal 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 28 ± 2 days, and the serum levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured.Results. In the study group (n = 25), the IL-10 levels decreased throughout the study period (p = 0.011) but did not change in the control group. The IL-5 levels remained steady in the first 14 days and decreased significantly thereafter (p = 0.042) in the study group, whereas they increased in the first 14 days (p = 0.019), and then decreased in 28 days (p = 0.011) in the control group (n = 25). The levels of the other cytokines did not change throughout the study period.Conclusion.The combined use of probiotics with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin was associated with a decrease in IL-10 levels, but no change was observed in the other cytokines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cytokines/analysis , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Prebiotics , Synbiotics/administration & dosage , Lactoferrin/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Turkey , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Milk, Human
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e038, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100932

ABSTRACT

Abstract The possible role of B-cell growth and differentiation-related cytokines on the pathogenesis of diabetes-related periodontitis has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the gene expression of proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), two major cytokines associated to survival, differentiation and maturation of B cells in biopsies from gingival tissue with periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from subjects with periodontitis (n = 17), with periodontitis and DM (n = 19) as well as from periodontally and systemically healthy controls (n = 10). Gene expressions for APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were evaluated using qPCR. The expressions APRIL, BLyS, RANKL, OPG, TRAP and DC-STAMP were all higher in both periodontitis groups when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the expressions of BLyS, TRAP and RANKL were significantly higher in the subjects with periodontitis and DM when compared to those with periodontitis alone (p < 0.05). The mRNA levels of BLyS correlated positively with RANKL in the subjects with periodontitis and DM (p < 0.05). BLyS is overexpressed in periodontitis tissues of subjects with type 2 DM, suggesting a possible role of this cytokine on the pathogenesis DM-related periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/immunology , Periodontitis/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , B-Cell Activating Factor/analysis , Osteogenesis/immunology , Reference Values , Biopsy , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gingiva/immunology , Gingiva/pathology , Middle Aged
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8604, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100926

ABSTRACT

Maraba virus is a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that was isolated in 1983 from sandflies captured in the municipality of Maraba, state of Pará, Amazônia, Brazil. Despite 30 years having passed since its isolation, little is known about the neuropathology induced by the Maraba virus. Accordingly, in this study the histopathological features, inflammatory glial changes, cytokine concentrations, and nitric oxide activity in the encephalon of adult mice subjected to Maraba virus nostril infection were evaluated. The results showed that 6 days after intranasal inoculation, severe neuropathological-associated disease signs appeared, including edema, necrosis and pyknosis of neurons, generalized congestion of encephalic vessels, and intra- and perivascular meningeal lymphocytic infiltrates in several brain regions. Immunolabeling of viral antigens was observed in almost all central nervous system (CNS) areas and this was associated with intense microglial activation and astrogliosis. Compared to control animals, infected mice showed significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (INF)-γ, MCP-1, nitric oxide, and encephalic cytokine levels. We suggest that an exacerbated inflammatory response in several regions of the CNS of adult BALB/c mice might be responsible for their deaths.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Vesicular Stomatitis/complications , Meningoencephalitis/complications , Brazil , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Vesiculovirus , Microglia/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Vesicular Stomatitis/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Meningoencephalitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/analysis
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 596-604, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042043

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aortic dissection (AD) has been recognized to be associated with an inflammatory process. Clinical observations demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated interleukin (IL)-6 level in comparison to hypertensive or healthy controls. Adverse events such as acute lung injury, postimplantation syndrome, and death are associated with an elevated IL-6 level. Thus, circulating IL-6 could be a reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of AD and for the eveluation of the therapeutic outcomes and the prognosis of AD patients. Therapeutic interventions aiming at attenuating the inflammatory status by IL-6 neutralization could effectively decrease the IL-6 level and thus reverse the progression of the disorder of AD patient. Endovascular aortic repair can effectively control the inflammatory cytokines. Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest during aortic arch replacement shows better neuroprotectve effect with an improved IL-6 level of the cerebrospinal fluid. These results facilitate the understanding of the etiology of AD and guide the directions for the treatment of acute AD in the future. More effective therapeutic agents developed based on the theories of IL-6 signaling involved in the mechasims of AD are anticipated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Aneurysm/metabolism , Interleukin-6/analysis , Aortic Dissection/metabolism , Aortic Aneurysm/diagnosis , Aortic Aneurysm/therapy , Prognosis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Predictive Value of Tests , Cytokines/analysis , Aortic Dissection/diagnosis , Aortic Dissection/therapy
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 434-441, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038295

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: In-vitro studies showed that Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3 (LGI3) is a keratinocyte-derived cytokine that stimulates melanin synthesis and is increased after ultra violet B (UVB) irradiation. So, we postulated that LGI3 may be involved in vitiligo aetiopathogenesis and may participate in narrow band ultra violet B (NB-UVB) induced pigmentation in vitiligo. Objectives: To assess this hypothesis, lesional LGI3 immunohistochemical expression of vitiligo patients before and after NB-UVB phototherapy was studied, and its correlation with repigmentation was evaluated. Methods: Forty vitiligo patients and 20 age, sex, and skin phenotype-matched controls were enrolled. Patients were treated with NB-UVB thrice weekly for 12 weeks. VASI score was evaluated before and after NB-UVB sessions. For vitiligo patients, baseline LGI3 immunohistochemical staining was estimated, and compared to that of controls and to its post-treatment data in those patients. Results: Baseline LGI3 immunohistochemical studied parameters (expression, intensity, percentage and H score) were significantly lower in vitiligo cases than controls (p=0.003, 0.013, 0.001 and 0.001 respectively). After 12 weeks of NB-UVB phototherapy, these LGI3 immunohistochemical parameters were up-regulated and became comparable to that of controls (p >0.05 for all). There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement of both VASI score and LGI3 H score mean values (r=-0.349 , p=0.027). Study limitations: Small number of investigated subjects. Conclusions: Decreased LGI3 protein may play an active role in vitiligo pathogenesis and its up-regulation after NB-UVB phototherapy, may actively participate in NB-UVB photo-induced melanogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ultraviolet Therapy/methods , Vitiligo/pathology , Vitiligo/radiotherapy , Proteins/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Melanocytes/radiation effects
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 27-33, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001503

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is sexually transmitted and causes persistent infection. This virus induces activation of the immune system and production of inflammatory cytokines. This study aimed to assess the cytokine profile and cytopathological findings in the cervicovaginal fluid of asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected women. Methods: HTLV-1-infected and uninfected women were selected at the Centro de Atendimento ao Portador de HTLV in Salvador-Brazil. None of the included HTLV-1-infected women reported any HTLV-1-associated diseases. All volunteers underwent gynecological examination to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Cytokine quantification was performed using the Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) Human Th1/Th2/Th17 kit. Light microscopy was used to evaluate cervicovaginal cytopathology. In addition, proviral load in cervicovaginal fluid and peripheral blood was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: 112 women (63 HTLV-1-infected and 49 uninfected) were evaluated. No differences were found with respect to cytopathological cervicovaginal findings between the groups. IL-2, TNF, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 levels were significantly higher in cervicovaginal fluid of the HTLV-1-infected women than in uninfected women (p < 0.05). Conversely, IFN-γ was found to be lower in the HTLV-1-infected women (p < 0.001) compared to uninfected individuals. Cervicovaginal proviral load was detectable in 53% of the HTLV-1-infected women and was found to be consistently lower than the proviral load in peripheral blood. Conclusions: HTLV-1 infection induces immune activation in cervicovaginal environment, characterized by elevated concentrations of Th1, Th2, and IL17 in the cervicovaginal fluid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vagina/pathology , Body Fluids/chemistry , HTLV-I Infections/pathology , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Social Class , Vagina/immunology , Vagina/virology , Body Fluids/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/isolation & purification , HTLV-I Infections/immunology , HTLV-I Infections/virology , Cervix Uteri/immunology , Cervix Uteri/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Viral Load , Interleukin-17/immunology
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(9): e201900902, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054698

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the role of vagus nerve activation in the protective effects of hypercapnia in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to either high-tidal volume or low-tidal volume ventilation (control) and monitored for 4h. The high-tidal volume group was further divided into either a vagotomy or sham-operated group and each surgery group was further divided into two subgroups: normocapnia and hypercapnia. Injuries were assessed hourly through hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. Protein concentration, cell count and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung wet-to-dry weight and pathological changes were examined. Vagus nerve activity was recorded for 1h. Results: Compared to the control group, injurious ventilation resulted in a decrease in PaO2/FiO2 and greater lung static compliance, MPO activity, enhanced BALF cytokines, protein concentration, cell count, and histology injury score. Conversely, hypercapnia significantly improved VILI by decreasing the above injury parameters. However, vagotomy abolished the protective effect of hypercapnia on VILI. In addition, hypercapnia enhanced efferent vagus nerve activity compared to normocapnia. Conclusion: These results indicate that the vagus nerve plays an important role in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of hypercapnia on VILI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vagus Nerve/surgery , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/prevention & control , Hypercapnia , Vagotomy , Random Allocation , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180365, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012506

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Visfatin is an adipokine that plays an important role in immune functions as a growth factor, enzyme, and pro-inflammatory mediator. We aimed to determine the levels of visfatin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in both obese/non-obese patients, with/without generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP). Methodology Patients were categorized as obese (O) (n=31) or non-obese (nO) (n=19). Groups were divided into four subgroups according to periodontal conditions: (1) periodontally healthy without obesity (nO-Ctrl); (2) GCP without obesity (nO-CP); (3) periodontally healthy with obesity (O-Ctrl); and (4) GCP with obesity (O-CP). Demographic variables, anthropometric and laboratory data were recorded. Periodontal parameters were measured at baseline and 3rd months after either non-surgical periodontal treatment or calorie -restricted diet therapy. At the same time, GCF samples were taken from patients to analyze TNF-alpha, IL-6,and visfatin levels. Results Periodontal parameters were significantly higher in the O group than in the nO group (P<0.05). IL-6 levels were higher in the O group than in the nO group (P<0.001). The visfatin levels of the obese patients were reduceddecreased following the treatments (P<0.05). Cholesterol levels were higher in the O group than in the nO groups (P<0.05). IL-6 levels were higher in O-CP and O-Ctrl groups than in the nO-Ctrl group (P<0.05). Compared to the other groups, visfatin levels were significantly higher in the O-CP group but decreased following treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that visfatin and IL-6 levels in GCF are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity and periodontitis. Within the limits of this study, we considered that there might be an association between the lipid profile and periodontitis on systemically healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/analysis , Obesity/metabolism , Periodontitis/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Radiography, Panoramic , Biomarkers/analysis , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Periodontal Index , Cytokines/physiology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/physiology , Middle Aged
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180529, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012507

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Dental composites release unreacted resin monomers into the oral environment, even after polymerization. Periodontal cells are, therefore, exposed to substances that potentially elicit the immune inflammatory response. The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the interaction between resin monomers and human immune cells found in the gingival crevicular fluid are not fully understood yet. This study investigated the ability of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (BISGMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to induce apoptosis and cytokine release by human leukocytes stimulated with a periodontal pathogen. Methodology: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 16 healthy individuals were included in this study. To determine the toxicity, the PBMC were incubated for 20 hours, with monomers, for the analysis of cell viability using MTT assay. To evaluate cell death in the populations of monocytes and lymphocytes, they were exposed to sub-lethal doses of each monomer and of heat-inactivated Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) for 5 hours. Secretions of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA after 20 hours. Results: UDMA and TEGDMA induced apoptosis after a short-time exposure. Bacterial challenge induced significant production of IL-1β and TNF-α (p<0.05). TEGDMA reduced the bacterial-induced release of IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas UDMA reduced IL-1β release (p<0.05). These monomers did not affect IL-10 and IL-6 secretion. BISGMA did not significantly interfere in cytokine release. Conclusions: These results show that resin monomers are toxic to PBMC in a dose-dependent manner, and may influence the local immune inflammatory response and tissue damage mechanisms via regulation of bacterial-induced IL-1β and TNF-α secretion by PBMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Polymethacrylic Acids/pharmacology , Polyurethanes/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/physiology , Methacrylates/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Necrosis
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180671, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1019970

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To monitor early periodontal disease progression and to investigate clinical and molecular profile of inflamed sites by means of crevicular fluid and gingival biopsy analysis. Methodology: Eighty-one samples of twenty-seven periodontitis subjects and periodontally healthy individuals were collected for the study. Measurements of clinical parameters were recorded at day −15, baseline and 2 months after basic periodontal treatment aiming at monitoring early variations ofthe clinical attachment level. Saliva, crevicular fluid and gingival biopsies were harvested from clinically inflamed and non-inflamed sites from periodontal patients and from control sites of healthy patients for the assessment of IL-10, MMP-8, VEGF, RANKL, OPG and TGF-β1 protein and gene expression levels. Results: Baseline IL-10 protein levels from inflamed sites were higher in comparison to both non-inflamed and control sites (p<0.05). Higher expression of mRNA for IL-10, RANK-L, OPG, e TGF-β1 were also observed in inflamed sites at day −15 prior treatment (p<0.05). After the periodontal treatment and the resolution of inflammation, seventeen percent of evaluated sites still showed clinically detectable attachment loss without significant differences in the molecular profile. Conclusions: Clinical attachment loss is a negative event that may occur even after successful basic periodontal therapy, but it is small and limited to a small percentage of sites. Elevated inflammation markers of inflamed sites from disease patients reduced to the mean levels of those observed in healthy subjects after successful basic periodontal therapy. Significantly elevated both gene and protein levels of IL-10 in inflamed sites prior treatment confirms its modulatory role in the disease status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontal Attachment Loss/pathology , Periodontitis/therapy , Saliva/chemistry , Time Factors , Biopsy , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gingiva/pathology
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e033, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011662

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on the salivary cytokine levels and clinical parameters of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) with gingivitis. A non-randomized, clinical trial was conducted in individuals diagnosed with spastic CP. Thirty-eight individuals were enrolled in the study and were categorized according to gingival index scores between 0-1 or 2-3, assigned to groups G2 or G1, respectively. Periodontal treatment comprised oral hygiene instructions, conventional mechanical treatment and 0.12% chlorhexidine applied as an adjunct. Clinical parameters and saliva samples were collected at baseline and at the 15-day follow-up visit. Bleeding on probing and periodontal screening and recording were determined. Non-stimulated saliva samples were obtained, and the salivary flow rate, the osmolality and the levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-12p70 were evaluated by a cytometric bead array. The Wilcoxon test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman correlation analysis, Poisson regression analysis and an adjusted analysis were performed (α = 0.05). The groups differed significantly in periodontal clinical parameters at baseline and at follow-up. Salivary flow rate and osmolality were similar in both groups at both timepoints. However, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were higher in G1 than in G2 at baseline. Mechanical treatment resulted in improved clinical parameters for both groups. Furthermore, mechanical treatment resulted in a significant reduction in salivary IL-1β and IL-8 levels for both groups after treatment. Periodontal treatment performed in individuals with CP and gingivitis reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Periodontitis/therapy , Saliva/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Cerebral Palsy/complications , Gingivitis/complications , Gingivitis/rehabilitation , Osmolar Concentration , Saliva/immunology , Saliva/microbiology , Poisson Distribution , Periodontal Index , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-10 , Dental Prophylaxis/methods , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Gingivitis/microbiology
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e040, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001596

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The study characterizes dental implant surfaces treated with phosphoric acid to assess the effects of acid treatment on blood cells and correlate them with cytokine levels. The implant surfaces examined were divided into untreated metal surface (US; n = 50), metal surface treated with phosphoric acid (ATS; n = 50) and cement surface (CS; n = 50) groups. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and rheometry. The implants were incubated with human blood mononuclear cells for 24 h, with surface rinsing in the ATS treatment. Cell viability was determined by colorimetric methods and cytokines in the culture supernatant were quantified using flow cytometry. In the ATS group, the surface porosity and contact surface were increased and plaques were observed on the surface. The blood flow and viscosity curves were similar among the treatments, and the high cell viability rates indicate the biocompatibility of the materials used. An increase in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was observed in the ATS and CS groups. There were positive correlations between IL-10 and IL-2 levels and between IL-10 and IL-4 levels in the culture supernatant of the ATS group. The results suggest that implant surface treatment with phosphoric acid activates the production of inflammatory cytokines. The increased cytokine levels can modulate the immune response, thereby improving biofunctional processes and promoting the success of dental implants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphoric Acids/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Dental Implants , Cytokines/analysis , Dental Materials/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Survival , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Dental Cements , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
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