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Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 559-571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010062


BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate, but the treatment of lung cancer still lacks low toxicity and efficient anti-tumor drugs. Polysaccharide from radix tetrastigme has development value in anti-tumor treatment methods. This study was to observe the effect of polysaccharide from radix tetrastigme on immune response of Lewis lung cancer mice and explore its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Lewis lung cancer mouse models were established and randomly grouped. The spleen polypeptide group was intragastric with 50 mg/kg spleen polypeptide, and the radix tetrastigme polysaccharide low, medium and high dose groups were intragastric with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg radix tetrastigme polysaccharide, respectively, and the model group and the control group were intragastric with equivolume normal saline. Tumor formation and metastasis were compared. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of tumor cells. Macrophage phagocytosis, apoptosis, M1/M2 polarization, T cell subsets and cytokine levels in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. The proliferation activity of macrophages was detected by methyl thiazolyldiphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Dendritic cell (DC) antigen presenting function was detected by chlorophenol red-β-D-galactopyranoside (CPRG) method. Tumor tissue differentiation antigen cluster 47 (CD47) mRNA and protein expression and macrophage signal regulatory protein α (SIRRP α) expression were detected by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot (WB).@*RESULTS@#The tumor inhibition rates and anti-metastasis rates in the 3-dose radix tetrastigme polysaccharide group and the spleen polypeptide group were higher than those in the model group, and the pathological injury of tumor tissue were severer, and the positive rate of phagocytosis of ink by macrophages and the efficiency of phagocytosis of tumor cells were increased; the apoptosis rate of macrophages was decreased; the proliferation activity of macrophages, polarization ratio of macrophages to M1 type, DC antigen presenting ability, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ levels were increased; the level of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and the expression of tumor tissue CD47, macrophage SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2), and phosphorylation signal regulatory protein α (p-SIRPα) were decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the above indexes between low-dose radix tetrastigme polysaccharide group and spleen polypeptide group (P>0.05), and the effects of radix tetrastigme polysaccharide were dose-dependent.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Radix tetrastigme polysaccharide can inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and immune response in Lewis lung cancer mice, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting SIRP/CD47 signaling pathway.

Mice , Animals , CD47 Antigen/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cytokines/genetics , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Immunity , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 679-690, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971082


The "Lübeck disaster", twins studies, adoptees studies, and other epidemiological observational studies have shown that host genetic factors play a significant role in determining the host susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. From linkage analyses to genome-wide association studies, it has been discovered that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes as well as non-HLA genes (such as SLC11A1, VDR, ASAP1 as well as genes encoding cytokines and pattern recognition receptors) are associated with tuberculosis susceptibility. To provide ideas for subsequent studies about risk prediction of MTB infection and the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, we review the research progress on tuberculosis susceptibility related genes in recent years, focusing on the correlation of HLA genes and non-HLA genes with the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We also report the results of an enrichment analysis of the genes mentioned in the article. Most of these genes appear to be involved in the regulation of immune system and inflammation, and are also closely related to autoimmune diseases.

Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Tuberculosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Cytokines/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1916-1926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981411


The immunomodulatory effect of Saposhnikoviae Radix polysaccharide(SRP) was evaluated based on the zebrafish mo-del, and its mechanism was explored by transcriptome sequencing and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR). The immune-compromised model was induced by navelbine in the immunofluorescence-labeled transgenic zebrafish Tg(lyz: DsRed), and the effect of SRP on the density and distribution of macrophages in zebrafish was evaluated. The effect of SRP on the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in wild-type AB zebrafish was detected by neutral red and Sudan black B staining. The content of NO in zebrafish was detected by DAF-FM DA fluorescence probe. The content of IL-1β and IL-6 in zebrafish was detected by ELISA. The differentially expressed genes(DEGs) of zebrafish in the blank control group, the model group, and the SRP treatment group were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing. The immune regulation mechanism was analyzed by Gene Ontology(GO)and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG)enrichment, and the expression levels of key genes were verified by RT-qPCR. The results showed that SRP could significantly increase the density of immune cells in zebrafish, increase the number of macrophages and neutrophils, and reduce the content of NO, IL-1β, and IL-6 in immune-compromised zebrafish. The results of transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that SRP could affect the expression level of immune-related genes on Toll-like receptor pathway and herpes simplex infection pathway to affect the release of downstream cytokines and interferon, thereby completing the activation process of T cells and playing a role in regulating the immune activity of the body.

Animals , Zebrafish/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Cytokines/genetics , Macrophages , Transcriptome
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 501-508, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939774


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular bases of Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome classification in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in terms of DNA methylation, transcription and cytokines.@*METHODS@#Genome-wide DNA methylation and 48 serum cytokines were detected in CHB patients (DNA methylation: 15 cases; serum cytokines: 62 cases) with different CM syndromes, including dampness and heat of Gan (Liver) and gallbladder (CHB1, DNA methylation: 5 cases, serum cytokines: 15 cases), Gan stagnation and Pi (Spleen) deficiency (CHB2, DNA methylation: 5 cases, serum cytokines: 15 cases), Gan and Shen (Kidney) yin deficiency (CHB3, DNA methylation: 5 cases, serum cytokines: 16 cases), CHB with hidden symptoms (HS, serum cytokines:16 cases) and healthy controls (DNA methylation: 6 cases). DNA methylation of a critical gene was further validated and its mRNA expression was detected on enlarged samples. Genome-wide DNA methylation was detected using Human Methylation 450K Assay and furthered verified using pyrosequencing. Cytokines and mRNA expression of gene were evaluated using multiplex biometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunoassay and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), respectively.@*RESULTS@#Totally 28,667 loci, covering 18,403 genes were differently methylated among CHB1, CHB2 and CHB3 (P<0.05 and |Δβ value| > 0.17). Further validation showed that compared with HS, the hg19 CHR6: 29691140 and its closely surrounded 2 CpG loci were demethylated and its mRNA expressions were significantly up-regulated in CHB1 (P<0.05). However, they remained unaltered in CHB2 (P>0.05). Levels of Interleukin (IL)-12 were higher in CHB3 and HS than that in CHB1 and CHB2 groups (P<0.05). Levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β were higher in CHB3 than other groups and leukemia inhibitory factor level was higher in CHB1 and HS than CHB2 and CHB3 groups (P<0.05). IL-12, MIP-1α and MIP-1β concentrations were positively correlated with human leukocyte antigen F (HLA-F) mRNA expression (R2=0.238, P<0.05; R2=0.224, P<0.05; R=0.447, P<0.01; respectively). Furthermore, combination of HLA-F mRNA and differential cytokines greatly improved the differentiating accuracy among CHB1, CHB2 and HS.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Demethylation of CpG loci in 5' UTR of HLA-F may up-regulate its mRNA expression and HLA-F expression was associated with IL-12, MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels, indicating that HLA-F and the differential cytokines might jointly involve in the classification of CM syndromes in CHB.@*REGISTRATION NO@#ChiCTR-RCS-13004001.

Humans , Chemokine CCL3/genetics , Chemokine CCL4/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , HLA Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Interleukin-12/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , RNA, Messenger , Syndrome
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 173-188, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929050


The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves many factors, including environmental parameters, microorganisms, and the immune system. Although research on IBD continues to expand, the specific pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. Protein modification refers to chemical modification after protein biosynthesis, also known as post-translational modification (PTM), which causes changes in the properties and functions of proteins. Since proteins can be modified in different ways, such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation, the functions of proteins in different modified states will also be different. Transitions between different states of protein or changes in modification sites can regulate protein properties and functions. Such modifications like neddylation, sumoylation, glycosylation, and acetylation can activate or inhibit various signaling pathways (e.g., nuclear factor-‍κB (NF-‍κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (AKT)) by changing the intestinal flora, regulating immune cells, modulating the release of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-‍‍1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF‍-‍α), and interferon-‍γ (IFN-‍γ), and ultimately leading to the maintenance of the stability of the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of PTM and describe its regulatory role in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Humans , Cytokines/genetics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231134, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249257


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was estimated to be the third cause of global mortality by 2020. Acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms and could be due to virus/bacterial infections and air pollution. Increased expression of inflammatory markers in patients with AECOPD is associated with viral infection. This study aimed to detect different viruses and analyze the expression of various inflammatory markers associated with AECOPD patients. Three hundred and forty-seven patients diagnosed with COPD according to GOLD criteria were included in this study. Swab samples and blood were collected for the detection of viruses by RT-PCR and expression of inflammatory markers, respectively. Of the swab samples, 113 (32.6%) of samples were positive for virus detection. Of these, HRV (39.8%) was the predominant virus detected followed by FluB (27.4%) and FluA (22.1%). The presence of HRV was significantly higher (p=0.044) among the other detected viruses. When compared to healthy controls the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher (p<0.05) in virus-positive patients. The IL-6 and IL-8 were the next predominantly expressed in markers among the samples. The higher expression rate of IL-8 was significantly (p<0.05) associated with patients having COPD GOLD III severity level and smoking history. Although HRV was the predominant virus detected the combined prevalence of Influenza A and B surpassing the rate of HRV. The high-level expression of well known inflammatory markers of AECOPD, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 indicates a chronic severe illness. These markers play an important role and could be used as a marker for determining the severity of AECOPD.

Estima-se que a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) seja a terceira causa de mortalidade global em 2020. A exacerbação aguda DPOC (AECOPD) é um agravamento súbito dos sintomas da DPOC e pode ser devido a infecções por vírus/bactérias e poluição do ar. O aumento da expressão de marcadores inflamatórios em pacientes com AECOPD está associado à infecção viral. Este estudo teve como objetivo detectar diferentes vírus e analisar a expressão de vários marcadores inflamatórios associados a pacientes com AECOPD. Trezentos e quarenta e sete pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC de acordo com os critérios GOLD foram incluídos neste estudo. Amostras de swab e sangue foram coletadas para detecção de vírus por RT-PCR e expressão de marcadores inflamatórios, respectivamente. Das amostras de esfregaço, 113 (32,6%) amostras foram positivas para detecção de vírus. Nestas, o HRV (39,8%) foi o vírus predominante detectado, seguido do FluB (27,4%) e do FluA (22,1%). A presença de VFC foi significativamente maior (p = 0,044) entre os demais vírus detectados. Quando comparados a controles saudáveis, os níveis de expressão de TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-8 foram significativamente maiores (p <0,05) em pacientes com vírus positivo. A IL-6 e a IL-8 foram as próximas predominantemente expressas em marcadores entre as amostras. A maior taxa de expressão de IL-8 foi significativamente (p <0,05) associada a pacientes com grau de gravidade GOLD III da DPOC e história de tabagismo. Embora o HRV tenha sido o vírus predominante, a prevalência combinada de Influenza A e B ultrapassou a taxa de HRV. O alto nível de expressão de marcadores inflamatórios bem conhecidos de AECOPD, TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-8 indica uma doença crônica grave. Esses marcadores desempenham um papel importante e podem ser usados como um marcador para determinar a gravidade da AECOPD.

Humans , Viruses , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/genetics , Mongolia
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 412-419, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878989


In this paper, Asarum polysaccharides(AP) were extracted, and its composition was analyzed to study the activity against H1 N1 influenza virus in vitro and its intervention effect on mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome. AP was prepared by the strategy of water extraction and alcohol precipitation, the content was determined, and its monosaccharide composition was analyzed. The cell Real-time monitoring system and Reed-Muench model were adopted to evaluate the antiviral activity of AP in vitro. And the mouse model of kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was established in vivo to compare the efficacy of Mahuang Xixin Fuzi Decoction(MXF) and AP. MXF group and AP group were treated with clinical equivalent doses of 1.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) and 0.077 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) respectively, once a day for 6 consecutive days. Real-time PCR was used to detect the relative expression of M gene of H1 N1 influenza virus and cytokines in lung tissue. The content of AP in Asarum was 25.22%, and the protein content was 0.8%. And the monosaccharide composition was identified as L-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose. TI values of Tamiflu, MXF and AP were 30.00, 8.06 and 10.33, respectively. Three different doses of AP could significantly reduce the concentration of virus in supernatant. Compared with the model mice, lung indexes of MXF group and AP group decreased significantly(P<0.05), and the relative expression of M gene decreased significantly(P<0.05). The relative expressions of IL-10 and IFN-γ were up-regulated to varying degrees, while the relative gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were down-regulated to different degrees. In addition, AP could significantly enhance the expression of TNF-α(P<0.01). AP had a good anti-influenza virus activity in vitro, and could protect mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome by reducing the viral load in lung tissue, decreasing inflammation damage in lung tissue, and regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with the prescription of MXF, AP had a better antiviral activity.

Animals , Mice , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asarum , Cytokines/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Lung , Polysaccharides
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 743-749, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879936


OBJECTIVE@#To detect the differentially expressed inflammatory proteins in acute gouty arthritis (AGA) with protein chip.@*METHODS@#The Raybiotech cytokine antibody chip was used to screen the proteomic expression in serum samples of 10 AGA patients and 10 healthy individuals. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were applied to determine the biological function annotation of differentially expressed proteins and the enrichment of signal pathways. ELISA method was used to verify the differential protein expression in 60 AGA patients and 60 healthy subjects. The ROC curve was employed to evaluate the diagnostic value of differential proteins in AGA patients.@*RESULTS@#According to|log@*CONCLUSIONS@#Proteomics can be applied to identify the biomarkers of AGA, which may be used for risk prediction and diagnosis of AGA patients.

Humans , Arthritis, Gouty/diagnosis , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation , Protein Array Analysis , Proteomics
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 816-827, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010488


Catalpol is the main active ingredient of an extract from Radix rehmanniae, which in a previous study showed a protective effect against various types of tissue injury. However, a protective effect of catalpol on uterine inflammation has not been reported. In this study, to investigate the protective mechanism of catalpol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs) and mouse endometritis, in vitro and in vivo inflammation models were established. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and its downstream inflammatory factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot (WB), and immunofluorescence techniques. The results from ELISA and qRT-PCR showed that catalpol dose-dependently reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and chemokines such as C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) and CXCL5, both in bEECs and in uterine tissue. From the experimental results of WB, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence, the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 were markedly inhibited by catalpol compared with the LPS group. The inflammatory damage to the mouse uterus caused by LPS was greatly reduced and was accompanied by a decline in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The results of this study suggest that catalpol can exert an anti-inflammatory impact on LPS-induced bEECs and mouse endometritis by inhibiting inflammation and activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Mice , Chemokines/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Endometritis/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Iridoid Glucosides/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/physiology
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 180-192, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010450


To understand the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) on intestinal barrier function in pre-weaning piglets under normal conditions, twenty-four newborn littermate piglets were randomly divided into two groups. Piglets in the control group were orally administered with 2 mL 0.1 g/mL sterilized skim milk while the treatment group was administered the same volume of sterilized skim milk with the addition of viable L. rhamnosus at the 1st, 3rd, and 5th days after birth. The feeding trial was conducted for 25 d. Results showed that piglets in the L. rhamnosus group exhibited increased weaning weight and average daily weight gain, whereas diarrhea incidence was decreased. The bacterial abundance and composition of cecal contents, especially Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria, were altered by probiotic treatment. In addition, L. rhamnosus increased the jejunal permeability and promoted the immunologic barrier through regulating antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines via Toll-like receptors. Our findings indicate that oral administration of L. rhamnosus GG to newborn piglets is beneficial for intestinal health of pre-weaning piglets by improving the biological, physical, and immunologic barriers of intestinal mucosa.

Animals , Female , Male , Administration, Oral , Animals, Newborn , Cytokines/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immunity, Innate , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction , Swine , Weaning
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(5): 599-607, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974364


Abstract Introduction: Adenoid hypertrophy is a condition that presents itself as the chronic enlargement of adenoid tissues; it is frequently observed in the pediatric population. The Ugrp2 gene, a member of the secretoglobin superfamily, encodes a low-molecular weight protein that functions in the differentiation of upper airway epithelial cells. However, little is known about the association of Ugrp2 genetic variations with adenoid hypertrophy. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Ugrp2 gene with adenoid hypertrophy and its related phenotypes. Methods: A total of 219 children, comprising 114 patients suffering from adenoid hypertrophy and 105 healthy patients without adenoid hypertrophy, were enrolled in this study. Genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene were determined by DNA sequencing. Results: We identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (IVS1-189G>A, IVS1-89T>G, c.201delC, and IVS2-15G>A) in the Ugrp2 gene. Our genotype analysis showed that the Ugrp2 (IVS1-89T>G) TG and (c.201delC) CdelC genotypes and their minor alleles were associated with a considerable increase in the risk of adenoid hypertrophy compared with the controls (p = 0.012, p = 0.009, p = 0.013, and p = 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, Ugrp2 (GTdelCG, GTdelCA) haplotypes were significantly associated with adenoid hypertrophy (four single nucleotide polymorphisms ordered from 5′ to 3′; p = 0.0001). Polymorfism-Polymorfism interaction analysis indicated a strong interaction between combined genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene contributing to adenoid hypertrophy, as well as an increased chance of its diagnosis (p < 0.0001). In addition, diplotypes carrying the mutant Ugrp2 (c.201delC) allele were strongly associated with an increased risk of adenoid hypertrophy with asthma and with allergies (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0007, respectively). Conclusion: Some single nucleotide polymorphisms and their combinations in the Ugrp2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing adenoid hypertrophy. Therefore, we tried to underline the importance of genetic factors associated with adenoid hypertrophy and its related clinical phenotypes.

Resumo Introdução: A adenoide ou hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea é uma condição que se apresenta como o aumento crônico de tecidos linfoides na rinofaringe e é frequentemente observada na população pediátrica. O gene Ugrp2, um membro da superfamília da secretoglobina, codifica uma proteína de baixo peso molecular que funciona na diferenciação das células epiteliais das vias aéreas superiores. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a associação de variações genéticas do Ugrp2 com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea. Objetivo: Investigar a associação de polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos no gene Ugrp2 com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea e seus fenótipos relacionados. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 219 crianças, 114 pacientes com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea e 105 saudáveis. Os genótipos do gene Ugrp2 foram determinados por sequenciamento de DNA. Resultados: Identificamos quatro polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (IVS1-189G>A, IVS1-89T>G, c.201delC, e IVS2-15G>A) no gene Ugrp2. Nossa análise genotípica mostrou que os genótipos Ugrp2 (IVS1-89T>G) TG e (c.201delC) CdelC e seus alelos menores foram associados a um aumento considerável no risco de HA em comparação com os controles (p = 0,012, p = 0,009, p = 0,013 e p = 0,037, respectivamente). Além disso, os haplótipos Ugrp2 (GTdelCG, GTdelCA) foram significativamente associados com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea (quatro polimorfismos de nucleot' ordenados de 5' a 3'; p = 0,0001). A análise de interação polimorfismo-polimorfismo indicou uma forte interação entre genótipos combinados do gene Ugrp2 que contribuiu para hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea, bem como uma chance maior de seu diagnóstico (p < 0,0001). Além disso, os diplótipos que transportam o alelo mutante Ugrp2 (c.201delC) foram fortemente associados a um risco aumentado de hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea com asma e com alergias (p = 0,003 e p = 0,0007, respectivamente). Conclusão: Alguns polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único e suas combinações no gene Ugrp2 estão associados a um risco aumentado de desenvolver hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea. Portanto, tentamos enfatizar a importância dos fatores genéticos e fenótipos clínicos associados a essa hipertrofia.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adenoids/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Phenotype , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Hypertrophy/genetics
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(1): 3-5, 23/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046560


Introdução:Polimorfismos em genes de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α e IL-1ß) e antiinflamatórias (IL-10) intensificam a resposta inflamatória, após anóxia, aumentando as afecções decorrentes da síndrome hipóxico-isquêmica como a leucomalácia periventricular (LPV). Objetivos: Investigar a associação entre ambos os polimorfismos inflamatórios (-1031T/C no gene TNF-α e -511C/T no gene IL-1ß) e o antiinflamatório (-1082G/A no gene IL-10) e a etiopatogênese/risco da LPV em neonatos com esta afecção. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de casos-controle em 50 neonatos prematuros e a termo (Grupo Casos) e em 50 neonatos a termo (Grupo Controle), de ambos os sexos. DNA foi extraído de leucócitos de sangue periférico e a análise molecular realizada pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/Análise de Restrição Enzimática (PCR/RFLP). Resultados: A idade gestacional média entre casos e controles foi, respectivamente, de 31,0 semanas e 39,4 semanas (p<0,0001). O peso médio, em gramas, foi de 1561,1 para os casos e 3509,9 para controles (p<0,0001). Foi encontrada associação entre o genótipo TC (produtor intermediário de citocina inflamatória) (OR: 2.495; IC95%: 1,10-5,63; p=0,043) assim como entre os genótipos TC+CC (produtores inflamatórios intermediário+alto) (OR: 2,471; IC95%: 1,10-5,55; p=0,044) no gene TNF-α e o risco de LPV. Estatisticamente significante associação foi encontrada entre os genótipos (CT+TT) (produtores inflamatórios intermediário+alto) (OR: 23,120; IC95%: 1,31-409,4; p=0,003) no gene IL-1ß e o risco de LPV. No gene IL-10, foi encontrada reduçãosignificativa do risco de LPV para o genótipo GG (alto produtor antiinflamatório) (OR: 0,07407; IC95%: 0,02-0,34; p<0,0001)assim como para o alelo G (OR: 0,5098; IC95%: 0,29-0,91; p=0,030). Conclusão: há associação entre os polimorfismosinflamatórios (-1031T/C no gene TNF-α e -511C/T no gene IL-1ß) e o risco de desenvolvimento de LPV e associação entre opolimorfismo antiinflamatório (-1082G/A no gene IL-10) na proteção ao desenvolvimento da LPV, na população estudada.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/diagnostic imaging , Cytokines/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e180267, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040585


The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine comprises a family of genetically different strains derived by the loss of genomic regions (RDs) and other mutations. In BCG Moreau, loss of RD16 inactivates rv3405c * , encoding a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates the expression of Rv3406, an alkyl sulfatase. To evaluate the impact of this loss on the BCG and host cell viability and the cytokine profile, THP-1 cells were infected with BCG Moreau (harbouring the empty vector) and a complemented strain carrying a functional copy of rv3405c. Viability of the host cells and bacteria as well as the pattern of cytokine secretion were evaluated. Our results show that the viability of BCG Moreau is higher than that of the complemented strain in an axenic medium, suggesting a possible functional gain associated with the constitutive expression of Rv3406. Viability of the host cells did not vary significantly between recombinant strains, but differences in the profiles of the cytokine secretion (IL-1β and IL-6) were observed. Our results suggest an example of a functional gain due to gene loss contributing to the elucidation of the impact of RD16 on the physiology of BCG Moreau.

Humans , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Cell Survival/genetics , Cytokines/drug effects , Gain of Function Mutation/genetics , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Time Factors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/microbiology , BCG Vaccine/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/genetics , Gain of Function Mutation/drug effects , Mycobacterium bovis/physiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170489, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894934


BACKGROUND The severity of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC), the most frequent clinical outcome of Chagas disease (CD), has been associated with cytokine-enriched heart tissue inflammation, and high serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGFβ), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Conversely, increased interleukin (IL)-10 serum concentrations have been associated with asymptomatic CD. Cytokines and cytokine-related gene polymorphisms may control cytokine expression and have been proposed to contribute to CCC outcomes. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the association of 13 cytokine-related genes (TGFB: rs8179181, rs8105161, rs1800469; IL10: rs1800890, rs1800871, rs1800896; IFNG: rs2430561; TNF: rs1800629; BAT1: rs3853601; LTA: rs909253, rs2239704; TNFR1: rs767455; TNFR2: rs1061624) with risk and progression of CCC. FINDINGS Four hundred and six seropositive patients from CD endemic areas in the state of Pernambuco, north-eastern Brazil, were classified as non-cardiopathic (A, 110) or cardiopathic (mild, B1, 163; severe, C, 133). We found no evidence of TGFB, IL10, TNF, or TNFR1/2 gene polymorphisms associated with CCC risk or progression. Only BAT1 rs3853601 −22G carriers (B1 vs. C: OR = 0.5; p-value = 0.03) and IFNG rs2430561 +874AT (A vs. C: OR = 0.7; p-value = 0.03; A vs. B1+C: OR = 0.8; p-value = 0.02) showed a significant association with protection from cardiopathy in a logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gender and ethnicity; however, the association disappeared after performing adjustment for multiple testing. A systematic review of TNF rs1800629 −308G>A publications included five studies for meta-analysis (534 CCC and 472 asymptomatic patients) and showed no consensus in pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates for A allele or A carriers (OR = 1.4 and 1.5; p-values = 0.14 and 0.15, respectively). In CD patients, TNF serum levels were increased, but not affected by the TNF rs1800629 −308A allele. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest no significant contribution of the analysed gene variants of cytokine-related molecules to development/severity of Chagas' heart disease, reinforcing the idea that parasite/host interplay is critical to CD outcomes.

Humans , Case-Control Studies , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 428-434, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888669


Abstract During insertion of titanium dental implants, particles may shear from the implant to the periimplant region causing osteolysis, and their association with bacteria can exacerbate the inflammatory reaction. However, the association of a high invasive bacterium from the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and titanium particles remains unknown. This study evaluated pro-inflammatory reaction of human macrophages in contact with micro and nanoparticles of titanium associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS). THP-1 cell were used and treated for 12, 24 and 48 h following 6 groups: Control(C), PgLPS (L); Microparticles (M); Nanoparticles (N); PgLPS and microparticles (LM); PgLPS and nanoparticles (LN). The following assays were carried out: i) cell viability using MTS, ii) cell morphology by SEM and iii) expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by qRT-PCR and ELISA. For statistics two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used (p<0.05). After treatment, cells presented similar viability and morphology demonstrating that the treatments were not able to induce cell death. Gene expression was significantly higher for TNF-α and IL1-β after 12 h, and for IL-6 after 24 h in the N and LN groups. Cytokine production over time was an ascending curve for TNF-α with the peak at 48 h and IL1-β and IL-6 had a straight line among the time points, although cells from N group presented a significant production of IL-6 at 48 h. In conclusion, these results suggest that titanium nanoparticles stimulate stronger pro-inflammatory response in macrophages, independent of their association with LPS from P.gingivalis.

Resumo Durante a inserção de implantes dentários partículas de titânio podem ser liberadas na região peri-implantar levando ao processo de osteólise e a associação com a bactéria pode exacerbar ainda mais a reação inflamatória. Entretanto, a associação de uma bactéria altamente invasiva da cavidade oral, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) e partículas de titânio ainda não foi investigada. Este estudo avaliou a reação pró-inflamatória de macrófagos humanos em contato com micro e nanopartículas de titânio associada a lipopolissacarídeo P. gingivalis (PgLPS). As células THP-1 foram utilizadas e tratadas durante 12, 24 e 48 h nos 6 seguintes grupos: Controle (C), PgLPS (L); micropartículas (M); nanopartículas (N); PgLPS e micropartículas (LM); PgLPS e nanopartículas (LN). Em seguida foram realizados os seguintes ensaios: i) a viabilidade celular utilizando MTS, ii) a morfologia celular por MEV e iii) expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleucina-1 beta (IL-1β) e interleucina 6 (IL-6) por qRT-PCR e ELISA. Como estatística foi realizado o teste ANOVA two-way seguido pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Após o tratamento, as células apresentaram viabilidade e morfologia semelhantes, demonstrando que os tratamentos não foram capazes de induzir a morte celular. A expressão de genes foi significativamente mais elevada para o TNF-α e IL1-β após 12h, e para a IL-6 após 24 horas em N e grupos de LN. A produção de citocinas em relação ao tempo representou uma curva ascendente para o TNF-α com o pico em 48 h, enquanto que para IL1-β e IL-6 se apresentou como uma linha reta com relação ao tempo, exceto pelo grupo N que foi significativo para IL-6 em 48 h . Conclui-se, a partir destes resultados, que as nanopartículas de titânio produziram o maior estímulo na resposta pró-inflamatória nos macrófagos, independente da sua associação com LPS de P. gingivalis.

Humans , Titanium/pharmacology , Dental Implants , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Particle Size , Titanium/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Gene Expression , Cell Line , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Porphyromonas gingivalis/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , O Antigens/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Macrophages/metabolism
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2017; 18 (2): 111-119
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188472


Background: Many factors contribute for viral clearance and response to antiviral therapy. Genetic polymorphisms of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors can alter the immune response against Hepatitis C virus [HCV]

Aim of the study: The aim of the current study is to assess single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] in the promoter region of IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-y and TGF-p as predictors of response to combined Pegylated interferon ot/ribavirin [PEG-IFN/RBV] therapy in chronic HCV infected Egyptian patients

Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 150 HCV infected patients and 100 apparently healthy control subjects. All patients were treated with PEG-IFN/RBV. They were classified according to their icsponse to treatment

Genotyping of IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-y and TGF-p were performed on peripheral blood DNA using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism [PCR-RFLP] and primer specific assays

Results: Overall, 83/150 [55.3%] patients achieved sustained virological response [SVR], whereas 67 [44.7%] did not. Age and BMI were significantly lower in patients who achieved SVR [P < 0.05]. IL-10 at site [-1082] GG genotype was associated with SVR where odds ratio was 1.98 with 95% confidence interval [1.34-3.65]

None of the other genes showed a significant association with SVR

Conclusion: Analysis of IL-10 SNP at promoter site [-1082] could be used as a pretreatment predictor of response to combined PEG-IFN/RBV treatment

Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Cytokines/genetics , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 366-375, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-792595


ABSTRACT Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. However, the factors underlying the MMPs expression modulation in healthy and diseased periapical tissues remains to be determined. Objective In this study, we evaluated the association between the MMP1-1607 polymorphism (rs1799750) and pro-inflammatory milieu elements with MMP-1 mRNA levels in vivo. Material and Methods MMP1-1607 SNP and the mRNA levels of MMP-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, and FOXp3 were determined via RealTimePCR in DNA/RNA samples from patients presenting periapical granulomas (N=111, for both genotyping and expression analysis) and control subjects (N=214 for genotyping and N=26 for expression analysis). The Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Pearson, Chi-square ordinal least squares regression tests were used for data analysis (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and 1G/2G+2G/2G genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in controls, comprising a risk factor for periapical lesions development. MMP-1 mRNA levels were higher in periapical lesions than in healthy periodontal ligament samples, as well as higher in active than in inactive lesions. The polymorphic allele 2G carriers presented a significantly higher MMP-1 mRNA expression when compared with the 1G/1G genotype group. The ordered logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between the genetic polymorphism and the expression levels of MMP-1. Additionally, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-21, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4 were significant as complementary explanatory variables of MMP-1 expression. Conclusion The MMP1-1607 SNP was identified as a risk factor for periapical lesions development, possibly due to its association with increased MMP-1 mRNA levels in periapical lesions. The MMP-1 expression is also under the control of the inflammatory milieu elements, being the cytokines TNF-a, IL-21, IL-17A, and IFN-g associated with increased MMP-1 levels in periapical lesions, while IL-10, IL-9, or IL-4 presented an inverse association.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Periapical Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Up-Regulation , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Periapical Granuloma/genetics , Reference Values , Genetic Markers , Case-Control Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 113(5): 404-410, oct. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757061


Introducción. Los trastornos crónicos (TC) en etapas tempranas de la vida pueden influir en diferentes dimensiones de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de los niños/as. Objetivo. Comparar la CVRS de niños/as con TC confirmados, con TC declarados y sin TC. Población y método. Estudio transversal en el marco de una investigación mayor realizada en escuelas de Córdoba y Bahía Blanca, y en los hospitales Italiano y Garrahan de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en 2012. La presencia de TC fue establecida por diagnóstico médico en hospitales o por declaración de sus cuidadores en escolares. Los niños/as de 8 a 12 años respondieron el cuestionario KIDSCREEN-52 sobre CVRS, una escala de desarrollo puberal y una escala de recursos económicos familiares. Los cuidadores indicaron el nivel educativo materno. Se estimó la asociación entre TC y CVRS ajustada por sexo, edad, desarrollo puberal, nivel educativo materno y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados. Participaron 670 duplas niños/as-cuidadores, 13,3% (n= 89) con TC confirmados (muestras de hospitales), 14,5% (n= 97) escolares con trastornos declarados y el resto eran escolares sanos. La edad promedio fue 10,2 años (desvío estándar= 1,01); 54,8% fueron niñas. Tener TC confirmados se asoció a una mayor frecuencia de bajo bienestar físico (OR 2,61; IC 95%: 1,43-4,76), mientras que la presencia de TC declarados se asoció con bajas puntuaciones en bienestar psicológico (OR 1,96; IC 95%: 1,063,63), autopercepción (OR 2,22; IC 95%: 1,283,87) y relación con los padres (OR 2,04; IC 95%: 1,21-3,44). Conclusiones. Los niños/as con TC confirmados mostraron con mayor frecuencia malestar físico y los que tenían TC declarados manifestaron malestar en áreas psicosociales, en comparación con los niños/as sin trastorno.

Introduction. Chronic conditions (CCs) in the early stages of life may have an impact on various dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children. Objective. To compare HRQoL in children with confirmed CCs, reported CCs, and without CC. Population and Method. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 in the context of a larger research study carried out at schools in Córdoba and Bahía Blanca, and at Hospital Italiano of Buenos Aires and Hospital Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan at Buenos Aires. The presence of a chronic condition was established by medical diagnosis at the hospital or as reported by schoolchildren's caregivers. Eight-to-twelve year-old children completed the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire on HRQoL, a pubertal development scale, and a family financial resource scale. The association between CCs and HRQoL adjusted by sex, age, pubertal development, maternal education level, and socioeconomic level was estimated. Results. Six hundred and seventy children/ caregiver dyads participated; 13.3% (n= 89) had confirmed CCs, 14.5% (n= 97) were schoolchildren with reported CCs, and the rest corresponded to healthy schoolchildren. Their average age was 10.2 years old (standard deviation= 1.01); 54.8% were girls. Having a confirmed CC was associated with a higher frequency of low physical wellbeing (odds ratio --OR--: 2.61; 95% confidence interval --95% CI--:1.43-4.76), while the presence of a reported CC was associated with a low score in psychological well-being (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.06-3.63), self-perception (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.28-3.87), and parent relations (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.21-3.44). Conclusions. Children with confirmed CCs showed a higher frequency of physical discomfort, and those with reported CCs showed discomfort in psychosocial areas compared to children without CCs.

Humans , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Proteome , Transcriptome , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Proteomics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 486-492, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748219


The objective of this study was to determine the expression of miR-483 and miR-483* and the relationship among them, their host gene (Igf2), and other cytokines in a murine model of renal fibrosis. The extent of renal fibrosis was visualized using Masson staining, and fibrosis was scored 3 days and 1 and 2 weeks after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Expression of miR-483, miR-483* and various cytokine mRNAs was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of miR-483 and miR-483* was significantly upregulated in the UUO model, particularly miR-483 expression was the greatest 2 weeks after surgery. Additionally, miR-483 and miR-483* expression negatively correlated with Bmp7 expression and positively correlated with Igf2, Tgfβ, Hgf, and Ctgf expression, as determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. Hgf expression significantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks after the surgery compared to the control group. This study showed that miR-483 and miR-483* expression was upregulated in a murine UUO model. These data suggest that miR-483 and miR-483* play a role in renal fibrosis and that miR-483* may interact with miR-483 in renal fibrosis. Thus, these miRNAs may play a role in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis and coexpression of their host gene Igf2.

Animals , Male , Mice , Gene Expression , Introns , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/genetics , MicroRNAs , Ureteral Obstruction/genetics , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Blotting, Western , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis/genetics , Kidney/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(5): 396-402, May 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759373


Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) can infect ruminants and remain subclinical for long periods within herds. The identification of organs that are more susceptible to infection and the evaluation of cytokine expression at the site of infection are important to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. In this study, the probability of detection of MAP-DNA and the expression of cytokines in organs of C57BL/6 mice infected intraperitoneally for 120 days were evaluated. Among the evaluated organs, the spleen (85%), colon (75%) and liver (60%) had the highest frequency of positivity. When compared these frequencies between organs, it has been found that the spleen had 1.54 times as likely to be positive in relation to the ileum, and 2.0 times more likely in relation to the Peyer's patches. In addition, at 60 days post-infection, the spleen and the liver were responsible for upregulation of IFN-γ , and the ileum by TNF-α and IL-4. The results indicate that the spleen is the best organ for evaluating an experimental infection by MAP, especially in the initial stages of the infection. Moreover, it showed that the spleen, liver and ileum have a direct role in the inflammatory response in experimental models.

Mycobacterium avium subespécie paratuberculosis (MAP) pode infectar ruminantes e permanecer subclínica por longos períodos nos rebanhos. A identificação de órgãos mais susceptíveis à infecção e a avaliação da expressão das citocinas no local da infecção são importantes para compreender a patogênese de MAP. Neste estudo foi avaliada a probabilidade de detecção de DNA de MAP e a expressão de citocinas em órgãos de camundongos C57BL/6 infectados por via intraperitoneal durante 120 dias. Dentre os órgãos avaliados, o baço (85%), cólon (75%) e fígado (60%) tiveram as maiores frequências de positividade. Quando comparadas essas frequências entre os órgãos, verificou-se que o baço teve 1,54 vezes mais probabilidade de ser positivo em relação ao íleo, e 2,0 vezes mais probabilidade em relação às placas de Peyer. Além disso, aos 60 dias pós infecção, o baço e o fígado foram responsáveis pela maior expressão de IFN-γ e o íleo pela TNF-α e IL-4. Os resultados indicam que o baço é o melhor órgão para avaliar uma infecção experimental por MAP, principalmente nos períodos iniciais da infecção. Além disso, demonstrou que o baço, fígado e íleo têm importância direta na resposta inflamatória de modelos experimentais.

Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/genetics , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/pathogenicity , Paratuberculosis/diagnosis , Asymptomatic Infections , Spleen/virology , Infections/veterinary , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Histological Techniques/veterinary