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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231134, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249257

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was estimated to be the third cause of global mortality by 2020. Acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms and could be due to virus/bacterial infections and air pollution. Increased expression of inflammatory markers in patients with AECOPD is associated with viral infection. This study aimed to detect different viruses and analyze the expression of various inflammatory markers associated with AECOPD patients. Three hundred and forty-seven patients diagnosed with COPD according to GOLD criteria were included in this study. Swab samples and blood were collected for the detection of viruses by RT-PCR and expression of inflammatory markers, respectively. Of the swab samples, 113 (32.6%) of samples were positive for virus detection. Of these, HRV (39.8%) was the predominant virus detected followed by FluB (27.4%) and FluA (22.1%). The presence of HRV was significantly higher (p=0.044) among the other detected viruses. When compared to healthy controls the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher (p<0.05) in virus-positive patients. The IL-6 and IL-8 were the next predominantly expressed in markers among the samples. The higher expression rate of IL-8 was significantly (p<0.05) associated with patients having COPD GOLD III severity level and smoking history. Although HRV was the predominant virus detected the combined prevalence of Influenza A and B surpassing the rate of HRV. The high-level expression of well known inflammatory markers of AECOPD, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 indicates a chronic severe illness. These markers play an important role and could be used as a marker for determining the severity of AECOPD.


Resumo Estima-se que a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) seja a terceira causa de mortalidade global em 2020. A exacerbação aguda DPOC (AECOPD) é um agravamento súbito dos sintomas da DPOC e pode ser devido a infecções por vírus/bactérias e poluição do ar. O aumento da expressão de marcadores inflamatórios em pacientes com AECOPD está associado à infecção viral. Este estudo teve como objetivo detectar diferentes vírus e analisar a expressão de vários marcadores inflamatórios associados a pacientes com AECOPD. Trezentos e quarenta e sete pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC de acordo com os critérios GOLD foram incluídos neste estudo. Amostras de swab e sangue foram coletadas para detecção de vírus por RT-PCR e expressão de marcadores inflamatórios, respectivamente. Das amostras de esfregaço, 113 (32,6%) amostras foram positivas para detecção de vírus. Nestas, o HRV (39,8%) foi o vírus predominante detectado, seguido do FluB (27,4%) e do FluA (22,1%). A presença de VFC foi significativamente maior (p = 0,044) entre os demais vírus detectados. Quando comparados a controles saudáveis, os níveis de expressão de TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-8 foram significativamente maiores (p <0,05) em pacientes com vírus positivo. A IL-6 e a IL-8 foram as próximas predominantemente expressas em marcadores entre as amostras. A maior taxa de expressão de IL-8 foi significativamente (p <0,05) associada a pacientes com grau de gravidade GOLD III da DPOC e história de tabagismo. Embora o HRV tenha sido o vírus predominante, a prevalência combinada de Influenza A e B ultrapassou a taxa de HRV. O alto nível de expressão de marcadores inflamatórios bem conhecidos de AECOPD, TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-8 indica uma doença crônica grave. Esses marcadores desempenham um papel importante e podem ser usados como um marcador para determinar a gravidade da AECOPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Viruses , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/genetics , Mongolia
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878989

ABSTRACT

In this paper, Asarum polysaccharides(AP) were extracted, and its composition was analyzed to study the activity against H1 N1 influenza virus in vitro and its intervention effect on mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome. AP was prepared by the strategy of water extraction and alcohol precipitation, the content was determined, and its monosaccharide composition was analyzed. The cell Real-time monitoring system and Reed-Muench model were adopted to evaluate the antiviral activity of AP in vitro. And the mouse model of kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was established in vivo to compare the efficacy of Mahuang Xixin Fuzi Decoction(MXF) and AP. MXF group and AP group were treated with clinical equivalent doses of 1.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) and 0.077 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) respectively, once a day for 6 consecutive days. Real-time PCR was used to detect the relative expression of M gene of H1 N1 influenza virus and cytokines in lung tissue. The content of AP in Asarum was 25.22%, and the protein content was 0.8%. And the monosaccharide composition was identified as L-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose. TI values of Tamiflu, MXF and AP were 30.00, 8.06 and 10.33, respectively. Three different doses of AP could significantly reduce the concentration of virus in supernatant. Compared with the model mice, lung indexes of MXF group and AP group decreased significantly(P<0.05), and the relative expression of M gene decreased significantly(P<0.05). The relative expressions of IL-10 and IFN-γ were up-regulated to varying degrees, while the relative gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were down-regulated to different degrees. In addition, AP could significantly enhance the expression of TNF-α(P<0.01). AP had a good anti-influenza virus activity in vitro, and could protect mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome by reducing the viral load in lung tissue, decreasing inflammation damage in lung tissue, and regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with the prescription of MXF, AP had a better antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asarum , Cytokines/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Lung , Mice , Polysaccharides
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the differentially expressed inflammatory proteins in acute gouty arthritis (AGA) with protein chip.@*METHODS@#The Raybiotech cytokine antibody chip was used to screen the proteomic expression in serum samples of 10 AGA patients and 10 healthy individuals. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were applied to determine the biological function annotation of differentially expressed proteins and the enrichment of signal pathways. ELISA method was used to verify the differential protein expression in 60 AGA patients and 60 healthy subjects. The ROC curve was employed to evaluate the diagnostic value of differential proteins in AGA patients.@*RESULTS@#According to|log@*CONCLUSIONS@#Proteomics can be applied to identify the biomarkers of AGA, which may be used for risk prediction and diagnosis of AGA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Gouty/diagnosis , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Protein Array Analysis , Proteomics
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(5): 599-607, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Adenoid hypertrophy is a condition that presents itself as the chronic enlargement of adenoid tissues; it is frequently observed in the pediatric population. The Ugrp2 gene, a member of the secretoglobin superfamily, encodes a low-molecular weight protein that functions in the differentiation of upper airway epithelial cells. However, little is known about the association of Ugrp2 genetic variations with adenoid hypertrophy. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Ugrp2 gene with adenoid hypertrophy and its related phenotypes. Methods: A total of 219 children, comprising 114 patients suffering from adenoid hypertrophy and 105 healthy patients without adenoid hypertrophy, were enrolled in this study. Genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene were determined by DNA sequencing. Results: We identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (IVS1-189G>A, IVS1-89T>G, c.201delC, and IVS2-15G>A) in the Ugrp2 gene. Our genotype analysis showed that the Ugrp2 (IVS1-89T>G) TG and (c.201delC) CdelC genotypes and their minor alleles were associated with a considerable increase in the risk of adenoid hypertrophy compared with the controls (p = 0.012, p = 0.009, p = 0.013, and p = 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, Ugrp2 (GTdelCG, GTdelCA) haplotypes were significantly associated with adenoid hypertrophy (four single nucleotide polymorphisms ordered from 5′ to 3′; p = 0.0001). Polymorfism-Polymorfism interaction analysis indicated a strong interaction between combined genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene contributing to adenoid hypertrophy, as well as an increased chance of its diagnosis (p < 0.0001). In addition, diplotypes carrying the mutant Ugrp2 (c.201delC) allele were strongly associated with an increased risk of adenoid hypertrophy with asthma and with allergies (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0007, respectively). Conclusion: Some single nucleotide polymorphisms and their combinations in the Ugrp2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing adenoid hypertrophy. Therefore, we tried to underline the importance of genetic factors associated with adenoid hypertrophy and its related clinical phenotypes.


Resumo Introdução: A adenoide ou hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea é uma condição que se apresenta como o aumento crônico de tecidos linfoides na rinofaringe e é frequentemente observada na população pediátrica. O gene Ugrp2, um membro da superfamília da secretoglobina, codifica uma proteína de baixo peso molecular que funciona na diferenciação das células epiteliais das vias aéreas superiores. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a associação de variações genéticas do Ugrp2 com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea. Objetivo: Investigar a associação de polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos no gene Ugrp2 com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea e seus fenótipos relacionados. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 219 crianças, 114 pacientes com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea e 105 saudáveis. Os genótipos do gene Ugrp2 foram determinados por sequenciamento de DNA. Resultados: Identificamos quatro polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (IVS1-189G>A, IVS1-89T>G, c.201delC, e IVS2-15G>A) no gene Ugrp2. Nossa análise genotípica mostrou que os genótipos Ugrp2 (IVS1-89T>G) TG e (c.201delC) CdelC e seus alelos menores foram associados a um aumento considerável no risco de HA em comparação com os controles (p = 0,012, p = 0,009, p = 0,013 e p = 0,037, respectivamente). Além disso, os haplótipos Ugrp2 (GTdelCG, GTdelCA) foram significativamente associados com hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea (quatro polimorfismos de nucleot' ordenados de 5' a 3'; p = 0,0001). A análise de interação polimorfismo-polimorfismo indicou uma forte interação entre genótipos combinados do gene Ugrp2 que contribuiu para hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea, bem como uma chance maior de seu diagnóstico (p < 0,0001). Além disso, os diplótipos que transportam o alelo mutante Ugrp2 (c.201delC) foram fortemente associados a um risco aumentado de hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea com asma e com alergias (p = 0,003 e p = 0,0007, respectivamente). Conclusão: Alguns polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único e suas combinações no gene Ugrp2 estão associados a um risco aumentado de desenvolver hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea. Portanto, tentamos enfatizar a importância dos fatores genéticos e fenótipos clínicos associados a essa hipertrofia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adenoids/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Phenotype , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Hypertrophy/genetics
5.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(1): 3-5, 23/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046560

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Polimorfismos em genes de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α e IL-1ß) e antiinflamatórias (IL-10) intensificam a resposta inflamatória, após anóxia, aumentando as afecções decorrentes da síndrome hipóxico-isquêmica como a leucomalácia periventricular (LPV). Objetivos: Investigar a associação entre ambos os polimorfismos inflamatórios (-1031T/C no gene TNF-α e -511C/T no gene IL-1ß) e o antiinflamatório (-1082G/A no gene IL-10) e a etiopatogênese/risco da LPV em neonatos com esta afecção. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de casos-controle em 50 neonatos prematuros e a termo (Grupo Casos) e em 50 neonatos a termo (Grupo Controle), de ambos os sexos. DNA foi extraído de leucócitos de sangue periférico e a análise molecular realizada pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/Análise de Restrição Enzimática (PCR/RFLP). Resultados: A idade gestacional média entre casos e controles foi, respectivamente, de 31,0 semanas e 39,4 semanas (p<0,0001). O peso médio, em gramas, foi de 1561,1 para os casos e 3509,9 para controles (p<0,0001). Foi encontrada associação entre o genótipo TC (produtor intermediário de citocina inflamatória) (OR: 2.495; IC95%: 1,10-5,63; p=0,043) assim como entre os genótipos TC+CC (produtores inflamatórios intermediário+alto) (OR: 2,471; IC95%: 1,10-5,55; p=0,044) no gene TNF-α e o risco de LPV. Estatisticamente significante associação foi encontrada entre os genótipos (CT+TT) (produtores inflamatórios intermediário+alto) (OR: 23,120; IC95%: 1,31-409,4; p=0,003) no gene IL-1ß e o risco de LPV. No gene IL-10, foi encontrada reduçãosignificativa do risco de LPV para o genótipo GG (alto produtor antiinflamatório) (OR: 0,07407; IC95%: 0,02-0,34; p<0,0001)assim como para o alelo G (OR: 0,5098; IC95%: 0,29-0,91; p=0,030). Conclusão: há associação entre os polimorfismosinflamatórios (-1031T/C no gene TNF-α e -511C/T no gene IL-1ß) e o risco de desenvolvimento de LPV e associação entre opolimorfismo antiinflamatório (-1082G/A no gene IL-10) na proteção ao desenvolvimento da LPV, na população estudada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/diagnostic imaging , Cytokines/genetics
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e180267, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040585

ABSTRACT

The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine comprises a family of genetically different strains derived by the loss of genomic regions (RDs) and other mutations. In BCG Moreau, loss of RD16 inactivates rv3405c * , encoding a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates the expression of Rv3406, an alkyl sulfatase. To evaluate the impact of this loss on the BCG and host cell viability and the cytokine profile, THP-1 cells were infected with BCG Moreau (harbouring the empty vector) and a complemented strain carrying a functional copy of rv3405c. Viability of the host cells and bacteria as well as the pattern of cytokine secretion were evaluated. Our results show that the viability of BCG Moreau is higher than that of the complemented strain in an axenic medium, suggesting a possible functional gain associated with the constitutive expression of Rv3406. Viability of the host cells did not vary significantly between recombinant strains, but differences in the profiles of the cytokine secretion (IL-1β and IL-6) were observed. Our results suggest an example of a functional gain due to gene loss contributing to the elucidation of the impact of RD16 on the physiology of BCG Moreau.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Cell Survival/genetics , Cytokines/drug effects , Gain of Function Mutation/genetics , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Time Factors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/microbiology , BCG Vaccine/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/genetics , Gain of Function Mutation/drug effects , Mycobacterium bovis/physiology
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170489, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The severity of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC), the most frequent clinical outcome of Chagas disease (CD), has been associated with cytokine-enriched heart tissue inflammation, and high serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGFβ), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Conversely, increased interleukin (IL)-10 serum concentrations have been associated with asymptomatic CD. Cytokines and cytokine-related gene polymorphisms may control cytokine expression and have been proposed to contribute to CCC outcomes. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the association of 13 cytokine-related genes (TGFB: rs8179181, rs8105161, rs1800469; IL10: rs1800890, rs1800871, rs1800896; IFNG: rs2430561; TNF: rs1800629; BAT1: rs3853601; LTA: rs909253, rs2239704; TNFR1: rs767455; TNFR2: rs1061624) with risk and progression of CCC. FINDINGS Four hundred and six seropositive patients from CD endemic areas in the state of Pernambuco, north-eastern Brazil, were classified as non-cardiopathic (A, 110) or cardiopathic (mild, B1, 163; severe, C, 133). We found no evidence of TGFB, IL10, TNF, or TNFR1/2 gene polymorphisms associated with CCC risk or progression. Only BAT1 rs3853601 −22G carriers (B1 vs. C: OR = 0.5; p-value = 0.03) and IFNG rs2430561 +874AT (A vs. C: OR = 0.7; p-value = 0.03; A vs. B1+C: OR = 0.8; p-value = 0.02) showed a significant association with protection from cardiopathy in a logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gender and ethnicity; however, the association disappeared after performing adjustment for multiple testing. A systematic review of TNF rs1800629 −308G>A publications included five studies for meta-analysis (534 CCC and 472 asymptomatic patients) and showed no consensus in pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates for A allele or A carriers (OR = 1.4 and 1.5; p-values = 0.14 and 0.15, respectively). In CD patients, TNF serum levels were increased, but not affected by the TNF rs1800629 −308A allele. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest no significant contribution of the analysed gene variants of cytokine-related molecules to development/severity of Chagas' heart disease, reinforcing the idea that parasite/host interplay is critical to CD outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 428-434, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888669

ABSTRACT

Abstract During insertion of titanium dental implants, particles may shear from the implant to the periimplant region causing osteolysis, and their association with bacteria can exacerbate the inflammatory reaction. However, the association of a high invasive bacterium from the oral cavity, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and titanium particles remains unknown. This study evaluated pro-inflammatory reaction of human macrophages in contact with micro and nanoparticles of titanium associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS). THP-1 cell were used and treated for 12, 24 and 48 h following 6 groups: Control(C), PgLPS (L); Microparticles (M); Nanoparticles (N); PgLPS and microparticles (LM); PgLPS and nanoparticles (LN). The following assays were carried out: i) cell viability using MTS, ii) cell morphology by SEM and iii) expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by qRT-PCR and ELISA. For statistics two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used (p<0.05). After treatment, cells presented similar viability and morphology demonstrating that the treatments were not able to induce cell death. Gene expression was significantly higher for TNF-α and IL1-β after 12 h, and for IL-6 after 24 h in the N and LN groups. Cytokine production over time was an ascending curve for TNF-α with the peak at 48 h and IL1-β and IL-6 had a straight line among the time points, although cells from N group presented a significant production of IL-6 at 48 h. In conclusion, these results suggest that titanium nanoparticles stimulate stronger pro-inflammatory response in macrophages, independent of their association with LPS from P.gingivalis.


Resumo Durante a inserção de implantes dentários partículas de titânio podem ser liberadas na região peri-implantar levando ao processo de osteólise e a associação com a bactéria pode exacerbar ainda mais a reação inflamatória. Entretanto, a associação de uma bactéria altamente invasiva da cavidade oral, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) e partículas de titânio ainda não foi investigada. Este estudo avaliou a reação pró-inflamatória de macrófagos humanos em contato com micro e nanopartículas de titânio associada a lipopolissacarídeo P. gingivalis (PgLPS). As células THP-1 foram utilizadas e tratadas durante 12, 24 e 48 h nos 6 seguintes grupos: Controle (C), PgLPS (L); micropartículas (M); nanopartículas (N); PgLPS e micropartículas (LM); PgLPS e nanopartículas (LN). Em seguida foram realizados os seguintes ensaios: i) a viabilidade celular utilizando MTS, ii) a morfologia celular por MEV e iii) expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleucina-1 beta (IL-1β) e interleucina 6 (IL-6) por qRT-PCR e ELISA. Como estatística foi realizado o teste ANOVA two-way seguido pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Após o tratamento, as células apresentaram viabilidade e morfologia semelhantes, demonstrando que os tratamentos não foram capazes de induzir a morte celular. A expressão de genes foi significativamente mais elevada para o TNF-α e IL1-β após 12h, e para a IL-6 após 24 horas em N e grupos de LN. A produção de citocinas em relação ao tempo representou uma curva ascendente para o TNF-α com o pico em 48 h, enquanto que para IL1-β e IL-6 se apresentou como uma linha reta com relação ao tempo, exceto pelo grupo N que foi significativo para IL-6 em 48 h . Conclui-se, a partir destes resultados, que as nanopartículas de titânio produziram o maior estímulo na resposta pró-inflamatória nos macrófagos, independente da sua associação com LPS de P. gingivalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Titanium/pharmacology , Dental Implants , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Particle Size , Titanium/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Gene Expression , Cell Line , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Porphyromonas gingivalis/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , O Antigens/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Macrophages/metabolism
9.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2017; 18 (2): 111-119
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188472

ABSTRACT

Background: Many factors contribute for viral clearance and response to antiviral therapy. Genetic polymorphisms of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors can alter the immune response against Hepatitis C virus [HCV]


Aim of the study: The aim of the current study is to assess single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] in the promoter region of IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-y and TGF-p as predictors of response to combined Pegylated interferon ot/ribavirin [PEG-IFN/RBV] therapy in chronic HCV infected Egyptian patients


Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 150 HCV infected patients and 100 apparently healthy control subjects. All patients were treated with PEG-IFN/RBV. They were classified according to their icsponse to treatment


Genotyping of IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-y and TGF-p were performed on peripheral blood DNA using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism [PCR-RFLP] and primer specific assays


Results: Overall, 83/150 [55.3%] patients achieved sustained virological response [SVR], whereas 67 [44.7%] did not. Age and BMI were significantly lower in patients who achieved SVR [P < 0.05]. IL-10 at site [-1082] GG genotype was associated with SVR where odds ratio was 1.98 with 95% confidence interval [1.34-3.65]


None of the other genes showed a significant association with SVR


Conclusion: Analysis of IL-10 SNP at promoter site [-1082] could be used as a pretreatment predictor of response to combined PEG-IFN/RBV treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Cytokines/genetics , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 366-375, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-792595

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. However, the factors underlying the MMPs expression modulation in healthy and diseased periapical tissues remains to be determined. Objective In this study, we evaluated the association between the MMP1-1607 polymorphism (rs1799750) and pro-inflammatory milieu elements with MMP-1 mRNA levels in vivo. Material and Methods MMP1-1607 SNP and the mRNA levels of MMP-1, TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, and FOXp3 were determined via RealTimePCR in DNA/RNA samples from patients presenting periapical granulomas (N=111, for both genotyping and expression analysis) and control subjects (N=214 for genotyping and N=26 for expression analysis). The Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Pearson, Chi-square ordinal least squares regression tests were used for data analysis (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results The MMP1-1607 1G/2G and 1G/2G+2G/2G genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in controls, comprising a risk factor for periapical lesions development. MMP-1 mRNA levels were higher in periapical lesions than in healthy periodontal ligament samples, as well as higher in active than in inactive lesions. The polymorphic allele 2G carriers presented a significantly higher MMP-1 mRNA expression when compared with the 1G/1G genotype group. The ordered logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between the genetic polymorphism and the expression levels of MMP-1. Additionally, the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-21, IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4 were significant as complementary explanatory variables of MMP-1 expression. Conclusion The MMP1-1607 SNP was identified as a risk factor for periapical lesions development, possibly due to its association with increased MMP-1 mRNA levels in periapical lesions. The MMP-1 expression is also under the control of the inflammatory milieu elements, being the cytokines TNF-a, IL-21, IL-17A, and IFN-g associated with increased MMP-1 levels in periapical lesions, while IL-10, IL-9, or IL-4 presented an inverse association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Periapical Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Up-Regulation , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Periapical Granuloma/genetics , Reference Values , Genetic Markers , Case-Control Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 113(5): 404-410, oct. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757061

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los trastornos crónicos (TC) en etapas tempranas de la vida pueden influir en diferentes dimensiones de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de los niños/as. Objetivo. Comparar la CVRS de niños/as con TC confirmados, con TC declarados y sin TC. Población y método. Estudio transversal en el marco de una investigación mayor realizada en escuelas de Córdoba y Bahía Blanca, y en los hospitales Italiano y Garrahan de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en 2012. La presencia de TC fue establecida por diagnóstico médico en hospitales o por declaración de sus cuidadores en escolares. Los niños/as de 8 a 12 años respondieron el cuestionario KIDSCREEN-52 sobre CVRS, una escala de desarrollo puberal y una escala de recursos económicos familiares. Los cuidadores indicaron el nivel educativo materno. Se estimó la asociación entre TC y CVRS ajustada por sexo, edad, desarrollo puberal, nivel educativo materno y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados. Participaron 670 duplas niños/as-cuidadores, 13,3% (n= 89) con TC confirmados (muestras de hospitales), 14,5% (n= 97) escolares con trastornos declarados y el resto eran escolares sanos. La edad promedio fue 10,2 años (desvío estándar= 1,01); 54,8% fueron niñas. Tener TC confirmados se asoció a una mayor frecuencia de bajo bienestar físico (OR 2,61; IC 95%: 1,43-4,76), mientras que la presencia de TC declarados se asoció con bajas puntuaciones en bienestar psicológico (OR 1,96; IC 95%: 1,063,63), autopercepción (OR 2,22; IC 95%: 1,283,87) y relación con los padres (OR 2,04; IC 95%: 1,21-3,44). Conclusiones. Los niños/as con TC confirmados mostraron con mayor frecuencia malestar físico y los que tenían TC declarados manifestaron malestar en áreas psicosociales, en comparación con los niños/as sin trastorno.


Introduction. Chronic conditions (CCs) in the early stages of life may have an impact on various dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children. Objective. To compare HRQoL in children with confirmed CCs, reported CCs, and without CC. Population and Method. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 in the context of a larger research study carried out at schools in Córdoba and Bahía Blanca, and at Hospital Italiano of Buenos Aires and Hospital Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan at Buenos Aires. The presence of a chronic condition was established by medical diagnosis at the hospital or as reported by schoolchildren's caregivers. Eight-to-twelve year-old children completed the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire on HRQoL, a pubertal development scale, and a family financial resource scale. The association between CCs and HRQoL adjusted by sex, age, pubertal development, maternal education level, and socioeconomic level was estimated. Results. Six hundred and seventy children/ caregiver dyads participated; 13.3% (n= 89) had confirmed CCs, 14.5% (n= 97) were schoolchildren with reported CCs, and the rest corresponded to healthy schoolchildren. Their average age was 10.2 years old (standard deviation= 1.01); 54.8% were girls. Having a confirmed CC was associated with a higher frequency of low physical wellbeing (odds ratio --OR--: 2.61; 95% confidence interval --95% CI--:1.43-4.76), while the presence of a reported CC was associated with a low score in psychological well-being (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.06-3.63), self-perception (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.28-3.87), and parent relations (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.21-3.44). Conclusions. Children with confirmed CCs showed a higher frequency of physical discomfort, and those with reported CCs showed discomfort in psychosocial areas compared to children without CCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Proteome , Transcriptome , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Proteomics
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 486-492, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748219

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the expression of miR-483 and miR-483* and the relationship among them, their host gene (Igf2), and other cytokines in a murine model of renal fibrosis. The extent of renal fibrosis was visualized using Masson staining, and fibrosis was scored 3 days and 1 and 2 weeks after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Expression of miR-483, miR-483* and various cytokine mRNAs was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of miR-483 and miR-483* was significantly upregulated in the UUO model, particularly miR-483 expression was the greatest 2 weeks after surgery. Additionally, miR-483 and miR-483* expression negatively correlated with Bmp7 expression and positively correlated with Igf2, Tgfβ, Hgf, and Ctgf expression, as determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. Hgf expression significantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks after the surgery compared to the control group. This study showed that miR-483 and miR-483* expression was upregulated in a murine UUO model. These data suggest that miR-483 and miR-483* play a role in renal fibrosis and that miR-483* may interact with miR-483 in renal fibrosis. Thus, these miRNAs may play a role in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis and coexpression of their host gene Igf2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Gene Expression , Introns , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/genetics , MicroRNAs , Ureteral Obstruction/genetics , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Blotting, Western , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis/genetics , Kidney/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(5): 396-402, May 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759373

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) can infect ruminants and remain subclinical for long periods within herds. The identification of organs that are more susceptible to infection and the evaluation of cytokine expression at the site of infection are important to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. In this study, the probability of detection of MAP-DNA and the expression of cytokines in organs of C57BL/6 mice infected intraperitoneally for 120 days were evaluated. Among the evaluated organs, the spleen (85%), colon (75%) and liver (60%) had the highest frequency of positivity. When compared these frequencies between organs, it has been found that the spleen had 1.54 times as likely to be positive in relation to the ileum, and 2.0 times more likely in relation to the Peyer's patches. In addition, at 60 days post-infection, the spleen and the liver were responsible for upregulation of IFN-γ , and the ileum by TNF-α and IL-4. The results indicate that the spleen is the best organ for evaluating an experimental infection by MAP, especially in the initial stages of the infection. Moreover, it showed that the spleen, liver and ileum have a direct role in the inflammatory response in experimental models.


Mycobacterium avium subespécie paratuberculosis (MAP) pode infectar ruminantes e permanecer subclínica por longos períodos nos rebanhos. A identificação de órgãos mais susceptíveis à infecção e a avaliação da expressão das citocinas no local da infecção são importantes para compreender a patogênese de MAP. Neste estudo foi avaliada a probabilidade de detecção de DNA de MAP e a expressão de citocinas em órgãos de camundongos C57BL/6 infectados por via intraperitoneal durante 120 dias. Dentre os órgãos avaliados, o baço (85%), cólon (75%) e fígado (60%) tiveram as maiores frequências de positividade. Quando comparadas essas frequências entre os órgãos, verificou-se que o baço teve 1,54 vezes mais probabilidade de ser positivo em relação ao íleo, e 2,0 vezes mais probabilidade em relação às placas de Peyer. Além disso, aos 60 dias pós infecção, o baço e o fígado foram responsáveis pela maior expressão de IFN-γ e o íleo pela TNF-α e IL-4. Os resultados indicam que o baço é o melhor órgão para avaliar uma infecção experimental por MAP, principalmente nos períodos iniciais da infecção. Além disso, demonstrou que o baço, fígado e íleo têm importância direta na resposta inflamatória de modelos experimentais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/genetics , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/pathogenicity , Paratuberculosis/diagnosis , Asymptomatic Infections , Spleen/virology , Infections/veterinary , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Histological Techniques/veterinary
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 278-283, Mar-Apr/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752521

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos graduandos de enfermagem sobre o próprio envelhecimento. Método: pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em agosto e setembro de 2011, com 18 graduandos de enfermagem de uma Universidade pública de Salvador (Bahia). Os depoimentos foram analisados por meio da Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: apreendeu-se o núcleo temático: Percepção do graduando de enfermagem sobre o próprio envelhecimento e, a partir deste, emergiram duas subcategorias: A) O Não Pensar; B) O contexto influenciando no processo. Conclusão: os graduandos revelam que o envelhecimento está intrínseco ao desenvolvimento humano, e possui o vínculo familiar, a espiritualidade e atividade física como ferramentas fundamentais para um envelhecimento ativo. Entretanto, os mesmos relatam que, o modo de vida acelerado e estressante vivido na sociedade possibilita inserir hábitos considerados inadequados, como o consumo de “fast food” e álcool, que trazem influências negativas para o próprio processo de envelhecimento. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la percepción de los estudiantes de enfermería sobre su proprio envejecimiento. Método: estudio cualitativo, realizado en agosto y septiembre de 2011, con 18 estudiantes de enfermería de una universidad pública en Salvador/Bahia. Los datos fueron analizados através de análisis de contenido. Resultado: incautados el tema central: Percepción de alumnos de enfermería sobre su propio envejecimiento y de esto surgieron dos subcategorías: A) No creo; B) El contexto influye en el proceso. Conclusión: los estudiantes revelan que el envejecimiento es intrínseco al desarrollo humano, y tiene los vínculos familiares, la espiritualidad y la actividad física como herramienta clave para el envejecimiento activo. Sin embargo, el mismo informe que, debido a la forma de vida que se vive en la sociedad de ritmo rápido y estresante permite insertar hábitos considerados inadecuados, como el consumo de “comida rápida” y el alcohol y convertirse en influencias negativas para su propio proceso tuvo como objetivo analizar de los estudiantes de enfermería su propio envejecimiento. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the perceptions of nursing undergraduate students on their self-aging process. Method: qualitative study carried out between August and September, 2011 with 18 nursing undergraduate students of a public university in Salvador, Bahia. The interviews were analyzed by means of the Content Analysis method. Results: the following thematic concept was apprehended: Perceptions of nursing undergraduates on their self-aging, which generated two subcategories: A) The “don’t think about it” process; B) The context infl uencing the process. Conclusion: undergraduates reveal that the aging process is an intrinsic factor to human development. Family ties, spirituality and physical activity would be key mechanisms toward active aging. However, students also reported that their accelerated and stressed social lifestyles led to inadequate habits, such as the consumption of fast food and alcohol, which become negative infl uences in their aging process. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Brain/immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/pathogenicity , Encephalitis, Japanese/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Signal Transduction , /physiology , /physiology , Blotting, Western , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , /immunology , /metabolism , /virology , /immunology , /metabolism , /virology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Encephalitis, Japanese/virology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Knockout , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 120-123, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742561

ABSTRACT

We report a 37 years old male with a dermatomyositis treated with oral cyclophosphamide. He was admitted to the hospital due to a zone of skin necrosis with purulent exudate, located in the second left toe. A complete blood count showed a leukocyte count of 2,600 cells/mm³. A Chest CAT scan showed a pneumomediastinum with emphysema of adjacent soft tissue. Cyclophosphamide was discontinued and leukocyte count improved. The affected toe was amputated and a chest CAT scan showed a partial resolution of the pneumomediastinum. We discuss and review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of pneumomediastinum and cutaneous necrosis in association with dermatomyositis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/agonists , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Neurons/drug effects , Oligodendroglia/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , /metabolism , Cell Count/methods , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/complications , Macrophages/drug effects , Neurologic Examination , Nerve Degeneration/etiology , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Time Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214120

ABSTRACT

The complex interaction of molecules within a biological system constitutes a functional module. These modules are then acted upon by both internal and external factors, such as genetic and environmental stresses, which under certain conditions can manifest as complex disease phenotypes. Recent advances in high-throughput biological analyses, in combination with improved computational methods for data enrichment, functional annotation, and network visualization, have enabled a much deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying important biological processes by identifying functional modules that are temporally and spatially perturbed in the context of disease development. Systems biology approaches such as these have produced compelling observations that would be impossible to replicate using classical methodologies, with greater insights expected as both the technology and methods improve in the coming years. Here, we examine the use of systems biology and network analysis in the study of a wide range of rheumatic diseases to better understand the underlying molecular and clinical features.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research/methods , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phenotype , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatology/methods , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction , Systems Biology , Systems Integration
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1521-1525, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741308

ABSTRACT

The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. An influx of T-lymphocytes was also detected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Infectious bursal disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Administration, Oral , Birnaviridae Infections/immunology , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(3): 185-193, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-711719

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible synergism between AGE-RAGE and TLR4 signaling and the role of p38 MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways on the modulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proliferation of cells from the innate and adaptive immune response. Material and Methods: T lymphocyte (JM) and monocyte (U937) cell lines were stimulated with LPS and AGE-BSA independently and associated, both in the presence and absence of p38 MAPK and NF-kB inhibitors. Proliferation was assessed by direct counting and viability was assessed by a biochemical assay of mitochondrial function. Cytokine gene expression for RAGe, CCL3, CCR5, IL-6 and TNF-α was studied by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Results: RAGE mRNA expression was detected in both cell lines. LPS and AGE-BSA did not influence cell proliferation and viability of either cell line up to 72 hours. LPS and LPS associated with AGE induced expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in monocytes and T cells, respectively. Conclusions: There is no synergistic effect between RAGE and TLR signaling on the expression of IL-6, TNF-α , RAGE, CCR5 and CCL3 by monocytes and lymphocytes. Activation of RAGE associated or not with TLR signaling also had no effect on cell proliferation and survival of these cell types. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Gene Expression/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , NF-kappa B/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/physiology , /genetics , /physiology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival/physiology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Enzyme Assays , Immunity, Innate/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Time Factors , /immunology
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154594

ABSTRACT

Background: Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms are potential candidates for susceptibility for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis (CHP). This study explored the association of interleukin‑1 beta (IL‑1 β) +3954, interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) −597/−174 and tumor necrosis factor‑alpha (TNF‑α) −308 single nucleotide polymorphisms in CHP with and without type 2 DM in Malayalam speaking subjects of Dravidian ethnicity. Materials and Methods: This case control study consisted of 51 chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus (CHPDM) and 51 CHP patients as cases and 51 healthy subjects as controls. Polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. Results: IL‑1 β (+3954) TT genotype and T allele were significantly associated with CHPDM group when compared with CHP (P = 0.001), whereas CC genotype and allele C was higher in CHP subjects (P = 0.001). For IL‑6 (−597) frequency of genotype GA/AA (P = 0.04) and allele A (P = 0.01) was lower in CHPDM group, and for TNF‑α −308 the frequency of genotype GA (P = 0.01) and allele A (P = 0.01) was higher in CHP subjects when compared with controls. Conclusions: In Malayalam speaking Dravidian population, IL‑6 (−597) genotype GA/AA and allele A appears to be protective for CHP with type 2 DM. Allele C of IL‑1 β +3954 and allele A of TNF‑α −308 appears to be risk factors for CHP individuals.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Periodontitis/genetics , /genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
20.
Invest. clín ; 55(1): 61-81, mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746286

ABSTRACT

Las células del sistema inmunitario (SI) son capaces de reconocer una gran variedad de microorganismos, a través de los receptores que se encuentran expresados y distribuidos a lo largo de su arquitectura celular. La interacción entre los patrones moleculares asociados a microorganismos o a daño (PMAM o PMAD) y los receptores reconocedores de patrones (RRP) presentes en las células del hospedero es un evento crítico que implica procesos intracelulares de señalización que finalizan en la expresión de mediadores tanto proinflamatorios como antivirales. Por consiguiente, de la integridad de estos receptores dependerá el buen funcionamiento de los distintos mecanismos de transducción de señal desde las membranas celulares al citoplasma y por ende, de la respuesta que el SI desencadene contra los patógenos entre ellos los agentes virales. De allí que, en esta revisión se discutirá el papel de los receptores tipo toll (TLRs) y receptores para dominios de oligomerización para la unión a nucleótidos (NLRs) en las infecciones virales, tomando como evidencia los estudios en humanos y ratones que a la fecha se conocen.


The immune system (IS) cells are capable of recognizing a wide variety of microorganisms, through receptors that are expressed and distributed throughout the cell architecture. The interaction between the pathogen-associated molecular patterns or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs) and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), present in host cells, is a critical event that involves intracellular signaling processes that end up in the expression of both, proinflammatory and antiviral mediators. Accordingly, the proper functioning of the different mechanisms of signal transduction from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm will depend on the integrity of these receptors (PRR); and therefore, the IS response triggered against pathogens including viral agents. Hence, in this review we discuss the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) in viral infections, using as evidence the studies in humans and mice known to date.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , /physiology , Toll-Like Receptors/physiology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Carrier Proteins/physiology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Forecasting , Immunity, Innate , Models, Immunological , Multigene Family , Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein/physiology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptors/classification
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