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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247529, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting 16S rRNA genes followed by DNA sequencing are still important tools to characterize microbial communities present in environmental samples. However, despite the crescent number of deposited archaeal DNA sequences in databases, until now we do not have a clear picture of the effectiveness and specificity of the universal primers widely used to describe archaeal communities from different natural habitats. Therefore, in this study, we compared the phylogenetic profile obtained when Cerrado lake sediment DNA samples were submitted to 16S rDNA PCR employing three Archaea-specific primer sets commonly used. Our findings reveal that specificity of primers differed depending on the source of the analyzed DNA. Furthermore, archaeal communities revealed by each primer pair varied greatly, indicating that 16S rRNA gene primer choice affects the community profile obtained, with differences in both taxon detection and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) estimates.


Resumo A amplificação de genes que codificam o rRNA 16S por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e o seu subsequente sequenciamento consistem em uma ferramenta importante na caracterização de comunidades microbianas presentes em amostras ambientais. No entanto, apesar do crescente número de sequências de DNA de Archaea depositadas em bancos de dados, a especificidade e efetividade dos iniciadores de PCR descritos como universais e amplamente utilizados na descrição desse grupo ainda não está clara. Neste estudo foram comparados os perfis filogenéticos de comunidades de arqueias obtidos a partir amostras de DNA de sedimentos lacustres do Cerrado submetidas a ensaios de PCR empregando três pares de iniciadores específicos para Archaea, comumente utilizados neste tipo de estudo. Nossos resultados indicam que as comunidades de arqueias detectadas com cada par de iniciadores apresentaram grande variação filogenética, sugerindo que a escolha de iniciadores dirigidos ao gene de rRNA 16S tem efeito significativo no perfil da comunidade descrita, com diferenças tanto em relação aos táxons detectados, como nas estimativas de unidades taxonômicas operacionais (OTU).


Subject(s)
Archaea/genetics , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA Primers/genetics , Genes, rRNA
2.
Biol. Res ; 53: 21, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liriodendron chinense ranges widely in subtropical China and northern Vietnam; however, it inhabits several small, isolated populations and is now an endangered species due to its limited seed production. The objective of this study was to develop a set of nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeats) and multiple chloroplast genome markers for genetic studies in L. chinense and their characterization in diverse germplasm. RESULTS: We performed low-coverage whole genome sequencing of the L. chinense from four genotypes, assembled the chloroplast genome and identified nuclear SSR loci by searching in contigs for SSR motifs. Comparative analysis of the four chloroplast genomes of L. chinense revealed 45 SNPs, 17 indels, 49 polymorphic SSR loci, and five small inversions. Most chloroplast intraspecific polymorphisms were located in the interspaces of single-copy regions. In total, 6147 SSR markers were isolated from low-coverage whole genome sequences. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (70.09%), followed by trinucleotide motifs (23.10%). The motif AG/TC (33.51%) was the most abundant, followed by TC/AG (25.53%). A set of 13 SSR primer combinations were tested for amplification and their ability to detect polymorphisms in a set of 109 L. chinense individuals, representing distinct varieties or germplasm. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 28 with an average of 21 alleles. The expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.19 to 0.93 and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.11 to 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic resources characterized and tested in this study provide a valuable tool to detect polymorphisms in L. chinense for future genetic studies and breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Genome, Plant/genetics , Liriodendron/genetics , Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Plant/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats , Alleles , Whole Genome Sequencing , Genotype
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(3): e8186, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989465

ABSTRACT

Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the main pathogenic bacteria that causes nosocomial infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of K. pneumoniae is important for the timely treatment of infectious patients. This study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid and sensitive detection of K. pneumoniae-specific gene ureR_1 (Gene ID: 11847803). The ureR_1 gene was obtained through local and online BLAST, and the specific primers were designed for its detection. Positive reactions were observed on all 140 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates while all the 82 non-K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were negative. Plasmids with the specific gene and the mouse blood with K. pneumoniae were used for sensitivity analysis. The detection limit of the LAMP was 1 bacterium/reaction. The results showed that the LAMP targeted to ureR_1 is a fast, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, and suitable method for the detection of K. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Genes, Bacterial , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Plasmids/isolation & purification , Plasmids/genetics , Temperature , Time Factors , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA Primers/isolation & purification , DNA Primers/genetics , Limit of Detection , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 421-428, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wolbachia (Hertig) endosymbionts are extensively studied in a wide range of organisms and are known to be transmitted through the egg cytoplasm to the offsping. Wolbachia may cause several types of reproductive modifications in arthropods. In Trichogramma species, parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria allow females wasps to produce daughters from unfertilized eggs and these bacteria are present in at least 9% of all Trichogramma species. Phylogenetic studies have led to the subdivision of the Wolbachia clade in five supergroups (A, B, C, D and E) and Wolbachia from Trichogramma belong to supergroup B. Here, using the wsp gene, four groups of Wolbachia that infect Trichogramma species were distinguished and the addition of a new group "Ato" was suggested due to the addition of Wolbachia from Trichogramma atopovirilia (Oatman and Platner). Specific primers were designed and tested for the "Ato" group. Seventy-five percent of all evaluated Wolbachia strains from Trichogramma fell within "Sib" group.


Resumo Endosimbiontes do gênero Wolbachia (Hertig) são extensivamente estudados em uma ampla gama de organismos e são conhecidos por serem transmitidos via citoplasma do ovo hospedeiro para seu descendente. Wolbachia pode causar vários tipos de alterações reprodutivas nos artrópodes. Nas espécies de Trichogramma, a reprodução partenogenética induzida por Wolbachia, possibilita as fêmeas dos parasitoides a produção de fêmeas a partir de ovos não fertilizados e estas bactérias estão presentes em pelo menos 9% de todas as espécies de Trichogramma. Estudos filogenéticos têm levado a subdivisão do clado Wolbachia em cinco supergrupos (A, B, C, D and E). Wolbachia em Trichogramma pertence ao supergrupo B. Com o gene wsp foi possível se distinguir quatro grupos de Wolbachia que infectam Trichogramma e adicionar um novo grupo (Ato) devido a inclusão de Wolbachia detectada em Trichogramma atopovirilia (Oatman and Platner, 1983). Primers específicos foram construídos e testados para o grupo "Ato". Setenta e cinco por cento de todas as linhagens de Wolbachia que infectam Trichogramma se enquadraram dentro do grupo "Sib".


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Wasps/microbiology , DNA Primers/genetics , Alphaproteobacteria/metabolism , Wolbachia/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Phylogeny , Reproduction , Species Specificity , Symbiosis , Wasps/genetics
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 128-137, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Y. pestis by targeting the 3a sequence on chromosome. All 11 species of the genus Yersinia were used to evaluate the specificity of LAMP and PCR, demonstrating that the primers had a high level of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 or 23 CFU for pure culture, whereas 2.3 × 104 or 2.3 × 106 CFU for simulated spleen and lung samples. For simulated liver samples, the sensitivity of LAMP was 2.3 × 106 CFU, but PCR was negative at the level of 2.3 × 107 CFU. After simulated spleen and lung samples were treated with magnetic beads, the sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 × 103 or 2.3 × 106 CFU, whereas 2.3 × 105 or 2.3 × 107 CFU for magnetic bead-treated liver samples. These results indicated that some components in the tissues could inhibit LAMP and PCR, and liver tissue samples had a stronger inhibition to LAMP and PCR than spleen and lung tissue samples. LAMP has a higher sensitivity than PCR, and magnetic bead capture of DNAs could remarkably increase the sensitivity of LAMP. LAMP is a simple, rapid and sensitive assay suitable for application in the field or poverty areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plague/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Magnetics/methods , Yersinia pestis/isolation & purification , Yersinia pestis/classification , Yersinia pestis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunomagnetic Separation , DNA Primers/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Magnetics/instrumentation
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 41-47, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886917

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chromosome-specific probes have been widely used in molecular cytogenetics, being obtained with different methods. In this study, a reproducible protocol for construction of chromosome-specific probes is proposed which associates in situ amplification (PRINS), micromanipulation and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). Human lymphocyte cultures were used to obtain metaphases from male and female individuals. The chromosomes were amplified via PRINS, and subcentromeric fragments of the X chromosome were microdissected using microneedles coupled to a phase contrast microscope. The fragments were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP. The probes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure to highlight these specific regions in the metaphases. The results show one fluorescent red spot in male and two in female X chromosomes and interphase nuclei.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA Primers/genetics , Primed In Situ Labeling/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , DNA Probes/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Microdissection/methods
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170393, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The genus Flavivirus includes a variety of medically important viruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which are most prevalent in Brazil. Because the clinical profile of patients affected by different DENV serotypes or ZIKV may be similar, the development of new methods that facilitate a rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial. OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to develop an improved reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol for universal detection of flaviviruses by using semi-nested primers that discriminate between DENV serotypes and ZIKV. METHODS The bioinformatics workflow adopted for primer design included: (1) alignment of 1,442 flavivirus genome sequences, (2) characterisation of 27 conserved regions, (3) generation of a primer set comprising 77 universal primers, and (4) selection of primer pairs with greatest coverage and specificity. Following primer design, the reaction was validated in vitro. The same approach was applied to the design of primers specific for DENV and ZIKV, using a species-specific sequence database. FINDINGS The new assay amplified an 800-806 nt variable region of the NS5 gene and allowed discrimination of virtually all flavivirus species using reference-sequence comparison. The 800-806 nt fragment was validated as a template for a semi-nested multiplex PCR using five additional primers for the detection of DENV and ZIKV. These primers were designed to generate amplicons of different sizes, allowing differentiation of the four serotypes of DENV, and ZIKV using agarose gel electrophoresis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The bioinformatics pipeline allowed efficient primer design, making it possible to identify the best targets within the coding region of the NS5 protein. The multiplex system proved effective in differentiation of DENV1-4 and ZIKV on a 2% agarose gel. The possibility of discriminating DENV serotypes and ZIKV in the same reaction provided a faster result consuming less sample. In addition, this simplified approach ensured the reduction of the cost per analysis.


Subject(s)
Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Dengue Virus/genetics , Zika Virus , DNA Primers/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 246-259, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacterial spot is an important disease of pepper in Bulgaria and Macedonia. For characterization of Xanthomonas species associated with bacterial spot, 161 strains were collected from various field pepper-growing regions. Among them, 131 strains were identified as Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and 30 as Xanthomonas vesicatoria using species-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To assess the genetic diversity of the strains, two methods (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Repetitive Element Palindromic-Polymerase Chain Reaction) were applied. Discriminatory index was calculated and analysis of molecular variance was carried out.Combined random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the X. euvesicatoria strains with primers CUGEA-4 and CUGEA-6 had greater discriminative power (0.60) than repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction with ERIC and BOX A1R primers, which makes this method applicable for strain diversity evaluation. Discrimination among the X. vesicatoria strains was achieved by the use of ERIC primers and only for the Bulgarian strains. The results demonstrated that X. euvesicatoria was more diverse than X. vesicatoria and heterogeneity was observed mainly in the Bulgarian populations. According to the analysis of molecular variance, genetic variations in X. euvesicatoria were observed among and within populations from different regions, while the differences between the two countries were minor. Following the principal coordinates analysis, a relation between the climatic conditions of the regions and a genetic distance of the populations may be suggested.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Xanthomonas/isolation & purification , Xanthomonas/genetics , Capsicum/microbiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation , Xanthomonas/classification , Xanthomonas/physiology , Bulgaria , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Primers/genetics , Greece
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 83-92, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974337

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) have high genetic variability which results in different viral strains around the world. This create a challenge to design sensible primers for molecular diagnosis in different regions. This work proposes a protocol of duplex nested-PCR for the precise diagnosis of SRLV. The technique was designed and tested with the control strains CAEV Co and MVV 1514. Then, field strains were submitted to the same protocol of duplex nested-PCR. Blood samples of sheep and goats were tested with AGID and nested PCR with specific primers for pol, gag and LTR. The AGID results showed low detection capacity of positive animals, while the nested PCR demonstrated a greater capacity of virus detection. Results demonstrated that LTR-PCR was more efficient in detecting positive sheep samples, whereas gag-PCR allowed a good detection of samples of positive goats and positive sheep. In addition, pol-PCR was more efficient with goat samples than for sheep. Duplex nested PCR performed with standard virus samples and field strains demonstrated that the technique is more efficient for the detection of multiple pro-viral DNA sequences. This study demonstrated a successful duplex nested PCR assay allowing a more accurate diagnosis of SRLV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/virology , Goat Diseases/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Lentivirus Infections/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Goats , Sheep , Goat Diseases/diagnosis , Lentivirus Infections/diagnosis , Lentivirus Infections/virology , DNA Primers/genetics
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(10): e180340, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040583

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a heterothallic ascomycete. The sexual reproduction of this fungus is regulated by the mating type (MAT1) locus that contains MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs, which were identified by uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study aimed to optimise single-step multiplex PCR for the accurate detection of the distinct mating types of H. capsulatum. Among the 26 isolates tested, 20 had MAT1-1 genotype, while six showed MAT1-2 genotype, in agreement with the uniplex PCR results. These results suggest that multiplex PCR is a fast and specific tool for screening H. capsulatum mating types.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Histoplasma/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Histoplasma/classification
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 638-647, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888925

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Symptomatic forms of toxoplasmosis are a serious public health problem and occur in around 10-20% of the infected people. Aiming to improve the molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients, this study evaluated the performance of real time PCR testing two primer sets (B1 and REP-529) in detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA. The methodology was assayed in 807 clinical samples with known clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR results in a 9-year period. All samples were from patients with clinical suspicion of several features of toxoplasmosis. According to the minimum detection limit curve (in CT), REP-529 had greater sensitivity to detect T. gondii DNA than B1. Both primer sets were retrospectively evaluated using 515 DNA from different clinical samples. The 122 patients without toxoplasmosis provided high specificity (REP-529, 99.2% and B1, 100%). From the 393 samples with positive ELISA, 146 had clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and positive conventional PCR. REP-529 and B1 sensitivities were 95.9% and 83.6%, respectively. Comparison of REP-529 and B1 performances was further analyzed prospectively in 292 samples. Thus, from a total of 807 DNA analyzed, 217 (26.89%) had positive PCR with, at least one primer set and symptomatic toxoplasmosis confirmed by clinical diagnosis. REP-529 was positive in 97.23%, whereas B1 amplified only 78.80%. After comparing several samples in a Brazilian referral laboratory, this study concluded that REP-529 primer set had better performance than B1 one. These observations were based after using cases with defined clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/classification , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , DNA Primers/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 465-469, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896994

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya fever is a condition resulting from infection by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Aedes sp.-transmitted virus. This disease has been diagnosed in thousands of cases in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, in recent years, and there is an ongoing epidemic of chikungunya fever in Brazil that began in 2014. Clinical diagnosis is difficult; only a few cases have been confirmed by laboratory tests due to the low number of specific, efficient tests available for virus or antibody detection. Here, we aimed to evaluate different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches for detection of CHIKV genetic material. METHODS: Specific primers and probes within the viral capsid gene region were designed for this work. To evaluate the analytic sensitivity of detection, human sera were spiked with serial dilutions of the viral stock. Several PCR protocols were performed to investigate the sensitivity of CHIKV RNA detection in serum dilutions ranging from 106 to 1 PFU equivalents. RESULTS: The technique showing the greatest sensitivity was a real-time PCR assay using specific probes that could detect the genetic material of the virus at all dilutions, followed by conventional PCR. Digital PCR showed low sensitivity and was much more expensive than other technologies. Digital PCR should be used for specific purposes other than clinical diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although quantitative PCR using probes was more expensive than the use of intercalating dyes or conventional PCR, it had the highest sensitivity out of all tested PCR approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , Chikungunya virus/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1001-1008, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769644

ABSTRACT

A study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. Samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from Southern Indian coastal shrimp farms. Vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16S rDNA and gyrB gene specific PCR. The bacterial strains were genotyped by PCR fingerprinting using GTG(5) and IS (Insertion Sequence) primers. Seven strains each of V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi were subjected to 10 passages through trypticase soya broth (TSB), which contained different NaCl concentrations (3, 6 and 8%) and trypticase soya agar (TSA). V. alginolyticus was also passaged through TSB with a 12% NaCl concentration. PCR fingerprinting, which was performed on the strains that were passaged through different salt concentrations, confirmed that V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi could affect the genomic variations, depending on the environmental conditions of the culture. The study highlights the complex genotypic variations that occur in Vibrio strains of tropical aquatic environment because of varied environmental conditions, which result in genetic divergence and/or probable convergence. Such genetic divergence and/or convergence can lead to the organismal adaptive variation, which results in their ability to cause a productive infection in aquatic organisms or generation of new strains.


Subject(s)
Animals/genetics , Animals/growth & development , Animals/isolation & purification , Animals/microbiology , Aquaculture/genetics , Aquaculture/growth & development , Aquaculture/isolation & purification , Aquaculture/microbiology , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA Primers/growth & development , DNA Primers/isolation & purification , DNA Primers/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/growth & development , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/microbiology , Ecosystem/genetics , Ecosystem/growth & development , Ecosystem/isolation & purification , Ecosystem/microbiology , Penaeidae/genetics , Penaeidae/growth & development , Penaeidae/isolation & purification , Penaeidae/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/growth & development , Polymerase Chain Reaction/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/microbiology , Vibrio alginolyticus/genetics , Vibrio alginolyticus/growth & development , Vibrio alginolyticus/isolation & purification , Vibrio alginolyticus/microbiology , Vibrio/genetics , Vibrio/growth & development , Vibrio/isolation & purification , Vibrio/microbiology
14.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(5): 377-383, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766278

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Leishmania infantum causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World. The diagnosis of VL is confirmed by parasitological and serological tests, which are not always sensitive or specific. Our aim was to design new primers to perform a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detecting L. infantum. Sequences of the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) were obtained from GenBank, and the FLC2/RLC2 primers were designed. Samples of DNA from L. infantum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania lainsoni, Leishmania panamensis, Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi were used to standardize the PCR. PCR with FLC2/RLC2 primers amplified a fragment of 230 bp and the detection limit was 0.2 fg of L. infantum DNA. Of the parasite species assayed, only L. infantum DNA was amplified. After sequencing, the fragment was aligned to GenBank sequences, and showed (99%) homology with L. infantum. In the analysis of blood samples and lesion biopsy from a dog clinically suspected to have VL, the PCR detected DNA from L. infantum. In biopsy lesions from humans and dogs with cutaneous leishmaniasis, the PCR was negative. The PCR with FLC2/RLC2 primers showed high sensitivity and specificity, and constitutes a promising technique for the diagnosis of VL.


RESUMO Leishmania infantum causa leishmaniose visceral (LV) no Novo Mundo. O diagnóstico de LV é confirmado por testes parasitológicos e sorológicos, os quais nem sempre são sensíveis ou específicos. Nosso objetivo foi desenhar novos iniciadores para realizar uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) para detecção de L. infantum. Sequências do DNA do minicírculo do cinetoplasto (kDNA) foram obtidos do GenBank, e os iniciadores FLC2/RLC2 foram desenhados. Amostras de DNA de L. infantum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania lainsoni, Leishmania panamensis, Leishmania major e Trypanosoma cruzi foram usados para padronizar a PCR. PCR com iniciadores FLC2/RLC2 amplificou um fragmento de 230 pb e detectou 0,2 fg de DNA de L. infantum.Das espécies de parasitos analisadas, somente DNA de L. infantum foi amplificado. Após sequenciamento, o fragmento foi analisado no GenBank, que mostrou homologia com L. infantum. Em análises de amostras de sangue e lesão de cão com suspeita clínica de LV, a PCR detectou DNA de L. infantum. Em amostras de lesão de humanos e cães com leishmaniose cutânea, a PCR foi negativa. A PCR padronizada com os iniciadores FLC2/RLC2 mostrou alta sensibilidade e especificidade, sendo técnica promissora para o diagnóstico de LV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Kinetoplast/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 619-626, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749730

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed new sets of primers to detect Brucella spp. and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through isothermal amplification. We selected a previously well-characterized target gene, bscp31, specific for Brucella spp. and IS900 for MAP. The limits of detection using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocols described herein were similar to those of conventional PCR targeting the same sequences. Hydroxynaphtol blue and SYBR GreenTM allowed direct naked-eye detection with identical sensitivity as agarose gel electrophoresis. We included the LAMP-based protocol in a rapid identification scheme of the respective pathogens, and all tested isolates were correctly identified within 2 to 3 h. In addition, both protocols were suitable for specifically identifying the respective pathogens; in the case of Brucella, it also allowed the identification of all the biovars tested. We conclude that LAMP is a suitable rapid molecular typing tool that could help to shorten the time required to identify insidious bacteria in low-complexity laboratories, mainly in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Brucella/isolation & purification , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Brucella/genetics , Brucellosis/diagnosis , DNA Primers/genetics , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/genetics , Paratuberculosis/diagnosis , Time Factors
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(5): 431-436, May 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759372

ABSTRACT

Sarcoides são tumores fibroblásticos, considerados os tumores de pele mais comuns em pele de equinos e que raramente apresentam regressão espontânea. Papilomavírus bovino (BPV) tipos 1 e 2 são relacionados com a patogenia do sarcoide e, provavelmente, o BPV tipo 13 (BPV13), recentemente descrito, também pode estar associado com a formação dessa lesão. Neste estudo, 20 amostras de lesões cutâneas, sendo 12 constituídas por tecidos frescos e 8 amostras de tecido fixado em formalina e embebido em parafina, provenientes de 15 cavalos foram utilizadas para a identificação do DNA de BPV. A análise histopatológica (HE) confirmou todas as lesões como sarcoide. Para a amplificação do DNA de papilomavírus (PV) foram realizadas três reações de PCR. Como triagem, os primers IFNR2/IDNT2 foram utilizados para amplificar um fragmento da ORF L1 do PV. O segundo par de primersutilizado é complementar a sequência dos genes E5 e L2 de BPVs 1, 2 e 13. O terceiro par de primers(FAP59/FAP64) utilizado tem o gene L1 como alvo. A primeira e a segunda PCRs permitiram amplificar produtos em todas as amostras avaliadas. Entretanto, na terceira reação, na qual foram utilizados os primers FAP, foi possível amplificar produtos com tamanho molecular esperado somente nas amostras constituídas por tecidos frescos. O sequenciamento de nucleotídeos e as análises filogenéticas realizadas nos fragmentos E5L2 resultaram na identificação de BPV1, 2 e 13 em 14 (70%), 2 (10%) e em 4 (20%) amostras de sarcoides, respectivamente. As amostras de sarcoides de um dos animais continha somente o DNA de BPV1. Entretanto, nas amostras provenientes do segundo cavalo foi possível identificar o DNA de três tipos de Deltapapillomavirus bovino (BPV1, 2 e 13) em lesões distintas. Este estudo ratifica a presença do DNA de BPV1, 2 e 13 em lesões de sarcoides em equinos, além de identificar três tipos de BPVs em um mesmo animal e descrever pela primeira vez no Brasil a presença de BPV1 e 2 nesse tipo de lesão.


Sarcoids are fibroblastic lesions, which are considered as the most common skin tumors of horses; spontaneous regression rarely occurs. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoids, and probably the recently described BPV type (BPV13) might be associated with the pathogenesis of this lesion. This study characterized the DNA of BPVs in sarcoids from 15 horses from Brazil by analyzing 20 cutaneous lesions (12 recently collected; 8 from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues). Histopathology confirmed the proliferative lesions as sarcoids. Three PCRs were performed to amplify papillomavirus (PV) DNA. For screening, the primers IFNR2/IDNT2 were used to amplify a fragment of the PV L1 ORF. The second primer set was complementary to a common sequence of the E5L2 genomic region of BPV1, 2, and 13. The third primer pair (FAP59/FAP64) targeted a fragment of the PVs L1 ORF. The screening and E5L2 PCRs yielded amplicons in all samples evaluated. The FAP amplicons identified BPV1, 2, and 13 only from fresh tissue samples. The phylogenetic analyses of E5L2 resulted in the identification of BPV1, 2, and 13 in 14 (70%), 2 (10%), and 4 (20%) sarcoids, respectively. Two horses demonstrated multiple lesions: the sarcoids of one of these contained only BPV1 DNA and those of the other contained three types of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (BPV1, 2, and 13). This study confirmed the presence of BPV1, 2, and 13 DNA in equine sarcoids. Moreover, these findings represent the first description of three types of BPV diagnosed in the same horse, as well as the first confirmation of BPV1 and 2 in horses from Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/veterinary , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/veterinary , Skin Neoplasms/virology , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , DNA Primers/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 62-67, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741236

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study evaluated the use of polymerase chain reaction for cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis in clinical samples. Materials and methods: The sensitivity and specificity of the methodology were evaluated using eight Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex reference strains and 165 cere- brospinal fluid samples from patients with neurological diseases divided into two groups: 96 patients with cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS; and 69 patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases (CRL/AIDS). Two primer sets were tested (CN4-CN5 and the multiplex CNa70S-CNa70A/CNb49S-CNb-49A that amplify a specific product for C. neoformans and another for C. gattii). Results: CN4-CN5 primer set was positive in all Cryptococcus standard strains and in 94.8% in DNA samples from cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS group. With the multiplex, no 448-bp product of C. gattii was observed in the clinical samples of either group. The 695 bp products of C. neoformans were observed only in 64.6% of the cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS group. This primer set was negative for two standard strains. The specificity based on the negative samples from the CTL/AIDS group was 98.5% in both primer sets. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CN4/CN5 primer set was highly sensitive for the identification of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , DNA Primers/genetics , Genotype , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 45-51, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The consensus about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment has gone from a cause and effect association between TMD and orthodontic treatment to the idea that there is no reliable evidence supporting this statement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the beliefs, despite scientific evidence, of Brazilian orthodontists about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment with regards to treatment, prevention and etiology of TMD. METHODS: A survey about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment was prepared and sent to Brazilian orthodontists by e-mail and social networks. Answers were treated by means of descriptive statistics and strong associations between variables were assessed by qui-square test. RESULTS: The majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment not only is not the best treatment option for TMD, but also is not able to prevent TMD. Nevertheless, the majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment can cause TMD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that orthodontists' beliefs about the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD are in accordance with scientific evidence only when referring to treatment and prevention of TMD. The majority of orthodontists believe that, despite scientific evidence, orthodontic treatment can cause TMD. .


INTRODUÇÃO: o consenso sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico foi de uma associação de causa e efeito à ideia de que não há evidências confiáveis que suportem essa afirmação. OBJETIVO: avaliar as crenças, sem considerar as evidências, de ortodontistas brasileiros sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico com relação ao tratamento, prevenção e etiologia da DTM. MÉTODOS: um questionário sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico foi preparado e enviado a ortodontistas brasileiros por meio de e-mail e mídias sociais. As respostas foram analisadas por estatística descritiva, e fortes associações entre as variáveis foram verificadas pelo teste χ2. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que o tratamento ortodôntico não é o melhor tratamento para DTM. Além disso, acreditam que não é a melhor forma para sua prevenção. Também, a maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que o tratamento ortodôntico pode causar sintomas de DTM. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo sugere que as crenças dos ortodontistas sobre a relação entre tratamento ortodôntico e DTM estão de acordo com as evidências científicas apenas quando se trata do tratamento e da prevenção de DTM. A maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que, apesar das evidências científicas, o tratamento ortodôntico pode causar DTM. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , DNA Replication/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , G1 Phase/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Replication Origin/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Blotting, Western , Cell Fractionation , Cell Line , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , /metabolism , DNA Primers/genetics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Interference
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51164

ABSTRACT

Various constituents in clinical specimens, particularly feces, can inhibit the PCR assay and lead to false-negative results. To ensure that negative results of a diagnostic PCR assay are true, it should be properly monitored by an inhibition control. In this study, a cloning vector harboring a modified target DNA sequence (approximately375 bp) was constructed to be used as a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) for a conventional PCR assay that detects approximately550 bp of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene sequence in human feces. Modification of the native PCR target was carried out using a new approach comprising inverse PCR and restriction digestion techniques. IAC was included in the assay, with the estimated optimum concentration of 1 fg per reaction, as duplex PCR. When applied on fecal samples spiked with variable oocysts counts, approximately2 oocysts were theoretically enough for detection. When applied on 25 Cryptosporidium-positive fecal samples of various infection intensities, both targets were clearly detected with minimal competition noticed in 2-3 samples. Importantly, both the analytical and the diagnostic sensitivities of the PCR assay were not altered with integration of IAC into the reactions. When tried on 180 randomly collected fecal samples, 159 were Cryptosporidium-negatives. Although the native target DNA was absent, the IAC amplicon was obviously detected on gel of all the Cryptosporidium-negative samples. These results imply that running of the diagnostic PCR, inspired with the previously developed DNA extraction protocol and the constructed IAC, represents a useful tool for Cryptosporidium detection in human feces.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Feces/parasitology , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reference Standards
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