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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 110(1): 26-30, 20240000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552628

ABSTRACT

Nocardia es una bacteria grampositiva con amplia distribución en el medio ambiente. Puede producir variadas de infecciones. Si bien, las vías respiratorias son la principal puerta de entrada de Nocardia sp. ­y como consecuencia de lo mismo 50% de los pacientes posee compromiso pulmonar- las infecciones por Nocardia van desde infecciones de piel y partes blandas hasta abscesos cerebrales. La piel puede ser el órgano de afectación primaria y el primer signo clínico de infección o formar parte de una infección diseminada. La nocardiosis diseminada, es una grave enfermedad que involucra a dos sitios no contiguos de infección o el rescate del agente causal en hemocultivos. Afecta a pacientes debilitados con condiciones o con cierto grado de inmunodepresión; particularmente de inmunidad celular; como trasplantados de órganos sólido o hematopoyeticos, uso de corticoides, neoplasias, VIH, alcoholismo ­aunque se describen infecciones en pacientes inmunocompetentes­. El diagnóstico es dificultoso y la sospecha clínica es fundamental para el inicio de la terapéutica. Se describen dos casos de infecciones de piel y partes blandas ocasionadas por Nocardia; de evolución subaguda-cronica;. Una de ellas localizada: micetoma de pie, la segunda, una celulitis abdominal recurrente complicada con compromiso sistémico; en ambas estuvo presente la demora en el diagnóstico.


Nocardia is a gram-positive bacteria with wide distribution in the environment. It can cause a wide range of infections. Although the respiratory tract is the main entry point for Nocardia sp. ­ and as a consequence of the same, 50% of patients have lung involvement ­ nocardia infections range from skin and soft tissue infections to brain abscesses. The skin can be the primary organ of involvement and the first clinical sign of infection or be part of a disseminated infection, secondary to a primary pulmonary form. Disseminated nocardiosis is a serious disease that involves two non-contiguous sites of infection or the recovery of the causative agent in blood cultures. It commonly affects patients with weakened conditions or a certain degree of immunosuppression; particularly cellular immunity, such as solid or hematopoietic organ transplants, use of corticosteroids, neoplasms, HIV, alcoholism - although infections are described in immunocompetent patients. The diagnosis is difficult and clinical suspicion is essential for the initiation of therapy. Two cases of skin and soft tissue infections caused by Nocardia were described of subacute-chronic evolution. One of them localized: mycetoma of the foot, the second, a recurrent abdominal cellulites complicated with systemic involvement; Delay in diagnosis was present in both


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Soft Tissue Infections/therapy , Nocardia Infections/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529388

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: cystic fibrosis newborn screening must enable its earlier diagnosis, which may enhance outcomes. This study was a series case of delayed-diagnosis children submitted to cystic fibrosis newborn screening. Description: fourteen children were included; eight (57.1%) were due to false-negative screening, while six (42.9%) were due to processing errors. Two samples collected after 30 days of life were incorrectly classified as negative, and four infants with a positive test could not be located due to screening processing errors. Cystic fibrosis diagnosis was confirmed at a median (IQR) age of 5.3 (4.2-7.4) months. Poor nutritional status was the most prevalent clinical sign at diagnosis, being present in 78.6% of infants. The mean (SD) weight-for-length and length-for-age Z-scores were -3.46 (0.84) and -3.99 (1.16), respectively. Half of the children had Pseudo-Bartter syndrome, and 42.9% had breathing difficulties. Twelve children (85.7%) required hospitalization, with a median (IQR) length of stay of 17.0 (11.5-26.5) days. Discussion: newborn screening had some faults, from incorrect collections to inefficient active search. Early identification of these children in which screening was unsatisfactory is essential, emphasizing the importance and efforts to not miss them. In the case of a failed test, healthcare professionals must be prepared to recognize the main symptoms and signs of the disease.


Resumo Introdução: a triagem neonatal para fibrose cística deve contribuir para diagnóstico precoce e melhor prognóstico da doença. O estudo é uma série de casos com lactentes submetidos à triagem, porém com diagnóstico tardio da doença. Descrição: quatorze crianças foram incluídas; oito (57,1%) com triagem falso-negativo e seis (42,9%) com erros processuais na triagem neonatal. Duas amostras foram coletadas tardiamente, sendo incorretamente classificadas como negativas e quatro lactentes com triagem positiva não foram localizados, por erros na busca ativa. Confirmou-se o diagnóstico da fibrose cística com idade mediana (IIQ) de 5,3 (4,2-7,4) meses. O Comprometimento nutricional precoce foi o sinal clínico mais prevalente ao diagnóstico, presente em 78,6% das crianças. Os Z escores médios (SD) do peso para altura e altura para idade foram -3,46 (0,84) e -3,99 (1,16), respectivamente. Metade das crianças teve síndrome de Pseudo-Bartter e 42,9% dificuldade respiratória. Doze crianças (85,7%) precisaram hospitalização com tempo mediano de permanência de 17 dias. Discussão: a triagem neonatal para fibrose cística apresentou falhas, desde testes falso-negativos, coletas incorretas, até problemas com a busca ativa. Entretanto, o diagnóstico ágil é essencial e os profissionais de saúde devem reconhecer os sintomas e sinais precoces da doença, mesmo quando a triagem neonatal não for satisfatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Neonatal Screening , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , National Health Programs
3.
Med. infant ; 30(4): 373-381, Diciembre 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1524219

ABSTRACT

El trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) es una condición crónica del neurodesarrollo caracterizada por déficits persistentes en la comunicación e interacción social y un patrón de intereses restringidos y/o comportamientos repetitivos que pueden afectar el funcionamiento del individuo en la vida diaria familiar y comunitaria. El diagnóstico oportuno intenta mejorar la trayectoria, reducir el impacto funcional y disminuir los efectos de condiciones médicas asociadas. El diagnóstico tardío de TEA es considerado como aquel realizado luego de los 6 años de edad, en coincidencia con el fin de la escolaridad inicial. Si bien esta edad puede resultar arbitraria lo que se busca es una generalización de aquellos casos en los que probablemente hubo múltiples pérdidas de oportunidades diagnósticas y terapéuticas. Objetivo: Reflexionar sobre los determinantes del diagnóstico tardío del TEA con el fin de proponer posibles soluciones a esta problemática. Desarrollo: A partir de tres viñetas clínicas de pacientes que recibieron el diagnóstico en nuestro servicio, luego de los 6 años de edad, nos proponemos identificar y analizar aquellos factores (motivos sociodemográficos, problemas organizacionales, en la etapa de evaluación diagnóstica, respecto al género, cuidadores/ familiares y características clínicas) que determinan la demora diagnóstica. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico tardío del TEA es una problemática compleja y multifactorial, que implica desafíos significativos en el desarrollo de los NNyA con esta condición, sus familias y su entorno. Es importante considerar las causas que demoran el diagnóstico, desde el ámbito clínico, familiar y socio-ambiental para poder intervenir oportunamente (AU)


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental condition characterized by persistent deficits in communication and social interaction and a pattern of restricted interests and/or repetitive behaviors that can affect the individual's daily functioning both at home and in the community. Early diagnosis is important to improve the developmental trajectory, reduce functional impairment, and decrease the impact of comorbid medical conditions. Delayed diagnosis of ASD is defined as a diagnosis made after the age of 6 years, coinciding with the end of preschool. Although this age may be arbitrary, it serves to encompass cases in which there were probably multiple missed diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities. Objective: To explore the causes of late diagnosis of ASD in order to propose possible solutions to this problem. Development: Based on three clinical vignettes of patients who were diagnosed at our department after 6 years of age, we aimed to identify and analyze factors influencing diagnostic delays. These factors included sociodemographic causes, organizational challenges, issues during the diagnostic workup, considerations related to gender, caregivers/families, and clinical characteristics. Conclusions: Delayed diagnosis of ASD is a complex and multifactorial problem leading to significant challenges in the development of children and adolescents with this condition as well as their families and their environment. Identification of the causes of diagnostic delay is important from the clinical, family and socio-environmental point of view, in order to start timely interventions (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Caregivers , Sociodemographic Factors
4.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(113): 34-41, 20230000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1527380

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: El diagnóstico tardío de la infección por VIH y el acceso de los pacientes con enfermedad avanzada al sistema de salud afectan negativamente los beneficios in-dividuales y colectivos del tratamiento antirretroviral. A nivel mundial existe una alta prevalencia de diagnóstico tardío es-pecialmente en poblaciones vulnerables como los migrantes.Objetivos: Medir la prevalencia de diagnóstico tardío de infección por VIH entre migrantes internacionales y com-pararla con la de los argentinos.Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de personas mayores de 16 años asistidas en el Hospital General de Agudos Donación Francisco Santojanni que hubieran recibido diagnóstico de infección por VIH entre 01/1/2018 y el 31/12/2021. Se determinó la mediana de recuento de CD4 basal y la prevalencia de diagnóstico tar-dío. Aplicamos la prueba de la suma de rangos de Wilcoxon para la variable contínua y la prueba de Fisher para com-parar proporciones.Resultados: Incluimos 199 personas (52 migrantes, 147 argentinos). Los migrantes presentaron un nivel basal de linfocitos CD4 significativamente menor [Mediana (RIC 25-75) 248 (79-466) vs. 331 (166-532); p=0,044], mayor tasa de presentación tardía [69,2% vs. 54,4%; RR 1,27 (IC95 1,01-1,61); p=0,072] y con sida [44,2% vs. 30,6%; RR 1,44 (IC95 0,98-2,13); p=0,089] y una menor proporción de diagnós-ticos en etapa temprana [13,5% vs. 29,3%; RR 0,46 (IC95 0,22-0,96); p=0,026].Conclusiones: Los migrantes internacionales accedieron al diagnóstico en peor estado clínico que los argentinos. Conocer este dato es imprescindible para elaborar políti-cas tendientes a mejorar el acceso al diagnóstico de esta población vulnerable.


Introduction: The late diagnosis of HIV infection and the access of patients to health system with advanced disease negatively affect the individual and collective benefits of antiretroviral treatment. There is a worldwide high prevalence of late diagnosis, specially in vulnerable populations, such as migrants.Objectives: to measure the prevalence of late diagnosis of HIV infection among international migrants and compare it with the people born in Argentina.Material and methods: retrospective and observational study of people over 16 years old, assisted at the Donación Francisco Santojanni General Hospital, who had received a diagnosis of HIV infection between 01-01-2018 and 12-31-2021. The median baseline CD4 cell count and the prevalence of late diagnosis were determined. We applied the Wilcoxon rank sum test for the continuous variable and the Fisher test to compare proportions.Results: 199 subjects (52 migrants, 147 Argentinians) were included. Migrants presented a significantly lower baseline CD4 cell count [Median (IQR 25-75) 248 (79-466) vs 331 (166-532); p=0.044], a higher rate of late presentation [69.2% vs 54.4%; RR 1.27 (CI95 1.01-1.61); p=0.072], presentation with aids [44.2% vs 30.6%; RR 1.44 (CI95 0.98-2.13); p=0.089]; and a lower proportion of early stage presentation [13.5% vs 29.3%; RR 0.46 (CI95 0.22-0.96); p=0.026].Conclusions: international migrants accessed to the diagnosis in a worse clinical condition than Argentinians. Knowing this information is essential for the development of policies aimed to improve the access to diagnosis of this vulnerable population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Prevalence , Vulnerable Populations , Delayed Diagnosis
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202201449, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509734

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis primaria de esternón es muy infrecuente en niños, con menos de 100 casos publicados hasta la actualidad. Su presentación clínica es a menudo inespecífica, lo que causa un retraso en el diagnóstico. Se presentan dos nuevos casos de osteomielitis primaria de esternón. Ambos referían un cuadro de fiebre, malestar general, dolor torácico y rechazo del decúbito, con eritema preesternal en uno de los casos. La velocidad de sedimentación globular y la proteína C-reactiva estaban elevadas en ambos casos. El diagnóstico se confirmó mediante estudios de imagen y en un caso se aisló Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina en el hemocultivo. Ambos se recuperaron sin complicaciones con tratamiento antibiótico. Debe tenerse en cuenta la osteomielitis primaria de esternón en el diagnóstico diferencial del dolor torácico, especialmente si se acompaña de fiebre, signos inflamatorios locales, intolerancia al decúbito o elevación de reactantes de fase aguda.


Primary sternal osteomyelitis is very rare in children, with less than 100 cases published to date. Its clinical presentation is often non-specific, which results in a diagnostic delay. Here we describe 2 new cases of primary sternal osteomyelitis. Both referred fever, malaise, chest pain, and refusal to lie down, with pre-sternal erythema in one of the cases. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein values were high in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by imaging studies; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the blood culture of one of them. Both recovered without complications with antibiotic treatment. Primary sternal osteomyelitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain, especially if accompanied by fever, local inflammatory signs, intolerance to lying down, or increased acute phase reactants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Chest Pain/drug therapy , Delayed Diagnosis , Fever , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202656, jun. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435629

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El botulismo del lactante (BL) es la forma más frecuente de botulismo humano en Argentina. El objetivo es describir aspectos esenciales del diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes con BL internados en el servicio de terapia intensiva pediátrica (STIP). Métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se utilizó la base de datos del STIP con diagnóstico de BL en el período 2005-2020. Se registraron variables demográficas, métodos de diagnóstico, días de asistencia respiratoria mecánica convencional (ARMC), de ventilación no invasiva (VNI), estadía en STIP, mortalidad al alta hospitalaria. Resultados. Se registraron 21 pacientes con BL; 14 pacientes fueron varones, con una mediana de edad de 5 meses (RIC 2-6 m). El diagnóstico se realizó mediante técnica de bioensayo y se detectó la toxina en suero en 12 pacientes. Uno solo no requirió ARMC; 1 paciente fue traqueostomizado; 18 pacientes recibieron antibióticos; 5 recibieron VNI. Ningún paciente recibió antitoxina y no hubo fallecidos. La mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue 66 días (RI: 42-76); de internación en STIP, 48 días (RI: 29-78); y de ARMC, 37 días (RI: 26-64). La demora en la confirmación diagnóstica fue 15,8 ± 4,8 días. Conclusiones. La totalidad de los pacientes fueron diagnosticados con la técnica de bioensayo, que generó un tiempo de demora diagnóstica que excede los lapsos recomendados para la administración del tratamiento específico. Ningún paciente recibió tratamiento específico. El BL presentó baja mortalidad, pero tiempos de ARM e internación prolongados, que se asocian a infecciones sobreagregadas y uso frecuente de antibióticos.


Introduction. Infant botulism (IB) is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina. Our objective was to describe the main aspects of diagnosis and management of patients with IB admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods. Observational, descriptive, and retrospective study. The PICU database with IB diagnosis in 2005­2020 period was used. Demographic variables, diagnostic methods, days of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), length of stay in the PICU and mortality upon hospital discharge were recorded. Results. In total, 21 patients with IB were recorded; 14 were male, their median age was 5 months (IQR: 2­6 m). Diagnosis was made by bioassay, and the toxin was identified in the serum of 12 patients. Only 1 patient did not require CMV; 1 patient had a tracheostomy; 18 patients received antibiotics; 5 received NIV. No patient was administered antitoxin and no patient died. The median length of stay in the hospital was 66 days (IQR: 42­76); in the PICU, 48 days (IQR: 29­78); and the median use of CMV, 37 days (IQR: 26­64). The delay until diagnostic confirmation was 15.8 ± 4.8 days. Conclusions. All patients were diagnosed using the bioassay technique, which resulted in a diagnostic delay that exceeds the recommended period for the administration of a specific treatment. No patient received a specific treatment. IB was related to a low mortality, but also to prolonged use of MV and length of hospital stay, which were associated with cross infections and frequent antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Botulism/diagnosis , Botulism/therapy , Botulism/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202946, abr. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418066
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420053

ABSTRACT

Tanto la osteomielitis como la osteoartritis séptica en el período neonatal son patologías infrecuentes. La afectación ósea de la columna cervical es aún más rara, siendo excepcional en neonatos. Son patologías graves, con elevada morbimortalidad, donde el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz agresivo son de suma importancia para el pronóstico vital y funcional. Presentamos el caso de un neonato que presentó una sepsis a S. Aureus multirresistente, asociada a una osteomielitis de la primera vértebra cervical y a una osteoartritis séptica de la cadera izquierda. Fue tratado precozmente de forma quirúrgica y con antibioticoterapia, presentando una buena evolución.


Both osteomyelitis and septic osteoarthritis in the neonatal period are infrequent pathologies. Bone involvement of the cervical spine is even rarer, being exceptional in neonates. These are serious pathologies, with high morbimortality, where early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are of utmost importance for the vital and functional prognosis. We present the case of a neonate who presented with sepsis due to multidrug-resistant S. Aureus, associated with osteomyelitis of the first cervical vertebra and septic osteoarthritis of the left hip. He was treated early surgically and with antibiotic therapy, presenting a good evolution


Tanto a osteomielite como a osteoartrose séptica no período neonatal são patologias raras. O envolvimento ósseo da coluna cervical é ainda mais raro, sendo excepcional nos recém-nascidos. Estas são patologias graves, com elevada morbimortalidade, onde o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento agressivo são da maior importância para o prognóstico vital e funcional. Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido que apresentou sepse devido a S. Aureus multirresistente, associado a osteomielite da primeira vértebra cervical e osteoartrose séptica da anca esquerda. Foi tratado precocemente cirurgicamente e com terapia antibiótica, com uma boa evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Cervical Atlas/pathology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Hip/pathology , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Delayed Diagnosis , Neonatal Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
10.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 32-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988871

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Responding to the reality of neonate patients with delayed childhood development due to late diagnosis of and intervention on hearing impairment, this study aims to determine the features based on time-frequency domain of auditory brainstem response (ABR) signals and to test the protocol on ABR signals from PhysioNet. @*Methods@#This is done by pre-processing, performing time-frequency analysis, and characterizing hearing impairment using the dominant features of the ABR. In this study, normal (N) and hearing impaired (HI) ABR adult human signals were acquired from Physionet.org, a publicly available database. Considering its high signal-to-noise ratio, numerous filters and transformations were applied to extract the ABR. Consequently, the features acquired — dominant frequency and bigrams, were used as data classifiers. @*Results@#Initial results using only N classifiers, that is features from the Normal dataset, and bandpass Chebyshev filter with a lower cut-off frequency of 60 Hz show that the tests yielded low to middle sensitivity. Further tests were done to improve the sensitivity that incorporated the HI classifiers, used data filtered with a low cut-off frequency of 300 Hz, and data divided per stimulus intensity level. @*Conclusion@#Conclusions made are 1) data with both N and HI classifiers have higher sensitivity than those using only N classifiers, 2) data with a Chebyshev cut-off frequency of 300 Hz have a higher sensitivity than those with 60 Hz, and 3) data divided per intensity level have a higher sensitivity than data analyzed as a whole, and that features with stimulus intensity in middle ranges have a better distinction between HI and N patients.


Subject(s)
Evoked Potentials , Brain Stem , Delayed Diagnosis
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 745-750, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the nutritional status and its influencing factors in children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of children who were diagnosed with IBD for the first time in Hunan Children's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2021. Diagnostic delay was defined as the time from the symptom onset to IBD diagnosis being in the upper quartile (P76-P100) of all IBD children in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors for emaciation and growth retardation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 125 children with newly diagnosed IBD were included, with Crohn's disease being the main type (91.2%). The rates of emaciation and growth retardation were 42.4% (53 cases) and 7.2% (9 cases), respectively, and the rate of anemia was 77.6% (97 cases). Diagnostic delay was noted in 31 children (24.8%), with the time from the symptom onset to IBD diagnosis of 366 to 7 211 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that diagnostic delay was a risk factor for emaciation and growth retardation (OR=2.73 and OR=4.42, respectively; P<0.05) and that age was positively associated with emaciation (OR=1.30, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with newly diagnosed IBD have poor nutritional status, and the rates of anemia, emaciation, and growth retardation are high. Diagnostic delay is associated with malnutrition in children with IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Emaciation/complications , Delayed Diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Growth Disorders/complications
12.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 174-177, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Abdominal CT scan using oral and intravenous (IV) contrast is helpful in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries. However, the use of oral and IV contrast delays the process of diagnosis and increases the risk of aspiration. It has also been shown that CT scan with IV contrast alone is as helpful as CT scan with oral and IV contrast and rectal CT scan in detecting abdominal injuries. Therefore, the present study aims to prospectively compare the diagnostic value of CT scan with oral and IV contrast versus CT scan with IV contrast alone in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma (BAT).@*METHODS@#Altogether 123 BAT patients, 60 (48.8%) women and 63 (51.2%) men with the mean age of (40.4 ± 18.7) years who referred to the emergency department of Imam Khomeini Educational and Medical Center in Sari, Iran (a tertiary trauma center in north of Iran) from November 2014 to March 2017 and underwent abdominal CT scans + laparotomy were investigated. Those with penetrating trauma or hemodynamically unstable patients were excluded. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: abdominal CT scan with oral and IV contrast (n = 63) and CT scan with IV contrast alone (n = 60). No statistically significant difference was found between two groups regarding the hemodynamic parameters, age, gender, injury mechanisms (all p > 0.05). The results of CT scan were compared with that of laparotomy results. The collected data were recorded in SPSS version 22.0 for Windows. Quantitative data were presented as mean and SD.@*RESULTS@#The sensitivity and specificity of CT scan using oral and IV contrast in the diagnosis of BAT were estimated at 96.48 (95% CI: 90.73 - 99.92) and 92.67 (95% CI: 89.65 - 94.88), respectively; while CT scan with IV contrast alone achieved a comparable sensitivity and specificity of 96.6 (95% CI: 87.45 - 99,42 and 92.84 (95% CI: 89.88 - 95.00), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#CT scan with IV contrast alone can be used to assess visceral injuries in BAT patients with normal hemodynamics to avoid diagnostic delay.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Delayed Diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Retrospective Studies
13.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(4): 143-149, out.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425968

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) are a persistent public health problem, configuring a challenge to reduce its lethality. In order to evaluate the factors associated with lethality, this study emphasizes the time elapsed from suspicion to treatment of HVL, in the years 2015 to 2019, in the municipality of Araguaína-TO, an area of intense transmission. Methods: an epidemiological study of case series with longitudinal follow-up with information extracted from HVL notification and investigation forms. The relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of the strength of association for death, being calculated with confidence intervals (95% CI) estimated by the Wald test. Time intervals were represented in days by box plot as medians (Md). Results: of the 191 cases of HVL, 179 (93.72%) were cured and 12 (6.28%) had a fatal outcome. There was no association of risk of death by sex, education, race, being significant only by age in the age groups of young (RR= 16.09) and older adults (RR=7.08). The time from suspicion to treatment in children was shorter (0-35 days, Md=12) than that of older patients (4-44 days, Md=18) and in those who died (7-65 days, Md=20) highlighting greater inopportunity of healing in these last two groups. Conclusion: late diagnosis was a determining indicator for worse outcomes, five days made the difference between the group with an outcome for cure with the group of those who died, highlighting the need to shorten the wait for treatment.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: a leishmaniose visceral humana (LVH) constitui-se em persistente problema de saúde pública, configurando-se um desafio à redução de sua letalidade. Para avaliação dos fatores associados à letalidade, este estudo tem ênfase no tempo decorrido da suspeição ao tratamento de LVH, nos anos de 2015 a 2019, no município de Araguaína-TO, área de transmissão intensa. Métodos: estudo epidemiológico de série de casos com acompanhamento longitudinal, com informações extraídas das fichas de notificação e investigação de LVH. Utilizou-se o risco relativo (RR) como medida de força de associação para o óbito, sendo calculado com intervalos de confiança (IC 95%) estimados pelo Teste de Wald. Os intervalos de tempo foram representados em dias por box plot em medianas (Md). Resultados: dos 191 casos de LVH, 179 (93,72%) obtiveram cura e 12 (6,28%) apresentaram desfecho fatal. Não houve associação de risco de morte por sexo, escolaridade, raça ou cor, sendo significativa apenas por idade nas faixas etárias de adultos jovens (RR= 16,09) e idosos (RR=7,08). O tempo da suspeição ao tratamento em crianças foi mais curto (0-35 dias, Md= 12) que o de pacientes mais velhos (4-44 dias, Md=18) e naqueles que evoluíram ao óbito (7-65 dias, Md=20), realçando maior inoportunidade de cura nesses dois últimos grupos. Conclusão: o diagnóstico tardio foi um indicador determinante para piores desfechos, e cinco dias fizeram a diferença entre o grupo com desfecho para cura e o grupo dos que vieram a óbito, destacando a necessidade de encurtamento da espera para tratamento.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: la leishmaniasis visceral humana (HVI) constituye un problema persistente de salud pública, configurando un desafío para reducir su letalidad. Con el objetivo de evaluar los factores asociados a la letalidad, este estudio enfatiza el tiempo transcurrido desde la sospecha hasta el tratamiento de la VLH, en los años 2015 a 2019, en el municipio de Araguaína-TO, zona de transmisión intensa. Métodos: estudio epidemiológico de serie de casos con seguimiento longitudinal con información extraída de los formularios de notificación e investigación LVH. Se utilizó el riesgo relativo (RR) como medida de la fuerza de asociación para muerte, siendo calculado con intervalos de confianza (IC 95%) estimados por la prueba de Wald. Los intervalos de tiempo se representaron en días mediante diagrama de caja como medianas (Md). Resultados: los 191 casos de LVH, 179 (93,72%) se curaron y 12 (6,28%) tuvieron un desenlace fatal. No hubo asociación de riesgo de muerte por sexo, educación, raza o color, siendo significativo solo por edad en los grupos de edad de adultos jóvenes (RR= 16,09) y ancianos (RR=7,08). El tiempo desde la sospecha hasta el tratamiento en los niños fue menor (0-35 días, Md=12) que en los pacientes mayores (4-44 días, Md=18) y en los que fallecieron (7-65 días, Md=20) destacando mayor inoportunidad de curación en estos dos últimos grupos. Conclusión: el diagnóstico tardío fue un indicador determinante de peor desenlace, los cinco días marcaron la diferencia entre el grupo con resultado de curación con el grupo de los que fallecieron, destacando la necesidad de reducir la espera para el tratamiento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Endemic Diseases , Delayed Diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Public Health
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e287-e290, dic. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399819

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Down (SD) es la anomalía cromosómica más frecuente entre los recién nacidos vivos. La atrofia muscular espinal (AME), por su parte, es una enfermedad neuromuscular caracterizada por la degeneración progresiva de las motoneuronas del asta anterior de la médula espinal que produce atrofia muscular, debilidad y parálisis. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años con síndrome de Down derivada a nuestro centro para estudio por cuadro de debilidad muscular generalizada de evolución crónica con falta de adquisición de la marcha. Realizamos una revisión bibliográfica enfocándonos en el compromiso neurológico esperable en el síndrome de Down, la evolución de los hitos del desarrollo motor grueso estipulado para este grupo de pacientes y en los hallazgos que deben sugerir la presencia de una enfermedad neuromuscular.


A case of a 6-year-old girl with Down's syndrome is presented. She was referred to our center due to a history of generalized muscle weakness of chronic evolution, associated to her inability to walk. Her mother claimed that the girl's muscle weakness always called her attention as well as the difficulties to the development of motor skills shown by her daughter compared to other children, whether they were healthy or with Down's syndrome. There was information in her medical record and physical exam that strongly suggested the possibility of suffering a neuromuscular disorder. We asked for a molecular study that confirmed the spinal muscular atrophy diagnosis. We carried out a bibliographical revision focusing on the expected neurological impairment in Down's syndrome, the retardation of the gross motor skills development determined for this kind of patients and on the findings that must suggest a neuromuscular disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/diagnosis , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/etiology , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness , Delayed Diagnosis , Motor Skills
15.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1361-1369, oct. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431852

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal tumors are uncommon. However, the true burden of all bone and soft tissue tumors of extremities is underestimated. Usually, the diagnosis of sarcomas is missed or delayed. Therefore, an adequate clinical and radiological assessment, along with the awareness and application of simple guidelines for referral to a specialized center, are of utmost importance. These are critical steps for an appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sarcomas, improving their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Referral and Consultation , Sarcoma/therapy , Sarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/therapy , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Bone Neoplasms/therapy , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Muscle Neoplasms/therapy , Muscle Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Delayed Diagnosis , Missed Diagnosis
16.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 14-23, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395909

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Boerhaave syndrome is a spontaneous rupture of the esophageal wall caused by a sudden increase in intraesophageal pressure. It represents an incidence of approximately 15% of all esophageal perforations, which do not exceed 3.1 per 1 million inhabitants per year. Objectives: To communicate the clinical presentation and management of patients with this syndrome, as well as to reveal the different options available in our service for its treatment. Methods: Search in the statistical data of the regional Hospital of Talca for patients with a diagnosis of Boerhaave syndrome. Five patients were found. Information was obtained from their clinical records and is presented as a clinical case report with a descriptive analysis of their management. Results: Of the 5 clinical cases presented, a classic clinical presentation can be observed, most of the patients presented with vomiting that later evolved with thoracic and/or epigastric pain, associated with imaging studies suggesting esophageal perforation. Management was surgical in 100% of the cases, applying different techniques described in the literature. Discussion and Conclusion: Boerhaave syndrome is a medical-surgical emergency that requires timely management. In spite of the variety of management and the consequences of each one of them, all the patients had an evolution that allowed them to preserve their lives until nowadays. Keeping a high index of suspicion and choosing the best management will have an impact on morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Diseases , Mediastinal Diseases/surgery , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagectomy/methods , Delayed Diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
17.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 59(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408379

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia maligna multifocal de células endoteliales, que se presenta con lesiones características en la piel, boca y ganglios linfáticos. Objetivo: Describir un caso de sarcoma de Kaposi que, por sus características, entorpeció el diagnóstico de infección por VIH. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino, de 30 años, diagnosticado recientemente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, sin tratamiento. Fue referido a la consulta de cirugía maxilofacial para biopsia de adenopatía cervical derecha. Durante el examen físico se observó edema generalizado en ambos miembros inferiores, con lesiones hiperpigmentadas de aspecto macular y papular de varias tonalidades. En la mucosa del paladar duro se apreció una lesión pigmentada violácea, que abarcaba la línea media palatina y se extendía hacia la hemiarcada izquierda. Se realizó la exégesis de la adenopatía con fines diagnósticos, con lo cual se confirmó sarcoma de Kaposi. Conclusiones: La falta de familiaridad con las características clínicas, así como la falta de una biopsia de las lesiones cutánea y un examen completo de la cavidad oral, ocasionaron que esta neoplasia pasara desapercibida en los exámenes médicos de rutina en el caso presentado, lo que condujo a un bajo índice de sospecha de la infección por VIH/sida y retrasó el tratamiento oportuno. Cuando la inmunosupresión está avanzada, el sarcoma de Kaposi relacionado al síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida tiende a ser más agresivo(AU)


Introduction: Kaposi sarcoma is a multifocal malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells which presents with characteristic lesions on the skin, mouth and lymph glands. Objective: Describe a case of Kaposi sarcoma with characteristics that hindered HIV infection diagnosis. Case presentation: A case is presented of a male 30-year-old patient recently diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and not following any treatment. The patient was referred to the maxillofacial surgery service for right cervical adenopathy biopsy. Physical examination revealed generalized edema in both lower limbs, with hyperpigmented lesions of macular and papular appearance and various shades of color. A purplish pigmented lesion was detected in the hard palate mucosa. The lesion covered the palatal midline and extended toward the left hemiarch. Exeresis of the adenopathy was performed for diagnostic purposes, confirming the diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma. Conclusions: Lack of familiarity with the clinical characteristics of Kaposi sarcoma, and not performing a biopsy of the skin lesions and a complete examination of the oral cavity, made the neoplasm go unnoticed to routine medical tests, leading to low suspicion of HIV/AIDS infection and delaying timely treatment. In advanced immunosuppression, Kaposi sarcoma related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome tends to be more aggressive(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , HIV , Immunosuppression Therapy , Delayed Diagnosis
18.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 40-48, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364901

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Knowing the information regarding the panorama of lymphoma diagnosis in patients treated in the Brazilian Public Unified Health System from the last 10 years is a challenge for Strategic Health Planning. Objective To characterize the Brazilian population with lymphoma treated in the Brazilian Public Unified Health System between 2008 and 2017 regarding staging, sex, residence site and mortality. Material and methods A descriptive, retrospective, and longitudinal trial with secondary data from DataSUS (SIA/SUS and SIM/SUS) obtained from patients with ICD-10 C81-85. Results There were 70,850 lymphoma cases between 2008 and 2017, of which 55% were male, the median age was 51 years, and 27% had Hodgkin Lymphoma. Most patients (56%) were treated outside the residence city. São Paulo State accounted for 25% of patients. Treatment initiation took more than 60 days in 27% of cases. A total of 45,601 deaths were due to lymphoma (12% Hodgkin Lymphoma and 88% Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma), with a median age 63 years, and were mainly males (55%). Staging data were inadequate in 23% of patients, and analysis was performed only on the valid records. Advanced disease was diagnosed in 58% of patients (60% male; 57% female) and was more common in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (62%) versus Hodgkin Lymphoma (49%). Discussion Late diagnosis interferes with mortality rates. Health promotion and cancer prevention campaigns, especially targeting the male public, and training for early diagnosis and early treatment are needed. Conclusion Effective measures for early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed for lymphoma control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hodgkin Disease/diagnosis , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Mortality , Delayed Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 37-42, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360128

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease and is one of the most common causes of dementia in people under 65. There is often a significant diagnostic delay, as FTD can be confused with other psychiatric conditions. A lack of knowledge regarding FTD by health professionals is one possible cause for this diagnostic confusion. Objectives: The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Frontotemporal Dementia Knowledge Scale (FTDKS) in Spanish. Methods: A translation was done, following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines, which consisted of forward translation, blind back translation, and an analysis by a committee of experts. For the present study, 134 professionals from different health areas responded the Spanish version of the FTDKS. The statistical analysis was performed using R version 4.0.0 "Arbor day" and the Psych, sjPlot packages. Results: The Spanish version of the FTDKS had good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.74.). The sample's mean score was 19.78 (range = 4-32, SD 6.3) out of a maximum of 36 points. Conclusions: The results obtained show that the Spanish version has good psychometric properties. The FTDKS is applicable in our environment and can be a useful tool to evaluate the knowledge of health professionals regarding frontotemporal dementia.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La demencia frontotemporal (DFT) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa y es una de las causas más comunes de demencia en personas menores de 65 años. A menudo existe un retraso significativo en el diagnóstico, ya que la FTD puede confundirse con otras afecciones psiquiátricas. La falta de conocimientos sobre la DFT por parte de los profesionales de salud es una posible causa de esta confusión diagnóstica. Objetivos: El presente estudio describe nuestros esfuerzos para adaptar y validar la Escala de Conocimiento de la Demencia Frontotemporal (FTDKS) en español. Métodos: Se realizó una traducción, siguiendo las pautas de adaptación transcultural, que consistió en una traducción directa, una traducción inversa ciega y un análisis por parte de un comité de expertos. Para el presente estudio, 134 profesionales de diferentes áreas de la salud respondieron la versión en español del FTDKS. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando la versión 4.0.0 de R "Arbor day" y los paquetes Psych, sjPlot. Resultados: La versión en español del FTDKS tiene una buena fiabilidad y consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach 0,74.). La puntuación media de la muestra fue de 19,78 (rango = 4-32, SD 6,3) sobre un máximo de 36 puntos. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la versión española tiene buenas propiedades psicométricas. El FTDKS es aplicable en nuestro medio y puede ser una herramienta útil para evaluar los conocimientos de los profesionales sanitarios sobre la demencia frontotemporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Translations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Delayed Diagnosis
20.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 31: e20200579, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1377409

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the prevalence and factors associated with late diagnosis of the infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), in a municipality of São Paulo. Method: an epidemiological, analytical and retrospective study that analyzed the HIV and AIDS cases notified by the health services in the period from 2015 to 2017 using data from the notifications of the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN Net) corresponding to the users recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS infection in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto/SP, Brazil. Data collection was in May 2018. The chi-square test was performed, as well as binary logistic regression, where the dependent variable was the AIDS criterion at the moment of notifying infection by HIV. A p-value<0.05 was considered for the association between the variables studied in relation to late diagnosis. Results: of the 829 (100%) new HIV cases, 290 (35.0%) were diagnosed in the condition of AIDS. Most of the population was male and aged between 15 and 34 years old. Oral candidiasis and weight loss greater than 10% were the main symptoms associated with AIDS. It was observed that people with lower schooling levels and older were more prone to late diagnoses. Conclusion: it is necessary to devise strategies that favor timely diagnosis in the municipality under study, particularly among the individuals aged over 45 years old and with lower schooling levels.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados al diagnóstico tardío de la infección ocasionada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (HIV) en un municipio del interior de Brasil. Método: estudio epidemiológico, analítico y retrospectivo que analizó los casos de VIH y SIDA notificados por los servicios de salud entre 2015 y 2017 por medio de los datos de las notificaciones del Sistema de Información de Problemas de Salud pasibles de Notificación (SINAN Net) referentes a los usuarios recién diagnosticados con la infección ocasionada por el VIH/SIDA en el municipio de Ribeirão Preto/SP, Brasil. La recolección de datos fue en mayo de 2018. Se realizaron tanto una prueba de chi-cuadrado como un análisis de regresión logística binaria, en la cual la variable dependiente fue el criterio de SIDA al momento de notificar la infección ocasionada por el HIV. Se consideró un valor de p<0,05 para la asociación entre las variables estudiadas en relación con el diagnóstico tardío. Resultados: entre los 829 (100%) casos nuevos de HIV, 290 (35,0%) fueron diagnosticados en la condición de SIDA. La mayoría de la población era del sexo masculino y pertenecía al grupo etario de 15 a 34 años. Candidiasis oral y pérdida de peso superior al 10% fueron los principales síntomas asociados al SIDA. Se observó que las personas con niveles de educación más bajos y de mayor edad fueron más propensas a ser diagnosticadas tardíamente. Conclusión: es necesario elaborar estrategias que favorezcan el diagnóstico oportuno en el municipio estudiado, particularmente entre las personas de más de 45 años de edad y con niveles de educación más bajos.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao diagnóstico tardio da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), em um município do interior paulista. Método: estudo epidemiológico, analítico e retrospectivo que analisou os casos de HIV e AIDS notificados pelos serviços de saúde no período de 2015 a 2017 por meio dos dados das notificações do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan Net) dos usuários recém-diagnosticados para a infecção pelo HIV/AIDS no município de Ribeirão Preto/SP, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu em maio de 2018. Foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística binária, no qual a variável dependente foi o critério de AIDS no momento da notificação da infecção pelo HIV. Foi considerado o valor de p<0,05 para a associação entre as variáveis estudadas com relação ao diagnóstico tardio. Resultados: dentre os 829 (100%) casos novos de HIV, 290 (35,0%) foram diagnosticados na condição de AIDS. A maioria da população pertencia ao sexo masculino e na faixa etária dos 15 aos 34 anos. A candidose oral e a perda de peso acima de 10% foram os principais sintomas associados à AIDS. Observou-se que pessoas com menor escolaridade e com o aumento da idade eram mais propensas a serem diagnosticadas tardiamente. Conclusão: estratégias que favoreçam o diagnóstico oportuno no município estudado são necessárias, particularmente entre os indivíduos com idade acima de 45 anos e com menor escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections , Retrospective Studies , Notification , Delayed Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Health Information Systems
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