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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929142


Oral bacteria directly affect the disease status of dental caries and periodontal diseases. The dynamic oral microbiota cooperates with the host to reflect the information and status of immunity and metabolism through two-way communication along the oral cavity and the systemic organs. The oral cavity is one of the most important interaction windows between the human body and the environment. The microenvironment at different sites in the oral cavity has different microbial compositions and is regulated by complex signaling, hosts, and external environmental factors. These processes may affect or reflect human health because certain health states seem to be related to the composition of oral bacteria, and the destruction of the microbial community is related to systemic diseases. In this review, we discussed emerging and exciting evidence of complex and important connections between the oral microbes and multiple human systemic diseases, and the possible contribution of the oral microorganisms to systemic diseases. This review aims to enhance the interest to oral microbes on the whole human body, and also improve clinician's understanding of the role of oral microbes in systemic diseases. Microbial research in dentistry potentially enhances our knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of oral diseases, and at the same time, continuous advances in this frontier field may lead to a tangible impact on human health.

Bacteria , Dental Caries/microbiology , Humans , Microbiota , Mouth/microbiology , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; (2020,Perspectives in Oral Sciences): 39-48, mar. 31, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151817


In the last two decades, the increase in population genetics studies has contributed to elucidating important questions about the evolution of the pathogenesis of bacteria of clinical interest. The objective of this study is to revise and update the knowledge of the last fifteen years regarding the genetic variability of Streptococcus mutans and their association with dental caries. Streptococcus mutans, one of the most widely distributed bacteria in the world, are heavily associated with this condition. This research shows the results of numerous studies carried out in various countries that, using molecular and biochemical methods, revealed associations between different serotypes and caries activity. In addition, it is reported that the population genetics structure of Streptococcus mutans in Argentina is highly recombinant, which reflects the largest waves of human immigration that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries. On the other hand, demographic analysis suggests that these bacteria experienced a population expansion that coincided with the beginning of agricultural development.

En las últimas dos décadas el incremento de los estudios de genética de poblaciones ha contribuido a dilucidar cuestiones importantes sobre la evolución de la patogénesis de bacterias de interés clínico. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una actualización sobre los conocimientos de los últimos quince años referidos a la variabilidad genética de Streptococcus mutans y su relación con la caries dental. Streptococcus mutans, de amplia distribución mundial, es una de las bacterias más fuertemente asociada a dicha enfermedad. En este trabajo se muestran resultados de numerosos estudios realizados en diferentes países que utilizando métodos moleculares y bioquímicos revelaron asociaciones entre diferentes serotipos y la actividad de caries. Además, se reporta que la estructura genética poblacional de Streptococcus mutans de Argentina es de alto nivel recombinante, lo que reflejaría las grandes oleadas inmigratorias humanas ocurridas en los siglos 19thy 20th. Por otra parte, los análisis demográficos sugieren que esta bacteria experimentó una expansión poblacional coincidente con el comienzo del desarrollo de la agricultura

Humans , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Genetic Variation , Dental Caries/microbiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Demography , Emigration and Immigration , Serogroup , Genetics, Population
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 32(2): 97-102, Aug. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038165


The aim of the present study was to validate and establish a cut off point and the predictive value of an adhesion test (AA-MSMG), as a microbiological method for evaluating cariogenic risk. The study is based on a variant (20% sucrose) of a selective medium descripted by Gold et al. (MSMG). This method differentiates mutans group streptococci (MGS) by exacerbating the production of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide which gives adhesion to surfaces such as glass, plastic and dental enamel. Caries assessment according to ICDAS was conducted in 154 patients (aged >21 years) who were attended at Preventive and Community Dentistry Department, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between August 2017 to August 2018. The study population was assigned to groups according to the presence/ absence of caries lesions: Group A: ICDAS lesion code = 0 (L=0) on all dental surfaces (n=23); and Group B: L>1 (n=131). After mouth-rinsing with distilled water, saliva samples were collected with fasting and hygiene protocol, and sent immediately to the Microbiological Diagnosis Laboratory, Microbiology Department, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. Samples were homogenized and serially diluted to the tenth. 100 pl of the dilutions were cultured in 25 cm² sterile plastic flasks containing 9.9 ml of modified selective medium described by Gold (MSMG-selective and differential medium). Cultures were incubated in an anaerobic atmosphere at 36 ± 1°C for 48 hours. The supernatants were eluted and the samples washed with sterile distilled water. Colony forming unit counts were performed by calibrated researchers (Kappa >0.75) using a stereoscopic microscope at 50X. Mutans group streptococci (MGS) counts ranged from 1x10(4) to 1x10(5) CFU/ml in group A, and were higher than 1x10(6) CFU/ml in Group B. Statically analysis of results (ROC) showed that the AAMSMG has a satisfactory predictive value (91%) and established a cutoff point in 1.68x10(5) UFC / ml. This would indicate that individuals whose MGS saliva counts are higher than the cutoff value would be 5 times more likely to develop dental caries. Adherence assay could be a useful microbiological predictor of caries risk.

El objetivo del presente estudio fue validar, establecer el punto de corte y valor predictivo de una técnica microbiológica para evaluar el nivel de estreptococos del grupo mutans en saliva. La técnica consiste en un test de adherencia que emplea un medio selectivo modificado (20% sacarosa) descripto por Gold et al. (TA-MSMG). Este método permite diferenciar a los estreptococos del grupo mutans (SGM) exacerbando la producción del polisacárido extracelular insoluble que le confiere adhesión a superficies como vidrio, plástico y esmalte dental. De acuerdo con los criterios de ICDAS se sembraron 154 salivas de pacientes mayores de edad, que asistieron al Servicio de Odontología Preventiva y Comunitaria de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires entre los meses de agosto de los años 2017 y 2018. La población estudiada fue asignada a dos grupos según la presencia / ausencia de lesiones de caries: Grupo A: código de lesión ICDAS = 0 (L = 0) en todas las superficies dentales (n = 23); y Grupo B: L> 1 (n = 131). Después de realizar un enjuague bucal con agua destilada, las muestras de saliva se recogieron según protocolo (ayuno de 4 horas y suspensión de higiene dental de 12 hs). Las muestras se remitieron de inmediato al Laboratorio de Diagnóstico Microbiológico, Departamento de Microbiología de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Para su procesamiento, las muestras fueron homogeneizadas y diluidas al décimo. Se cultivaron 100 pl de las diluciones en botellas de plástico estériles de 25 cm² que contenían 9,9 ml de medio de Gold modificado (MSMG-20% sacarosa). Los cultivos se incubaron en atmósfera anaeróbica a 36 ± 1°C durante 48 horas. El sobrenadante se eluyó y las muestras se lavaron con agua destilada estéril. Los recuentos de unidades formadoras de colonias SGMfueron realizados por investigadores calibrados (Kappa >0.75) utilizando un microscopio estereoscópico a 50X. Los recuentos de SGM presentaron una variación entre 1x10(4)y 1x10(5) UFC/ml en el grupo A, mientras que en el Grupo B fueron superiores a 1x10(6) UFC/ml. El análisis estadístico de los resultados determinó una curva ROC que establece para el TA-MSMG un valor predictivo del 91% y un punto de corte en 1.68x10(5) UFC SGM / ml. Esto indicaría que los individuos cuyos recuentos en saliva de SGM sean superiores al valor de corte, tendrían 5 veces más posibilidades de desarrollar caries (5:1). Este método podría ser un instrumento útil al momento de evaluar (indicador microbiológico) el riesgo cariogénico del paciente.

Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Dental Caries , Argentina , Tooth/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Predictive Value of Tests , Dental Caries/microbiology , Mouthwashes
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 118-123, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019444


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: High prevalence of dental caries in ulcerative colitis (UC) has been attributed to diet and changes in salivary environment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the prevalence of dental caries, salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity and cariogenic bacteria counts of Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp and to evaluate their relationship with drug therapy, disease activity and duration. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with UC patients followed in a tertiary center. Participants were submitted to a questionnaire (including demographic data, oral hygiene, eating habits) and a clinical observation with assessment of plaque index and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index. Unstimulated/stimulated saliva was collected. Medical records, disease activity (Partial Mayo Score) and disease duration were collected. Laboratory data included salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity (CRT® buffer) and cariogenic bacteria count (Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp) in saliva using the CRT® bacteria test (results: high or low counts). RESULTS: Thirty UC patients were recruited. Oral hygiene routines were daily teeth brushing once or more (96.7%) and fluoride toothpaste (73.3%). Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (mean 16.17±6.428) was not affected by the frequency of soft drinks, cakes, sweets and sugars between meals (P>0.2). Long-term disease showed a trend towards higher prevalence of caries (P=0.06). Most presented normal salivary flow rates, unstimulated (73.3%) and stimulated (60.0%), and high salivary buffering capacity (66.7%). Any association was found with age, gender, disease activity, disease duration and drug therapy. High Mutans streptococci and low Lactobacillus spp count were observed in 73.3% and 60% of patients, respectively. Patients with active disease (100%) and longer duration (88.9%) displayed higher Mutans streptococci count. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental caries observed in UC patients was significant and did not seem to be influenced by their eating habits. The high prevalence of Mutans streptococci count may be a major risk factor for dental caries and may be looked as part of the UC dysbiosis. Dental care of UC patients should be planned according with this microbiota variation.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Uma elevada prevalência de cáries dentárias em doentes com retocolite ulcerativa (RCU) tem sido atribuída à dieta e alterações no ambiente salivar. OBJETIVO: Este estudo pretende caracterizar a prevalência de cáries dentárias, taxas de fluxo salivar, capacidade de tamponamento da saliva e contagem de bactérias cariogénicas, Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp e avaliar a sua relação com a terapêutica farmacológica e a atividade e duração da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com doentes com RCU seguidos num centro terciário. Os participantes foram submetidos a um questionário (incluindo questões sobre dados sociodemográficos, higiene oral e hábitos alimentares), e a uma observação clínica com avaliação do índice de placa e índice Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth. Amostras de saliva não estimulada e estimulada foram colhidas. Os registos clínicos, a atividade da doença (score parcial de Mayo) e a sua duração foram avaliados. Os dados laboratoriais incluíram taxas de fluxo salivar, capacidade de tamponamento da saliva (CRT® buffer) e a contagem de bactérias cariogénicas (Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp) utilizando o teste CRT® (resultado: contagem elevada ou reduzida). RESULTADOS: Foram recrutados 30 doentes com RCU. As rotinas de higiene oral incluíram a escovagem dos dentes uma ou mais vezes por dia (96,7%) e o uso de pasta com flúor (73,3%). O índice Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (média 16,17±6,428) não foi afetado pela frequência de ingestão de refrigerantes, bolos, doces e açucares entre as refeições (P>0,2). Doentes com doença de longa duração apresentaram uma tendência para maior prevalência de cáries dentárias (P=0,06). A maioria possuía taxas de fluxo salivar normais, quer de saliva estimulada (60%) quer de saliva não estimulada (73,3%), assim como taxas de tamponamento salivar elevadas (66,7%). Não foi encontrada associação entre estas características com a idade, género, atividade/duração da doença e tipo de terapêutica farmacológica. Contagens elevadas de Streptococcus mutans e reduzidas de Lactobacillus spp foram observadas em 73,3% e 60% dos doentes, respectivamente. Doentes com doença ativa e maior tempo de evolução apresentaram contagens superiores de Streptococcus mutans. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de cárie dentária observada em doentes com RCU foi significativa e não parece ser influenciada pelos hábitos alimentares. A prevalência aumentada de Streptococcus mutans foi o fator de risco maior para a cárie dentária e provavelmente constitui parte da conhecida disbiose oral associada à RCU. Os cuidados dentários a estes doentes deverão ter em consideração esta variação da microbiota.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries/chemically induced , Oral Hygiene , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/microbiology , Bacterial Load , Middle Aged
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180426, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002406


Abstract Objectives Enamel demineralization is among the main topics of interest in the orthodontic field. Self-ligating brackets have been regarded as advantageous in this aspect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the break homeostasis in the oral environment and the levels of microorganisms associated with dental caries among the different types of brackets. Material and Methods Twenty patients received two self-ligating brackets: In-Ovation®R, SmartClipTM, and one conventional GeminiTM. Saliva was collected before bonding (S0), 30 (S1) and 60 (S2) days after bonding. One sample of each bracket was removed at 30 and 60 days for the in situ analysis. Checkerboard DNA-DNA Hybridization was employed to evaluate the levels of microbial species as-sociated with dental caries. Data were evaluated by nonparametric Friedman and Wilcoxon tests at 5% significance level. Results The salivary levels of L. casei (p=0.033), S. sobrinus (p=0.011), and S. sanguinis (p=0.004) increased in S1. The in situ analyses showed alteration in S. mutans (p=0.047), whose highest levels were observed to the In-Ovation®R. Conclusions The orthodontic appliances break the salivary homeostasis of microorganisms involved in dental caries. The contamination pattern was different between self-ligating and conventional brackets. The In-Ovation®R presented worse performance considering the levels of cariogenic bacterial species.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/microbiology , Orthodontic Brackets/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Time Factors , DNA Probes , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets/standards , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Statistics, Nonparametric , Homeostasis
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180163, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975895


Abstract Microcosm biofilm has been applied to induce carious lesions in dentin. However, no study has been done to compare the impact of the type of model for providing nutrients to microcosm biofilm formation on dentin. Objective This study compared the performance of two kinds of models (static and semi-dynamic) on the biofilm formation and the development of dentin carious lesions. Material and Methods In both models, biofilm was produced using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva for the first 8 h (5% CO2 and 37°C). Afterwards, for the static model, the samples were placed in 24-wells microplate containing McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose, which was replaced at 24 h. In the semi-dynamic model, the samples were submitted to artificial mouth system with continuous flow of McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose (0.15 ml/min, 37°C) for 10 h a day (for the other 14 h, no flow was applied, similarly to the static model). After 5 days, biofilm viability was measured by fluorescence and dentin demineralization by transverse microradiography. Results Biofilm viability was significantly lower for the static compared with semi-dynamic model, while dentin demineralization was significantly higher for the first one (p<0.05). The static model was able to produce a higher number of typical subsurface lesions compared with the semi-dynamic model (p<0.05). Conclusions The type of model (static and semi-dynamic) applied in the microcosm biofilm may have influence on it's viability and the severity/profile of dentin carious lesions.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Models, Biological , Saliva/microbiology , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Microradiography , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Microbial Viability
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975890


Abstract The use of antimicrobial agents is an efficient method to prevent dental caries. Also, nanometric antibacterial agents with wide antibacterial spectrum and strong antibacterial effects can be applied for prevention of dental caries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) composite on the progression of artificial enamel caries in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. Material and Methods: Enamel specimens from bovine incisors were divided into eight treatment groups (n = 13), as follows: group 1 was inoculated with S. mutans grown in Brain Heart Infusion containing 1% sucrose (1% BHIS), as negative control; groups 2-4 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different rGO/Ag concentrations (0.08, 0.12, 0.16 mg/mL) + 1% BHIS; group 5-7 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different agents (0.16 mg/mL reduced graphene oxide, 0.16 mg/mL silver nanoparticles, 10 ppm NaF) + 1% BHIS; group 8 was mixed with 1% BHIS, without inoculation. Artificial enamel carious lesions were produced by S. mutans biofilm model for 7 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze roughness and morphology of the enamel surface. Polarized light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to measure the lesion depth and the relative optical density (ROD) of the demineralized layer. Results: Compared with the control groups, the rGO/Ag groups showed: (a) reduced enamel surface roughness; (b) much smoother and less eroded surfaces; (c) shallower lesion depth and less mineral loss. Conclusion: As a novel composite material, rGO/Ag can be a promising antibacterial agent for caries prevention.

Animals , Cattle , Silver/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Graphite/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Disease Progression , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(4): 337-342, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975754


RESUMEN: El Streptococcus mutans es una de las principales bacterias que participa en el desarrollo de la caries dental, una enfermedad de alta prevalencia en la población mundial, y por ende un problema de salud pública. Hoy se intentan buscar alternativas para su prevención, una de ellas es la fitoterapia o uso de plantas medicinales con fines terapéutico beneficiosos para la salud. Evaluar efecto antibacteriano del Origanum vulgare a diferentes concentraciones sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Streptococcus mutans. Se utilizaron cepas bacterianas de Streptococcus mutans previamente aisladas, se realizó una siembra bacteriana en 24 placas Petri con agar mitis salivarius. Se prepararon infusiones de orégano a 8 concentraciones diferentes (1 %, 5 % y 10 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % y 100 %) y se aplicaron en perforaciones realizadas previamente en las placas de agar (4 perforaciones por placa para las infusiones de orégano y 2 para las placas de controles). Se llevó a incubadora por 48 horas y posteriormente se realizó la medición de los halos de inhibición. Los resultados fueron negativos para las infusiones de orégano al 1 %, 5 % y 10 %, debido a que no presentaron halos de inhibición bacteriana; mientras que para las infusiones al 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % y 100 % los resultados fueron positivos. El orégano posee efecto antibacteriano sobre el crecimiento de Streptococcus mutans en infusiones sobre el 20 % de concentración, siendo la solución madre preparada a partir de 20 gramos de hojas secas de orégano (Origanum vulgare) y 200 ml de agua destilada hervida. Este efecto es antibacteriano es directamente proporcional a la concentración de la infusión. El orégano podría ser utilizado como una alternativa de colutorio, pasta dental u otros coadyuvantes de higiene bucal para prevenir la aparición de caries.

ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is one of the main bacteria in the development of dental caries, a disease with high prevalence in the world population, and therefore a public health problem. There is current research to find prevention alternatives one of these is the use of medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes beneficial to health. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Origanum vulgare at different concentrations on in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans, previously isolated bacterial strains of Streptococcus mutans were used. Bacterial seeding was carried out in 24 petri dishes with agar Mitis salivarius. Oregano infusions were prepared at 8 different concentrations (1 %, 5 % and 10 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %) and applied in predrilled holes in the agar plates (4 perforations per plate for the oregano infusions and 2 for control plates). They were maintained in an incubator for 48 hours and measurement of the inhibition zones was subsequently carried out. The results were negative for infusions of oregano at 1 %, 5 % and 10 %, as they did not present halos of bacterial inhibition; while results were positive for infusions at 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. Results show that oregano has an antibacterial effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans in infusion concentrations above 20 %, with the basic solution prepared from 20 g of dried oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare) and 200 ml of boiled distilled water. This antibacterial effect is directly proportional to the concentration of the infusion. Oregano could be used as an alternative mouthwash, toothpaste or other oral hygiene adjuvants to prevent the incidence of caries.

Humans , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Streptococcus mutans/pathogenicity , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Plaque , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Origanum/chemistry , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 691-696, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951593


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals thymol, linalool, and citronellol against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis. Disk diffusion screening on solid medium and measurement of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition halos was the technique utilized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the substances was determined using serial substance dilutions and microdilution technique in Brain Heart Infusion culture medium. After incubation for 24 hours in an oven at 37 °C, plate reading was completed and confirmed by visual method using 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined from MIC subcultures. Assays were performed in triplicate, and chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The diameters in mm of the growth inhibition halos ranged between 7.3 and 10.7 for S. mutans, 7.3 and 10.0 for S. oralis, and 8.2 and 9.8 for S. salivarius. The MIC and MBC values obtained converged, ranging from maximum values in the presence of Linalool (1,250.0 mg/mL, 2,500.0 mg/mL and 2,500.0 mg/mL, respectively, for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius); and minimum values with Thymol (312.5 μg/ml, 156.2 μg/mL and 156.2 μg/ml, respectively for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius). All the tested phytochemicals displayed antibacterial activity, thus representing substances with potential applications in preventing tooth decay.

Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro dos fitoquímicos timol, linalol e citronelol sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivaris e Streptococcus oralis. Utilizou-se a técnica de discos de difusão em meio sólido e medição do diâmetro dos halos de inibição. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) das substâncias foi determinada utilizando diluições em série das substâncias e técnica de microdiluição em meio de cultura de Brain Heart Infusion. Após incubação durante 24 horas em estufa a 37 °C, a leitura da placa foi confirmada pelo método visual usando o corante 2,3,5 trifenil cloreto de tetrazólio. A concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) foi determinada a partir de subculturas de MIC. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata, e clorexidina foi usada como um controle positivo. Os diâmetros dos halos de inibição do crescimento variaram entre 7,3 e 10,7 por S. mutans, 7,3 e 10,0 por S. oralis, e 8,2 e 9,8 para S. salivaris. Os valores de CIM e CBM obtidos variaram de valores máximos na presença de linalol (1.250,0 mg/mL, 2.500.0 mg/mL e 2.500.0 mg/mL, respectivamente, para o S. mutans, S oralis e S. salivaris); a valores mínimos com timol (312,5 μg/ml, 156,2 μg/mL e 156,2 μg/ml, respectivamente para S. mutans, S. oralis e S. salivaris). Todos os fitoquímicos testados apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, representando, assim, substâncias com potencial de aplicações na prevenção da cárie dentária.

Streptococcus/drug effects , Thymol/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Dental Caries/microbiology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Acyclic Monoterpenes
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(1): 135-155, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893313


RESUMEN: La Caries Temprana de la Infancia (CTI) es una forma de caries dental agresiva que afecta a niños, y en el último reporte nacional reveló una prevalencia de caries del 50 % en niños de 4 años de edad de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (Soto et al., 2007). El objetivo de este estudio es validar un cuestionario que permita recolectar información relacionada con diversos factores de riesgo de caries en niños preescolares. Para la validación del cuestionario se determinó la validez de convergencia y discriminación, la consistencia interna y la confiabilidad test retest del instrumento en dos muestras independientes. Se aplicó el instrumento al cuidador principal de 118 preescolares entre 24 a 71 meses de edad, que asisten a jardines infantiles de dependencia particular (bajo riesgo de caries) y la Fundación INTEGRA (alto riesgo de caries) en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Se realizaron exámenes clínicos dentales por 2 odontólogos calibrados utilizando en el criterio OMS e ICDAS II. Se estimó un modelo de regresión logística y se evalúo la capacidad de discriminación del puntaje a través de una curva ROC. El cuestionario mostró una validez de discriminación de 0,95 entre ambos grupos y de la pregunta global 0,61 y una consistencia interna del cuestionario de 0,72. En la validez de convergencia se encontró que no existe asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el puntaje del cuestionario y la pregunta global dicotomizada (OD) 1,061. No obstante, se evidenció que si existe asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el puntaje del cuestionario y el grupo riesgo de caries (bajo y alto) (OD) 1,961. La estabilidad temporal mediante comparaciones Test - Retest calculado con el índice de Kappa osciló entre 0,37 a 1. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que el presente cuestionario es un instrumento válido para discriminar riesgo de caries, permitiendo un mejor análisis de los determinantes de la caries dental en la población preescolar chilena.

ABSTRACT: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay, and the last national unpublished reports reveal a caries prevalence of 50 % at 4 years of age in children, in the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Soto et al., 2007). The objective of this study is to validate a questionnaire that allows the collection of information related to several caries risk factors in preschoolchildren. For the validation of the questionnaire, the convergence and discrimination validity, the internal consistency and the retest, test reliability of the instrument were determined in two independent samples. The instrument was applied to the main caregiver of 118 preschoolers between 24 and 71 months of age, who attend private childcare centers (low caries risk) and the INTEGRA Foundation childcare (high caries risk) in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Dental clinical examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists using the OMS and ICDAS II criteria. A logistic regression model was estimated and the ability to discriminate the score through an ROC curve was evaluated. The questionnaire showed a validity of discrimination of 0.95 between both groups and of the global question 0.61 and an internal consistency of the questionnaire of 0.72. In the convergence validity, it was found that there is no statistically significant association between the questionnaire score and the dichotomized global question (RE) 1.061. However, it was evidenced that there is a statistically significant association between the questionnaire score and the caries risk group (low and high) (OD) 1.961. Temporal stability by means of Test - Retest comparisons calculated with the Kappa index ranged from 0.37 to 1. Therefore, it can be concluded that the present questionnaire is a valid instrument for discriminating caries risk, allowing a better analysis of the determinants of dental caries in the Chilean preschool population.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries Susceptibility/physiology , Algorithms , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , Dental Caries/microbiology
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 31(3): 156-163, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987780


Dental caries is an infectious, multifactorial, localized, transmissible process that leads to the destruction of hard dental tissue. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the main microorganism associated with its development. The aim of this study was to determine presence and count of S. mutans in saliva samples from children with dental caries before and after an educational process including interviews, lessons, lectures, educational workshops and recreational activities on the importance of oral care and hygiene. Twentythree 3 to 6 year old schoolchildren provided 3 unstimulated saliva samples: one before the educational process, one at 3 months and one at 6 months into the educational process. The samples were serially diluted and plated on Mitis Salivarius agar supplemented with bacitracin and 20% sucrose, and incubated anaerobically for 2 days at 37oC. Presumptive S. mutans isolates were identified with biochemical tests. Before the beginning of the educational process, and at 3 and 6 months into the educational process, S. mutans was found, respectively, in 22 (95.6%), 15 (65.2%) and 10 (43.5%) of the 23 children. The S. mutans count was reduced by 64.8% and 86.6% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, compared to the levels found before the educational process. These results indicate that educational intervention produced a significant reduction in S. mutans levels in the saliva of children with dental caries at 3 and 6 months into the educational process (AU)

La caries dental es un proceso infeccioso multifactorial, localizado y transmisible que se caracteriza por la destrucción del tejido dental duro. Streptococcus mutans es considerado el principal microorganismo asociado al desarrollo de esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia y recuento de S. mutans en saliva de niños con caries dental antes y después de un proceso educativo. Con este fin se tomó saliva no estimulada de 23 niños con caries dental pertenecientes a un centro educativo con edades de 3 a 6 años. En todos los niños se tomaron 3 muestras de saliva: antes del proceso educativo y a los 3 y 6 meses de iniciado el proceso educativo. El proceso educativo consistió en entrevistas, enseñanzas, conferencias, talleres educativos y actividades lúdicas sobre la importancia del cuidado e higiene oral. Después de su recolección, las muestras de saliva fueron serialmente diluidas y sembradas en Agar Mitis Salivarius con bacitracina y sacarosa al 20%. Los medios de cultivo sembrados se incubaron en anaerobiosis durante 2 días a 37ºC y los aislamientos presuntivos de S. mutans se identificaron con pruebas bioquímicas. Antes del inicio del proceso educativo, a los 3 y 6 meses de iniciado el proceso educativo se encontró S. mutans, respectivamente, en 22 de los 23 niños (95.6%), en 15 de los 23 niños (65.2%) y en 10 de los 23 niños (43.5%). En cuanto al recuento de S. mutans, se encontró una reducción de 64.8 % y 86.6% a los 3 y 6 meses, respectivamente, en comparación a los niveles encontrados antes del inicio del proceso educativo. En conclusión, los resultados indican que la intervención educativa realizada produjo una reducción significativa en los niveles de S. mutans en saliva de niños con caries dental después de 3 y 6 meses de iniciado el proceso educativo (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Health Education, Dental , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Colombia
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170500, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954513


Abstract Objectives Since most of the studies evaluates diabetics on multiple daily injections therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion may help gain better metabolic control and prevent complications, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, the unstimulated salivary flow rate and the total bacteria load, Streptococcus spp. levels and Lactobacillus spp. levels in saliva and supragingival dental biofilm of type 1 diabetics on insulin pump. Material and Methods Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump and 60 nondiabetic individuals were included. The dental caries evaluation was performed using ICDAS and the oral hygiene was assessed according to Greene and Vermillion Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Unstimulated saliva and supragingival dental biofilm were collected. Total bacteria, Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was quantified by qPCR. Results Patients with type 1 diabetes had a higher prevalence of dental caries and filled and missing teeth when compared with the control group. These patients were associated with more risk factors for the development of dental caries, namely a lower unstimulated salivary flow rate and a higher bacterial load in saliva and dental biofilm. Conclusion Some risk factors related to dental caries were associated with type 1 diabetics. An early diagnosis combined with the evaluation of the risk profile of the diabetic patient is imperative, allowing the dental caries to be analyzed through a perspective of prevention and the patient to be integrated into an individualized oral health program.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Oral Hygiene , Reference Values , Saliva/metabolism , Secretory Rate , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/physiology , DNA, Bacterial , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/physiology , Middle Aged
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170318, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893723


Abstract Probiotics have provided benefits to general health, but they are still insufficient to dental health. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and standard milk, measured by levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus spp., in 3-4-year-old children after 9 months of intervention. Material and Methods: The study was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The sample was composed of 363 preschoolers attending five child development centers in Cali, Colombia. They were randomized to two groups: children in the intervention group drank 200 mL of milk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 5x106 and Bifidobacteruim longum 3x106, and children in the control group drank 200 mL of standard milk. Interventions occurred on weekdays and information was gathered through scheduled clinical examination. The primary result was the number of colony forming units (CFU) of S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. in the saliva. Secondary results were dental caries, rated by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), dental plaque, pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Results: The proportion of S. mutans was lower in the intervention group compared with the control group after 9 months; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance (p=0.173); on the other hand, statistically significant differences between groups were found in the CFU/mL of Lactobacillus spp. (p=0.002). There was not statistically significant difference in the prevalence of dental caries for both groups (p=0.767). Differences between groups were found in the salivary buffering capacity (p=0.000); neither salivary pH nor dental plaque were significantly different. Conclusions: Regular consumption of milk containing probiotics bacteria reduced CFU/mL of Lactobacillus spp. and increased salivary buffering capacity at 9 months of consumption.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Milk/chemistry , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Milk/microbiology
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170113, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893693


Abstract Dental caries is a chronic progressive disease occurring in the tooth hard tissue due to multiple factors, in which bacteria are the initial cause. Both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis are main members of oral biofilm. Helicobacter pylori may also be detected in dental plaque, playing an important role in the development of dental caries. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of H. pylori culture supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis dual-species biofilm and to evaluate its potential ability on affecting dental health. Material and methods The effect of H. pylori supernatant on single-species and dual-species biofilm was measured by colony forming units counting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, respectively. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production was measured by both confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and anthrone-sulfuric acid method. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on S. mutans gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Results H. pylori supernatant could inhibit both S. mutans and S. sanguinis biofilm formation and EPS production. S. sanguinis inhibition rate was significantly higher than that of S. mutans. Finally, S. mutans bacteriocin and acidogenicity related genes expression were affected by H. pylori culture supernatant. Conclusion Our results showed that H. pylori could destroy the balance between S. mutans and S. sanguinis in oral biofilm, creating an advantageous environment for S. mutans, which became the dominant bacteria, promoting the formation and development of dental caries.

Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Streptococcus sanguis/physiology , Helicobacter pylori/physiology , Biofilms , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Plankton/growth & development , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Streptococcus sanguis/genetics , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Gene Expression , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Caries/microbiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170304, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893680


Abstract Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) is known for interacting with enamel reducing demineralization. However, no information is available about its potential antimicrobial effect. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-caries potential of TiF4 varnish compared to NaF varnish, chlorhexidine gel (positive control), placebo varnish and untreated (negative controls) using a dental microcosm biofilm model. Material and Methods A microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel previously treated with the varnishes, using inoculum from human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. All experiments were performed in biological triplicate (n=4/group in each experiment). Factors evaluated were: bacterial viability (% dead and live bacteria); CFU counting (log10 CFU/mL); and enamel demineralization (transverse microradiography - TMR). Data were analysed using ANOVA/Tukey's test or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p<0.05). Results Only chlorhexidine significantly increased the number of dead bacteria (68.8±13.1% dead bacteria) compared to untreated control (48.9±16.1% dead bacteria). No treatment reduced the CFU counting (total microorganism and total streptococci) compared to the negative controls. Only TiF4 was able to reduce enamel demineralization (ΔZ 1110.7±803.2 vol% μm) compared to both negative controls (untreated: ΔZ 4455.3±1176.4 vol% μm). Conclusions TiF4 varnish has no relevant antimicrobial effect. Nevertheless, TiF4 varnish was effective in reducing enamel demineralization under this model.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus/drug effects , Titanium/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Streptococcus/growth & development , Microradiography , Colony Count, Microbial , Random Allocation , Placebo Effect , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e109, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974435


Abstract This study investigated the effect of human milk, alone and associated with sucrose, in the cariogenicity of biofilms in a microcosm biofilm model and compared with the cariogenicity of sucrose and bovine milk. Microcosm biofilms were grown in enamel discs in 24-well plates. Six growth conditions were studied: DMM (chemically defined artificial saliva - negative control), DMM with 1% of sucrose (DMM+s) (positive control), human milk with DMM, human milk with DMM+s, bovine milk with DMM, and bovine milk with DMM+s. After 5 days, the outcome variables surface hardness change (%SHC), microbiological composition of biofilms, and pH of supernatant were analyzed. All groups had significantly lower hardness loss compared to the DMM group with 1% of sucrose. Human and bovine milk associated with sucrose showed higher hardness loss. The supernatant pH values after 6 hours of different treatments were similar for the groups sucrose and human milk associated with sucrose (p>0.05). After 18 hours at rest in pure DMM, an increase in the pH of the supernatant was observed. Higher values of total microorganisms count were found for sucrose and bovine milk groups compared to the group supplemented only by DMM. Bovine milk group showed greater amount of total aciduric microorganisms in comparison to human milk group. Within the limits of this study, it can be infered that both human and cow milks have some cariogenic potential, although differing from sucrose in terms of mineral loss.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Sucrose/adverse effects , Cariogenic Agents/adverse effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Milk, Human/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Milk/microbiology , Diet, Cariogenic/adverse effects , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Milk, Human/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 250-257, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893627


Abstract Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are strongly associated with dental caries. However, the relationship between oral streptococci and dental caries in children with Down syndrome is not well characterized. Objective To assess and compare dental caries experience and salivary S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and streptococci counts between groups of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome children and adolescents. Material and Methods This study included a sample of 30 Down syndrome children and adolescents (G-DS) and 30 age- and sex-matched non-Down syndrome subjects (G-ND). Dental caries experience was estimated by the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary dentition and the permanent dentition. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all participants. The fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to identify the presence and counts of the bacteria. The statistical analysis included chi-square, Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation. Results The G-DS exhibited a significantly higher caries-free rate (p<0.001) and a lower S. mutans salivary density (p<0.001). No significant differences were found in the salivary densities of S. sobrinus or streptococci between the groups (p=0.09 and p=0.21, respectively). The salivary S. mutans or S. sobrinus densities were not associated with dental caries experience in neither group. Conclusion The reduced dental caries experience observed in this group of Down syndrome children and adolescents cannot be attributed to lower salivary S. mutans densities, as determined with the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Streptococcus sobrinus/isolation & purification , Down Syndrome/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Reference Values , DMF Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , In Situ Hybridization , Down Syndrome/physiopathology , Bacterial Load
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 241-248, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839145


Abstract Early childhood caries (ECC) affects children all over the world and has high prevalence and severity in preschool children. Different social, biological and behavioral factors compose a network of causal factors for ECC. The aim was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic variables and caries at baseline, and the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. microorganisms with the progression of caries lesions after two years of follow-up in a group of children. At baseline, 163 children (3-4 years old) living in the areas of 12 primary care services of the Hospital Group Conceição (GHC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil) were evaluated. After two years, 119 children were re-evaluated. Clinical examinations were conducted by calibrated examiners using the ICDAS criteria. A sociodemographic questionnaire was applied to the children’s parents and saliva samples were collected from the children for microbiological analysis. Descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were performed in the statistical analysis. The factors associated with the caries progression were marital status of mothers (p=0.040), higher S. mutans counts (p=0.031) and the presence of cavitated lesions at baseline (p<0.001). The caries lesions progression in preschool children enrolled in primary health care was directly associated with marital status, presence of cavitated lesions at baseline and higher S. mutans counts at two-year follow-up.

Resumo A cárie precoce na infância (CPI) acomete crianças em todo o mundo e apresenta alta prevalência e severidade em pré-escolares. Diferentes fatores sociais, biológicos e comportamentais constituem uma rede de fatores causais da CPI. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e presença de cárie na linha de base e a presença de Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp. com a progressão de lesões de cárie após dois anos de acompanhamento em um grupo de crianças. Na avaliação inicial, foram avaliadas 163 crianças (3-4 anos de idade) pertencentes a 12 unidades básicas de saúde do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (GHC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil). Após dois anos, foram reavaliadas 119 crianças. Os exames clínicos foram realizados por examinadores calibrados usando os critérios ICDAS. Um questionário sociodemográfico foi aplicado aos pais das crianças e amostras de saliva foram coletadas de crianças para análise microbiológica. Foram realizadas estatísticas descritivas e regressão multivariada de Poisson na análise estatística. Os fatores associados com a progressão de cárie foram o estado marital das mães (p=0,040) e a presença de lesões cavitadas no início do estudo e uma maior contagem de S. mutans (p=0,031) após dois anos de acompanhamento. A progressão de cárie em pré-escolares pertencentes às unidades de atenção primária em saúde foi diretamente associada com o estado marital das mães, presença de lesões cavitadas na linha de base e maior contagem de S. mutans após dois anos de acompanhamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/microbiology , Brazil , Dental Caries/pathology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Longitudinal Studies , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 53-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841164


Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/virology , Virulence , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/growth & development , Candida/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/virology , Dental Enamel/virology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/virology , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e79, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952086


Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of hereditary mental retardation, but studies on the oral health condition of these patients are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the experience of dental caries in individuals with FXS, by examining the saliva profile, oral hygiene, socioeconomic characteristics and use of controlled drugs in these patients. Dental health was estimated using the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMF-T) and sialometry, and the pH value and buffering capacity of the saliva, colony forming units of S. mutans (CFU/mL), visible biofilm index, and socioeconomic status were all examined. The sample, comprising 23 individuals, had an average age of 17.3 ± 5.6 years, a DMF-T index of 5.5, a diminished salivary flow (78.3%), and a low (73.9%) saliva buffering capacity. Most (52.2%) individuals presented with a high abundance (CFU/mL) of S. mutans. The experience of caries was correlated with salivary parameters, poor oral hygiene, lower socioeconomic status and an increased count of S. mutans in saliva.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/microbiology , Fragile X Syndrome/complications , Oral Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Saliva/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Salivation/drug effects , Secretory Rate/drug effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , DMF Index , Risk Factors , Bacterial Load , Fragile X Syndrome/drug therapy