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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360558


Abstract Objectives: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, which is the main sedative in the intensive care unit. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and adverse events of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability in pediatric cardiac surgery. Sources: Databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, WANFANG STATA and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for articles about the application of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after pediatric cardiac surgery up to 18th Feb. 2021. Only randomized controlled trials were included and random-effects model meta-analysis was applied to calculate the standardized mean deviation (SMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Summary of the findings: Fifteen articles were included for this meta-analysis, and 9 articles for qualitative analysis. The results showed that preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery of DEX in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery were effective in maintaining systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and reducing heart rate (HR) (SBP: SMD = -0.35,95% CI: -0.72, 0.01; MAP: SMD = -0.83, 95% CI: -1.87,0.21; DBP: SMD = -0.79,95% CI: -1.66,0.08; HR: SMD = -1.71,95% CI: -2.29, -1.13). In addition, the frequency of Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in the DEX treatment group was lower than that in the placebo group. Conclusions: The application of DEX for preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery in pediatric cardiac surgery patients are effective in maintaining hemodynamic stability, and the clinical dose of DEX is not significantly related to the occurrence of pediatric adverse events which may be related to individual differences.

Humans , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 167-176, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354480


Animais presentes em zoológicos frequentemente necessitam de captura e anestesia para a realização de procedimentos clínicos e cirúrgicos. A anestesia total intravenosa apresenta vantagens como redução do estresse cirúrgico e menor depressão cardiovascular e respiratória. Entretanto, ainda são escassas as pesquisas dedicadas dentro deste contexto. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste relato foi avaliar o protocolo anestésico empregado, visando um procedimento seguro e passível de reversão para a espécie silvestre selecionada. Acompanhou-se a anestesia de um leão (Panthera leo), macho, adulto, proveniente do Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, submetido a procedimento endodôntico. A medicação pré-anestésica constituiu-se de dexmedetomidina (6 µg/kg), metadona (0,2 mg/kg), midazolam (0,1 mg/kg) e tiletamina-zolazepam (1,2 mg/kg). A indução foi realizada com propofol (1,5 mg/kg) e o animal foi intubado. Visando promover analgesia local, foi realizado bloqueio infraorbitário esquerdo com 5 mL de lidocaína a 2%. A manutenção foi realizada por meio do fornecimento de propofol (0,02-0,1 mg/kg/h), dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg/kg/h) e remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). O paciente apresentou sedação profunda e foi mantido em plano anestésico cirúrgico; todos os parâmetros fisiológicos monitorados permaneceram estáveis durante todo o procedimento. Após 55 minutos de anestesia o paciente apresentava sustentação espontânea da cabeça, quando foi novamente transportado ao zoológico para soltura no recinto. A ambulação foi considerada normal pelos observadores no zoológico seis horas após a anestesia. Pôde-se concluir que o protocolo realizado se mostrou tanto eficaz quanto seguro para a referida espécie encaminhada ao procedimento em questão.

Zoo animals often require capture and anesthesia in order to undergo clinical and surgical procedures. Total intravenous anesthesia has advantages such as reduced surgical stress and less cardiovascular and respiratory depression. However, specific research on this matter is still scarce. Therefore, the present report aims to evaluate the anesthetic protocol employed, seeking a safe and reversible procedure for the selected wild species. A male adult lion (Panthera leo), from the Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, was subjected to an endodontic anesthesia, under close monitoring. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of dexmedetomidine (6 µg/kg), methadone (0.2 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) and tiletamine-zolazepam (12 mg/kg). Induction was performed with propofol (1 mg/kg) and the animal was intubated. In order to promote local analgesia, a left infraorbital block was implemented with 5 mL of 2% lidocaine. Maintenance was undertaken by supplying propofol (0.02-0.1 mg/kg/min), dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg/h) and remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). The patient exhibited deep sedation and followed the surgical anesthetic plan; all the monitored physiological parameters remained stable throughout the procedure. After 55 minutes of anesthesia the patient showed spontaneous head support, when it was transported back to the zoo. The ambulation was considered normal by the zoo observers 6 hours after the anesthesia. It was concluded that the protocol was both effective and safe for the referred species undergone the procedure reported.

Animals , Preanesthetic Medication , Tiletamine , Zolazepam , Propofol , Dexmedetomidine , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics , Animals, Zoo
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370203, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374068


Purpose: To analyze the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (DEX) analgesia pretreatment on functional chronic visceral pain in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, and W6. The behavioral changes and electrophysiological indexes of rats in each group before and after DEX treatment were detected. Results: The levels of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in W5 and W6 groups were significantly lower than those in group W3, while the levels of thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) were significantly higher than those in group W3 (p < 0.05). The electromyographic signals of W1, W5, and W6 groups showed little fluctuation, while those of groups W2, W3, and W4 showed obvious fluctuation. TLR4 mRNA expression, IRF3, P65, and phosphorylation levels in W4, W5, and W6 groups were significantly lower than those in group W2 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine epidural anesthesia pretreatment could significantly inhibit visceral pain response in rats with functional chronic visceral pain, and its mechanism was related to the activation of TLR4 in spinal dorsal horn tissue of rats and the activation inhibition of IRF3 and P65 in the downstream key signals.

Animals , Rats , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Toll-Like Receptor 4/analysis , Visceral Pain/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Electrophysiological Phenomena
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370703, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402969


Purpose: To determine whether dexmedetomidine aggravates hemodynamic, metabolic variables, inflammatory markers, and microcirculation in experimental septic shock. Methods: Twenty-four pigs randomized into: Sham group (n = 8), received saline; Shock group (n = 8), received an intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli O55 (3 × 109 cells/mL, 0.75 mL/kg, 1 hour); Dex-Shock group (n = 8), received bacteria and intravenous dexmedetomidine (bolus 0.5 mcg/kg followed by 0.7 mcg/kg/h). Fluid therapy and/ornorepinephrine were administered to maintain a mean arterial pressure > 65 mmHg. Hemodynamic, metabolic, oxygenation, inflammatory markers, and microcirculation were assessed at baseline, at the end of bacterial infusion, and after 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Results: Compared to Shock group, Dex-Shock group presented a significantly increased oxygen extraction ratio at T180 (23.1 ± 9.7 vs. 32.5 ± 9.2%, P = 0.0220), decreased central venous pressure at T120 (11.6 ± 1 vs. 9.61 ± 1.2 mmHg, P = 0.0214), mixed-venous oxygen saturation at T180 (72.9 ± 9.6 vs. 63.5 ± 9.2%, P = 0.026), and increased plasma lactate (3.7 ± 0.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1 mmol/L, P = 0.003). Despite the Dex-Shock group having a better sublingual vessel density at T240 (12.5 ± 0.4 vs. 14.4 ± 0.3 mL/m2; P = 0.0003), sublingual blood flow was not different from that in the Shock group (2.4 ± 0.2 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 mL/kg, P = 0.4418). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine did not worsen the hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, or sublingual blood flow disorders resulting from septic shock. Despite inducing a better sublingual vessel density, dexmedetomidine initially and transitorily increased the mismatch between oxygen supply and demand.

Animals , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Swine/physiology , Dexmedetomidine/analysis , Microcirculation , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/analysis , Hemodynamics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929025


OBJECTIVES@#Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are common operative neurocognitive disorders, which places a heavy burden on patients, families and society. Therefore, it is very important to search for preventive drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that perioperative use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a decrease the incidence of POD and POCD. But the specific effect of dexmedetomidine on elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and its potential mechanism are not clear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine on preventing POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and the influence on the balance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.@*METHODS@#This trial was designed as a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study. One hundred and twenty hospitalized patients from January 2019 to December 2020, aged 60-80 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III and scheduled for hepatic lobectomy, were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n=40) using a random number table: A C group, a Dex1 group, and a Dex2 group. After anesthesia induction, saline in the C group, dexmedetomidine [0.3 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex1 group, and dexmedetomidine [0.6 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex2 group were infused until the end of operation. The incidences of hypotension and bradycardia were compared among the 3 groups. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) for assessing POD and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating POCD were recorded and venous blood samples were obtained for the determination of neuron specific enolase (NSE), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 at the different time below: the time before anesthesia (T0), and the first day (T1), the third day (T2), the fifth day (T3), and the seventh day (T4) after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the incidences of bradycardia in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group increased (both P<0.05) and there was no difference in hypotension in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group (both P>0.05). The incidences of POD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 22.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. The incidences of POD in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). However, there is no difference in the incidence of POD between the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). The incidences of POCD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 30.0%, 12.5%, and 10.0%, respectively. The incidences of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). And no obvious difference was seen in the incidence of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of TNF-α and IL-1β decreased and the level of IL-10 increased at each time points (from T1 to T4) in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Dex1 group, the level of IL-1β at T2 and IL-10 from T1 to T3 elevated in the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the T0, the concentrations of NSE in C group at each time points (from T1 to T4) and in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group from T1 to T3 increased (all P<0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of NSE decreased from T1 to T4 in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion can reduce the incidence of POCD and POD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy, and the protective mechanism appears to involve the down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β and upregulation of IL-10 expression, which lead to rebalance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bradycardia , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Delirium/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypotension/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Middle Aged , Postoperative Cognitive Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948683


OBJECTIVE@#Dexmedetomidine (DEX), the most specific α 2-adrenergic receptor agonist widely used for its sedative and analgesic properties, has been reported to upregulate HIF-1α expression to protect hypoxic and ischemic tissues. However, it is largely unclear whether DEX can also upregulate Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression and its downstream vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) in cancer tissues with oxygen-deficient tumor microenvironment.@*METHODS@#We used SMMC-7721 cells, MHCC97-H cells, and a mouse model of orthotopic hepatic carcinoma to explore the effect of DEX on angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and its mechanism. Under normoxic (20% O 2) and hypoxic (1% O 2) conditions, DEX was used to intervene cells, and yohimbine was used to rescue them.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that DEX promoted angiogenesis and VM in human liver cancer cells within a certain dose range, and the addition of yohimbine inhibited this effect. DEX could activate HIF-1α/VEGFA pathway, which was further verified by silencing HIF-1α. Consistently, in vivo results also showed that DEX can up-regulate HIF-1α/VEGFA expression, and enhance the number of VM channels and microvessel density (MVD).@*CONCLUSION@#We believe that HIF-1α/VEGFA might be an important signaling pathway by which DEX promotes angiogenesis and VM formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas α 2-adrenergic receptor mediation might be the critical mechanisms.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxygen , Tumor Microenvironment , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2/metabolism
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 541-547, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948579


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of α2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine on withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent rats and the underlying mechanism, so as to provide a scientific basis for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were orally administered with 6% aqueous alcohol continuously for 28 d to establish alcohol drinking model, and then stopped drinking to induce AWS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the content of norepinephrine (NE) in the locus coeruleus and hippocampus of rats. Dexmedetomidine (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected respectively when the rats showed significant AWS. In some rats, α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine was injected into hippocampus in advance. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the 6 h withdrawal group exhibited significantly increased AWS score and amount of repeat drinking. The NE contents in hippocampus and locus coeruleus of the last drinking and the 6 h withdrawal groups were significantly increased compared with those of the control group. Dexmedetomidine intervention significantly decreased AWS score and hippocampus NE content in the 6 h withdrawal group, while yohimbine could reverse these effects of dexmedetomidine. These results suggest that dexmedetomidine might improve the withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent rats via activating α2 adrenergic receptor.

Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Animals , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hippocampus/metabolism , Male , Norepinephrine , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2/metabolism , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Yohimbine/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927856


Dexmedetomidine is an α2 adrenoceptor agonist and has cardioprotective effect,the mechanism of which is being studied.Increasing studies have proved the clinical value of dexmedetomidine in reducing postoperative complications and improving the prognosis of patients.Therefore,this review summarizes the cardiac protection mechanism of dexmedetomidine based on the existing studies and expounds the application of dexmedetomidine in the perioperative period of cardiovascular surgery.

Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Heart , Humans
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1134-1144, dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350046


Resumo Fundamento A cardiopatia isquêmica atraiu muito atenção devido às altas taxas de mortalidade, custos do tratamento e a crescente morbidade na população jovem. Estratégias de reperfusão reduziram a mortalidade. Porém, a reperfusão pode levar à morte do cardiomiócito e subsequente dano irreversível ao miocárdio. No momento, não há um tratamento eficiente e direcionado para a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R). Objetivos Avaliar se a dexmedetomidina (DEX) tem efeito protetivo na I/R do miocárdio e explorar os possíveis mecanismos por trás dela. Métodos Corações de ratos foram perfundidos com o sistema de perfusão de Langendorff e aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco grupos: grupo controle, perfundido com solução de Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) por 205 minutos sem isquemia; e quatro grupos de teste que foram submetidos a 40 minutos de isquemia global e 120 minutos de reperfusão. O Grupo DEX, o grupo ioimbina (IO) e o grupo DEX + IO foram perfundidos com DEX (10 nM), IO (1 μM) ou a combinação de DEX e IO antes da reperfusão, respectivamente. A hemodinâmica cardíaca, o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e a histologia do miocárdio foram avaliados. A expressão da proteína-78 regulada pela glicose (GRP78), a proteína quinase do retículo endoplasmático (PERK), a PERK fosforilada, o fator de iniciação eucariótico 2α (eIF2α), eIF2α fosforilado, o fator de transcrição 4 (TCF-4) e a proteína homóloga à proteína ligadora do acentuador CCAAT (CHOP) foram avaliados. P< 0,05 foi considerado para indicar a diferença estatisticamente significativa. Resultados O pré-condicionamento com DEX melhorou a função cardíaca nos corações com I/R, reduziu o infarto do miocárdio, a apoptose do miocárdio e a expressão de GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, TCF-4 e CHOP. Conclusões O pré-tratamento com DEX reduziu a lesão de I/R no miocárdio ao suprimir a apoptose, o que foi induzido pela via PERK.

Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease has attracted much attention due to its high mortality rates, treatment costs and the increasing morbidity in the young population. Strategies for reperfusion have reduced mortality. However, reperfusion can lead to cardiomyocyte death and subsequent irreversible myocardial damage. At present, the timely and targeted treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is often lacking. Objectives To evaluate if dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a protective effect in myocardiual I/R and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Methods Rat hearts were perfused with a Langendorff perfusion system, and randomly assigned to five groups: control group, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution for 205 minutes without ischemia; and four test groups that underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The DEX group, the yohimbine (YOH) group and the DEX + YOH group were perfused with DEX (10 nM), YOH (1 μM) or the combination of DEX and YOH prior to reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hemodynamics, myocardial infarct size, and myocardial histology were evaluated. The expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylated PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were assessed. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results DEX preconditioning improved the cardiac function of I/R hearts, reduced myocardial infarction, myocardial apoptosis, and the expression of GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. Conclusions DEX pretreatment reduced myocardial I/R injury by suppressing apoptosis, which was induced by the PERK pathway.

Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury , Myocardial Ischemia , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 600-615, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357197


RESUMO O manejo cardíaco, ventilatório e renal no ambiente de terapia intensiva tem melhorado nas últimas décadas. Cognição e sedação representam dois dos últimos desafios a vencer. Como a sedação convencional não é ideal, e a sedação evocada por agonistas adrenérgicos alfa-2 (sedação "cooperativa" com dexmedetomidina, clonidina ou guanfacina) representa uma alternativa valiosa, este artigo abrange três tópicos práticos para os quais há lacunas na medicina baseada em evidência. O primeiro deles é a mudança de sedação convencional para sedação cooperativa ("mudança"): a resposta curta consiste em retirada abrupta de sedação convencional, implantação imediata de infusão de um agonista alfa-2 e uso de "sedação de resgate" (bolos de midazolam) ou "sedação agressiva" (haloperidol em bolos) para estabilizar a sedação cooperativa. O segundo tópico é a mudança de sedação convencional para sedação cooperativa em pacientes instáveis (por exemplo: delirium tremens refratário, choque séptico, síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo etc.), pois, para evitar a hipotensão e a bradicardia provocadas por desativadores simpáticos, a resposta curta é manter o volume sistólico por administração de volume, vasopressores e inotrópicos. Por fim, para evitar essas mudanças e dificuldades associadas, os agonistas alfa-2 podem ser sedativos de primeira linha. A resposta curta é administrar agonistas alfa-2 lentamente desde a admissão ou intubação endotraqueal, até estabilização da sedação cooperativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que os agonistas alfa-2 são, ao mesmo tempo, agentes desativadores simpáticos e sedativos, bem como a desativação simpática implica na manutenção do volume sistólico e na avaliação persistente da volemia. A medicina baseada em evidência deve documentar esta proposta.

ABSTRACT Cardiac, ventilatory and kidney management in the critical care setting has been optimized over the past decades. Cognition and sedation represent one of the last remaning challenges. As conventional sedation is suboptimal and as the sedation evoked by alpha-2 adrenergic agonists ("cooperative" sedation with dexmedetomidine, clonidine or guanfacine) represents a valuable alternative, this manuscript covers three practical topics for which evidence-based medicine is lacking: a) Switching from conventional to cooperative sedation ("switching"): the short answer is the abrupt withdrawal of conventional sedation, immediate implementation of alpha-2 agonist infusion and the use of "rescue sedation" (midazolam bolus[es]) or "breakthrough sedation" (haloperidol bolus[es]) to stabilize cooperative sedation. b) Switching from conventional to cooperative sedation in unstable patients (e.g., refractory delirium tremens, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, etc.): to avoid hypotension and bradycardia evoked by sympathetic deactivation, the short answer is to maintain the stroke volume through volume loading, vasopressors and inotropes. c) To avoid these switches and associated difficulties, alpha-2 agonists may be considered first-line sedatives. The short answer is to administer alpha-2 agonists slowly from admission or endotracheal intubation up to stabilized cooperative sedation. The "take home" message is as follows: a) alpha-2 agonists are jointly sympathetic deactivators and sedative agents; b) sympathetic deactivation implies maintaining the stroke volume and iterative assessment of volemia. Evidence-based medicine should document our propositions.

Humans , Clonidine , Dexmedetomidine , Critical Care , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; oct. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1354502


ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo del presente informe es: Describir el proceso para la elaboración de recomendaciones por el grupo de trabajo designado por el Ministerio de Salud, en adelante denominado grupo de trabajo. Trasladar las Recomendaciones efectuadas por dicho grupo de trabajo en atención al uso de sedación endovenosa en pacientes con COVID-19 crítico en ventilación mecánica invasiva, según la pregunta PICO (P: Población, I: Intervención, C: Comparador, O: Outcome o desenlaces) priorizada por el grupo de trabajo. La metodología considerada para arribar a la recomendación fue el Marco de Evidencia a la Decisión/Recomendación (EtD) desarrollado por el Grupo de Trabajo GRADE (1,2). ANALISIS: Formulación de la pregunta: En personas con COVID-19 crítico en ventilación mecánica invasiva, ¿cuál es el medicamento que debe administrarse para la sedación endovenosa? Y ¿Cuál pauta de dosificación? Identificación de la evidencia para la pregunta PICO: Se siguieron las orientaciones establecidas en el documento interno de UNAGESP: Orientaciones para el soporte metodológico otorgado al grupo de trabajo designado por el MINSA. Se describe a continuación los resultados del proceso: Se efectuó la búsqueda de guías de práctica clínica (GPC) que incluyeran recomendaciones respecto al uso de sedación endovenosa en la población de interés, con fecha de búsqueda 22 de octubre de 2021 en las siguientes plataformas: eCOVID-19 living map of recommendations (eCovid-19 RecMap), Base internacional de Guías GRADE (BIGG) , Guidelines International Network (GIN), COVID-19 Guidelines Dashboard, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - UK (NICE) y Trip database, identificándose 7 guías de práctica clínica (Ver Anexo 1). En base a criterios como fecha de búsqueda de la evidencia, uso de metodología GRADE para evaluar la certeza de la evidencia, disponibilidad de la tabla Perfil de evidencia o Resumen de hallazgos, disponibilidad de los criterios o Tabla EtD y tipo de recomendación. Se identificaron tres guías de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y una de la Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)(3­6), sin embargo, las guías de OPS no brindan recomendaciones especificas para responder directamente a todas las alternativas de intervenciones planteadas por SOPEMI. Por otro lado, las guías de SCCM contienen recomendaciones respecto al uso de todas las alternativas de intervenciones planteadas en pacientes no COVID. La búsqueda se realizó en MEDLINE/ vía PubMed, plataforma L·OVE de Epistemonikos (7) y en MedRxiv, con fecha 22 de octubre de 2021. Los criterios de selección de los estudios fueron: ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, cohortes o casos y control que evalúen la PICO planteada y reportaran al menos uno de los desenlaces de interés. La certeza de la evidencia fue realizada según el enfoque GRADE que toma en cuenta los siguientes criterios: diseño del estudio, riesgo de sesgo, inconsistencia en los resultados, ausencia de evidencia directa, imprecisión, sesgo de publicación, tamaño de efecto, gradiente dosis-respuesta, y efecto de los potenciales factores de confusión residual (los tres últimos aplicables en estudios observacionales) (8,9). Los resultados fueron presentados utilizando la Tablas de Resumen de Hallazgos (SOF, por sus siglas en inglés) construidas a partir del software en línea GRADEpro ( a partir de la adaptación de tablas SoF de la guía de SCCM (6) para pacientes no críticos. Metodología considerada para la elaboración de las recomendaciones: Marco de Evidencia a la Decisión/Recomendación (EtD: Evidence to decisión framework): Los marcos EtD (1,2) son una herramienta del Enfoque GRADE, que tiene como finalidad fomentar el uso de la evidencia de una manera estructurada y transparente para informar decisiones relacionadas al manejo clínico de una enfermedad, salud pública, políticas del sistema de salud o en situaciones como el contexto actual de pandemia acerca de acciones con repercusión socio-económica entre otras. Se aplicaron los principios del enfoque "GRADE-ADOLOPMENT" para identificar guías de práctica clínica orientadas a las preguntas PICO propuestas por el grupo de trabajo de MINSA, además que tener disponibles los perfiles de evidencia GRADE o Tablas de resumen de hallazgos y los marcos EtD. Dependiendo de la evaluación, estas pueden ser consideradas para la adaptación con contextualización o para la adopción (11). Los siguientes criterios del marco EtD fueron seleccionados para la discusión y juicio por el grupo de trabajo: Efectos deseables, Efectos indeseables, Certeza de la evidencia, Valores y preferencias de los pacientes, Balance de efectos, Recursos necesarios, Equidad, Aceptabilidad y Factibilidad. En caso de no haber consenso en la valoración del juicio, se efectuó una votación, determinándose la valoración por mayoría simple. La perspectiva fue del sistema de salud. Elaboración de las Recomendaciones: La metodología EtD considera determinar la fuerza y dirección de una recomendación (12). Ambas, como resultado del juicio acerca del balance beneficio-riesgo, calidad global de la evidencia, confianza en los valores y preferencias de los pacientes, uso de recursos, equidad en salud, aceptabilidad, y factibilidad. En este sentido, existirán recomendaciones "a favor de la intervención" o "en contra de la intervención" (a favor de la alternativa u opción). Asimismo, las recomendaciones fueron determinadas como fuertes o condicionales. Una recomendación será fuerte si existe una clara diferencia entre los efectos deseables e indeseables de la intervención, la certeza global de la evidencia alta o moderada, todos o casi todos los pacientes informados toman la misma decisión, el costo de la intervención está plenamente justificado, existe un impacto favorable en la equidad en salud, la intervención es aceptable para los usuarios interesados (pacientes y personal de salud) y la implementación de dicha intervención es viable. Una recomendación será condicional si alguna de las consideraciones siguientes está presente: Exista poca diferencia entre los efectos deseables e indeseables de la intervención, la calidad de la evidencia es baja o muy baja, existe variabilidad o incertidumbre respecto de lo que decidirán los pacientes informados o el costo de la intervención pudiera no estar justificado en algunas circunstancias. Diálogo Deliberativo para la valoración de los criterios del Marco EtD y elaboración de las recomendaciones: El Diálogo deliberativo se llevó a cabo el día 27 de octubre de 2021, reunión virtual a través de la herramienta Zoom, con la participación de: 1. Profesionales del Grupo de trabajo designado por el Ministerio de Salud: integrantes de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Intensiva y Representantes del Ministerio de Salud, en su calidad de panel de expertos, habilitados para emitir los juicios para cada criterio, votar en caso de ser necesario y elaborar la recomendación. 2. Representantes de la Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP) del INS, quienes efectuaron la identificación de la evidencia presentada ante los expertos, en calidad de facilitadores y conductores de los aspectos metodológicos de la reunión. RECOMENDACIÓN: Se sugiere el uso de Propofol sobre benzodiazepinas para la sedación en pacientes con COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva. Recomendación condicional, basada en evidencia de muy baja calidad: Consideraciones adicionales: La sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva debe ser precedida por una adecuada analgesia. En los pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva que no se alcance el objetivo de sedación con las dosis adecuadas de Propofol, o se tenga efectos colaterales, se podría considerar el uso de otro sedante. No se ha establecido la seguridad de Propofol en el embarazo, porque atraviesa la barrera placentaria y puede causar depresión neonatal. Se sugiere usar dexmedetomidina sobre benzodiazepinas para la sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica durante la fase de destete. Recomendación condicional, calidad de la evidencia muy baja: Consideraciones adicionales: Tener precaución sobre los efectos adversos como bradicardia e hipotensión. Evitar su uso en pacientes inestables hemodinámicamente. No se recomienda dar dosis de carga de dexmedetomidina. Se sugiere el uso de dexmedetomidina sobre Propofol para la sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica durante la fase de destete.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lorazepam/administration & dosage , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Coluna/Columna ; 20(3): 185-188, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339741


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the results of the use of dexmedetomidine (D) in the treatment of patients with degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine using puncture techniques. Methods The study included 77 patients who underwent surgical puncture for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine with the use of alpha-2-adrenomimetic D: percutaneous laser denervation of the facet joints (n = 46) and posterolateral transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (n = 31). We assessed: the level of sedation using the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS); intraoperative dynamics of the cardiovascular and respiratory system parameters; the level of pain syndrome according to VAS. Results A high intraoperative level of sedation was determined, with RASS -2, -3 and Ramsay III, IV; when transferring a patient to a department (in 90 minutes) this parameter was RASS 0 and Ramsay II. There were no significant changes in central hemodynamics and respiratory depression. The minimum level of pain was determined immediately after surgery, at 30 and 60 minutes after surgery, and before transfer to the department (90 minutes): 6 (4;9); 10 (8;12); 12 (9;13); 16 (13;19) respectively. The absence of the need for additional analgesia on the first postoperative day was verified. Conclusion The use of D significantly reduces the level of pain, while maintaining the necessary verbal contact with the patient, and provides the necessary neurovegetative protection without respiratory depression or lowered hemodynamic parameters during the perioperative period. Level of evidence II; Prognostic Studies - Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on Disease Outcome. Case series, retrospective study.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar os resultados do uso de dexmedetomidina (D) no tratamento de pacientes com doenças degenerativas da coluna lombar com técnicas de punção. Métodos O estudo incluiu 77 pacientes submetidos à punção cirúrgica em doenças degenerativas da coluna lombar com o uso de um agonista alfa-2 adrenérgico: denervação percutânea das articulações facetárias com laser (n = 46) e discectomia endoscópica transforaminal posterolateral (n = 31). Foram avaliados o nível de sedação usando a Escala de Sedação de Ramsay (RSS) e a Escala de Sedação e Agitação de Richmond (RASS); a dinâmica intraoperatória dos parâmetros dos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório; o nível de síndrome de dor de acordo com a EVA. Resultados Determinou-se um alto nível intraoperatório de sedação pela RASS (-2, -3) e pela Ramsay (III, IV). Ao transferir um paciente para outro setor (depois de 90 minutos), esse parâmetro era 0 em RASS e II em Ramsay. Não houve alterações significativas na hemodinâmica central e na depressão respiratória. O nível mínimo de dor foi determinado imediatamente após a cirurgia, 30 e 60 minutos depois da cirurgia e antes da transferência para o outro setor (90 minutos depois): 6 (4; 9); 10 (8; 12); 12 (9; 13); 16 (13; 19), respectivamente. Constatou-se que não era necessária analgesia adicional no primeiro dia pós-operatório. Conclusões O uso de D reduz significativamente o nível de dor mantendo a comunicação verbal necessária com o paciente e fornece a proteção neurovegetativa necessária sem depressão respiratória e os parâmetros hemodinâmicos reduzidos durante o período perioperatório. Nível de evidência II; Estudos prognósticos - Investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença. Série de casos, Estudo retrospectivo.

RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar los resultados del uso de dexmedetomidina (D) en el tratamiento de pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar con técnicas de punción. Métodos El estudio incluyó a 77 pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar que se sometieron a punción quirúrgica mediante el uso de un agonista adrenérgico alfa-2: denervación percutánea de las articulaciones facetarias con láser (n = 46) y discectomía endoscópica transforaminal posterolateral (n = 31). Fueron evaluados el nivel de sedación mediante la Escala de Sedación de Ramsay (RSS) y la Escala de Sedación y Agitación de Richmond (RASS); la dinámica intraoperatoria de los parámetros de los sistemas cardiovascular y respiratorio; el nivel del síndrome de dolor según la EVA. Resultados Se determinó un alto nivel de sedación intraoperatoria en RASS (-2, -3) y por Ramsay (III, IV)Al transferir un paciente a otro sector (después de 90 minutos), este parámetro fue 0 en RASS y II en Ramsay. No hubo cambios significativos en la hemodinámica central y la depresión respiratoria.El nivel mínimo de dolor se determinó después de la cirugía, 30 y 60 minutos después de la cirugía y antes del traslado al otro sector (90 minutos después): 6 (4; 9); 10 (8; 12); 12 (9; 13); 16 (13; 19), respectivamente. Se verificó que no era necesaria analgesia adicional el primer día postoperatorio. Conclusiones El uso de D reduce significativamente el nivel de dolor al mismo tiempo que se mantiene la necesaria comunicación verbal con el paciente y brinda la protección neurovegetativa necesaria sin depresión respiratoria y parámetros hemodinámico reducidos durante el período perioperatorio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios de pronóstico: Investigación del efecto de la característica de un paciente sobre el desenlace de la enfermedad. Serie de casos, Estudio retrospectivo.

Humans , Spine , Low Back Pain , Diskectomy , Dexmedetomidine , Zygapophyseal Joint , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 901-908, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921294


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-Gal) and the underlying mechanism. Male BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS/D-Gal to induce acute liver injury model, and pretreated with DEX or in combination with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) 30 min before injection. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver tissue were determined with the corresponding kits. Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined by ELISA. The protein expression levels of LC3-II and P62 in liver tissue were determined by Western blot. Liver histopathological changes were detected by HE staining. The results showed that, compared with control group, LPS/D-Gal enhanced ALT and AST activity, increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels, as well as MPO activity, up-regulated LC3-II and P62 protein expression levels, and significantly induced pathological damage in liver tissue. DEX reversed the above changes in the LPS/D-Gal group, whereas these protective effects of DEX were blocked by 3-MA. The above results suggest that DEX alleviates LPS/D-Gal-induced acute liver injury, which may be associated with the up-regulation of LC3-II protein expression and the activation of autophagy.

Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Galactosamine/toxicity , Interleukin-6/blood , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Up-Regulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878726


Objective To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine(Dex)on sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal rats through Wnt signaling pathway. Methods Sixty 7-day-old SD rats were assigned into five groups:control group(without any intervention),Dex group(intraperitoneal injection of 25 μg/kg Dex),sevoflurane group(3% sevoflurane treatment for 4 hours),sevoflurane+Dex group(inhalation of 3% sevoflurane after injection of 25 μg/kg Dex for 4 hours),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(Wnt inhibitor XAV393 and 25 μg/kg Dex were injected and 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 4 hours).Three weeks later,Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function;TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons;neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining was conducted to detect the survival of hippocampal neurons;Western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.The expression of the factors involved in Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,and Western blot. Results Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the escape latency of Dex group(t=0.304,P=0.768);the escape latency in sevoflurane group(t=5.823,P=0.002),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.188,P=0.010),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=5.784,P=0.002)was significantly prolonged.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.646,P=0.005)was significantly shortened.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.296,P=0.008)was prolonged.Compared with that in the control group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane group(t=5.179, P=0.004),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=2.309,P=0.043),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.871, P=0.003)decreased.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.296,P=0.008)significantly increased.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=2.361, P=0.041)reduced.Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in Dex group(t=1.920,P=0.127),and the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane group,sevoflurane+Dex group,and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 16%(t=13.436,P=0.002),5%(t=7.752, P=0.001),and 11.5%(t=12.612,P=0.002),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 11%(t=8.521,P=0.002)and 5.5%(t=3.123,P=0.036),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane+Dex group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 6.5%(t=6.250,P=0.003).Compared with that in the control group,the number of positive cells in 0.15 mm

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cognitive Dysfunction/chemically induced , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurane/toxicity , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 253-262, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878254


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanism. The in vitro HIRI was induced by culturing HL-7702 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line, under 24 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to detect the expression levels of long non-coding RNA MALAT1, microRNA-126-5p (miR-126-5p) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Bioinformatics prediction and double luciferase assay were used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-126-5p and MALAT1, HMGB1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ATP levels in culture medium were detected by corresponding kits. The results showed that Dex significantly reduced the levels of ROS and MDA, but increased the level of ATP in HL-7702 cells with HIRI. HIRI up-regulated the expression levels of MALAT1 and HMGB1, and down-regulated the level of miR-126-5p. Dex reversed these effects of HIRI. Furthermore, Dex inhibited HIRI-induced cellular apoptosis, whereas MALAT1 reversed the effect of Dex. This inhibitory effect of Dex could be restored by up-regulation of miR-126-5p. The results suggest that Dex protects hepatocytes from HIRI via regulating MALAT1/miR-126-5p/HMGB1 axis.

Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/genetics
Acta cir. bras ; 36(1): e360104, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152690


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of dexmedetomidine on gastric injury induced by ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: A total of 18 male albino Wistar rats were divided groups as: gastric ischemia reperfusion (GIR), gastric ischemia reperfusion and 50 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (DGIR) and sham operation (HG) group. After the third hour of reperfusion, the biochemical and histopathological examinations were performed on the removed stomach tissue. Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were found to be significantly higher in GIR compared to HG (p < 0.05). A statistically significant decrease was observed at the DGIR compared to the GIR for oxidants levels. Total glutathione (tGSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were statistically significantly decreased at the GIR, and antioxidants levels were found to be significantly higher in the DGIR (p < 0.05) There was no significant difference between HG and DGIR in terms of SOD (p = 0.097). The DGIRs' epitheliums, glands and vascular structures were close to normal histological formation. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine is found to prevent oxidative damage on the stomach by increasing the antioxidant effect. These results indicate that dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion-related gastric damage.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Stomach , Superoxide Dismutase , Rats, Wistar , Malondialdehyde , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 24(2): 82-89, 2021. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372702


INTRODUCCIÓN: actualmente no se cuenta con experiencia sobre el uso de dexmedetomidina intranasal para procedimientos ginecológicos en el medio. OBJETIVOS: demostrar los efectos del uso intranasal de dexmedetomidina en sedación para procedimientos gineco-obstétricos. MÉTODOS: es un ensayo clínico no controlado, prospectivo a simple ciego; tomando 24 pacientes de un universo de 80 pacientes, se administró 0,9 µg/kg de dexmedetomidina intranasal antes de realizar el procedimiento; se procesó en IBM-SPPS v.25 ®. Cálculo de media y DE en cuantitativas y valor p < 0,05 significativo. RESULTADOS: edad media de 32 años; frecuencia cardiaca basal 70 lat/min, siendo significativo posterior a la inducción y al concluir el procedimiento; la presión arterial media se mantuvo entre 82 a 73 mmHg, no significativo; la Escala Visual Numérica se encontró de 0 en 18 pacientes; durante la inducción y mantenimiento con Infusión Controlada se encontró entre 2 ng/ml de remifentanil y 2 mcg/ml de propofol; 18 pacientes no presentaron complicaciones. CONCLUSIONES: provee estabilidad hemodinámica a la dosis usada, sin efectos adversos tras administración de dexmedetomidina y produce una reducción de las dosis de los medicamentos de inducción y mantenimiento(AU)

INTRODUCTION: we do not have experience on the use of intranasal dexmedetomidine for gynecological procedures in the environment. OBJECTIVES: to demonstrate the effects of intranasal use of dexmedetomidine in sedation for obstetric gynecological procedures. METHODS: a prospective, longitudinal, single-blind, uncontrolled clinical trial was conducted; Taking 24 patients from a universe of 80 patients, 0.9 µg/kg of intranasal dexmedetomidine was administered prior to performing the procedure. It was processed in IBM-SPPS v.25®. Calculation of mean and SD in quantitative and p value <0.05 significant. RESULTS: average age of 32 years old; basal heart rate 70 beats / min, being significant after induction and at the end of the procedure; the mean arterial pressure remained between 82 to 73 mmHg, not significant; Visual Numeric Scale was found from 0 in 18 patients; during induction and maintenance with Target Control Infusion it was found between 2 ng / ml of remifentanil and 2 mcg / ml of propofol. There were no complications in 18 patients. CONCLUSIONS: it provides hemodynamic stability at the dose used without adverse effects after administration of dexmedetomidine and produces a reduction in the doses of induction and maintenance drugs(AU)

Humans , Adult , Dexmedetomidine , Dosage , Cecum , Heart Rate
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922379


OBJECTIVES@#To study the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride combined with midazolam in fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 118 children who planned to undergo fiberoptic bronchoscopy from September 2018 to February 2021 were enrolled. They were divided into a control group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly decreased MAP at T@*CONCLUSIONS@#Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride combined with midazolam is a safe and effective way to administer general anesthesia for fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children, which can ensure stable vital signs during examination, reduce intraoperative adverse reactions and postoperative agitation, shorten examination time, and increase amnesic effect.

Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Midazolam , Prospective Studies
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1638-1644, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143666


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on perioperative myocardial injury in patients with Stanford type-A aortic dissection (AD). METHODS: Eighty-six patients with Stanford type-A AD were randomly divided into Dex and control groups, with 43 cases in each group. During the surgery, the control group received the routine anesthesia, and the Dex group received Dex treatment based on routine anesthesia. The heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded before Dex loading (t0), 10 min after Dex loading (t1), at the skin incision (t2), sternum sawing (t3), before cardiopulmonary bypass (t4), at the extubation (t5), and at end of surgery (t6). The blood indexes were determined before anesthesia induction (T0) and postoperatively after 12h (T1), 24h (T2), 48h (T3), and 72h (T4). RESULTS: At t2 and t3, the HR and MAP in the Dex group were lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, in the Dex group at T1, T2, and T3, the serum creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin-I, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were decreased, and the interleukin-10 level, the serum total superoxide dismutase, and total anti-oxidant capability increased, while the myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels decreased (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dex treatment may alleviate perioperative myocardial injury in patients with Stanford type-A AD by resisting inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito protetor e o mecanismo da dexmedetomidina (Dex) na lesão perioperativa do miocárdio em doentes com dissecação aórtica Tipo A de Stanford (AD). MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes com o Tipo A de Stanford foram aleatoriamente divididos em Dex e grupos de controle, 43 casos em cada grupo. Durante a cirurgia, o grupo de controle recebeu a anestesia de rotina, e o grupo Dex recebeu tratamento Dex baseado na anestesia de rotina. A frequência cardíaca (AR) e a pressão arterial média (MAP) foram registradas no momento anterior ao Dex carregar (t0), 10 minutos após o Dex carregar (t1), incisão cutânea (t2), serragem de esterno (t3), antes do bypass cardiopulmonar (t4), extubação (t5) e fim da cirurgia (t6). Os índices de sangue foram determinados no momento antes da indução da anestesia (T0) e no pós-operatório 12 horas (T1), 24 horas (T2), 48 horas (T3) e 72 horas (T4). RESULTADOS: Em T2 e t3, o RH e o MAP do grupo Dex foram inferiores ao grupo de controle (p<0,05). Em comparação com o grupo de controle, no grupo Dex em T1, T2 e T3, os níveis séricos de creatina quinase-MB, troponina-I, proteína C-reativa e necrose do fator-α do tumor diminuíram, o nível interleucina-10 aumentou, o desalinhamento total do superóxido sérico e a capacidade antioxidante total aumentaram e os níveis de mielopeperóxido e malondialdeído diminuíram (todos p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com Dex pode aliviar a lesão do miocárdio perioperativo em doentes com o Tipo A de Stanford por resistência à resposta inflamatória e ao estresse oxidativo.

Humans , Dexmedetomidine , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Aortic Dissection/prevention & control , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Peroxidase , Heart Rate