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1.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(3): 185-188, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339741

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the results of the use of dexmedetomidine (D) in the treatment of patients with degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine using puncture techniques. Methods The study included 77 patients who underwent surgical puncture for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine with the use of alpha-2-adrenomimetic D: percutaneous laser denervation of the facet joints (n = 46) and posterolateral transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (n = 31). We assessed: the level of sedation using the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS); intraoperative dynamics of the cardiovascular and respiratory system parameters; the level of pain syndrome according to VAS. Results A high intraoperative level of sedation was determined, with RASS -2, -3 and Ramsay III, IV; when transferring a patient to a department (in 90 minutes) this parameter was RASS 0 and Ramsay II. There were no significant changes in central hemodynamics and respiratory depression. The minimum level of pain was determined immediately after surgery, at 30 and 60 minutes after surgery, and before transfer to the department (90 minutes): 6 (4;9); 10 (8;12); 12 (9;13); 16 (13;19) respectively. The absence of the need for additional analgesia on the first postoperative day was verified. Conclusion The use of D significantly reduces the level of pain, while maintaining the necessary verbal contact with the patient, and provides the necessary neurovegetative protection without respiratory depression or lowered hemodynamic parameters during the perioperative period. Level of evidence II; Prognostic Studies - Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on Disease Outcome. Case series, retrospective study.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar os resultados do uso de dexmedetomidina (D) no tratamento de pacientes com doenças degenerativas da coluna lombar com técnicas de punção. Métodos O estudo incluiu 77 pacientes submetidos à punção cirúrgica em doenças degenerativas da coluna lombar com o uso de um agonista alfa-2 adrenérgico: denervação percutânea das articulações facetárias com laser (n = 46) e discectomia endoscópica transforaminal posterolateral (n = 31). Foram avaliados o nível de sedação usando a Escala de Sedação de Ramsay (RSS) e a Escala de Sedação e Agitação de Richmond (RASS); a dinâmica intraoperatória dos parâmetros dos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório; o nível de síndrome de dor de acordo com a EVA. Resultados Determinou-se um alto nível intraoperatório de sedação pela RASS (-2, -3) e pela Ramsay (III, IV). Ao transferir um paciente para outro setor (depois de 90 minutos), esse parâmetro era 0 em RASS e II em Ramsay. Não houve alterações significativas na hemodinâmica central e na depressão respiratória. O nível mínimo de dor foi determinado imediatamente após a cirurgia, 30 e 60 minutos depois da cirurgia e antes da transferência para o outro setor (90 minutos depois): 6 (4; 9); 10 (8; 12); 12 (9; 13); 16 (13; 19), respectivamente. Constatou-se que não era necessária analgesia adicional no primeiro dia pós-operatório. Conclusões O uso de D reduz significativamente o nível de dor mantendo a comunicação verbal necessária com o paciente e fornece a proteção neurovegetativa necessária sem depressão respiratória e os parâmetros hemodinâmicos reduzidos durante o período perioperatório. Nível de evidência II; Estudos prognósticos - Investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença. Série de casos, Estudo retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar los resultados del uso de dexmedetomidina (D) en el tratamiento de pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar con técnicas de punción. Métodos El estudio incluyó a 77 pacientes con enfermedades degenerativas de la columna lumbar que se sometieron a punción quirúrgica mediante el uso de un agonista adrenérgico alfa-2: denervación percutánea de las articulaciones facetarias con láser (n = 46) y discectomía endoscópica transforaminal posterolateral (n = 31). Fueron evaluados el nivel de sedación mediante la Escala de Sedación de Ramsay (RSS) y la Escala de Sedación y Agitación de Richmond (RASS); la dinámica intraoperatoria de los parámetros de los sistemas cardiovascular y respiratorio; el nivel del síndrome de dolor según la EVA. Resultados Se determinó un alto nivel de sedación intraoperatoria en RASS (-2, -3) y por Ramsay (III, IV)Al transferir un paciente a otro sector (después de 90 minutos), este parámetro fue 0 en RASS y II en Ramsay. No hubo cambios significativos en la hemodinámica central y la depresión respiratoria.El nivel mínimo de dolor se determinó después de la cirugía, 30 y 60 minutos después de la cirugía y antes del traslado al otro sector (90 minutos después): 6 (4; 9); 10 (8; 12); 12 (9; 13); 16 (13; 19), respectivamente. Se verificó que no era necesaria analgesia adicional el primer día postoperatorio. Conclusiones El uso de D reduce significativamente el nivel de dolor al mismo tiempo que se mantiene la necesaria comunicación verbal con el paciente y brinda la protección neurovegetativa necesaria sin depresión respiratoria y parámetros hemodinámico reducidos durante el período perioperatorio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios de pronóstico: Investigación del efecto de la característica de un paciente sobre el desenlace de la enfermedad. Serie de casos, Estudio retrospectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Low Back Pain , Diskectomy , Dexmedetomidine , Zygapophyseal Joint , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878726

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine(Dex)on sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal rats through Wnt signaling pathway. Methods Sixty 7-day-old SD rats were assigned into five groups:control group(without any intervention),Dex group(intraperitoneal injection of 25 μg/kg Dex),sevoflurane group(3% sevoflurane treatment for 4 hours),sevoflurane+Dex group(inhalation of 3% sevoflurane after injection of 25 μg/kg Dex for 4 hours),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(Wnt inhibitor XAV393 and 25 μg/kg Dex were injected and 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 4 hours).Three weeks later,Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function;TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons;neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining was conducted to detect the survival of hippocampal neurons;Western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.The expression of the factors involved in Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,and Western blot. Results Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the escape latency of Dex group(t=0.304,P=0.768);the escape latency in sevoflurane group(t=5.823,P=0.002),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.188,P=0.010),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=5.784,P=0.002)was significantly prolonged.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.646,P=0.005)was significantly shortened.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.296,P=0.008)was prolonged.Compared with that in the control group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane group(t=5.179, P=0.004),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=2.309,P=0.043),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.871, P=0.003)decreased.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.296,P=0.008)significantly increased.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=2.361, P=0.041)reduced.Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in Dex group(t=1.920,P=0.127),and the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane group,sevoflurane+Dex group,and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 16%(t=13.436,P=0.002),5%(t=7.752, P=0.001),and 11.5%(t=12.612,P=0.002),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 11%(t=8.521,P=0.002)and 5.5%(t=3.123,P=0.036),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane+Dex group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 6.5%(t=6.250,P=0.003).Compared with that in the control group,the number of positive cells in 0.15 mm


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cognitive Dysfunction/chemically induced , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurane/toxicity , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 253-262, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878254

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanism. The in vitro HIRI was induced by culturing HL-7702 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line, under 24 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to detect the expression levels of long non-coding RNA MALAT1, microRNA-126-5p (miR-126-5p) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Bioinformatics prediction and double luciferase assay were used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-126-5p and MALAT1, HMGB1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ATP levels in culture medium were detected by corresponding kits. The results showed that Dex significantly reduced the levels of ROS and MDA, but increased the level of ATP in HL-7702 cells with HIRI. HIRI up-regulated the expression levels of MALAT1 and HMGB1, and down-regulated the level of miR-126-5p. Dex reversed these effects of HIRI. Furthermore, Dex inhibited HIRI-induced cellular apoptosis, whereas MALAT1 reversed the effect of Dex. This inhibitory effect of Dex could be restored by up-regulation of miR-126-5p. The results suggest that Dex protects hepatocytes from HIRI via regulating MALAT1/miR-126-5p/HMGB1 axis.


Subject(s)
Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/genetics
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1638-1644, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143666

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on perioperative myocardial injury in patients with Stanford type-A aortic dissection (AD). METHODS: Eighty-six patients with Stanford type-A AD were randomly divided into Dex and control groups, with 43 cases in each group. During the surgery, the control group received the routine anesthesia, and the Dex group received Dex treatment based on routine anesthesia. The heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded before Dex loading (t0), 10 min after Dex loading (t1), at the skin incision (t2), sternum sawing (t3), before cardiopulmonary bypass (t4), at the extubation (t5), and at end of surgery (t6). The blood indexes were determined before anesthesia induction (T0) and postoperatively after 12h (T1), 24h (T2), 48h (T3), and 72h (T4). RESULTS: At t2 and t3, the HR and MAP in the Dex group were lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, in the Dex group at T1, T2, and T3, the serum creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin-I, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were decreased, and the interleukin-10 level, the serum total superoxide dismutase, and total anti-oxidant capability increased, while the myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels decreased (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dex treatment may alleviate perioperative myocardial injury in patients with Stanford type-A AD by resisting inflammatory response and oxidative stress.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito protetor e o mecanismo da dexmedetomidina (Dex) na lesão perioperativa do miocárdio em doentes com dissecação aórtica Tipo A de Stanford (AD). MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes com o Tipo A de Stanford foram aleatoriamente divididos em Dex e grupos de controle, 43 casos em cada grupo. Durante a cirurgia, o grupo de controle recebeu a anestesia de rotina, e o grupo Dex recebeu tratamento Dex baseado na anestesia de rotina. A frequência cardíaca (AR) e a pressão arterial média (MAP) foram registradas no momento anterior ao Dex carregar (t0), 10 minutos após o Dex carregar (t1), incisão cutânea (t2), serragem de esterno (t3), antes do bypass cardiopulmonar (t4), extubação (t5) e fim da cirurgia (t6). Os índices de sangue foram determinados no momento antes da indução da anestesia (T0) e no pós-operatório 12 horas (T1), 24 horas (T2), 48 horas (T3) e 72 horas (T4). RESULTADOS: Em T2 e t3, o RH e o MAP do grupo Dex foram inferiores ao grupo de controle (p<0,05). Em comparação com o grupo de controle, no grupo Dex em T1, T2 e T3, os níveis séricos de creatina quinase-MB, troponina-I, proteína C-reativa e necrose do fator-α do tumor diminuíram, o nível interleucina-10 aumentou, o desalinhamento total do superóxido sérico e a capacidade antioxidante total aumentaram e os níveis de mielopeperóxido e malondialdeído diminuíram (todos p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com Dex pode aliviar a lesão do miocárdio perioperativo em doentes com o Tipo A de Stanford por resistência à resposta inflamatória e ao estresse oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dexmedetomidine , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aneurysm, Dissecting/prevention & control , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Peroxidase , Heart Rate
5.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(2): 162-169, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249997

ABSTRACT

Dexmedetomidina un α- agonista, de amplio uso y popular nivel mundial, que poco conocimiento se tiene sobre su uso de forma intratecal en la población boliviana, de manera especial en pacientes obstétricas. OBJETIVOS: evaluar el efecto de dexmedetomidina intratecal en anestesia obstétrica y observar los efectos secundarios del medicamento. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico aleatorizado y simple ciego. La muestra fue de 123 pacientes, cada grupo de 41 pacientes cumpliendo ambos criterios. Grupo B (bupivacaina + fentanil); grupo D2 (bupivacaina + fentanil+ dexmedetomidina 2 µg) y grupo B3 (bupivacaina + fentanil+ dexmedetomidina 3 µg). Análisis estadístico: se utilizó el software SPSS® 25 y Excel® 2016. Con un nivel de confianza del 95 % y error muestral del 13 %. RESULTADOS: duración del bloqueo motor fue de 106,5 ± 16 minutos en el grupo B; 142,3 ± 28,2 minutos en el grupo D2 y 145,6 ± 16,7 minutos en el grupo D3. Siendo significativo entre los grupos de estudio (valor p < 0,000). PAM con significancia estadística antes y después del nacimiento. Frecuencia cardiaca significativo a los 15, 30 y 45 minutos (valor p < 0,000; 0,001; 0,004; 0,000 y 0,002). Etilefrina en el grupo B fue de 3,44 ± 1,8 ml; para el grupo D3 fue de 1,8 ± 2,7 ml y grupo D2 fue de 0,85 ± 1,6 ml. CONCLUSIONES: mejor estabilidad hemodinámica con 2 µg dexmedetomidina, menor incidencia de hipotensión, uso de vasopresores, las complicaciones escasas y un excelente estado de sedación materna


Dexmedetomidine an α-agonist, widely used and popular worldwide, with little knowledge about its use intrathecally in the Bolivian population, especially in obstetric patients. OBJECTIVES: evaluate the effect of spinal dexmedetomidine in obstetric anesthesia and observe the side effects of the medication. METHODS: randomized and simple blind clinical trial. The sample consisted of 123 patients, each group of 41 patients meeting both criteria. Group B (bupivacaine + fentanyl); group D2 (bupivacaine + fentanyl + 2 µg dexmedetomidine) and group B3 (bupivacaine + fentanyl + 3 µg dexmedetomidine). Statistical analysis: it was carried out in SPSS® 25 and Microsoft Excel® 2016. With a confidence level of 95% and sampling error of 13%. RESULTS: duration of the motor block was 106,5 ± 16 minutes in group B; 142,3 ± 28,2 minutes in group D2 and 145,6 ± 16,7 minutes in group D3. Being significant among the study groups (p value <0,000). MAP with statistical significance before and after birth. Significant heart rate at 15, 30 and 45 minutes (p value <0,000; 0,001; 0,004; 0.000 and 0,002). Ethylephrine in group B was 3,44 ± 1,8 ml; for group D3 it was 1,8 ± 2,7 ml and group D2 was 0,85 ± 1,6 ml CONCLUSIONS: better hemodynamic stability with 2 µg dexmedetomidine, lower incidence of hypotension, use of vasopressors, limited complications and an excellent state of maternal sedation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia, Spinal , Patients , Etilefrine , Heart Rate
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 153-158, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178003

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Treacher Collins (STC) constituye un reto para el anestesiólogo por malformaciones craneofaciales que complican el manejo de su vía aérea e intubación. Presentamos el caso de una paciente (8 años) con diagnóstico de STC que debía someterse a una cirugía de colocación de implante de conducción ósea bajo anestesia general. Presentaba un antecedente de intubación difícil, marcada micrognatia y distancia tiromentoniana de 2 cm. Se planteó un esquema de intubación en dos etapas secuenciales. En la primera etapa se realizó una evaluación de la vía aérea (visualización de la glotis) bajo sedación con dexmedetomidina, remifentanilo y propofol. Al visualizar la glotis se pasó a la segunda etapa para realizar la intubación posterior a la inducción anestésica. El manejo exitoso se fundamentó en una sedación adecuada y la utilización de un videolaringoscopio con pala curva para la evaluación previa de la vía aérea y posterior intubación sin complicaciones.


Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) constitutes a challenge for the anesthesiologist due to craniofacial malformations that make management of the airway and intubation difficult. We present a case of a patient (8-year-old) diagnosed with TCS who had to undergo surgery for the placement of a bone conduction implant under general anesthesia. She had a history of difficult intubation, marked micrognathia and a thyromental distance of 2 cm. An intubation scheme in two sequential stages was proposed. In the first stage, an evaluation of the airway (visualization of the glottis) was carried out under sedation with dexmedetomidine, remifentanil and propofol. When the glottis was visualized, we proceeded to the second stage to carry out intubation after anesthetic induction. The successful management of this case was based on adequate sedation and the use of a video laryngoscope with a curved blade for prior evaluation of the airway and subsequent intubation without complications.


Subject(s)
Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Congenital Abnormalities , Diagnosis
7.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(1): 28-33, ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124816

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: evaluar el uso de la dexmedetomidina intranasal como coadyuvante para sedación en LUI y AMEU asociado al sistema de infusión controlado por objetivo. Métodos: ensayo clínico no controlado, prospectivo y simple ciego. Muestra de 48 pacientes que cumplen los criterios de inclusión. Grupo CD se administró Dexmedetomidina IN a dosis de 0,9 µg/kg y otro grupo de control. Para el análisis estadístico de variables continuas se usó media y DE; para variables ordinales se calculó frecuencia. Además de prueba T de Student y Chi χ2. Nivel de confianza de 95 % y margen de error 12%. Resultados: edad media de 32 ± 7 años; en el grupo CD la dosis de inducción y mantenimiento de remifentanil fue de 2 ± 0,7 ng/ml y en el grupo SD la dosis de inducción fue de 4,1 ± 0,7 ng/ml y de mantenimiento 3,9 ± 0,5 ng/ml; para el propofol la dosis de inducción y mantenimiento fue 3,7 ± 0,5 mcg/ml en el grupo SD mientras que, en el grupo CD la dosis de inducción y mantenimiento fue de 2,1 ± 0,5 mcg/ml. La frecuencia cardiaca de 64 - 62 y en el grupo SD fue de 70 - 67 latidos/min. La PAM asociado al dexme está por 73 mmHg y el grupo de SD es de 78 mmHg. No se verifico complicaciones por la administración de la Dexmedetomidina. Conclusiones: la dexmedetomidina IN permite disminuir la dosis de los fármacos, con estabilidad de los cambios hemodinámicos, la dosis utilizada no produce complicaciones.


Objectives: to evaluate the use of intranasal dexmedetomidine as an adjunct for sedation in LUI and AMEU associated with the objective controlled infusion system. Methods: uncontrolled, prospective, single-blind clinical trial. Sample of 48 patients who meet the inclusion criteria. Group CD was administered Dexmedetomidine IN a dose of 0.9 µg / kg and another control group. For the statistical analysis of continuous variables, mean and SD were used; For ordinal variables, frequency was calculated. In addition to Student's T-test and Chi χ2. 95% confidence level and 12% margin of error. Results: age of 32 ± 7 years; in the CD group the induction and maintenance dose of remifentanil was 2 ± 0.7 ng / ml and in the SD group the induction dose was 4.1 ± 0.7 ng / ml and maintenance dose 3.9 ± 0.5 ng / ml; for propofol the induction and maintenance dose was 3.7 ± 0.5 mcg / ml in the SD group, while in the CD group the induction and maintenance dose was 2.1 ± 0.5 mcg / ml. The heart rate was 64-62 and in the SD group it was 70-67 beats / min. The MAP associated with dexme is 73 mmHg and the SD group is 78 mmHg. No complications were verified by the administration of Dexmedetomidine. Conclusions: dexmedetomidine IN allows to decrease the dose of drugs, with stability of hemodynamic changes, the dose used does not cause complications.


Subject(s)
Dexmedetomidine
8.
Lima; IETSI; 24 ago. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1119647

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Uno de los mayores intereses en el campo de la salud y en torno a la pandemia de COVID-19 es el desarrollo de estrategias para reducir la transmisión de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, incluyendo la protección de los trabajadores de salud, grupo de riesgo frente a la infección por este virus (Ng et al. 2020). La extubación es un procedimiento generador de aerosoles debido a la respuesta refleja del sistema respiratorio durante esta actividad, manifestada como la presencia de tos en algunos pacientes a los que se les realiza destete del ventilador mecánico (Brewster et al. 2020). Realizar la extubación requiere la proximidad de los trabajadores de salud con los pacientes, los cuales, incluyendo los casos de pacientes con COVID-19, suelen seguir siendo infecciosos al momento de la extubación (Brewster et al. 2020, Zhou et al. 2020, Ng et al. 2020), por lo que realizar esta actividad incrementaría la probabilidad de transmisión de esta infección viral. Ante ello, diversos grupos relacionados a la anestesiología señalan como útil el empleo de medicación que reduzca la generación de tos durante la extubación, que, junto a otras medidas de protección, disminuiría la probabilidad de transmisión de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 (Brown et al. 2020, Cook et al. 2020, D'Silva et al. 2020, Tan Li et al 2020). En EsSalud, se dispone de lidocaína y fentanilo, medicamentos descritos en la literatura científica como útiles para reducir la tos en pacientes a los que se les realizará el destete de la ventilación mecánica. Sin embargo, algunos especialistas argumentan que estos agentes sedantes podrían causar depresión respiratoria, retraso en el despertar e incrementar el riesgo de delirio si son administrados por periodos largos. Adicionalmente, los especialistas argumentan que dexmedetomidina es una alternativa que ofrecería la ventaja un despertar más rápido y una menor incidencia de delirio, además de reducir la incidencia de tos durante la extubación, estos efectos facilitarían la extubación del paciente y disminuiría la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 al equipo médico tratante en la UCI. En ese sentido, el presente documento tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de dexmedetomidina comparado con lidocaína y fentanilo para destete de ventilación mecánica invasiva en pacientes con COVID-19. TECNOLOGÍA DE INTERÉS: Dexmedetomidina es un agonista selectivo de los receptores alfa-2 con efectos ansiolíticos, sedantes (mediados por la inhibición del locus coeruleus, el núcleo noradrenérgico predominante, situado en el tronco cerebral) y analgésicos, produciendo además un efecto simpaticolítico al disminuir la liberación de noradrenalina en las terminaciones nerviosas simpáticas. METODOLOGÍA: Se buscó la evidencia disponible al 24 de agosto del 2020 en las siguientes bases de datos bibliográficas: PubMed, The Cochrane Library y LILACS. Asimismo, se realizó una búsqueda en sitios web pertenecientes a grupos que realizan evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, incluyendo: The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC), The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG), Haute Authorité de Santé (HAS), Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER) y el portal BRISA (Base Regional de Informes de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud de las Américas). Adicionalmente, se realizó búsqueda de evidencia en sitios web de organizaciones internacionales en anestesiología o de instituciones que estén desarrollando protocolos para el manejo de pacientes con COVID-19. RESULTADOS: En la búsqueda de la evidencia no se identificaron estudios que evalúen la eficacia y seguridad de dexmedetomidina, comparado con lidocaína y fentanilo, para el destete de ventilación mecánica invasiva, en pacientes con COVID-19. Sin embargo, se identificaron: tres GPC o consensos de expertos elaborados por la Safe Airway Society, Alfred ICU y la Difficult Airway Society e instituciones colaboradoras; una RS con metaanálisis en red realizada por Tung et al., así como dos ensayos clínicos controlados, aleatorizados (ECA) que no fueron incluidos en la RS. Se debe precisar que esta RS y estos ECA no fueron realizados en la población de interés del presente reporte breve (pacientes con COVID-19); por lo que fueron incluidos como evidencia indirecta. CONCLUSIONES: En el presente documento, se evaluó la mejor evidencia científica disponible hasta la actualidad sobre eficacia y seguridad de dexmedetomidina comparado con lidocaína y fentanilo para destete de ventilación mecánica en pacientes con COVID-19. Se encontraron: tres GPC o consensos de expertos, una RS y dos ECA. La RS y los ECA incluidos aportan al reporte breve como evidencia indirecta; al no haber sido desarrollados en pacientes con COVID-19. Las guías de la Safe Airway Society (SAS), Alfred ICU y de la Difficult Airway Society (DAS) e instituciones colaboradoras que fueron elaboradas para dar recomendaciones para el proceso de extubación en pacientes con COVID-19, hacen mención a dexmedetomidina (SAS, Alfred ICU), opioides como el fentanilo (SAS y DAS) y la lidocaína (SAS, DAS) para reducir la tos durante el proceso de extubación, aunque precisan la ausencia de evidencia sobre el uso de este medicamentos en pacientes con COVID-19, señalando que se debe evaluar el balance riesgo-beneficio para el uso de los mismos. En general, las recomendaciones descritas en estos documentos proceden de consensos por opinión de expertos, y no establecen una preferencia de un medicamento sobre los otros. En cuanto a los resultados de la RS con MA en red de Tung et al., y los ECA de Kothari et al., y Hu et al., no han podido encontrar evidencia que apoye la hipótesis que el efecto de la dexmedetomidina sea superior al de lidocaína y fentanilo sobre el manejo de la tos (esto es, no se encontraron diferencias entre estos). Estos resultados deben ser interpretados con cautela debido a que la población de estudio de los mismos no son pacientes COVID-19. No obstante, la información que proporcionan puede ayudar a tener una idea del efecto que se podría esperar con el uso de cada uno de los medicamentos mencionados, tanto en eficacia como en seguridad. Al respecto, frente a una ausencia de diferencia entre dexmedetomidina en comparación con lidocaína y fentanilo, se tiene evidencia que la primera tiene un mayor riesgo de bradicardia que los dos últimos. Esto se condice con la literatura previa acerca de dicho medicamento (dexmedetomidina), donde además se describe que los adultos mayores y personas con comorbilidades presentan una mayor proporción de eventos de bradicardia atribuibles al uso de dexmedetomidina lo que, siendo que estos grupos poblacionales son los más afectados por COVID-19, sería esperable una mayor presencia de bradicardia como evento adverso en pacientes con COVID-19 que reciben dexmedetomidina, lo que llama a la precaución cuando se considera el uso de esta tecnología en estos pacientes. De este modo, la mejor evidencia disponible a la fecha (24 de agosto del 2020), procedente de tres GPC o consensos de expertos, una RS con metaanálisis en red y dos ECA, apunta a que el balance de riesgo-beneficio del empleo de dexmedetomidina comparado con el uso de lidocaína o fentanilo, en la reducción de la tos durante el destete de ventilación mecánica en pacientes con COVID-19 es de alta incertidumbre, especialmente por el hecho que la dexmedetomidina está asociada a un mayor riesgo de reacciones adversas frente a los otros dos medicamentos, especialmente en lo referente a bradicardia. Por ello, con este cuerpo de evidencia, el IETSI no ha encontrado sustento técnico que pueda apoyar una recomendación a favor del uso de dexmedetomidina por sobre el de lidocaína o fentanilo en pacientes COVID-19 para reducir la tos al momento de la extubación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Ventilator Weaning/instrumentation , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation
9.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 836-842, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1129487

ABSTRACT

Considerando a realidade conservacionista dos animais mantidos em cativeiro, em especial os pequenos felídeos silvestres, objetivou-se, com este estudo, descrever o método de coleta de sêmen por cateterismo uretral em Leopardus guttulus cativos, anestesiados com cetamina-dexmedetomidina. Inicialmente foram utilizados 13 animais para coleta de sêmen por cateterismo mediante o uso de diferentes doses de cetamina-dexmedetomidina. Após determinação da dose anestésica ideal para coleta de sêmen nessa espécie, cinco L. guttulus machos foram submetidos a coletas seriadas de sêmen pelo método do cateterismo. A dose ideal para coleta de sêmen foi de 0,008mg/kg de dexmedetomidina e 10mg/kg de cetamina. Os valores médios para volume e concentração foram de 35,9µL e 552,8x106sptz/mL. Com média de 71% de motilidade e 3,1 de vigor, 68% dos espermatozoides apresentaram vitalidade (integridade de membrana) e 77% integridade acrossomal. Sobre as patologias espermáticas, obteve-se uma média de 28% de espermatozoides com defeitos maiores, 6% com defeitos menores e 67% normais. As vantagens do método, como a facilidade e o baixo custo, fazem recomendar sua utilização em L. guttulus, pois foram apresentados bons resultados quanto à concentração espermática, à motilidade, ao vigor, à viabilidade espermática e à integridade acrossomal, sendo uma técnica promissora para utilização em felinos selvagens.(AU)


Considering the conservationist reality of animals kept in captivity, especially the small wild felids, this study aimed to describe the semen collection method using urethral catheterization in captive Leopardus guttulus, anesthetized with ketamine-dexmedetomidine. Initially, 13 animals were used for semen collection using catheterization with different ketamine-dexmedetomidine doses. After determination of the best anesthetic dose for semen collection in this species, five male L. guttulus were submitted to serial semen collections using the catheter method. The dose for semen collection was 0.008mg/kg dexmedetomidine and 10mg/kg ketamine. The mean values for volume and concentration were 35.9µL and 552.8x106sptz/mL, with a mean of 71% motility, 3.1 vigor, and 68% of spermatozoa presented vitality and 77% presented acrosomal integrity. Sperm pathologies obtained an average of 28% of spermatozoa with major defects, 6% of spermatozoa with minor defects and 67% of normal spermatozoa. The method advantages such as ease and low cost lead us to recommend the use in L. guttulus, since it presented good results regarding sperm concentration, motility, vigor, sperm viability and acrosomal integrity, being a promising technique for use in wild cats.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Semen , Urinary Catheterization/veterinary , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/veterinary , Felidae , Dexmedetomidine , Ketamine , Animals, Wild
11.
s.l; s.n; 3 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1099470

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 452-460, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1128369

ABSTRACT

A presente pesquisa comparou os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, hemogasométricos e sedativos da associação midazolam (0,41mg/kg) e butorfanol (0,31mg/kg) acrescida de detomidina (157µg/kg) (DTMB) ou dexmedetomidina (36µg/kg) (DXMB) em catetos. Catetos adultos (n=20) foram distribuídos em dois grupos, DTMB ou DXMB. As variáveis (FC, f, PAM, SpO2, EtCO2 e TR) foram avaliadas após aplicação dos fármacos. A sedação foi avaliada por meio de escala analógica visual, relaxamento muscular, postura e resposta auditiva. Foi realizada ANOVA, seguida de teste t pareado (paramétricos) e teste de Mann-Whitney rank-sum test (não paramétricos), com P<0,05. Não foi observada diferença estatística entre os grupos para o período de latência. Observou-se diferença significativa entre grupos para as variáveis f, PAM e SpO2, com maiores valores para DTMB, e EtCO2, com maiores valores para DXMB. Os dois grupos apresentaram redução da FC e da concentração de lactato, bem como aumento da concentração de bicarbonato. A SpO2 permaneceu abaixo de 90%, durante todo o período experimental, nos dois grupos estudados. Os animais dos dois grupos apresentaram sedação profunda e relaxamento muscular máximo. Conclui-se que os dois protocolos testados proporcionaram adequada sedação, podendo ser indicados para contenção química de catetos adultos.(AU)


The study compared the cardiorespiratory, hemogasometric and sedative effects of the combination of midazolam (0.41mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.31mg/kg) plus detomidine (157µg/kg) (DTMB) or dexmedetomidine (36µg/kg) (DXMB) in collared peccaries. Collared peccaries (n= 20) were divided into two groups, either DTMB or DXMB. The variables (FC, f, PAM, SpO2, EtCO2 and TR) were evaluated after application of the drugs. Sedation was assessed by visual analogue scale, muscle relaxation, posture and auditory response. ANOVA followed by paired t-test (parametric) and Mann Whitney Rank Sum Test (non-parametric) with P< 0.05 were performed. No statistical difference was observed for the latency period. A significant increase was observed between groups for the variables f, PAM and SpO2 with higher values for DTMB and EtCO2 with higher values for DXMB. The two groups presented a reduction in HR and lactate concentration, and an increase in bicarbonate concentration. SpO2 remained below 90% throughout the experiment in both groups. The animals of the two groups presented deep sedation and maximum muscle relaxation. It is concluded that the two protocols tested provided adequate sedation and could be indicated for chemical containment of collared peccaries.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Artiodactyla/physiology , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Butorphanol/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Anesthetics, Combined/analysis , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8645, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055484

ABSTRACT

Data about the feasibility and safety of thoracoscopic surgery under non-intubated anesthesia and regional block are limited. In this prospective study, 57 consecutive patients scheduled for thoracoscopic surgery were enrolled. Patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil. Ropivacaine was used for intercostal nerve and paravertebral block. Lidocaine was used for vagal block. The primary outcomes were mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETCO2) at T0 (pre-anesthesia), T1 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway placement), T2 (immediately after skin incision), T3 (10 min after opening the chest), T4 (end of surgery), and T5 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway removal). One patient required conversion to intubation, 15 developed intraoperative hypotension, and two had hypoxemia. MAP at T0 and T5 was higher than at T1-T4; MAP at T3 was lower (P<0.05 vs other time points). HR at T0 and T5 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). ETCO2 at T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). Arterial pH, PCO2, and lactic acid at T1 differed from values at T0 and T2 (P<0.05). The Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) score at 24 h was lower (P<0.05). One patient experienced dysphoria during recovery. Thoracoscopic surgery with regional block under direct thoracoscopic vision is a feasible and safe alternative to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, intubation, and one-lung ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thoracoscopy/methods , Laryngeal Masks , Anesthesia, General/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Feasibility Studies , Prospective Studies , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829009

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) against high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK-2 cells and relevant mechanisms.@*Methods@#HK-2 cells were exposed to either glucose or glucose+Dex for 6 h. The production of ROS, morphology of HK-2 cells, and cell cycle were detected. Moreover, the expression of AKT, p-AKT, ERK, p-ERK, PI3K, E-Cadherin, Claudin-1, and α-SMA were determined and compared between HK-2 cells exposed to glucose and those exposed to both glucose and Dex with or without PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and ERK pathway inhibitor U0126.@*Results@#Compared with HK-2 cells exposed to high level of glucose, the HK-2 cells exposed to both high level of glucose and Dex showed: (1) lower level of ROS production; (2) cell morphology was complete; (3) more cells in G1 phase; (4) lower expression of p-AKT, p-ERK and α-SMA, higher expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1. PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and ERK inhibitor U0126 decreased the expression of p-AKT, p-ERK and α-SMA, and increased the expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1.@*Conclusion@#Dex can attenuate high glucose-induced HK-2 epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting AKT and ERK.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists , Pharmacology , Cell Line , Dexmedetomidine , Pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Glucose , Metabolism , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation against lung injury in patients undergoing surgeries for esophageal cancer with one-lung ventilation (OLV).@*METHODS@#Forty patients with undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV were randomly divided into pulmonary protective ventilation strategy group (F group) and dexmedetomidine combined with protective ventilation strategy group (DF group; =20). In F group, lung protective ventilation strategy during anesthesia was adopte, and in DF group, the patients received intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.3 μg · kg ·h) during the surgery starting at 10 min before anesthesia induction in addition to protective ventilation strategy. Brachial artery blood was sampled before ventilation (T), at 30 and 90 min after the start of OLV (T and T, respectively) and at the end of the surgery (T) for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), arterial oxygenation pressure (PaO), oxygenation index (OI) and lung compliance (CL).@*RESULTS@#At the time points of T, T and T, SOD level was significantly higher and IL-6 level was significantly lower in the DF group than in F group ( < 0.05). The patients in DF group showed significantly higher PaO, OI and CL index than those in F group at all the 3 time points.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation strategy can reduce perioperative lung injury in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress to improve lung function and reduce adverse effects of the surgery.


Subject(s)
Dexmedetomidine , Esophageal Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Humans , Lung , Malondialdehyde , One-Lung Ventilation
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the median effective dose (ED) of intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation in uncooperative pediatric patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease before and after cardiac surgery.@*METHODS@#We prospectively recruited 47 children (22 in preoperative group and 25 in postoperative group) who needed sedation for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A modified up-and-down sequential study design was employed to determine dexmedetomidine dose for each patient with a starting dose of 2 μg/kg in both groups; dexmedetomidine doses for subsequent subjects were determined according to the responses from the previous subject using the up-and-down method at a 0.25 μg/kg interval. The ED was determined using probit regression. The onset time, examination time, wake-up time and adverse effects were measured, and the safety was evaluated in terms of changes in vital signs every 5 min.@*RESULTS@#The ED value of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was 1.84 μg/kg (95% : 1.68-2.00 μg/kg) in children with congenital heart disease before cardiac surgery, and 3.38 μg/kg (95% : 3.21-3.54 μg/kg) after the surgery. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the demographic variables, onset time, examination time, wake-up time, or adverse effects.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, the ED of intranasal dexmedetomidine for TTE sedation increases to 3.38 μg/ kg after cardiac surgery from the preoperative value of 1.84 μg/kg.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Child , Dexmedetomidine , Heart Defects, Congenital , General Surgery , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation against lung injury in patients undergoing surgeries for esophageal cancer with one-lung ventilation (OLV).@*METHODS@#Forty patients with undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV were randomly divided into pulmonary protective ventilation strategy group (F group) and dexmedetomidine combined with protective ventilation strategy group (DF group; =20). In F group, lung protective ventilation strategy during anesthesia was adopte, and in DF group, the patients received intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.3 μg · kg ·h) during the surgery starting at 10 min before anesthesia induction in addition to protective ventilation strategy. Brachial artery blood was sampled before ventilation (T), at 30 and 90 min after the start of OLV (T and T, respectively) and at the end of the surgery (T) for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), arterial oxygenation pressure (PaO), oxygenation index (OI) and lung compliance (CL).@*RESULTS@#At the time points of T, T and T, SOD level was significantly higher and IL-6 level was significantly lower in the DF group than in F group ( < 0.05). The patients in DF group showed significantly higher PaO, OI and CL index than those in F group at all the 3 time points.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation strategy can reduce perioperative lung injury in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress to improve lung function and reduce adverse effects of the surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Dexmedetomidine , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Esophageal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Humans , Lung , General Surgery , One-Lung Ventilation , Oxidative Stress , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice and its relation with mitochondrial fusion and fission.@*METHODS@#Male ICR mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R+DEX group and I/R+DEX+dorsomorphin group. Mouse models of cerebral I/R injury were established by modified thread occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. DEX (50 μg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at 30 min before cerebral ischemia, which lasted for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The neurobehavioral deficits of the mice were evaluated based on Longa's scores. The volume of cerebral infarction was detected by TTC staining. The changes in mitochondrial morphology of the brain cells were observed with transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), mitochondrial fusion protein (Mfn2) and mitochondrial fission protein (p-Drp1) in the brain tissues.@*RESULTS@#DEX pretreatment significantly reduced the neurobehavioral score and the percent volume of cerebral infarction in mice with cerebral I/R injury. Treatment with dorsomorphin (an AMPK inhibitor) in addition to DEX significantly increased the neurobehavioral score and the percent volume of cerebral infarction in the mouse models. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEX obviously reduced mitochondrial damage caused by cerebral I/R injury and restored mitochondrial morphology of the brain cells, and such effects were abolished by dorsomorphin treatment. Western blotting showed that DEX pretreatment significantly increased the expressions of p-AMPK and Mfn2 protein and decreased the expression of p-Drp1 protein in the brain tissue of the mice, and these changes were also reversed by dorsomorphin treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Preconditioning with DEX produces protective effects against cerebral I/R injury in mice possibly by activating AMPK signaling to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission in the brain cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Dexmedetomidine , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Reperfusion Injury
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786179

ABSTRACT

Currently, sedation anesthesia is increasingly used in many medical fields, from gastroscopy to medical imaging. The demand for sedation anesthesia is expected to increase gradually with increasing number of day surgeries and increased expectations from medical services. The demand for sedation anesthesia is considerably higher than the available pool of anesthesiologists; therefore, in a significant number of cases, sedation anesthesia is induced by non-anesthesiologists. However, there is no systematic provision of education or expertise for non-anesthesiologists in delivering sedation anesthesia. In cases of non-anesthesiologists inducing anesthesia, social controversy is often caused by medical accidents and substance abuse. In this review, I have briefly summarized what non-anesthesiologists should know about sedation anesthesia and have presented guidelines simplifying sedation anesthesia for non-anesthesia medical personnel.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia , Dexmedetomidine , Diagnostic Imaging , Education , Etomidate , Gastroscopy , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Ketamine , Propofol , Substance-Related Disorders
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