Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 452
Filter
1.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 34 (1), 2024;34(1): 4-15, 20240301.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554619

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sedación es uno de los pilares fundamentales del manejo del paciente crítico internado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), sobre todo en aquellos que requieren Asistencia Ventilatoria Mecánica (AVM). Los fármacos que se utilizan con este propósito tienen el objetivo de lograr un adecuado nivel de conciencia en el paciente, de forma tal que se encuentre confortable y tolere la AVM. Los esquemas de sedación utilizados se encontraban basados en Benzodiacepinas, aunque, su uso no está exento de efectos adversos. El presente estudio pretende realizar una Revisión y Síntesis de la evidencia existente sobre la efectividad y seguridad del uso de dos nuevos fármacos, Propofol y Dexmedetomidina, para sedación continua en UTI y su comparación con los esque- mas tradicionales. Los Resultados respecto a la reducción de días en UTI resultó siempre significativa a favor del uso de propofol o dexmedetomidina en comparación a benzodiacepinas; lo mismo ocurrió con los días vinculados a la AVM. Estos resultados fueron encontrados en revisiones tanto de alta calidad como moderada o baja. Sin embargo, todos los estudios tuvieron en común que la calidad de la evidencia utilizada fue baja a moderada. Según la evidencia identificada, el uso de dexmedetomidina o propofol disminuiría de manera estadísticamente significativa los días de estadía en UTI y los requerimientos de AVM en pacientes adultos. Se debe tener en cuenta que la mayoría de las Revisiones encontradas fueron de calidad baja, siendo solamente 2 (dos) de calidad alta y una moderada. Es por esto último que la recomendación del uso de sedación basada en Dexmedetomidina o Propofol es condicional, ya que la calidad de la evidencia que la soporta es baja, en la mayoría de los casos.


Introductión: Sedation is one of the fundamental pillars of the management of critically ill patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), especially in those who require mechanical ventilatory assistance (MVA). The drugs used for this purpose have the objective of achieving an adequate level of consciousness in the patient, so that they are comfortable and tolerate AVM. The sedation schemes used were based on Benzodiazepines, however, their use is not free of adverse effects. The present work aims to carry out a review and synthesis of the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of the use of two new drugs Propofol and Dexmedetomidine for continuous sedation in ICU and its comparison with traditional regimens. The results regarding the reduction of days in ICU were always significant in favor of the use of Propofol or Dexmedetomidine compared to benzodiazepines; The same happened with the days linked to the AVM. These results were found in reviews of both high and moderate or low quality. However, what they all had in common was that the quality of the evidence used was low to moderate. According to the evidence identified, the use of Dexmedetomidine or Propofol would statistically significantly reduce the days of ICU stay and AVM requirements in adult patients. It should be taken into account that most of the reviews found were of low quality, with only 2 being of high quality, and 1 of moderate quality. It is for this last reason that the recommendation for the use of sedation based on Dexmedetomidine or Propofol is conditional, since the quality of the evidence supporting it is, for the most part, low.


Subject(s)
Deep Sedation , Midazolam , Propofol , Mortality , Critical Care , Dexmedetomidine
2.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 736-743, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520386

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Brachial plexus block (BPB) has been accepted as a reliable alternative for general anesthesia in upper limb surgeries. Adding adjuvant drugs like dexmedetomidine and sufentanil has been shown to have clinical and pharmacologic advantages. In this randomized parallel clinical trial, we aim to compare the effects of these two adjuvants for bupivacaine in BPB. Methods: In this double-blinded study, by using computer-assisted block randomization, 40 patients ranged from 20 to 65 years old and scheduled for elective upper limb surgeries were assigned to two equal study groups (n = 20), receiving 1 mL of 5 μg.mL-1 sufentanil (group S) or 1 mL of 100 μg.mL-1 dexmedetomidine (group D) in adjunction to 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine for supraclavicular BPB under the guidance of ultrasonography. Characteristics of local anesthesia and postoperative analgesia were evaluated (n = 40). Results: The duration of blocks significantly improved in group S (sensory: estimated median difference (EMD) [95%CI] = 100.0 [70.0~130.0], p < 0.001; motor: EMD [95%CI] = 120.0 [100.0~130.0], p < 0.001). Group S also had significantly longer postoperative analgesia and lower opioid consumption within 24 hours after the surgery (EMD [95%CI] = 4.0 [3.0~7.0], p < 0.001; EMD [95%CI] = -5.0 [-5.0~-5.0], p < 0.001; respectively). None of the patients showed adverse effects concerning vital signs, nausea, or vomiting. Conclusion: Our study showed that during ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB, sufentanil is a fairly better choice than dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant for bupivacaine and can provide preferable sensory and motor blocks. No significant side effects were seen in either of the study groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Brachial Plexus Block , Bupivacaine , Sufentanil , Upper Extremity/surgery , Anesthetics, Local
3.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(2): 143-152, 14 de agosto del 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451570

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo de los síntomas refractarios con dexmetomidina (DXM) es una alternativa en pacientes oncológicos en la atención al final de la vida (AFV) lo que puede convertirse en un gran desafío, ante la necesidad de iniciar sedación paliativa. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar el efecto de la DXM comparado con el midazolam (MDZ) en el control de síntomas refractarios en pacientes con cáncer avanzado AFV, como parte de una estrategia asistencial de sedación paliativa. Metodología: Estudio observacional, longitudinal, se revisaron los informes médicos en las historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de cáncer avanzado terminal y síntomas refractarios (dolor, disnea y delirio), que recibieron sedación paliativa con DXM o MDZ. Se utilizaron los registros de Escala de Evaluación de Síntomas de Edmonton - revisada (ESAS-r) para intensidad de síntomas y la Escala de Sedación/Agitación de Richmond (RASS) para respuesta a la sedación. Resultados: Un total de 35 pacientes recibieron DXM y 18 MDZ. El dolor (32 %) y delirio (30 %) fueron los síntomas refractarios más identificados. Dolor intenso en 89.3 % antes del inicio de DXM. A las 72 horas, el grupo DXM presentó disminución de la intensidad del delirio a leve y moderado, mientras que la mayoría de los pacientes del grupo MDZ fallecieron antes de las 72 horas. Conclusiones: El uso clínico de la DXM permite un enfoque multimodal, ampliando su utilidad en la atención al final de la vida para el manejo del dolor y delirio, ya que permite un estado de respuesta para la interacción con los miembros de la familia, función relevante en cuidados paliativos.


Introduction: Managing refractory symptoms with dexmedetomidine (DXM) is an alternative for cancer patients in end-of-life care (EOLC), which can become a great challenge, given the need to start palliative sedation. This study aims to determine the effect of DXM compared to midazolam (MDZ) in controlling refractory symptoms in patients with advanced EOLC cancer as part of a palliative sedation care strategy. Methodology: In this observational, longitudinal study, the medical reports in the medical records of hospitalized patients diagnosed with terminal advanced cancer and refractory symptoms (pain, dyspnea, and delirium) who received palliative sedation with DXM or MDZ were reviewed. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale-revised (ESAS-r) scores for symptom intensity and the Richmond Sedation/Agitation Scale (RASS) for response to sedation were used. Results: A total of 35 patients received DXM, and 18 received MDZ. Pain (32%) and delirium (30%) were the most identified refractory symptoms. Intense pain in 89.3% before DXM started; at 72 hours in 64.3%, the pain was reported as mild. Delirium was severe in 77.7%, DXM was used in 59.3%, and MDZ was used in 40.7%. At 72 hours, the DXM group presented a decrease in delirium intensity to mild and moderate, while most of the patients in the MDZ group died before 72 hours. Conclusions: The clinical use of DXM allows a multimodal approach, expanding its usefulness in end-of-life care for managing pain and delirium since it provides a state of response for interaction with family members, a function relevant in palliative care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Palliative Care , Dexmedetomidine , Cancer Pain , Pain , Midazolam , Delirium , Dyspnea
4.
5.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 177-185, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The precise underlying mechanism of antioxidant effects of dexmedetomidine-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia has not yet been fully elucidated. Activation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) represents a major antioxidant-defense mechanism. Therefore, we determined whether dexmedetomidine increases Nrf2/HO-1 expression after global transient cerebral ischemia and assessed the involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) in the dexmedetomidine-related antioxidant mechanism. Methods Thirty-eight rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham (n = 6), ischemic (n = 8), chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor; 5 mg.kg-1 IV administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia) (n = 8), dexmedetomidine (100 µg.kg-1 IP administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia (n = 8), and dexmedetomidine + chelerythrine (n = 8). Global transient cerebral ischemia (10 min) was applied in all groups, except the sham group; histopathologic changes and levels of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO-1 were examined 24 hours after ischemia insult. Results We found fewer necrotic and apoptotic cells in the dexmedetomidine group relative to the ischemic group (p< 0.01) and significantly higher Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in the dexmedetomidine group than in the ischemic group (p< 0.01). Additionally, chelerythrine co-administration with dexmedetomidine attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced increases in Nrf2 and HO-1 levels (p< 0.05 and p< 0.01, respectively) and diminished its beneficial neuroprotective effects. Conclusion Preischemic dexmedetomidine administration elicited neuroprotection against global transient cerebral ischemia in rats by increasing Nrf2/HO-1 expression partly via PKC signaling, suggesting that this is the antioxidant mechanism underlying dexmedetomidine-mediated neuroprotection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/pharmacology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Oxidative Stress , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 171-176, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439593

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Emergence Delirium (ED) is a combination of disturbance of perception and psychomotor agitation that is common in pediatric patients after general anesthesia, especially at preschool age. Since the effect of ED on the length of stay has been studied in adults but infrequently in children, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ED and length of stay in this population. Methods A single center, retrospective, observational study was carried out in children who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale was used to assess ED. In addition to the time to hospital discharge (time frame 24 hours), drugs used, comorbidities, early postoperative complications, and pain were investigated if potentially associated with the complication. Results Four hundred sixteen children aged from 1.5 to 10 years (183 female, 233 male) were included. ED occurred in 25.5% of patients (n = 106). Patients were divided into the ED group and the No-ED group. The discharge time was similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed in the frequency of postoperative complications. The use of fentanyl or dexmedetomidine did not affect ED occurrence. The frequency of pain was greater in the ED group, both in the recovery room and in the ward (p= 0.01). Conclusions The occurrence of ED in children after tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy did not extend the length of stay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Tonsillectomy , Dexmedetomidine , Emergence Delirium/epidemiology , Pain , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Length of Stay
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 654-659, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on renal function after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.@*METHODS@#We reviewed the clinical data of 282 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), who underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) in the Department of Urology, Third Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from November, 2020 and June, 2022.According to whether DEX was used during the operation, the patients were divided into DEX group and control group, and after propensity score matching, 99 patients were finally enrolled in each group.The incidence of acute kidney injuries were compared between the two groups.Serum creatinine (sCr) data within 3 months to 1 year after the operation were available in 51 patients, including 26 in DEX group and 25 in the control group, and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After propensity score matching and adjustment for significant covariates, there were no significant differences in postoperative levels of sCr, cystatin C (CysC), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), hemoglobin (Hb), or C-reactive protein (CRP), extubation time, incidence of AKI, or length of hospital stay between the two groups (P>0.05).The intraoperative urine volume was significantly higher in DEX group than in the control group (P < 0.05).A significant correlation between AKI and CKD was noted in the patients (P < 0.05).The incidence of CKD did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#DEX can not reduce the incidence of AKI or CKD after LRN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dexmedetomidine , Incidence , Propensity Score , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 452-456, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish a simple and rapid qualitative and quantitative detection method of dexmedetomidine in blood.@*METHODS@#Blood was separated on the Allure PFP Propyl liquid chromatography column with isocratic elution after it was precipitated by acetonitrile and filtered. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of dexmedetomidine was performed using positive ion scan mode and multi-reaction monitoring mode.@*RESULTS@#The limit of detection of dexmedetomidine in blood was 0.2 ng/mL and the limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL. The linearity of the method was good in the range of 0.5-1 000 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. The accuracy of the method was 90.34%-112.67% and the extraction recovery was 50.05%-91.08%, with no significant matrix effect.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This method is simple, selective and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of dexmedetomidine in blood, which can provide a reference for drug-facilitated cases involving dexmedetomidine.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dexmedetomidine/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
9.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 1-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981596

ABSTRACT

Objective Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative and analgesic properties but without respiratory depression effect and has been widely used in perioperative anesthesia. Here we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on maintaining perioperative hemodynamic stability in elderly patients.Methods PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) on the application of dexmedetomidine in maintaining perioperative hemodynamic stability in elderly patients from their inception to September, 2021. The standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to analyze the data. The random-effect model was used for the potential clinical inconsistency.Results A total of 12 RCTs with 833 elderly patients (dexmedetomidine group, 546 patients; control group, 287 patients) were included. There was no significant increase in perioperative heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the dexmedetomidine group before and during the operation. In addition, the variations of hemodynamic indexes including HR, MAP, SBP (systolic blood pressure), and DBP were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group compared with the control group (HR: SMD = -0.87, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.62; MAP: SMD = -1.12, 95% CI: -1.60 to -0.63; SBP: SMD = -1.27, 95% CI: -2.26 to -0.27; DBP: SMD = -0.96, 95% CI: -1.33 to -0.59). Subgroup analysis found that with the prolongation of 1.0 μg/kg dexmedetomidine infusion, the patient's heart rate declined in a time-dependent way.Conclusion Dexmedetomidine provides more stable hemodynamics during perioperative period in elderly patients. However, further well-conducted trials are required to assess the effective and safer doses of dexmedetomidine in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Heart Rate
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21461, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429963

ABSTRACT

Abstract he innate immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, no drug has been proven to be beneficial in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using combined sedatives on systemic inflammatory responses in patients with ARDS. A total of 90 patients with ARDS and an intubation time of > 120 h were randomly divided into the propofol group (group P), midazolam group (group M), and combined sedation group (group U). Patients in groups P and M were sedated with propofol and midazolam, respectively, whereas patients in group U were sedated with a combination of propofol, midazolam, and dexmedetomidine. The dosage of sedatives and vasoactive drugs, duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of sedative adverse reactions were documented. The dosage of sedatives and vasoactive drugs, as well as the incidence of sedative adverse reactions in group U, was significantly lower than those in groups P and M. Similarly, the duration of mechanical ventilation in group U was significantly shorter than that in groups P and M. Hence, inducing sedation through a combination of multiple drugs can significantly reduce their adverse effects, improve their sedative effect, inhibit systemic inflammatory responses, and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Conscious Sedation/adverse effects , Midazolam/agonists , Propofol/agonists , Cytokines/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/agonists
11.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518132

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at assessing the effects of combining 20 mg/kg S(+) ketamine with 25 µg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol on the physiological parameters and anesthetic recovery time and score of eight captive scarlet macaw (Ara macao) specimens. These specimens were captured at the Marabá Zoobotanic Foundation (Fundação Zoobotânica de Marabá), Pará, using butterfly and mist nets, and subsequently subjected to the proposed protocol. The following physiological parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2), body temperature (BT), and non-invasive blood pressure 5 min after drug administration (M0) and every 10 min thereafter (M1‒M5), with a total of 55 min of analysis of anesthetic effects. Glycemia was measured 5 min after drug administration and every 30 min thereafter. Anesthetic induction and recovery times were also determined. Among the parameters evaluated in this study, both HR and BT significantly decreased throughout the anesthetic period, with the lowest levels at 55 min after drug administration (M5). In contrast, RR did not significantly differ, and all animals remained stable, maintaining an RR close to a mean of 20 ± 8 cpm. Throughout the anesthetic period, SpO2was 92 ± 5%, with no significant difference. The birds remained under spontaneous ventilation and without oxygen supplementation. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures remained stable, with no significant differences in any of these measurements. At M0 and M3, the glycemia decreased slightly, albeit with no significant difference justifying an adverse effect or even hypoglycemia. The anesthetic induction time, from M0 to decubitus, was 2.4 ± 0.7 min. The anesthetic recovery time, from M0 to effortless bipedal position and adequate phalangeal flexion, was 99.3 ± 32.4 min. The sedation was assessed as intense, and the anesthetic recovery was rated excellent in 62.5% and good in 37.5% of the animals.(AU)


O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos do uso da cetamina S(+) 20 mg/kg associada à dexmedetomidina 25 µg/kg e butorfanol 0,4 mg/kg sobre os parâmetros fisiológicos, tempo e qualidade da recuperação anestésica de araracangas (Ara macao). Foram utilizados oito espécimes de Ara macao cativas da Fundação Zoobotânica de Marabá, Pará. A captura foi realizada com o uso de puçá e rede de contenção e em seguida as aves foram submetidas ao protocolo proposto. Foram avaliados: frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, saturação parcial da oxihemoglobina (SpO2), temperatura corporal e pressão arterial não-invasiva a partir de 5 minutos após a aplicação dos fármacos (M0) e a cada 10 minutos seguintes (M1, M2, M3, M4 e M5), totalizando 55 minutos de contemplação dos efeitos anestésicos. A glicemia foi avaliada aos 5 minutos da aplicação dos fármacos e repetida após 30 minutos. Também foi determinado o tempo de indução e de recuperação. Dentre os parâmetros avaliados, a frequência cardíaca e a temperatura demonstraram queda estatisticamente significativa ao longo do período anestésico, ambas com os menores valores registrados aos 55 minutos após a aplicação dos fármacos (M5). A frequência respiratória não apresentou diferença estatística e todos os animais se mantiveram estáveis e com a frequência próxima a média de 20±8mpm. A saturação da oxihemoblobina (SpO2) ao longo do período anestésico foi de 92±5%, não houve diferença estatisticamente relevante, as aves permaneceram sob ventilação espontânea e sem suplementação de oxigênio. As pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média, mantiveram-se estáveis e não houve diferença estatística para nenhuma dessas medidas. A glicemia, mensurada em M0 e M3 demonstrou queda discreta, sem diferença significativa capaz de justificar um efeito adverso ou mesmo hipoglicemia. O tempo de indução, desde aplicação dos anestésicos até o decúbito, foi de 2,4±0,7 minutos. O tempo de recuperação, compreendido desde a aplicação dos fármacos (M0) até a constatação da posição bipedal sem esforço e adequada flexão das falanges, foi de 99,3±32,4 minutos. A qualidade de sedação foi considerada intensa e a recuperação anestésica foi classificada como ótima para 62,5% e boa para 37,5% dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots/physiology , Butorphanol/chemistry , Dexmedetomidine/chemistry , Ketamine/chemistry , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Brazil
12.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 641-664, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520344

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for its sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects. Non-Operating Room Anesthesia (NORA) is a modality of anesthesia that can be done under general anesthesia or procedural sedation or/and analgesia. In this particular setting, a level-2 sedation, such as the one provided by DEX, is beneficial. We aimed to study the effects and safety of DEX in the different NORA settings in the adult population. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Interventions using DEX only or DEX associated with other sedative agents, in adults (18 years old or more), were included. Procedures outside the NORA setting and/or without a control group without DEX were excluded. MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO were searched. The primary outcome was time until full recovery. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic and respiratory complications and other adverse events, among others. Results: A total of 97 studies were included with a total of 6,706 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that DEX had a higher time until full recovery (95% CI = [0.34, 3.13] minutes, a higher incidence of hypotension (OR = 1.95 [1.25, 3.05], p = 0.003, I2 = 39%) and bradycardia (OR = 3.60 [2.29, 5.67], p < 0.00001, I2 = 0%), and a lower incidence of desaturation (OR = 0.40 [0.25, 0.66], p = 0.0003, I2 = 60%). Conclusion: DEX in NORA procedures in adults was associated with a lower incidence of amnesia and respiratory effects but had a long time to recovery and more hemodynamic complications..


Subject(s)
Conscious Sedation , Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia , Patient Safety , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesiology
13.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 665-675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in BPBs. Methods: Two investigators independently searched databases to identify all RCTs comparing the efficacy and/or safety of dexmedetomidine and Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in BPBs. All outcomes were pooled using the inverse variance method with a random-effect model. An I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. The source of heterogeneity was explored through meta-regression. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results: Out of 123 full texts assessed, 24 studies (1448 patients) were included in the analysis. As compared to Clonidine, dexmedetomidine groups showed significantly longer sensory block duration (MD = 173.31; 95% CI 138.02-208.59; I2 = 99%; GRADE approach evidence: high); motor block duration (MD = 158.35; 95% CI 131.55-185.16; I2 = 98%; GRADE approach evidence: high), duration of analgesia (MD = 203.92; 95% CI 169.25-238.58; I2 = 99%; GRADE approach evidence-high), and provided higher grade quality of block (RR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.60-2.41 ; I2 = 0%; GRADE approach evidence: moderate). The block positioning technique (regression coefficient: 51.45, p = 0.005) was observed as a significant predictor of the heterogeneity in the case of sensory block duration. No significant difference was observed for the risk of hypotension (RR = 2.59; 95% CI 0.63-10.66; I2 = %). Conclusion: Moderate to high-quality evidence suggests dexmedetomidine is a more efficacious adjuvant to local anesthetic in BPBs than Clonidine.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Block , Clonidine , Meta-Analysis , Dexmedetomidine
14.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 768-773, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420611

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is widely used, and its most common side effect is bradycardia. The complete mechanism through which Dex induces bradycardia has not been elucidated. This research investigates the expression of gap junction proteins Connexin30.2 (Cx30.2) and Connexin40 (Cx40) within the sinoatrial node of rats with Dex-induced sinus bradycardia. Methods Eighty rats were randomly assigned to five groups. Saline was administered to rats in Group C. In the other four groups, the rats were administered Dex to induce bradycardia. In groups D1and D2, the rats were administered Dex at a loading dose of 30 μg.kg−1 and 100 μg.kg−1 for 10 min, then at 15 μg.kg−1.h−1 and 50 μg.kg−1.h−1 for 120 min separately. The rats in group D1A and D2A were administered Dex in the same way as in group D1and D2; however, immediately after the administration of the loading dose, 0.5 mg atropine was administered intravenously, and then at 0.5 mg.kg−1.h−1 for 120 min. The sinoatrial node was acquired after intravenous infusion was completed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were performed to measure mRNA and protein expression of Cx30.2 and Cx40, respectively. Results The expression of Cx30.2 increased, whereas the expression of Cx40 decreased within the sinoatrial node of rats with Dex-induced sinus bradycardia. Atropine reversed the effects of Dex on the expression of gap junction proteins. Conclusion Dex possibly altered the expression of gap junction proteins to slow down cardiac conduction velocity in the sinoatrial node.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sinoatrial Node/metabolism , Dexmedetomidine , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atropine Derivatives/metabolism , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Connexins/genetics , Connexins/metabolism
15.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 826-828, Nov.-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mutations in SCN8A gene lead to changes in sodium channels in the brain, which are correlated with severe epileptic syndrome. Due to the rarity, there are few studies that support anesthesia in that population. The present study aims to report alternatives to inhalation anesthesia at epileptic encephalopathy. Case report: Male, 4 years old, with SCN8A encephalopathy with surgical indication of orchidopexy. Neuroaxis block was performed and dexmedetomidine was used as a pre-anesthetic and sedation. The anestheticsurgical act was uneventful. Conclusion: The association of neuraxial block and dexmedetomidine proved to be a viable alternative for surgery in patients with SCN8A encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Dexmedetomidine , Epilepsy , Anesthetics , NAV1.6 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/genetics , Mutation
16.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 560-566, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420594

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction and objectives Multimodal Analgesia (MMA) has shown promising results in postoperative outcomes across a broad spectrum of surgeries, including bariatric surgery. We compared the analgesic effect immediately after Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery (LBS) of the combined effect of MMA and methadone against two techniques that were based mainly on the use of high-potency medium-acting opioids. Methods Two hundred seventy-one patients were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was postoperative pain score > 3/10 measured by the Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) during the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU) stay. The three protocols of intraoperative analgesia were: (P1) sufentanil at anesthetic induction followed by remifentanil infusion; (P2) sufentanil at induction followed by dexmedetomidine infusion; and (P3) remifentanil at induction followed by MMA including dexmedetomidine, magnesium, lidocaine, and methadone. Only P1 and P2 patients received morphine toward the end of surgery. Poisson regression was used to adjust confounding factors and calculate Prevalence Ratio (PR). Results Postoperative VNS > 3 was recorded in 135 (49.81%) patients, of which 93 (68.89%) were subjected to P1, 25 (18.56%) to P2, and 17 (12.59%) to P3. In the final adjusted model, both anesthetic techniques (P3) (PR = 0.10; 95% CI [0.03-0.28]), and (P2) (PR = 0.42%; 95% CI [0.20-0.90]) were associated with lower occurrence of VNS > 3, whereas age range 20-29 was associated to higher occurrence of VNS > 3 (PR = 3.21; 95% CI [1.22-8.44]) in PACU. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) was distributed as follows: (P1) 20.3%, (P2) 31.25% and (P3) 6.77%; (P3 < P1, P2; p< 0.05). Intraoperative hypotension occurred more often in P3 (39%) compared to P2 (20.31%) and P1 (17.46%) (p< 0.05). Conclusion MMA + methadone was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension and lower incidence of moderate/severe pain in PACU after LBS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Hypotension , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sufentanil , Dexmedetomidine , Remifentanil , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Methadone
17.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 593-598, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420595

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Acute postoperative pain is associated with poor quality of recovery after surgery. Perioperative use of intravenous lignocaine or dexmedetomidine have demonstrated better pain control, early return of bowel function, and effects on quality of recovery. Methods: Ninety-six women planned for elective robotic abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into four groups. Groups received lignocaine infusion (1.5 mg.kg−1 loading, 2 mg.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group I), dexmedetomidine infusion (1 µg.kg−1 loading, 0.6 µg.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group 2), lidocaine (1.5 mg.kg−1 loading, 2 mg.kg−1.h−1 infusion), and dexmedetomidine infusions (1 µg.kg−1 loading, 0.5 µg.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group 3), and normal saline 10 mL loading, 1 mL.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group 4). Primary outcome was visual analogue pain scores at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Secondary outcomes included postoperative fentanyl requirement, time of return of bowel sounds and flatus, QoR15 score on day 1, 2, and discharge. Results The VAS was significantly lower in Groups 2 and 3 compared to Groups 1 and 4. Total postoperative fentanyl consumption in the first 24 hours was 256.25 ± 16.36 mcg (Group 1), 177.71 ± 16.81 mcg (Group 2), 114.17 ± 16.19 mcg (Group 3), and 304.42 ± 31.26 mcg (Group 4), respectively. Time to return of bowel sounds and passage of flatus was significantly shorter in Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.01). QoR15 scores after surgery were higher in Group 3 compared to Groups 1, 2, and 4, (p < 0.01) respectively. Conclusion: Combined infusion of lignocaine and dexmedetomidine significantly decreased postoperative pain, fentanyl consumption, and improved quality of recovery score after surgery in patients undergoing Robotic abdominal hysterectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Infusions, Intravenous , Fentanyl , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Flatulence , Hysterectomy , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, which is the main sedative in the intensive care unit. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and adverse events of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability in pediatric cardiac surgery. Sources: Databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, WANFANG STATA and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for articles about the application of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after pediatric cardiac surgery up to 18th Feb. 2021. Only randomized controlled trials were included and random-effects model meta-analysis was applied to calculate the standardized mean deviation (SMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Summary of the findings: Fifteen articles were included for this meta-analysis, and 9 articles for qualitative analysis. The results showed that preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery of DEX in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery were effective in maintaining systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and reducing heart rate (HR) (SBP: SMD = -0.35,95% CI: -0.72, 0.01; MAP: SMD = -0.83, 95% CI: -1.87,0.21; DBP: SMD = -0.79,95% CI: -1.66,0.08; HR: SMD = -1.71,95% CI: -2.29, -1.13). In addition, the frequency of Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in the DEX treatment group was lower than that in the placebo group. Conclusions: The application of DEX for preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery in pediatric cardiac surgery patients are effective in maintaining hemodynamic stability, and the clinical dose of DEX is not significantly related to the occurrence of pediatric adverse events which may be related to individual differences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects
19.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 167-176, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354480

ABSTRACT

Animais presentes em zoológicos frequentemente necessitam de captura e anestesia para a realização de procedimentos clínicos e cirúrgicos. A anestesia total intravenosa apresenta vantagens como redução do estresse cirúrgico e menor depressão cardiovascular e respiratória. Entretanto, ainda são escassas as pesquisas dedicadas dentro deste contexto. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste relato foi avaliar o protocolo anestésico empregado, visando um procedimento seguro e passível de reversão para a espécie silvestre selecionada. Acompanhou-se a anestesia de um leão (Panthera leo), macho, adulto, proveniente do Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, submetido a procedimento endodôntico. A medicação pré-anestésica constituiu-se de dexmedetomidina (6 µg/kg), metadona (0,2 mg/kg), midazolam (0,1 mg/kg) e tiletamina-zolazepam (1,2 mg/kg). A indução foi realizada com propofol (1,5 mg/kg) e o animal foi intubado. Visando promover analgesia local, foi realizado bloqueio infraorbitário esquerdo com 5 mL de lidocaína a 2%. A manutenção foi realizada por meio do fornecimento de propofol (0,02-0,1 mg/kg/h), dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg/kg/h) e remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). O paciente apresentou sedação profunda e foi mantido em plano anestésico cirúrgico; todos os parâmetros fisiológicos monitorados permaneceram estáveis durante todo o procedimento. Após 55 minutos de anestesia o paciente apresentava sustentação espontânea da cabeça, quando foi novamente transportado ao zoológico para soltura no recinto. A ambulação foi considerada normal pelos observadores no zoológico seis horas após a anestesia. Pôde-se concluir que o protocolo realizado se mostrou tanto eficaz quanto seguro para a referida espécie encaminhada ao procedimento em questão.


Zoo animals often require capture and anesthesia in order to undergo clinical and surgical procedures. Total intravenous anesthesia has advantages such as reduced surgical stress and less cardiovascular and respiratory depression. However, specific research on this matter is still scarce. Therefore, the present report aims to evaluate the anesthetic protocol employed, seeking a safe and reversible procedure for the selected wild species. A male adult lion (Panthera leo), from the Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, was subjected to an endodontic anesthesia, under close monitoring. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of dexmedetomidine (6 µg/kg), methadone (0.2 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) and tiletamine-zolazepam (12 mg/kg). Induction was performed with propofol (1 mg/kg) and the animal was intubated. In order to promote local analgesia, a left infraorbital block was implemented with 5 mL of 2% lidocaine. Maintenance was undertaken by supplying propofol (0.02-0.1 mg/kg/min), dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg/h) and remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). The patient exhibited deep sedation and followed the surgical anesthetic plan; all the monitored physiological parameters remained stable throughout the procedure. After 55 minutes of anesthesia the patient showed spontaneous head support, when it was transported back to the zoo. The ambulation was considered normal by the zoo observers 6 hours after the anesthesia. It was concluded that the protocol was both effective and safe for the referred species undergone the procedure reported.


Subject(s)
Animals , Preanesthetic Medication , Tiletamine , Zolazepam , Propofol , Dexmedetomidine , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics , Animals, Zoo
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370203, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374068

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To analyze the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (DEX) analgesia pretreatment on functional chronic visceral pain in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, and W6. The behavioral changes and electrophysiological indexes of rats in each group before and after DEX treatment were detected. Results: The levels of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in W5 and W6 groups were significantly lower than those in group W3, while the levels of thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) were significantly higher than those in group W3 (p < 0.05). The electromyographic signals of W1, W5, and W6 groups showed little fluctuation, while those of groups W2, W3, and W4 showed obvious fluctuation. TLR4 mRNA expression, IRF3, P65, and phosphorylation levels in W4, W5, and W6 groups were significantly lower than those in group W2 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine epidural anesthesia pretreatment could significantly inhibit visceral pain response in rats with functional chronic visceral pain, and its mechanism was related to the activation of TLR4 in spinal dorsal horn tissue of rats and the activation inhibition of IRF3 and P65 in the downstream key signals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Toll-Like Receptor 4/analysis , Visceral Pain/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Electrophysiological Phenomena
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL