Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.796
Filter
1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1027-1035, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by diabetes mellitus (DM) -induced cardiac muscular abnormalities, is a strong inducer of impaired cardiac contraction and arrhythmia. Atrioventricular block, a serious type of arrhythmia resulting from interruption of cardiac impulse conduction via the atrioventricular node (AVN), frequently occurs among diabetic patients. However, details of structural changes in AVN in DM remain poorly explained. Here, this study defined the effects of DM on the morphological remodeling of the AVN in male Sprague Dawley rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). At 24 weeks, the pathological changes in the AVN were assessed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under LM, the AVN in diabetic rats became a less compact mass and exhibited the intracellular vacuolation. The nodal cells were more varied in sizes with the absence or shrinkage of nuclei and clear cytoplasm compared to the control. The collagen content significantly increased in relation to the presence of myofibroblasts. Consistent with LM, TEM images of the diabetic nodal cells revealed several signs of cell damage, such as mitochondrial changes, deterioration of cell organelles, gap junction internalization, and cell separation. Furthermore, changes in AVN innervation, evidenced by damaged Schwann cells and axons, were also found. These results indicated alterations in important components in the AVN during diabetic condition, which may lead to the impairment of electrical conduction, causing abnormal cardiac functions in diabetic patients.


La miocardiopatía diabética, caracterizada por anomalías musculares cardíacas inducidas por diabetes mellitus (DM), es un fuerte inductor de alteración de la contracción cardíaca y arritmia. El bloqueo atrioventricular, un tipo grave de arritmia resultante de la interrupción de la conducción del impulso cardíaco a través del nodo atrioventricular (NAV), se produce con frecuencia entre los pacientes diabéticos. Sin embargo, los detalles de los cambios estructurales en NAV en DM siguen estando pobremente explicados. Aquí, este estudio definió los efectos de la DM en la remodelación morfológica del NAV en ratas macho Sprague Dawley inducidas por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg de peso corporal). A las 24 semanas, los cambios patológicos en el NAV se evaluaron mediante microscopía óptica (MO) y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). Bajo MO, el NAV en ratas diabéticas se convirtió en una masa menos compacta y exhibió la vacuolización intracelular. Las células nodales tenían tamaños más variados con ausencia o contracción de núcleos y citoplasma claro en comparación con el control. El contenido de colágeno aumentó significativamente en relación con la presencia de miofibroblastos. De acuerdo con MO, las imágenes MET de las células nodales diabéticas revelaron varios signos de daño celular, como cambios mitocondriales, deterioro de los orgánulos celulares, internalización de uniones comunicantes y separación celular. Además, también se encontraron cambios en la inervación del NAV, evidenciados por schwannocitos y axones dañados. Estos resultados indicaron alteraciones en componentes importantes en el NAV durante la condición diabética, lo que puede conducir al deterioro de la conducción eléctrica, causando funciones cardíacas anormales en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Node/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1043-1052, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514344

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with rising incidences worldwide. Gastric symptoms of DM have been reported, including nausea, vomiting, bloating, and epigastric pain. Moreover, acute to chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis occur in DM can affect the chief cells of the gastric gland. Chief cells are vital because of their ability to digest and separate vitamin B12 from protein. Lack of vitamin B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis and abnormal metabolism in red blood cells, and eventually leading to pernicious anemia. Furthermore, decreased vibratory and positional senses, numbness, ataxia with subacute combined degeneration, and dementia are present in pernicious anemic patients. Twenty-four male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into control (n = 12) and diabetic (n = 12) groups. The rats were further separated into two categories: short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) groups. DM model was induced by manually injecting intraperitoneally with streptozotocin in citrate buffer at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The same amount of buffer was injected into the control group. After sacrifice, three regions of the stomach (the cardia, body, and pylorus) were dissected. Histopathology was performed by staining with toluidine blue. Image analysis was used to quantify the zymogen granule accumulation in chief cells. The data were compared between the control and DM rats in each period using Student's t-test. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to examine the ultrastructures. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of zymogen granules in DM rats. Under TEM, the destructions of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in the DM rat were observed in the chief cells. In rats with uncontrolled diabetes, there is damage to the chief cells all over the area of the stomach, affecting digestion and malabsorption of vitamin B12. Therefore, this result helps clinicians recognize that diabetic patients with gastric symptoms may have hidden pernicious anemia.


La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un trastorno metabólico con incidencia creciente a nivel mundial. Se han informado síntomas gástricos de DM, que incluyen náuseas, vómitos, distensión abdominal y dolor epigástrico. Además, la gastritis aguda a crónica y la gastritis atrófica que ocurren en la DM pueden afectar las células principales de la glándula gástrica. Las células principales son vitales debido a su capacidad para digerir y separar la vitamina B12 de las proteínas. La falta de vitamina B12 conduce a una síntesis de ADN deteriorada y un metabolismo anormal en los glóbulos rojos, lo que eventualmente conduce a una anemia perniciosa. Además, los pacientes con anemia perniciosa presentan disminución de los sentidos vibratorio y posicional, entumecimiento, ataxia con degeneración combinada subaguda y demencia. En este estudio se usaron 24 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos control (n = 12) y diabéticas (n = 12). Las ratas se separaron además en dos categorías: grupos a corto plazo (4 semanas) y a largo plazo (24 semanas). El modelo de DM se indujo inyectando manualmente por vía intraperitoneal estreptozotocina en tampón de citrato a una dosis de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se inyectó la misma cantidad de tampón en el grupo control. Después del sacrificio, se disecaron tres regiones del estómago (cardias, cuerpo y píloro). La histopatología se realizó mediante tinción con azul de toluidina. El análisis de imágenes se utilizó para cuantificar la acumulación de gránulos de zimógeno en las células principales. Los datos se compararon entre las ratas control y DM en cada período utilizando la prueba t de Student. Además, se utilizó microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) para examinar la ultraestructura celular. Hubo una disminución significativa en el porcentaje de gránulos de zimógeno en ratas DM. Bajo TEM, se observaron en las células principales las destrucción de las mitocondrias, del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y del complejo golgiense en la rata DM. En ratas con diabetes no controlada, hay daño en las células principales de toda el área del estómago, lo que afecta la digestión y la malabsorción de vitamina B12. Por lo tanto, este resultado ayuda a los médicos a reconocer que los pacientes diabéticos con síntomas gástricos pueden tener una anemia perniciosa oculta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chief Cells, Gastric/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 894-900, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514321

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: It is known that diabetes mellitus has late complications, including microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Diabetes can affect bones through biochemical markers of bone structure, density, and turnover. This study aimed to biomechanically investigate the bone-protective effects of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), one of the active peptides in the renin-angiotensin system, in rats with diabetes. Thirty male Wistar albino rats, three months old and weighing 250-300 g, were divided into four groups: diabetes, Ang 1- 7, diabetes plus Ang 1-7, and control. One month later, diabetes developed in rats; the rats were sacrificed, and their right femur was removed. Three-point bending biomechanical tests were performed on the femurs. The diabetic group had significantly higher bone fragility than the other groups (Pr >.05). Bone fragility was lower, and bone flexibility was higher in the Ang 1-7 groups (Pr>F value 0.05). As a result of our study, the effect of Ang 1-7 on the bones of rats with diabetes was investigated biomechanically. Ang 1-7 has a protective impact on the bones of rats with diabetes.


Se sabe que la diabetes mellitus tiene complicaciones tardías, incluyendo enfermedades microvasculares y macrovasculares. La diabetes puede afectar los huesos a través de los marcadores bioquímicos de la estructura, la densidad y el recambio óseo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar biomecánicamente los efectos protectores en los huesos de la angiotensina 1-7 (Ang 1-7), uno de los péptidos activos en el sistema renina-angiotensina, en ratas con diabetes. Treinta ratas albinas Wistar macho, de tres meses de edad y con un peso de 250-300 g, se dividieron en cuatro grupos: diabetes, Ang 1-7, diabetes más Ang 1-7 y control. Un mes después, se desarrolló diabetes en ratas; se sacrificaron los animales y se extrajo su fémur derecho. Se realizaron pruebas biomecánicas de flexión de tres puntos en los fémures. El grupo diabéticos tenía una fragilidad ósea significativamente mayor que los otros grupos (Pr > 0,05). La fragilidad ósea fue menor y la flexibilidad ósea fue mayor en los grupos Ang 1-7 (valor Pr>F 0,05). Como resultado de nuestro estudio, se determinó biomecánicamente el efecto de Ang 1-7 en los huesos de ratas con diabetes. Se concluye que Ang 1-7 tiene un impacto protector en los huesos de ratas diabéticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin I/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Femur/drug effects , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1739-1750, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981391

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Lianmei Qiwu Decoction(LMQWD) on the improvement of cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling in the diabetic rat model induced by the high-fat diet and explored the underlying mechanism of LMQWD through the AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK)/tropomyosin receptor kinase A(TrkA)/transient receptor potential melastatin 7(TRPM7) signaling pathway. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into a model group, an LMQWD group, an AMPK agonist group, an unloaded TRPM7 adenovirus group(TRPM7-N), an overexpressed TRPM7 adenovirus group(TRPM7), an LMQWD + unloaded TRPM7 adenovirus group(LMQWD+TRPM7-N), an LMQWD + overexpressed TRPM7 adenovirus group(LMQWD+TRPM7), and a TRPM7 channel inhibitor group(TRPM7 inhibitor). After four weeks of treatment, programmed electrical stimulation(PES) was employed to detect the arrhythmia susceptibility of rats. The myocardial cell structure and myocardial tissue fibrosis of myocardial and ganglion samples in diabetic rats were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining. The immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), and Western blot were adopted to detect the distribution and expression of TRPM7, tyrosine hydroxylase(TH), choline acetyltransferase(ChAT), growth associated protein-43(GAP-43), nerve growth factor(NGF), p-AMPK/AMPK, and other genes and related neural markers. The results showed that LMQWD could significantly reduce the arrhythmia susceptibility and the degree of fibrosis in myocardial tissues, decrease the levels of TH, ChAT, and GAP-43 in the myocardium and ganglion, increase NGF, inhibit the expression of TRPM7, and up-regulate p-AMPK/AMPK and p-TrkA/TrkA levels. This study indicated that LMQWD could attenuate cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling in the diabetic state, and its mechanism was associated with the activation of AMPK, further phosphorylation of TrkA, and inhibition of TRPM7 expression.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , GAP-43 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Fibrosis
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 694-701, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Decoction (ZJJ) on Shh signaling and self-renewal of neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats with depression.@*METHODS@#Diabetic rat models with depression were randomly divided into model group, positive drug (metformin + fluoxetine) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose ZJJ groups (n=16), with normal SD rats as the control group. The positive drugs and ZJJ were administered by gavage, and the rats in the control and model groups were given distilled water. After the treatment, blood glucose level was detected using test strips, and behavioral changes of the rats were assessed by forced swimming test and water maze test. ELISA was used to examine the serum level of leptin; The expressions of nestin and Brdu proteins in the dentate gyrus of the rats were detected using immunofluorescence assay, and the expressions of self-renewal marker proteins and Shh signaling proteins were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The diabetic rats with depression showed significantly increased levels of blood glucose and leptin (P < 0.01) and prolonged immobility time in forced swimming test (P < 0.01) and increased stage climbing time with reduced stage seeking time and stage crossings in water maze test (P < 0.01). The expressions of nestin and Brdu in the dentate gyrus, the expressions of cyclin D1, SOX2, Shh, Ptch1, Smo in the hippocampus and the nuclear expression of Gli-1 were decreased (P < 0.01) while hippocampal Gli-3 expression was increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the rat models. Treatment of rat models with high-dose ZJJ significantly reduced the blood glucose (P < 0.01) and leptin level (P < 0.05) and improved their performance in behavioral tests (P < 0.01). The treatment also obviously increased the expressions of nestin, Brdu, cyclin D1, SOX2, Shh, Ptch1, and Smo and the nuclear expression of Gli-1 in the dentate gyrus (P < 0.01) and reduced hippocampal expression of Gli-3 (P < 0.05) in the rat models.@*CONCLUSION@#ZJJ can significantly improve the self-renewal ability of neural stem cells and activate Shh signaling in dentate gyrus of diabetic rats with depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood Glucose , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Self Renewal , Cyclin D1 , Dentate Gyrus , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hippocampus , Leptin , Nestin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 35-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971147

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive self-assembled nanomicelle loaded with pyroptosis inhibitor on full-thickness skin defects in diabetic rats. Methods: Experimental research methods were employed. A nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1/2 inhibitor (NOD-IN-1) was encapsulated with nanomicelle polyethylene glycol-block-polypropylene sulfide (PEG-b-PPS), and the resulting product was called PEPS@NOD-IN-1. The morphology and hydration particle size of PEG-b-PPS and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 were observed by transmission electron microscope and particle size analyzer, respectively, and the encapsulation rate and drug loading rate of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 to NOD-IN-1 and the cumulative release rate of NOD-IN-1 by PEPS@NOD-IN-1 in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) alone and hydrogen peroxide-containing PBS within 40 h were measured and calculated by microplate reader, and the sample number was 3. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6-7 weeks were injected with streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds were made on the back of each rat. The injured rats were divided into PBS group, NOD-IN-1 group, PEG-b-PPS group, and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group with corresponding treatment according to the random number table, with 6 rats in each group. The wound healing was observed on post injury day (PID) 3, 7, and 12, and the wound healing rate was calculated. The ROS levels in wound tissue were detected by immunofluorescence method on PID 3. On PID 7, the granulation tissue thickness in wound was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, the mRNA expressions of NOD1 and NOD2 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expressions of NOD1, NOD2, and GSDMD-N terminals were detected by Western blotting. Six wounds from different rats in each group were taken for detection of the above indicators. Wound tissue (3 samples per group) was taken from rats in PBS group and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group on PID 7, and transcriptome sequencing was performed using high-throughput sequencing technology platform. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly down-regulated in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group as compared with PBS group were screened, and the enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was performed. The DEG heatmap of the NOD-like receptor pathway, a pyroptosis-related pathway, was made. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of DEGs in heatmap was performed through the STRING database to screen key genes of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 regulating the NOD-like receptor pathway. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey test. Results: PEG-b-PPS and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 were in spherical structures of uniform size, with hydration particle sizes of (134.2±3.3) and (143.1±2.3) nm, respectively. The encapsulation rate of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 to NOD-IN-1 was (60±5)%, and the drug loading rate was (15±3)%. The release of NOD-IN-1 from PEPS@NOD-IN-1 in PBS alone was slow, and the cumulative release rate at 40 h was only (12.4±2.3)%. The release of NOD-IN-1 from PEPS@NOD-IN-1 in hydrogen peroxide-containing PBS within 10 h was very rapid, and the cumulative release rate at 10 h reached (90.1±3.6)%. On PID 3 and 7, the wounds of rats in the four groups were gradually healed, and the healing in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group was better than that in the other three groups. On PID 12, the wound scab area in PBS group was large, the wound epithelialization in NOD-IN-1 group and PEG-b-PPS group was obvious, and the wound in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group was close to complete epithelialization. Compared with those in PBS group, NOD-IN-1 group, and PEG-b-PPS group, the wound healing rates on PID 7 and 12 in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group were significantly increased (P<0.05), the level of ROS in wound tissue on PID 3 was significantly decreased (P<0.05), the thickness of granulation tissue in wound on PID 7 was significantly thickened (P<0.05), and the mRNA expressions of NOD1 and NOD2 and the protein expressions of NOD1, NOD2, and GSDMD-N terminals in wound tissue on PID 7 were significantly decreased (P<0.05). KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs significantly down-regulated in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group as compared with PBS group were significantly enriched in NOD-like receptors, hypoxia-inducible factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathways. In the DEG heatmap of NOD-like receptor pathway, the genes regulating pyroptosis mainly involved NOD1, NOD2, NOD-like receptor thermoprotein domain-related protein 3, Jun, signal transduction and transcriptional activator 1 (STAT1), TNF-α-induced protein 3. The PPI results showed that NOD1, NOD2, and STAT1 were the key genes of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 regulating the NOD-like receptor pathway. Conclusions: PEPS@NOD-IN-1 can down-regulate the level of local ROS in wounds and the expression of NOD1, NOD2, and GSDMD-N terminals, the key regulators of pyroptosis, thereby promoting the repair of full-thickness skin defect wounds in diabetic rats. PEPS@NOD-IN-1 can also significantly down-regulate the pyroptosis, inflammation, and hypoxia-related pathways of wounds, and regulate NOD-like receptor pathways by down-regulating key genes NOD1, NOD2, and STAT1.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species , Wound Healing , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pyroptosis , Skin Abnormalities , Soft Tissue Injuries , NLR Proteins , Hypoxia , RNA, Messenger
7.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 15-24, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of interleukin-4-modified gold nanoparticle (IL-4-AuNP) on the wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental research methods were adopted. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and IL-4-AuNP were synthesized by improving the methods described in published literature. The morphology of those two particles were photographed by transmission electron microscopy, and their particle sizes were calculated. The surface potential and hydration particle size of the two particles were detected by nanoparticle potentiometer and particle size analyzer, respectively. The clearance rate of IL-4-AuNP to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion was measured by hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion kits, respectively. Mouse fibroblast line 3T3 cells were used and divided into the following groups by the random number table (the same below): blank control group, hydrogen peroxide alone group treated with hydrogen peroxide only, hydrogen peroxide+IL-4-AuNP group treated with IL-4-AuNP for 0.5 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide. After 24 h of culture, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels of cells were detected by immunofluorescence method; cell count kit 8 was used to detect relative cell survival rate. The macrophage Raw264.7 mouse cells were then used and divided into blank control group and IL-4-AuNP group that treated with IL-4-AuNP. After 24 h of culture, the expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) in cells was observed by immunofluorescence method. Twelve male BALB/c mice (mouse age, sex, and strain, the same below) aged 8 to 10 weeks were divided into IL-4-AuNP group and blank control group, treated accordingly. On the 16th day of treatment, whole blood samples were collected from mice for analysis of white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin level, or platelet count and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea, or creatinine. The inflammation, bleeding, or necrosis in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney tissue of mice were detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Another 36 mice were selected to make diabetic model, and the full-thickness skin defect wounds were made on the back of these mice. The wounds were divided into blank control group, AuNP alone group, and IL-4-AuNP group, with 12 mice in each group, and treated accordingly. On the 0 (immediately), 4th, 9th, and 15th day of treatment, the wound condition was observed and the wound area was calculated. On the 9th day of treatment, HE staining was used to detect the length of neonatal epithelium and the thickness of granulation tissue in the wound. On the 15th day of treatment, immunofluorescence method was used to detect ROS level and the number of Arg-1 positive cells in the wound tissue. The number of samples was 6 in all cases. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, corrected t test, Tukey test, or Dunnett T3 test. Results: The size of prepared AuNP and IL-4-AuNP were uniform. The particle size, surface potential, and hydration particle size of AuNP and IL-4-AuNP were (13.0±2.1) and (13.9±2.5) nm, (-45.8±3.2) and (-20.3±2.2) mV, (14±3) and (16±4) nm, respectively. For IL-4-AuNP, the clearance rate to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion were (69±4)% and (52±5)%, respectively. After 24 h of culture, the ROS level of 3T3 in hydrogen peroxide alone group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (q=26.12, P<0.05); the ROS level of hydrogen peroxide+IL-4-AuNP group was significantly lower than that in hydrogen peroxide alone group (q=25.12, P<0.05) and close to that in blank control group (P>0.05). After 24 h of culture, the relative survival rate of 3T3 cells in hydrogen peroxide+IL-4-AuNP group was significantly higher than that in hydrogen peroxide alone group (t=51.44, P<0.05). After 24 h of culture, Arg-1 expression of Raw264.7 cells in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (t'=8.83, P<0.05).On the 16th day of treatment, there were no significant statistically differences in WBC, RBC, hemoglobin level, or platelet count and the level of AST, ALT, urea, or creatinine of mice between blank control group and IL-4-AuNP group (P>0.05). No obvious inflammation, bleeding or necrosis was observed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of important organs in IL-4-AuNP group, and no significant changes were observed compared with blank control group. On the 0 and 4th day of treatment, the wound area of diabetic mice in blank control group, AuNP alone group, and IL-4-AuNP group had no significant difference (P>0.05). On the 9th day of treatment, the wound areas both in AuNP alone group and IL-4-AuNP group were significantly smaller than that in blank control group (with q values of 9.45 and 14.87, respectively, P<0.05), the wound area in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly smaller than that in AuNP alone group (q=5.42, P<0.05). On the 15th day of treatment, the wound areas both in AuNP alone group and IL-4-AuNP group were significantly smaller than that in blank control group (with q values of 4.84 and 20.64, respectively, P<0.05), the wound area in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly smaller than that in AuNP alone group (q=15.80, P<0.05); moreover, inflammations such as redness and swelling were significantly reduced in IL-4-AuNP group compared with the other two groups. On the 9th day of treatment, compared with blank control group and AuNP alone group, the length of neonatal epithelium in the wound of diabetic mice in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly longer (all P<0.05), and the thickness of the granulation tissue in the wound was significantly increased (with q values of 11.33 and 9.65, respectively, all P<0.05). On the 15th day of treatment, compared with blank control group, ROS levels in wound tissue of diabetic mice in AuNP alone group and IL-4-AuNP group were significantly decreased (P<0.05). On the 15th day of treatment, the number of Arg-1 positive cells in the wounds of diabetic mice in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly more than that in blank control group and AuNP alone group, respectively (all P<0.05). Conclusions: IL-4-AuNP is safe in vivo, and can improve the oxidative microenvironment by removing ROS and induce macrophage polarization towards M2 phenotype, thus promote efficient diabetic wound healing and regeneration of full-thickness skin defects in diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Interleukin-4 , Gold/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Creatinine , Hydrogen Peroxide , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides , Metal Nanoparticles , Soft Tissue Injuries , Antibodies , Inflammation , Necrosis , Hemoglobins
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 745-758, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982441

ABSTRACT

Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is the most common disabling complication of diabetes. Emerging evidence has linked the pathogenesis of DNP to the aberrant sprouting of sensory axons into the epidermal area; however, the underlying molecular events remain poorly understood. Here we found that an axon guidance molecule, Netrin-3 (Ntn-3), was expressed in the sensory neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), and downregulation of Ntn-3 expression was highly correlated with the severity of DNP in a diabetic mouse model. Genetic ablation of Ntn-3 increased the intra-epidermal sprouting of sensory axons and worsened the DNP in diabetic mice. In contrast, the elevation of Ntn-3 levels in DRGs significantly inhibited the intra-epidermal axon sprouting and alleviated DNP in diabetic mice. In conclusion, our studies identified Ntn-3 as an important regulator of DNP pathogenesis by gating the aberrant sprouting of sensory axons, indicating that Ntn-3 is a potential druggable target for DNP treatment.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Axons/physiology , Diabetic Neuropathies , Sensory Receptor Cells/metabolism , Neuralgia/metabolism
9.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 185-194, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of asiatic acid on β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#The T2DM model was established by high fat diet and streptozotocin injection in ICR mice, and the effects of asiatic acid on glucose regulation were investigated in model mice. The islets were isolated from palmitic acid-treated diabetic mice. ELISA was used to detect the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. ATP assay was applied to measure ATP production, and Western blotting was used to detect protein expression of mature β cell marker urocortin (Ucn) 3 and mitofusin (Mfn) 2. The regulatory effects of asiatic acid on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Ucn3 expression were also investigated after siRNA interference with Mfn2 or treatment with TNF-α.@*RESULTS@#Asiatic acid with the dose of 25 mg·kg-1·d-1 had the best glycemic control in T2DM mice and improved the homeostasis model assessment β index. Asiatic acid increased the expression of Mfn2 and Ucn3 protein and improved the GSIS function of diabetic β cells in vitro and in vivo (both P<0.05). Moreover, it improved the ATP production of islets of T2DM mice in vitro (P<0.05). Interfering Mfn2 with siRNA blocked the up-regulation of Ucn3 and GSIS induced by asiatic acid. Asiatic acid inhibited islet TNF-α content and increased Mfn2 and Ucn3 protein expression inhibited by TNF-α.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Asiatic acid improves β cell insulin secretion function in T2DM mice by maintaining the β cell maturity, which may be related to the TNF-α/Mfn2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Insulin Secretion , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Insulin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Mice, Inbred ICR , Glucose/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate , GTP Phosphohydrolases/therapeutic use
10.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 423-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981883

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effect of methylene blue on diabetic retinopathy in rats. Methods Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into blank, control and experimental groups. The control and experimental groups were induced with diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection. After 6 weeks of successful modeling, the experimental group received intravitreal injection of methylene blue at a dose of [0.2 mg/(kg.d)], while the control group received an equal amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intravitreal injection, both continuously injected for 7 days. ELISA was used to detect the levels of retinal superoxide dismutase (SOD), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (iPF2α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in rats. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of retinal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), and PAS staining was used to detect retinal morphological changes. Results Compared with the blank group rats, the retinal SOD activity in the control and experimental group rats was significantly reduced. iPF2α, IL-1β and p-ERK1/2 level increased, while p-AKT level decreased. Compared with the control group, the SOD activity of the experimental group rats increased. iPF2α and IL-1β level went down, while p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT level went up significantly. The overall thickness of the retinal layer and the number of retinal ganglion cells were significantly reduced. Conclusion Methylene blue improves diabetic retinopathy in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress and enhancing ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e381423, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1429537

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the protective and antioxidative effects of intensive exercise on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced testicular damage, apoptotic spermatognial cells death, and oxidative stress. Methods: 36 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetes, and diabetes+intensive exercise (IE) groups. Testicular tissues were examined histopathologically and antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity, as well as serum testosterone level, were measured. Results: Seminiferous tubules and germ cells were found to be better in the testis tissue of the intense exercise group than in the diabetes group. Diabetes suppressed antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GPx and testosterone levels were significantly decreased, and increased MDA level in the diabetic group compared to diabetes+IE group (p < 0.001). Following four weeks of treatment, intensive exercise improved the antioxidant defense, significantly decreased MDA activity, and increased testosterone levels in testicular tissue in the diabetic group compared to diabetes+IE group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: STZ-induced diabetes causes damage to the testis tissue. In order to prevent these damages, exercise practice has become very popular nowadays. In present study, our intensive exercise protocol, histological, and biochemical analysis of the effect of diabetes on the testicular tissues is shown.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatozoa/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Antioxidants
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e381123, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1439107

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Nontransmissible chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and nephropathy, affect a significant portion of the population, often treated due to injuries that require healing and regeneration. To create an experimental model of associated comorbidities, for healing and regeneration studies, protocols for induction of nephropathy by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and induction of DM by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) were associated. Methods: Sixty-four mice (Mus musculus), female, adult, Swiss strain, weighing approximately 20 g, were divided into four groups: G1: control (n = 24), G2: nephropathy group (N) (n = 7), G3, DM (n = 9), and G4: N+DM (n = 24). Arteriovenous stenosis (I/R) of the left kidney was performed as the first protocol. The animals received a hyperlipidemic diet for 7 days after the injection of STZ (150 mg/kg, via i.p.) and an aqueous glucose solution (10%) for 24 h. The animals in the G3 and G4 groups were observed for 14 days before receiving the diet and STZ. The evolution of nephropathy was observed using a urine test strip and the DM, through the analysis of blood glucose with a reagent strip on a digital monitor. Results: The ischemic induction protocols of nephropathy and DM with STZ, associated, were sustainable, low-cost, and without deaths. There were alterations compatible with initial renal alterations, in the first 14 days, such as increased urinary density, pH alteration, presence of glucose, proteins and leukocytes, when compared to the control group. DM was confirmed by the presence of hyperglycemia 7 days after induction and its evolution after 14 days. The animals in the G4 group showed constant weight loss when compared to the other groups. It was possible to observe morphological alterations in the kidneys submitted to I/R, regarding coloration, during surgery and after the end of the observation period, in the volume and size of the left kidney, when compared to the contralateral kidney. Conclusion: It was possible to induce nephropathy and DM associated in the same animal, in a simple way, confirmed with rapid tests, without losses, providing a basis for future studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Reperfusion Injury , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Powders , Thyroid Hormones , Blood Glucose , Fruit
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21820, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, and currently available synthetic medicines for treating diabetes are associated with various side effects. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop herbal remedies against diabetes as an alternative to synthetic medicines. Although local healers use the roots of Spermadicyton suaveolens (SS) to manage diabetes, there is negligible research to validate its antidiabetic properties. The present investigation aims to the assess the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of S. Suaveolen's roots (EESS) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The extract was screened for in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. The in vivo antidiabetic potential of EESS (at 200 and 400 mg/kg) was studied on STZ-induced diabetic rats for 20 days. The EESS displayed significant (p<0.05) antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. The administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg EESS in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced hyperglycemia, and restored antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile-a high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased by the administration of a single dose of streptozotocin. Thus, EESS could be a promising herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Streptozocin/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Herbal Medicine/classification , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Synthetic Drugs/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/complications
15.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 26(3): 598-613, jul.-set. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405659

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La relación entre la deficiencia de Zn y la elevada incidencia de alteraciones en el crecimiento intrauterino en la diabetes materna aún no se ha dilucidado. En la literatura consultada no existen reportes del efecto de la suplementación con el micronutriente sobre el crecimiento fetal en modelos de diabetes con hiperglucemias moderadas. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto sobre el peso fetal de la suplementación con zinc a ratas con diabetes moderada durante la gestación. Métodos: Se utilizó un modelo de diabetes moderada inducida en ratas Wistar al segundo día de nacidas por inducción subcutánea con estreptozotocina (100mg/kg-pc). En la adultez las ratas sanas y diabéticas fueron apareadas con machos sanos. Según correspondiera recibieron durante 20 días de gestación un suplemento de sulfato de zinc (50mg/kg). Se estudiaron 395 fetos de cuatro grupos: fetos de ratas sanas sin suplemento, de ratas sanas suplementadas, de ratas diabéticas sin suplemento y de ratas diabéticas suplementadas. Los fetos se clasificaron en pequeños (PEG), adecuados (AEG) y grandes (GEG) para la edad gestacional. Resultados: La descendencia de las ratas diabéticas suplementadas mostró valores del peso fetal similares a ambos grupos sanos al término de la gestación, presentando menor porcentaje de fetos PEG y GEG, así como mayor porcentaje de AEG respecto al grupo diabético no suplementado. Conclusiones: La suplementación con Zn durante la gestación a ratas diabéticas con hiperglucemias moderadas causó efectos positivos sobre su descendencia al aumentar el porcentaje de fetos con peso adecuado.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the relationship between Zn deficiency and the high incidence of abnormal intrauterine growth in maternal diabetes has not yet been elucidated. There are no reports in the consulted literature of the effect of micronutrient supplementation on fetal growth in models of diabetes with moderate hyperglycemia. Objective: to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on fetal weight in rats with moderate diabetes during pregnancy. Methods: a model of mild diabetes was used in Wistar rats on the second day of birth by subcutaneous streptozotocin induction (100mg/kg-bw). As adults, healthy and diabetic rats were mated with healthy males. As appropriate, they received a zinc sulfate supplement (50mg/kg) during 20 days of gestation. A number of 395 fetuses from four groups were studied: fetuses from healthy rats without supplementation, from healthy rats supplemented, from diabetic rats without supplementation and from diabetic rats supplemented. Fetuses were classified as small (SGA), adequate (AGA), and large (LGA) for gestational age. Results: the offspring of the supplemented diabetic rats showed similar fetal weight values to both healthy groups at the end of pregnancy, having a lower percentage of SGA and LGA fetuses, as well as a higher percentage of AGA compared to the non-supplemented diabetic group. Conclusions: Zn supplementation during pregnancy in diabetic rats with moderate hyperglycemia had positive effects on their offspring by increasing the percentage of fetuses with adequate weight.


Subject(s)
Fetal Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Zinc Deficiency
16.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-10, June 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512565

ABSTRACT

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases including diabetes. The interaction between RAGE and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promotes gene expression, enhances the release of proinflammatory molecules and causes the generation of oxidative stress in numerous cell types. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of enalapril and losartan on RAGE expression in abdominal aortic endothelium of rats with experimentally induced diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing approximately 150 - 200 g, were used. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by intravenous administration of a single dose of 55 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (ETZ). The following groups were studied: control (n=10), diabetic (n=10), losartan-treated diabetic (n=10) and enalapril-treated diabetic (n=10) rats. RAGE expression in aortic endothelium was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. A significant increase in RAGE expression was observed in diabetic animals versus controls (p<0.001), there was a decrease in RAGE expression, in animals treated with losartan versus controls (p<0.01) and in those treated with enalapril (p<0.05) versus control and versus diabetes + vehicle. In conclusion, in the experimental model of ETZ-induced diabetes, there is an increase in RAGE expression at the level of the abdominal aortic endothelium, which can be reversed by treatment with losartan and/or enalapril, two drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, suggesting its involvement in the molecular events related to vascular damage during diabetes.


El receptor para productos finales de glicación avanzada (RAGE) está implicado en la patogénesis de varias enfermedades crónicas incluyendo la diabetes. La interacción entre RAGE y los productos finales de glicación avanzada (AGEs), promueve la expresión génica, potencia la liberación de moléculas proinflamatorias y provoca la generación de estrés oxidativo en numerosos tipos de células. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto del enalapril y el losartán sobre la expresión de RAGE en el endotelio de la aorta abdominal de ratas con diabetes inducida experimentalmente. Se utilizaron ratas Sprague-Dawley machos, con un peso aproximado de entre 150 - 200 g. La diabetes se indujo en 30 ratas mediante la administración intravenosa de una sola dosis de 55 mg/Kg de peso corporal de estreptozotocina (ETZ). Se estudiaron los siguientes grupos: ratas control (n=10), diabéticas (n=10), diabéticas tratadas con losartán (n=10) y diabéticas tratadas con enalapril (n=10). La expresión de RAGE en el endotelio aórtico se determinó por inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se observó un incremento significativo en la expresión de RAGE en los animales diabéticos versus los controles (p<0.001), hubo una disminución en la expresión de RAGE, en los animales tratados con losartán versus los controles (p<0.01) y en los tratados con enalapril (p<0.05) versus control y versus diabetes + vehículo. En conclusión, en el modelo experimental de diabetes inducida por ETZ, existe un incremento en la expresión de RAGE a nivel del endotelio de la aorta abdominal, la cual puede revertirse mediante el tratamiento con losartán y/o enalapril, dos fármacos bloqueadores del sistema renina-angiotensina, lo cual sugiere la participación del mismo en los acontecimientos moleculares relacionados con el daño vascular durante la diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enalapril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/drug effects , Aorta, Abdominal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Endothelium , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 122-128, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385569

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Induction of osteoarthritis (OA) following diabetes is characterized by a sever inflammation of the joints that can lead to disability. The cartilage content of proteoglycans can substantially be reduced, following the induction of diabetes mellitus associated with inflammation as well as knee joint injury, and the antidiabetic drug metformin combined with the anti-inflammatory agent resveratrol can prevent these deleterious effects. Therefore, insulin-independent diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced in Albino rats by streptozotocin (STZ) injection (50 mg/kg) after being fed on a high carbohydrate and fat diets for 2 weeks. The protective group of rats which also received a single injection of STZ was treated daily with metformin (Met; 200 mg/kg) and resveratrol (Res; 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Harvested knee joint tissues were prepared for basic histology stain and for proteoglycans staining using light microscopy. Histology images showed in diabetic rats (T2DM) OA development as demonstrated by profound injury to the knee joint and severe decrease of articular cartilage proteoglycans content, which were substantialy protected by Met+Res. Met+Res also significantly (p< 0.0001) decreased diabetes induced glycemia, dyslipidemia, and the inflammatory biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In addition, there was a significant correlation between OA and glycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation. Collectively, we demonstrate an association between knee joint damage and biomarkers of glycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in diabetes-induced OA, with metformin plus resveratrol providing protective effects.


RESUMEN: La inducción de osteoartritis (OA) después de la diabetes se caracteriza por una inflamación severa de las articulaciones que puede conducir a la discapacidad. El contenido de cartílago de proteoglicanos se puede reducir sustancialmente, luego de la inducción de diabetes mellitus asociada con inflamación y lesión en la articulación de la rodilla sin embargo, el fármaco antidiabético metformina combinado con el agente antiinflamatorio resveratrol puede prevenir estos efectos nocivos. Por lo tanto, se indujo diabetes insulino dependiente, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (T2DM) en ratas albinas mediante inyección de estreptozotocina (STZ) (50 mg/kg) después de haber sido alimentadas con dietas ricas en carbohidratos y grasas durante 2 semanas. El grupo protector de ratas que también recibió una inyección única de STZ fue tratado diariamente con metformina (Met; 200 mg/kg) y resveratrol (Res; 30 mg/kg) durante 12 semanas. Tejidos de la articulación de la rodilla fueon retirados y teñidos con histología básica y tinción de proteoglicanos usando microscopía óptica. Las imágenes histológicas en ratas diabéticas mostraban (T2DM) desarrollo de OA visualizadas por una lesión profunda en la articulación de la rodilla y una disminución severa del contenido de proteoglicanos del cartílago articular, los cuales estaban sustancialmente protegidos por Met+Res. Met+Res. También disminuyó significativamente (p< 0,0001) la glucemia inducida por la diabetes, la dislipidemia y los biomarcadores inflamatorios, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), la interleucina-6 (IL-6) y la proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (PCR-hs). Además, hubo una correlación significativa entre la OA y la glucemia, la dislipidemia y la inflamación. En conjunto, demostramos una asociación entre el daño de la articulación de la rodilla y los biomarcadores de glucemia, dislipidemia e inflamación en la OA inducida por diabetes, con metformina más resveratrol que brindan efectos protectores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoarthritis/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Proteoglycans/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
18.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 501-508, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935176

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the differentially expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in the myocardium of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) mice, and analyze their possible biological functions and related regulatory network. Methods: C57BL/6 mice, aged 8 weeks, and weighing were 21-27 g. Eight mice were selected as the control group and 15 mice were selected as the experimental group. The diabetic mice model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in the experimental group. One week after injection, the fasting blood glucose level of mice was measured, and 12 diabetic mice were included in the final experimental group. All mice were fed for 12 weeks under the same laboratory conditions. The cardiac structure and function were detected by echocardiography. Diabetic mice with the left ventricular ejection fraction less than 60% and the E/A less than 1.6 were selected as DCM group (n=3). Mice in DCM group and control group were then sacrificed under deep anesthesia. RNA was extracted from myocardial tissue. High-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used to sequence and identify the RNA in the myocardial tissue of DCM group and normal control group, and the difference was analyzed by DeSeq2. The analysis results were verified at the tissue level by RT-qPCR, and the differential circRNA were analyzed by GO and KEGG pathway analysis. The differentially expressed circRNA-microRNA(miRNA) interaction was predicted by the miRNA target gene prediction software. Results: A total of 63 differentially expressed circRNAs were found in the myocardium of DCM mice. The results of RT-qPCR showed that the tissue level expression of 8 differentially expressed circRNAs was consistent with the sequencing results, of which 7 were up-regulated and 1 was down-regulated. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the up-regulated circRNAs was mainly related to AMPK signal pathway and intercellular adhesion junction pathway, and the down-regulated circRNA was mainly related to cardiomyopathy. Go analysis showed that the up-regulated circRNA was mainly related to the binding process of ions, proteins, kinases and other factors in terms of molecular function, and was involved in regulating the intracellular structure, especially the composition of organelles in terms of cell components. The functional analysis of molecular function and cell components showed that the up-regulated circRNA were related to the cell component origin, recruitment and tissue, and thus participated in the regulation of cell biological process. The down regulated circRNA was related to catalytic activity in terms of molecular function, protein kinase binding process, transferase and calmodulin activity, and was closely related to the components of contractile fibers and the composition of myofibrils. These differentially expressed circRNAs were also related to biological processes such as lysine peptide modification, sarcomere composition, myofibril assembly, morphological development of myocardial tissue, myocardial hypertrophy and so on. Conclusions: In this study, we detected the novel differentially expressed circRNAs in the myocardium of DCM mice, and bioinformatics analysis confirmed that these circRNAs are related to oxidative stress, fibrosis and death of cardiomyocytes, and finally participate in the pathophysiological process of DCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Mice, Inbred C57BL , MicroRNAs/genetics , Myocardium , RNA, Circular , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 378-386, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929268

ABSTRACT

The dry root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey has garnered much interest owing to its medicinal properties against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the therapeutic mechanisms of ginseng extract on the serum and urinary metabolic profiles in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Pharmacological and renal parameters in response to the administration of ginseng were also evaluated. In total, 16 serum endogenous metabolites and 14 urine endogenous metabolites, including pyruvic acid, indoleacetic acid, and phenylacetylglycine, were identified as potential biomarkers for diabetes. Pathway enrichment and network analysis revealed that the biomarkers modulated by ginseng were primarily involved in phenylalanine and pyruvate metabolism, as well as in arginine biosynthesis. Moreover, the levels of several renal injury-related biomarkers in T1DM rats were significantly restored following treatment with ginseng. The administration of the extract helped maintain tissue structure integrity and ameliorated renal injury. The findings suggest that the regulatory effect of ginseng extract on T1DM involves metabolic management of diabetic rats, which subsequently attenuates T1DM-induced early renal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Kidney , Metabolomics/methods , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 52-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of modified Linggui Zhugan Decoction (, MLZD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups by a random number table, including normal, obese T2DM (ob-T2DM), MLZD low-dose [MLDZ-L, 4.625 g/(kg·d)], MLZD middle-dose [MLD-M, 9.25 g/(kg·d) ] and MLZD high-dose [MLD-H, 18.5 g/(kg·d)] groups, 10 rats in each group. After 4-week intervention, blood samples and liver, pancreas, muscle tissues were collected to assess the insulin resistance (IR), blood lipid, adipokines and inflammation cytokines. The alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1 )/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 α) pathways were also studied.@*RESULTS@#MLZD dose-dependently reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for IR index and increased insulin sensitive index compared with ob-T2DM rats (P<0.05). Similarly, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acids were also decreased compared with ob-T2DM rats after 4-week treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Improvements in adipokines and inflammatory cytokines were observed with a raised level of adiponectin and a reduced level of leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). MLZD regulated the PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways and restored the tissue structure of liver and pancreas (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MLZD ameliorated glycolipid metabolism and inflammation, which may be attributed to the regulation of PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycolipids , Inflammation , Obesity/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL