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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 206-221, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522069


BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is a serious complication of infected ulcers in a diabetic patient. The identification of the infecting microorganisms is generally by culture, which causes a bias. Recently, metagenomics has been used for microbial identification. AIM: To systematically review the scientific literature related to DFO in the last 10 years to evaluate if culture and metagenomics are complementary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To carry out the systematic review, PRISMA and Rayyan were used for the selection of studies, using three databases, using the keywords diabetes, osteomyelitis, culture and microbiome. Articles in English or Spanish were included, containing information related to bacterial identification in DFO. Characteristics of the technique, patients and frequency of bacterial appearance were collected. RESULTS: Twenty six articles were included, 19 used culture and 7 metagenomics. The patients were predominantly men (68%), with an average age of 61 years, 83% had type 2 diabetes and comorbidities, mainly vascular and neuropathy. The Families with the highest frequency of appearance using the culture technique were Enterobacteriaceae (29.3%) and Staphylococcaceae(28.3%) and with metagenomics Peptoniphilaceae (22.1%) and Staphylococcaceae (9.4%). Peptoniphilaceae were not identified in culture, although they were frequently identified by metagenomics. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus, regularly identified by culture, was not identified using metagenomics. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing results, there is a certain complementarity between microbiological culture and sequencing to identify bacteria present in DFO.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/diagnosis , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403483


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 68 cases, including 15 patients without diabetic retinopathy, 17 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 healthy patients (control group), were enrolled in this study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scanning program, and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level was measured using a commercial micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness values and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly different between the four groups (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness values were significantly lower in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and control groups; p<0.001, p=0.045, and p<0.001, respectively). The plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly higher in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (p<0.001, p<0.04, and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, a significant negative correlation was also found between plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p<0.001, r=-0.479). Conclusion: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction and endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was related to increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação da espessura subfoveal da coroide e dos níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica com a gravidade da retinopatia diabética em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Foram incluídos 68 casos, compreendendo 15 pacientes sem retinopatia diabética, 17 pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 16 pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa, e 20 casos saudáveis (grupo de controle). A espessura subfoveal da coroide foi medida manualmente, usando o programa de varredura com tomografia computadorizada óptica com imagem profunda aprimorada, e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram medidos usando um kit microELISA comercial. Resultados: Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente diferentes nos quatro grupos (p<0,001 para ambos os parâmetros). Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide foram significativamente menores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (sem retinopatia diabética, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e grupo de controle, com p<0,001, p=0,045 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Já os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente maiores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (p<0,001, p=0,04 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Além disso, também foi encontrada uma correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica e a espessura subfoveal da coroide (p<0,001, r=-0,479). Conclusão: A dimetil-arginina assimétrica é um importante marcador de disfunção endotelial e um inibidor endógeno da óxido nítrico sintase. Foi encontrada uma relação da gravidade da retinopatia diabética e de níveis elevados de dimetil-arginina assimétrica no plasma com a redução da espessura subfoveal da coroide em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 com retinopatia diabética.

Humans , Arginine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Arginine/blood , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(3): 87-90, 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451975


La hipertrigliceridemia severa es una de las principales causas etiológicas de la pancreatitis aguda, donde la literatura internacional la posiciona como la tercera causa. Sus causas gatillantes, comorbilidades, severidad y evolución son importantes de conocer para evitar futuros episodios. En Chile, a nuestro entender, no tenemos literatura sobre esta asociación, por lo que presentamos datos de un hospital terciario, destacando 15 casos de pancreatitis aguda en 5 años de estudio, casi la mitad de ellos con antecedentes previos de hipertrigliceridemia, un porcentaje importante de los casos con cuadros graves y con complicaciones intrahospitalarias y que la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 fue la principal condición asociada a la hipertrigliceridemia severa.

Severe hypertriglyceridaemia is one of the main aetiological causes of acute pancreatitis, with international literature ranking it as the third leading cause. Its triggering causes, comorbidities, severity and evolution are important to know in order to avoid future episodes. In Chile, to our knowledge, we have no literature on this association, so we present data from a tertiary hospital, highlighting 15 cases of acute pancreatitis in 5 years of study, almost half of them with a previous history of hypertriglyceridaemia, a significant percentage of cases with severe symptoms and in-hospital complications, and that type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main condition associated with severe hypertriglyceridaemia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Tertiary Healthcare , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523833


Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic power of SARC-F and SARC-CalF as screening tools for sarcopenia risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 128 patients was conducted at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a hospital in Recife, Brazil between July 2022 and February 2023. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to original and updated European Consensus criteria for older adults. Muscle mass was assessed with electrical bioimpedance, muscle strength was assessed with a handgrip test, and physical performance was assessed with gait speed. Sarcopenia risk was assessed using the SARC-F and SARC-CalF instruments. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, receiver operating characteristic curve, and area under the curve were analyzed to determine the best diagnostic performance. Results: According to the original and updated versions of the European Consensus criteria, the prevalence of sarcopenia was 25.00% and 10.90%, respectively. Sarcopenia risk was 17.20% according to the SARC-F and 23.40% according to the SARC-CalF. The sensitivity and specificity of the SARC-F ranged from 12.55% to 36.11% and 71.87% to 92.39%, respectively, while those of the SARC-CalF ranged from 47.22% to 85.71% and 82.46% to 88.89%, respectively. The area under the curve for the SARC-F and SARC-CalF varied between 0.51 and 0.71 and 0.67 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusions: The SARC-CalF had better diagnostic performance for all analyzed diagnostic criteria. Adding calf circumference to the SARC-F was an effective screening method for sarcopenia risk in the study population

Objetivo: Avaliar o poder diagnóstico do SARC-F e SARC-CalF como ferramentas de rastreamento para o risco de sarcopenia em idosos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Metodologia: Estudo transversal com 128 pacientes desenvolvido no ambulatório de endocrinologia de um hospital do Recife entre julho de 2022 e fevereiro de 2023. A sarcopenia foi diagnosticada de acordo com os critérios do Consenso Europeu para sarcopenia em pessoas idosas e sua versão atualizada. Foi realizada bioimpedância elétrica para avaliar a massa muscular, teste de preensão palmar para a força muscular e teste de velocidade de marcha para a performance física. O risco para sarcopenia foi avaliado por meio do SARC-F e SARC-CalF. Realizou-se análise de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos, curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (ROC) e área sob a curva (AUC) para determinar a melhor performance diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de sarcopenia foi de 25,00% de acordo com a primeira versão do Consenso Europeu e 10,90% considerando a versão atualizada. O risco para sarcopenia foi de 17,20% (SARC-F) e 23,40% (SARC-CalF). A sensibilidade do SARC-F variou entre 12,55 e 36,11%, e a espec ificidade entre 71,87 e 92,39%, enquanto o SARC-CalF apresentou sensibilidade entre 47,22 e 85,71% e especificidade entre 82,46 e 88,89%. A AUC do SARC-F variou entre 0,51 e 0,71, enquanto o SARC-CalF ficou entre 0,67 e 0,86. Conclusões: O SARC-CalF apresentou melhor performance diagnóstica quando comparado a todos os critérios diagnósticos analisados. A adição da circunferência da panturrilha é um método eficaz para o rastreamento do risco de sarcopenia na população do estudo

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/etiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 40-48, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971369


OBJECTIVES@#The excretion of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (uVDBP) is related to the occurrence and development of early-stage renal damage in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This study aims to explore the significance of detecting uVDBP in T2DM patients and its relationship with renal tubules, and to provide a new direction for the early diagnosis of T2DM renal damage.@*METHODS@#A total of 105 patients with T2DM, who met the inclusion criteria, were included as a patient group, and recruited 30 individuals as a normal control group. The general information and blood and urine biochemical indicators of all subjects were collected; the levels of uVDBP, and a marker of tubular injury [urine kidney injury molecule 1 (uKIM-1), urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and urine retinol-binding protein (uRBP)] were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr) to uVDBP/Cr, uKIM-1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr and uRBP/Cr. The Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were used to analyze the correlation between uVDBP/Cr and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of tubular injury, and multivariate linear regression and receiver operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the correlation between uVDBP/Cr and UACR or eGFR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control group, the uVDBP/Cr level in the patient group was increased (P<0.05), and which was positively correlated with UACR (r=0.774, P<0.01), and negatively correlated with eGFR (r=-0.397, P<0.01). There were differences in the levels of uKIM-1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr, and uRBP/Cr between the 2 groups (all P<0.01). The uVDBP/Cr was positively correlated with uKIM-1/Cr (r=0.752, P<0.01), uNGAL/Cr (r=0.644, P<0.01) and uRBP/Cr (r=0.812, P<0.01). The sensitivity was 90.0% and the specificity was 82.9% (UACR>30 mg/g) for evaluation of uVDBP/Cr on T2DM patients with early-stage renal damage, while the sensitivity was 75.0% and the specificity was 72.6% for evaluation of eGFR on T2DM patients with early-stage renal damage.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The uVDBP/Cr can be used as a biomarker in early-stage renal damage in T2DM patients.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Creatinine , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/urine , Lipocalin-2/urine , Kidney/metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Biomarkers
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 619-630, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981050


Metformin has robust glucose-lowering effects and multiple benefits beyond hypoglycemic effects. It can also be used in combination with various hypoglycemic drugs and is cost effective. In the absence of the strong indications of glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) or sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) for cardiorenal protection, metformin should be used as the first-line pharmacological treatment for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the basic drug for the combined treatment of hypoglycemic drugs. Metformin does not increase the risk of liver and kidney function damage, but patients with renal dysfunction should adjust the dosage of metformin based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels. Moreover, the correct use of metformin does not increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Because long-term use of metformin is associated with a decrease in vitamin B12 levels, patients with insufficient intake or absorption of vitamin B12 should be regularly monitored and appropriately supplemented with vitamin B12. In view of the new progress made in the basic and clinical research related to metformin, the consensus updating expert group updated the consensus on the basis of the Expert Consensus on the Clinical Application of Metformin (2018 Edition).

Humans , Consensus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , China
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1967-1976, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980991


BACKGROUND@#Management of gastric leak after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is challenging due to its unpredictable outcomes. We aimed to summarize the characteristics of SG leaks and analyze interventions and corresponding outcomes in a real-world setting.@*METHODS@#To retrospectively review of 15,721 SG procedures from 2010 to 2020 based on a national registry. A cumulative sum analysis was used to identify a fitting curve of gastric leak rate. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were performed to calculate and compare the probabilities of relevant outcomes. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of acute leaks.@*RESULTS@#A total of 78 cases of SG leaks were collected with an incidence of 0.5% (78/15,721) from this registry (6 patients who had the primary SG in non-participating centers). After accumulating 260 cases in a bariatric surgery center, the leak rate decreased to a stably low value of under 1.17%. The significant differences presented in sex, waist circumference, and the proportion of hypoproteinemia and type 2 diabetes at baseline between patients with SG leak and the whole registry population ( P = 0.005, = 0.026, <0.001, and = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, 83.1% (59/71) of the leakage was near the esophagogastric junction region. Leakage healed in 64 (88.9%, 64/72) patients. The median healing time of acute and non-acute leaks was 5.93 months and 8.12 months, respectively. Acute leak (38/72, 52.8%) was the predominant type with a cumulative reoperation rate >50%, whereas the cumulative healing probability in the patients who required surgical treatment was significantly lower than those requring non-surgical treatment ( P = 0.013). Precise dissection in the His angle area was independently associated with a lower acute leak rate, whereas preservation ≥2 cm distance from the His angle area was an independent risk factor.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Male sex, elevated waist circumference, hypoproteinaemia, and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of gastric leaks after SG. Optimizing surgical techniques, including precise dissection of His angle area and preservation of smaller gastric fundus, should be suggested to prevent acute leaks.

Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Obesity, Morbid , Anastomotic Leak/epidemiology , Gastrectomy/methods , Reoperation/methods , Registries , Laparoscopy/methods , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1401-1409, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980967


BACKGROUND@#There is still uncertainty regarding whether diabetes mellitus (DM) can adversely affect patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the adverse impact of DM on patients with carotid stenosis treated by CEA.@*METHODS@#Eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 March 2023 were selected from the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials databases. The short-term and long-term outcomes of major adverse events (MAEs), death, stroke, the composite outcomes of death/stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) were collected to calculate the pooled effect sizes (ESs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and prevalence of adverse outcomes. Subgroup analysis by asymptomatic/symptomatic carotid stenosis and insulin/noninsulin-dependent DM was performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 19 studies (n = 122,003) were included. Regarding the short-term outcomes, DM was associated with increased risks of MAEs (ES = 1.52, 95% CI: [1.15-2.01], prevalence = 5.1%), death/stroke (ES = 1.61, 95% CI: [1.13-2.28], prevalence = 2.3%), stroke (ES = 1.55, 95% CI: [1.16-1.55], prevalence = 3.5%), death (ES = 1.70, 95% CI: [1.25-2.31], prevalence =1.2%), and MI (ES = 1.52, 95% CI: [1.15-2.01], prevalence = 1.4%). DM was associated with increased risks of long-term MAEs (ES = 1.24, 95% CI: [1.04-1.49], prevalence = 12.2%). In the subgroup analysis, DM was associated with an increased risk of short-term MAEs, death/stroke, stroke, and MI in asymptomatic patients undergoing CEA and with only short-term MAEs in the symptomatic patients. Both insulin- and noninsulin-dependent DM patients had an increased risk of short-term and long-term MAEs, and insulin-dependent DM was also associated with the short-term risk of death/stroke, death, and MI.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In patients with carotid stenosis treated by CEA, DM is associated with short-term and long-term MAEs. DM may have a greater impact on adverse outcomes in asymptomatic patients after CEA. Insulin-dependent DM may have a more significant impact on post-CEA adverse outcomes than noninsulin-dependent DM. Whether DM management could reduce the risk of adverse outcomes after CEA requires further investigation.

Humans , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Time Factors , Stents/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Stroke/complications , Insulin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Risk Assessment
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 891-895, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986004


A 50-year-old man with a 15-year history of elevated blood glucose and an approximately 2-year history of diarrhea was admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The initial diagnosis was type 2 diabetes. After repeated pancreatitis and pancreatoduodenectomy, severe pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction including alternating high and low blood glucose and fat diarrhea occurred. Tests for type 1 diabetes-related antibodies were all negative, C-peptide levels were substantially reduced, fat-soluble vitamin levels were reduced, and there was no obvious insulin resistance. Therefore, a diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes was clear. The patient was given small doses of insulin and supplementary pancreatin and micronutrients. Diarrhea was relieved and blood glucose was controlled. The purpose of this article is to raise clinicians' awareness of the possibility of pancreatic diabetes after pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery. Timely intervention and monitoring may reduce the occurrence of complications.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Pancreaticoduodenectomy/adverse effects , Pancreatitis, Chronic/complications , Malnutrition/complications
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 25-25, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982482


Periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by an imbalance between the local microbiota and host immune response. Epidemiologically, periodontitis is closely related to the occurrence, development, and poor prognosis of T2D and is recognized as a potential risk factor for T2D. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the role of the virulence factors produced by disorders of the subgingival microbiota in the pathological mechanism of T2D, including islet β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). However, the related mechanisms have not been well summarized. This review highlights periodontitis-derived virulence factors, reviews how these stimuli directly or indirectly regulate islet β-cell dysfunction. The mechanisms by which IR is induced in insulin-targeting tissues (the liver, visceral adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle) are explained, clarifying the influence of periodontitis on the occurrence and development of T2D. In addition, the positive effects of periodontal therapy on T2D are overviewed. Finally, the limitations and prospects of the current research are discussed. In summary, periodontitis is worthy of attention as a promoting factor of T2D. Understanding on the effect of disseminated periodontitis-derived virulence factors on the T2D-related tissues and cells may provide new treatment options for reducing the risk of T2D associated with periodontitis.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Periodontitis
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 725-732, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982342


OBJECTIVES@#Diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), and it is a main cause for chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). It is important to find out the factors that cause the progression of renal function. The study aims to explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) trajectory and the progression of renal function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#A total of 846 patients with T2DM, who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, from January 2009 to December 2021 and met the criteria of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≥60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), were selected as the research subjects. The SUA data of multiple measurements were collected and identified as different SUA trajectories by group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). According to the SUA trajectories, the patients were divided into a low trajectory group (105 cases), a middle trajectory group (396 cases), a middle high trajectory group (278 cases), and a high trajectory group (67 cases). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the effect of SUA trajectory on the progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Subgroup analysis was performed by sex, age, course of disease, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up was 4.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 158 patients had different degrees of decline in renal function. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors by Cox regression analysis, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), eGFR reduction rate≥50%, serum creatinine (Scr) doubling and composite endpoint (eGFR reduction rate≥50%, Scr doubling or ESRD) in the high trajectory group were significantly higher than those in the low trajectory group, with HR of 3.84 (95% CI 1.83 to 8.05), 6.90 (95% CI 2.27 to 20.96), 6.29 (95% CI 2.03 to 19.52), and 8.04 (95% CI 2.68 to 24.18), respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of ESRD among the above 4 groups (all P>0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that: compared with the low trajectory group, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2) in patients with high trajectory in the subgroup of male, female, age<65 years, course of disease<10 years, BMI≥24 kg/m2 and HbA1c≥7% were increased (all P<0.05). The SUA trajectory had no interaction with sex, age, course of disease, BMI and HbA1c (all interactive P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The high SUA trajectory increases the risk for progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Long-term longitudinal changes of SUA should be paid attention to.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cohort Studies , Uric Acid , Glycated Hemoglobin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiology , Risk Factors
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1647-1654, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515395


Heart failure (HF) is a global health problem. There is a strong association h between HF and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), with an increasing prevalence of patients having both conditions concomitantly. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (ISGLT2) significantly reduce cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death. In this article we will focus on the current evidence about the effectiveness of these medications in adults with heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium/metabolism , Stroke Volume , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glucose
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13: 1-7, dez. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413710


Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de idosos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 durante a Pandemia do novo coronavírus. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo com 27 idosos diabéticos atendidos em um hospital universitário durante a Pandemia. Utilizou-se na coleta de dados três instrumentos: perfil sociodemográfico, condições clínicas sobre o novo coronavírus e Diabetes mellitus e Avaliação de Diabetes 39 (D-39) para avaliar a qualidade de vida. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizadas as estatísticas descritivas (frequência e percentual). Resultados: A maioria dos entrevistados são idosas com idade entre 60 a 64 anos, viúvos, baixa escolaridade, aposentados entre 1 a 10 anos de diagnóstico utilizando antiglicemiantes como forma de tratamento. Os idosos consideram sua qualidade de vida boa. Dentre àqueles que se contaminaram com o novo coronavírus foi evidenciado que não houve descontinuidade do tratamento para a Diabetes, entretanto, uma minoria relatou alguma sequela do novo coronavirus (febre, fraqueza muscular e apetite diminuído). A Sobrecarga funcional e o Funcionamento sexual foram as dimensões mais afetadas com todos os itens impactados negativamente. Conclusão: Os resultados apontam boa qualidade de vida dos idosos diabéticos apesar das dimensões Sobrecarga funcional e Funcionamento sexual afetadas negativamente sugerindo maior atenção dos profissionais de saúde. (AU)

Objective: To assess the quality of life of elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the new coronavirus pandemic. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study with 27 elderly diabetics treated at a university hospital during the pandemic. Three instruments were used for data collection: sociodemographic profile, clinical conditions on new coronavirus and Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes Assessment 39 (D-39) to assess quality of life. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) were used. Results: Most respondents are elderly aged between 60 and 64 years old, widowed, with low education, retired between 1 and 10 years of diagnosis and used antiglycemic agents as a form of treatment. Elderly people consider their quality of life to be good. Among those infected with the new coronavirus, it was shown that there was no discontinuation of treatment for Diabetes, however, a minority reported some sequelae of new coronavirus (fever, muscle weakness and decreased appetite). Functional overload and Sexual functioning were the most affected dimensions, with all items negatively impacted. Conclusion: The results indicate good quality of life for elderly diabetics despite the dimensions Functional overload and Sexual functioning negatively affected, suggesting greater attention from health professionals. (AU)

Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida de los ancianos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 durante la pandemia del nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo con 27 ancianos diabéticos atendidos en un hospital universitario durante la pandemia. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron tres instrumentos: perfil sociodemográfico, condiciones clínicas sobre nuevo coronavirus y Diabetes mellitus y Diabetes Assessment 39 (D-39) para evaluar la calidad de vida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva (frecuencia y porcentaje). Resultados: La mayoría de los encuestados son ancianos de entre 60 y 64 años, viudos, con baja escolaridad, jubilados entre 1 y 10 años del diagnóstico y que utilizan agentes antiglucémicos como forma de tratamiento. Las personas mayores consideran que su calidad de vida es buena. Entre los infectados con el nuevo coronavirus, se demostró que no se suspendió el tratamiento para la diabetes, sin embargo, una minoría informó algunas secuelas del nuevo coronavirus (fiebre, debilidad muscular y disminución del apetito). La sobrecarga funcional y el funcionamiento sexual fueron las dimensiones más afectadas, con todos los ítems afectados negativamente. Conclusión: Los resultados indican una buena calidad de vida de los ancianos diabéticos a pesar de las dimensiones Sobrecarga funcional y Funcionamiento sexual negativamente afectadas, lo que sugiere una mayor atención por parte de los profesionales de la salud. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Comprehensive Health Care , Sociodemographic Factors
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 33(1)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408262


Introducción: Con el envejecimiento de las poblaciones se produce un aumento de las enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles, entre ellas la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Esta constituye un serio problema de salud pública a nivel mundial por su elevada prevalencia, crecimiento constante, complicaciones crónicas y mortalidad. Objetivo: Identificar las complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y las enfermedades asociadas en personas de 60 años y más en el poblado de Punta Brava. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal a partir de los gerontes con diabetes que asistieron a la consulta de Medicina Interna en el periodo de enero a junio de 2019. Con la información recopilada de las historias clínicas se creó una base de datos en Visual FoxPro 8.0. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edad de 60 a 69 años y el sexo femenino. La hipertensión arterial fue la enfermedad asociada más frecuente con 86,0 por ciento, seguida por la cardiopatía isquémica con 70,6 por ciento y la enfermedad cerebrovascular con 67,0 por ciento. La polineuropatía diabética fue la complicación crónica más representativa (79,3 por ciento), seguida de la nefropatía (15,0 por ciento) que aparece a mayor tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Predominó la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad cerebrovascular como padecimientos asociados en adultos mayores con diabetes tipo 2. La polineuropatía y la nefropatía diabéticas fueron las complicaciones crónicas más frecuentes con diferencias según el sexo y relacionadas con el mayor tiempo de evolución(AU)

Introduction: The aging of populations also brings an increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, which constitutes a serious public health problem worldwide due to the high prevalence, constant growth, chronic complications and mortality. Objective: To identify the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated diseases in people aged 60 years and older in Punta Brava town. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out from the elderly with diabetes who attended the Internal Medicine consultation from January to June 2019. A database was created in Visual Fox Pro 8.0 with the information collected from the medical records. Results: The age group of 60 to 69 years and the female sex prevailed. Hypertension was the most frequent associated disease (86.0 percent), followed by ischemic heart disease (70.6 percent) and cerebrovascular disease (67.0 percent). Diabetic polyneuropathy was the most representative chronic complication (79.3 percent), followed by nephropathy (15.0 percent), appearing later in the course of the disease. Conclusions: Hypertension and cerebrovascular disease predominated as associated conditions in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic polyneuropathy and nephropathy were the most frequent chronic complications, with differences according to sex and related to the longest evolution time(AU)

Humans , Female , Aged , Aging , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Noncommunicable Diseases , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Más Vita ; 4(1): 104-112, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1372135


La diabetes Mellitus es un padecimiento que empieza cuando el páncreas no realiza un uso adecuado de la insulina que produce o no puede lograr producir insulina. Se descomponen en glucosa en la sangre todos los alimentos ricos en hidratos de carbono; la insulina da ayuda a la glucosa para que esta pueda ingresar en las células. Los niveles de azúcar en la sangre al no funcionar bien el páncreas suben, lo cual debe ser controlado por medio de un tratamiento médico de por vida, y lo más importante la persona debe cambiar de hábitos en su salud. Objetivo: El objetivo principal de esta investigación es definir el efecto que produce la adherencia a la insulinoterapia en los pacientes con diabetes tipo II del Hospital del Día Mariana de Jesús. Materiales y Métodos: Se utilizó una investigación cuantitativa, transversal ya que se realizó una encuesta a los pacientes, la cual se procedió a la recolección y análisis e interpretación de datos. La muestra trabajada fue de 100 pacientes, los cuales fueron atendidos en el Hospital por concepto de diabetes tipo II en el área de emergencia. Resultados: Como resultado de la investigación tenemos que el 76% de los encuestados conocen sobre el tratamiento de la insulinoterapia, el 85% se rehusó a utilizar insulina cuando inició su tratamiento, el 75% ha tenido dificultad para la conservación de la insulina, el 63% considera que el uso de la insulina es riesgos, el 53% indicó haber recibido asesoría sobre los posibles efectos de la insulina, al 65% de encuestados su jornada laboral no le permite asistir a su control médico, el 72% ha sentido un desmejoro en su salud al dejar el tratamiento y el 63% de los encuestados indicó que ha abandonado en algún momento su tratamiento por temor a los efectos secundarios que dicen tener. Conclusiones: Se estableció el tipo de complicaciones que se dan en los pacientes ante la no adherencia a la insulinoterapia, uno de ellos fue, que al dejar el tratamiento los pacientes sintieron un desmejoro en su estado de salud, así también, los pacientes han abandonado el tratamiento en algún momento por miedo a los efectos secundarios que dicen tener la insulina(AU)

Diabetes Mellitus is a condition that begins when the pancreas does not make proper use of the insulin it produces or cannot achieve produce insulin. All foods rich in glucose are broken down into glucose in the blood. carbohydrates; insulin helps glucose to enter the cells cells. When the pancreas does not work well, blood sugar levels rise, which must be controlled by lifelong medical treatment, and most importantly the person must change their health habits. Objective: The main objective of this research is to define the effect produced by adherence to insulin therapy in patients with type II diabetes at Hospital del Día Mariana de Jesús. Materials and Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional investigation was used since a patient survey which proceeded to the collection and analysis and interpretation of data. The sample worked was 100 patients who were treated at the Hospital for type II diabetes concept in the emergency area. Results: Like result of the investigation we have that 76% of the respondents know about the insulin therapy treatment, 85% refused to use insulin when they started their treatment, 75% have had difficulty conserving insulin, 63% considers that the use of insulin is risky, 53% indicated having received counseling about the possible effects of insulin, 65% of those surveyed did not care about their working hours. allows them to attend their medical control, 72% have felt a deterioration in their health when leaving the treatment and 63% of those surveyed indicated that they had abandoned their treatment at some point. treatment for fear of the side effects they claim to have. Conclusions: If established the type of complications that occur in patients due to non-adherence to insulin therapy, one of them was that when leaving the treatment the patients felt a deterioration in their state of health, as well as the patients have abandoned the treatment at some point for fear of the side effects that they claim to have insulin(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Therapeutics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Insulin , Pancreas/physiopathology , Blood Glucose , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drug Therapy , Life Style
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 12-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364310


ABSTRACT Objective: The AKR1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose into sorbitol. Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to increased AKR1B1 affinity for glucose and, consequently, sorbitol accumulation. Elevated sorbitol increases oxidative stress, which is one of the main pathways related to chronic complications of diabetes, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Accordingly, some studies have suggested the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene is associated with DKD; however, findings are still contradictory. The aim was to investigate the association of the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene and DKD. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 695 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and DKD (cases) and 310 patients with T2DM of more than 10 years' duration, but no DKD (controls). The polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Allelic and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ significantly between groups. However, the A/A genotype was associated with risk for DKD after adjustment for gender, triglycerides, BMI, presence of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DM, under both recessive (P = 0.048) and additive (P = 0.037) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between the AKR1B1 rs759853A/A genotype and risk for DKD in Brazilians T2DM patients.

Humans , Aldehyde Reductase/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 46-53, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389617


BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a health problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Aim: To evaluate risk factors for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) in women aged 40 to 59 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of a prospective cohort of 1159 women attending preventive health care programs and followed during 28 years. They underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation from 1990 to 1993. The diagnosis of OA was retrieved from registries of a special program for osteoarthritis in 2020. RESULTS: Twenty four percent of participants developed osteoarthritis during the follow-up. At the beginning of the study and compared with women without OA, they were older (median [interquartile range or IQR]: 49.6 [8.5] and 47.2 [8.2] years respectively), had a higher body mass index (26.3 [5.3] and 25.1 [5.3] respectively), and a higher frequency of jobs with low qualification (76 and 62% respectively). The presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, a previous history of alcohol or cigarette consumption, postmenopausal status and lipid and glucose blood levels did not differ between women with or without OA. Cox regression showed a final model that incorporates body mass index (hazard ratio (HR): 1.04; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-1.07), age (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.08) and having an unqualified job (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.43-2.47) as risk factors for OA. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and the type of job are the most relevant risk factors found for OD: both may be modified with proper care.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis, Hip/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis, Hip/etiology , Osteoarthritis, Hip/epidemiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/etiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Biol. Res ; 55: 37-37, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429902


BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has glucose variability that is of such relevance that the appearance of vascular complications in patients with DM has been attributed to hyperglycemic and dysglycemic events. It is known that T1D patients mainly have glycemic variability with a specific oscillatory pattern with specific circadian characteristics for each patient. However, it has not yet been determined whether an oscillation pattern represents the variability of glycemic in T2D. This is why our objective is to determine the characteristics of glycemic oscillations in T2D and generate a robust predictive model. RESULTS: Showed that glycosylated hemoglobin, glycemia, and body mass index were all higher in patients with T2D than in controls (all p < 0.05). In addition, time in hyperglycemia and euglycemia was markedly higher and lower in the T2D group (p < 0.05), without significant differences for time in hypoglycemia. Standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and total power of glycemia were significantly higher in the T2D group than Control group (all p < 0.05). The oscillatory patterns were significantly different between groups (p = 0.032): the control group was mainly distributed at 2-3 and 6 days, whereas the T2D group showed a more homogeneous distribution across 2-3-to-6 days. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive model of glycemia showed that it is possible to accurately predict hyper- and hypo-glycemia events. Thus, T2D patients exhibit specific oscillatory patterns of glycemic control, which are possible to predict. These findings may help to improve the treatment of DM by considering the individual oscillatory patterns of patients.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Glucose
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 309-318, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928972


OBJECTIVES@#Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common comorbidity in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS).As a key item of the American Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score, it has a vital impact on the clinical prognosis of traditional thoracic surgery. T2DM has an adverse effect on the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, studies have shown that T2DM are associated with myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling, decreased left ventricular function, and worsening heart failure symptoms in the AS patients. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) as an interventional method to replace the aortic valve has better safety for middle and high risk patients in surgery, but the impact of T2DM on the clinical outcome of TAVR in AS patients is not clear.By analyzing the clinical and image characteristics of patients with AS and T2DM who received TAVR treatment, so as to explore the effect of T2DM on the perioperative complications and prognosis of TAVR.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 consecutive patients with severe AS, who underwent TAVR treatment and were followed up for more than 1 month, were selectedin the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2016 to December 2020.Among them, 5 patients who were treated with TAVR due to simple severe aortic regurgitation were not included, therefore a total of 95 patients with severe aortic stenosis were enrolled in this study.The age of the patients was (72.7±4.8) years old, and there were 58 males (61.1%), and the patients with moderate or above aortic regurgitation had 30 cases (31.6%). The patients were divided into a diabetic group and a non-diabetic group according to whether they were combined with T2DM.There was no statistical difference in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), STS score, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) cardiac function classification between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). The primary end point was defined as a composite event consisting of all-cause death and stroke one month after surgery, and the secondary end point was defined as TAVR-related complications immediately after surgery and one month after surgery.The preoperative clinical data, cardiac ultrasound data, CT data, postoperative medication and the incidence of each endpoint event were compared between the 2 groups.The predictive model of adverse events was constructed by single factor and multivariate logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-diabetic group, the diabetic group had high blood pressure and chronic renal insufficiency.There was no significant difference in preoperative ultrasound echocardiography between the 2 groups. Preoperative CT evaluation found that the anatomical structure of the aortic root in the diabetic group was smaller than that in the non-diabetic group, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of bicuspid aortic valve between the 2 groups (all P<0.05). In terms of postoperative medication, the use of statins in the diabetes group was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group. In the diabetes group, 6 patients (37.5%) received insulin therapy, and 9 patients (56.3%) received oral medication alone.Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the all-cause death and stroke compound events was increased in the diabetes group in 30 days after TAVR (OR=6.86; 95% CI: 2.14 to 21.79; P<0.01). Heart disease (OR=2.80; 95% CI: 0.99 to 7.88; P<0.05) and chronic renal insufficiency (OR=3.75; 95% CI: 1.24 to 11.34; P<0.05) were also risk factors for all-cause death and stroke compound events.In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), total calcification score, ejection fraction, and degree of aortic regurgitation, T2DM was still a risk factor for all-cause death and stroke compound events in 30 days after TAVR (OR=12.68; 95% CI: 1.76 to 91.41; P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#T2DM is a risk factor for short-term poor prognosis in patients with symptomatic severe AS after TAVR treatment. T2DM should play an important role in the future construction of the TAVR surgical risk assessment system, but the conclusions still need to be further verified by long-term follow-up of large-scale clinical studies.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Treatment Outcome , United States