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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21117, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The phenolic compound content, the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potentials of different extracts of the Plectranthus amboinicus, P. barbatus and P. ornatus were evaluated. We also evaluated the influence of plant growth and harvest time on the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of P. amboinicus, its antioxidant and anti-Candida activities and the α-amylase and lipoxygenase inhibitions. The turbo-extract of P. barbatus showed the greatest phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. No α-amylase inhibition activity was observed in the analyzed extracts, but the turbo-extraction and refluxing extracts possessed high antioxidant activities. Protected cultivation and morning harvest conditions gave the best antioxidant activities, which was associated to the highest carvacrol content. P. amboinicus EO antioxidant activity could contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. Causal Candida strains of diabetic foot ulcers showed sensitivity to P. amboinicus EO. C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were the most sensitive of the selected Candida strains. Turbo-extracts or refluxing of the three species extracts and the EO of P. amboinicus should be considered as a potential candidate for the management the complications of type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Triage/classification , Plectranthus/adverse effects , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Antioxidants/analysis
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 486-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985705

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of obese adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to aid the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: A total of 262 patients eligible for inclusion who received volume reduction metabolism surgery and liver biopsy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from June 2018 to September 2019 were selected. HE staining, reticular fiber staining and Masson staining were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The patients ranged in age from 18 to 66 years. Among the 262 cases, 65 cases (65/262, 24.8%) were male and 197 cases (197/262, 75.2%) were female. Sixty-one cases (61/262, 23.3%) were non-NAFLD, 201 cases (201/262, 76.7%) were NAFLD including 27 cases (27/201, 13.4%) of nonalcoholic fatty live (NAFL) and 174 cases (174/201, 86.6%) of NASH. The main lesions of NAFLD were in hepatic acinus zone 3. There were significant differences in age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood-glucose (FPG) and apolipoprotein A (APOA) levels among the non-NAFLD group, NAFL group and NASH group (P<0.05). Patients with BMI≥35 m/kg2 combined with type 2 diabetes had a higher prevalence of NASH. Multiple logistic regression showed that ALT and APOA were independent predictors of NASH (P<0.001, OR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.020-1.082; P=0.027, OR=0.916, 95%CI: 0.878-0.941). Total cholesterol (CHO) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were independent predictors of lobular inflammation (P=0.043, 95%CI: 0.010-0.634; P=0.024, 95%CI:-3.068--0.216). AST and HDL were independent predictors of fibrosis stage (P=0.029, 95%CI: 0.001-0.021; P<0.001, 95%CI:-2.670--0.645). Conclusions: Biochemical indicators of NAFLD are closely related to its pathology. The histological lesions of NAFLD are mainly present in hepatic acinar area 3. The diagnosis of NASH is supported by extensive steatosis and high levels of CHO, ALT, AST and BMI, low levels of HDL and ApoA in biochemical markers, but pathological examination is still the gold standard for it.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Liver/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Apolipoproteins A
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191140, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394053

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study aimed to assess possible spirulina effects on lipid profile, glucose, and malondialdehyde levels in new cases of type 2 diabetes. The subjects consisted of 30 new cases of types 2 diabetes that divided into two groups; each consisted of 15 diabetic patients. Group I did not take any functional food or supplement and received no spirulina supplementation. Group II or experimental group also did not take any functional food or supplement but received spirulina supplementation. Analysis of data was done using SPSS 16.0. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Spearman correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. After eight weeks of spirulina supplementation, significant differences were shown in the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, and malondialdehyde. The serum fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, and malondialdehyde levels at baseline were negatively and positively correlated with changes in these parameters. Spirulina supplementation may have a beneficial effect on lipid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels through an interventional 8 weeks. This effect may protect subjects against free radicals and the development of some diseases such as atherosclerosis. The spirulina supplementation also showed a potential lipid-lowering effect on new case type 2 diabetic patients which may help the diabetics to have control on lipid levels. In addition, spirulina may be used as a functional food for the management of lipid profiles and MDA levels.


Subject(s)
Patients/classification , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Spirulina/classification , Glucose/administration & dosage , Malondialdehyde/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19500, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383990

ABSTRACT

Abstract The pursuit of quality of life, which has become marked in recent years, has translated into important population health benefits. This study assessed the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who received pharmaceutical care, and their satisfaction with the service provided in community pharmacies. This single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial included 100 patients. The intervention group (N=47) received pharmaceutical care by a clinical pharmacist and the control group (N=42) received standard care. The Quality of Life Diabetes Questionnaire (DQOL) was used to measure all participants´ quality of life at study enrollment and six months later. Satisfaction of the participants in the intervention group was measured using a validated 14-items questionnaire. At the end of the study, participants in the intervention group had a statistically significant improvement in DQOL scores ( -0.62 x 1.57, p < 0.001) and were highly satisfied with the intervention (96% excellent satisfaction scores). Pharmaceutical care practice was associated with high satisfaction and increased quality of life scores in T2DM patients. These results underscore the important role of pharmacists to improve the health of diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trial , Practice Patterns, Pharmacists'/ethics , Pharmaceutical Services , Patient Satisfaction , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19484, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383994

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated diseases are major concern among human population and also responsible for significant mortality rate. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate and correlate the invertase inhibition, antioxidant activity and control against DFU causing bacterial pathogens by Pandanus odoratissimus flowers. Two dimensional preparative thin layer chromatography (2D PTLC) was adopted to purify the phenolic acid component and LC-MS2 was done to predict the phenolic acid structures. Standard spectrophotometry methods were adopted to investigate the in vitro invertase inhibitory and antioxidant (CUPRAC and ABTS) activities. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution assays were used to record the antibacterial property against DFU causing pathogens isolated from clinical samples. Statistical analyses were used to validate the experiments. A new and novel diferuloyl glycerate related phenolic acid (m/z 442) purified from PTLC eluate has recorded satisfactory cupric ion reducing power (ED50= 441.4±2.5 µg), moderate ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50= 450.3±10 µg; 32.5±1.5%), and a near moderate, in vitro, invertase mixed type inhibition (24.5±4.5%; Ki: 400 µg). Similarly, bacterial growth inhibitory kinetics has showed a significant inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Diabetic Foot/pathology , Pandanaceae/adverse effects , Flowers/classification , beta-Fructofuranosidase/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Spectrophotometry/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/instrumentation , Antioxidants/adverse effects
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 221 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392194

ABSTRACT

Para que os fármacos possam ser comercializados economicamente, a sua escala de produção deve ser aumentada para atender à demanda do mercado. Atualmente, a maior parte dos fármacos são sintetizados em processos batelada que possuem limitações quanto à eficiência de mistura, temperatura e pressão. O uso de microrreatores surge como alternativa na indústria químico-farmacêutica, aumentando a eficiência dos processos de maneira segura. Ferramentas utilizadas no segmento computacional multidisciplinar teórico, como o DFT (Density Functional Theory), podem prever e compreender o comportamento das reações químicas, podendo ter grande utilidade na síntese de novos fármacos economizando tempo, investimento e reduzindo a geração de resíduos. A diabetes mellitus é uma doença de caráter epidêmico, que a cada ano vem aumentando o número de casos. O emprego de fármacos derivados das glitazonas no tratamento de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 é recomendado devido ao excelente controle glicêmico que esta classe de fármacos oferece. Neste trabalho, foi sintetizada a Rosiglitazona, um fármaco derivado das glitazonas, que auxilia no tratamento da diabetes mellitus tipo 2, sendo estudadas duas rotas de síntese distintas, que foram otimizadas com o intuito de maximizar o rendimento de seus intermediários, obtendo a Rosiglitazona com pureza de cerca de 94%. Foi realizada, para os intermediários, aqui denominados, 1R, 2R2 e 3R2 a síntese one-pot e para os intermediários 1R, 2R1 e 3R2 foi realizada a transposição do processo usual em batelada para fluxo contínuo no microrreator, com rendimentos de até 93%. Com o auxílio da química quântica computacional, a reação de síntese do intermediário 1R, foi elucidada teoricamente e determinadas as grandezas termodinâmicas (ΔH‡, ΔG‡ e ΔS‡) no estado de transição, que foram comparadas com os valores experimentais, sendo constatada uma boa concordância, com desvio máximo de 14%


In order for drugs to be commercialized economically, their production scale must be increased to meet market demand. Currently, most drugs are synthesized in batch processes that have limitations in terms of mixing efficiency, temperature and pressure. The use of microreactors appears as an alternative in the chemical-pharmaceutical industry, increasing the efficiency of the synthesis processes in a safe way. Tools used in the theoretical multidisciplinary computational segment, such as DFT (Density Functional Theory), can predict and understand the behavior of chemical reactions, and can be very useful in the synthesis of new drugs, saving time, investment and reducing waste generation. Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic disease that has been increasing the number of cases every year. The use of drugs derived from glitazones in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is recommended due to the excellent glycemic control that this class of drugs offers. In this work, Rosiglitazone, a drug derived from glitazones, which helps in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, was synthesized. Two different synthetic routes were studied and optimized in order to maximize the yield of its intermediates, obtaining Rosiglitazone with purity of about 94%. One-pot synthesis was performed to 1R, 2R2 and 3R2 intermediates, and the transposition from the usual batch process to continuous flow in microreactor was performed to 1R, 2R1 and 3R2 intermediates, with yields of up to 93%. With the aid of computational quantum chemistry, the intermediate 1R synthesis reaction was theoretically elucidated and the thermodynamic properties were determined (ΔH‡, ΔG‡ and ΔS‡) in the transition state, which were compared with the experimental results, obtaining good agreement, with a maximum deviation of 14%


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Rosiglitazone/analysis , Biopharmaceutics/classification , Chemical Reactions , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Density Functional Theory , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Investments/classification
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19049, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thiazolidinedione, often shortened to TZD or glitazone, helps lower insulin resistance, which is the underlying problem for many people with type 2 diabetes. The two most known glitazones are pioglitazone (PGZ), with the brand name medicine Actos®, and rosiglitazone (RSG), which is Avandia®. This study presented a multivariate optimization in the microextraction procedure employing Fractional Factorial Design (FFD) combined with Desirability Function (DF) to determine TZD and metabolites in biological samples. Microextraction requires several parameters to be optimized; however, most of them still use univariate optimization. Finding optimum conditions by simple response is relatively simple, but the problems, in case of microextractions, are often more complex when it has more responses. For example, changing one factor that promotes one response may suppress the effect of the others. Thus, this multivariate optimization was applied for two bioanalytical methods for determination of TZD and metabolites, one by HPLC and other by CE, both using Hollow Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction (HF-LPME). The results establish the optimal values and elucidate how the factors that affect HF-LPME procedure perform in extraction efficiency for TZDs. Additionally, this study demonstrates that DF can be an important tool to optimize microextraction procedures.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Thiazolidinediones/adverse effects , Pioglitazone/analogs & derivatives , Methods , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Rosiglitazone/analogs & derivatives
8.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc274, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369861

ABSTRACT

O diabetes melito é o maior fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana. Além da longa duração de diabetes, outros fatores, como presença de doença arterial periférica e tabagismo são fortes preditores para anormalidades na cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto dos fatores de risco de pacientes diabéticos nos resultados da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio e comparar com os resultados de pacientes não diabéticos em uma clínica de medicina nuclear. Foi realizado um estudo transversal retrospectivo por meio da análise de prontuários de pacientes que realizaram cintilografia miocárdica no período de 2010 a 2019. Foram avaliados 34.736 prontuários. Analisando a fase de estresse da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio, os portadores de diabetes melito precisaram receber estímulo farmacológico duas vezes mais que os não diabéticos para sua realização. Também foram avaliados fatores que tivessem impacto negativo no resultado da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio, e foi visto que o diabetes melito (33,6%), a insulinoterapia (18,1%), a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (69,9%), a dislipidemia (53%), o sedentarismo (83,1%), o uso de estresse farmacológico (50,6%), a dor torácica típica (8,5%) e a angina limitante durante o teste (1,7%) estiveram associados significativamente (p<0,001) a anormalidades neste exame. (AU)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the greatest risk factor for coronary artery disease. In addition to a long duration of diabetes, the presence of peripheral arterial disease and smoking are strong predictors of abnormalities on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of risk factors in diabetic patients on MPS results and compare them with those of non-diabetic patients in a nuclear medicine clinic. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through the analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent MPS in 2010­2019. A total of 34,736 medical records were evaluated. Analyzing the stress phase of MPS, DM patients required two-fold more pharmacological stimulation than non-diabetic patients for MPS. Factors that negatively impact the MPS results were also evaluated, and DM (33.6%), insulin therapy (18.1%), systemic arterial hypertension (69.9%), dyslipidemia (53%), sedentary lifestyle (83.1%), use of pharmacological stress (50.6%), typical chest pain (8.5%), and limiting angina during the test (1.7%) were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with test abnormalities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Ventilation-Perfusion Scan/methods , Myocardium/pathology , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Convulsive Therapy/methods , Dyslipidemias/complications , Sedentary Behavior , Hypertension/complications , Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20956, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420488

ABSTRACT

Abstract The insertion of Pharmaceutical Care in Primary Health Care (PHC) improves patients' clinical outcomes and quality of life. Pharmacotherapeutic follow-up can contribute to the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, promoting better glycemic control and adherence to therapy. This study aimed to assess the Drug-therapy Problems (DTPs) and Pharmacist Interventions (PIs) on the pharmacotherapeutic management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a community pharmacy. A quantitative, retrospective, and cross-sectional study was conducted in a Pharmaceutical Care Program within the PHC in Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Inclusion criteria were patients with T2DM above 18, who attended at least three pharmaceutical consultations between July 2016 and October 2018 and presented two or more glycated hemoglobin tests. The study group (n = 17) was largely composed of women (65%), elderly (76%), sedentary (72%), and obese people (52%). The resolution was achieved in 79% of the DTPs identified (n = 115). Most of DTPs were related to administration and adherence to pharmacotherapy (46%). 60% of the 437 PIs involved the provision of information and counseling. In other words, accessible interventions lead to high resolvability. Therefore, clinical actuation of pharmacists could improve the prognosis in diabetes treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Pharmacies/classification , Referral and Consultation/standards , Chronic Disease/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Pharmacoepidemiology/instrumentation , Drug Therapy/classification
10.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 24-33, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377956

ABSTRACT

In the Family Medicine Unit (UMF) of the UC Health Network there is a program of multiple interventions based on a Chronic Control Model (CCM), led by a nurse who coordinates the activities and ensures compliance, aspiring to a change in its model of care and self-sustainability. It has been running for several years and its implementation and results have not been evaluated. Objective: This study aims to describe the situation of the Program, at its different levels: structure, processes and results. Material and method: Observational, descriptive longitudinal study of patients seen between July 2010 and June 2012, based on: methodology proposed by A. Donabedian; E. Wagner recommendations for the MTC; Monthly Statistical Registers and recommendations of the GES DM2 and HTA (MINSAL) Guides. Results: Hypertensive patients present a reduction of 11.2 mmHg in SBP and 7.8 mmHg in DBP (p 0.04). Diabetics present a reduction in HbA1c by 1.5 percentage points (p 0.04), and mixed patients present a SBP / DBP reduction of 10.3 and 6.8 mmHg respectively and an HbA1c reduction of 1.1 percentage points (p 0.092). Conclusions: After an average of 15 months, hypertensive patients significantly improve their mean SBP, DBP and compensation percentages; diabetics significantly improve their mean HbA1c and compensation percentages; mixed patients manage to improve their blood pressure and HbA1c levels, but this is not statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chronic Disease/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Private Health Care Coverage , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Family Practice/statistics & numerical data
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19078, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345449

ABSTRACT

1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a non-fasting glycemic marker that responds to hyperglycemia excursions. The reduction in serum levels of 1,5-AG is associated with an increase in postprandial glycemia and glycosuria, phenomena that increase the risk and severity of diabetic complications. The objective is to assess the ability of 1,5-AG to discriminate type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients without overt kidney disease, for screening or diagnostic purposes. The Human Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) approved the project. Serum samples from 567 individuals classified as healthy subjects (n = 291) and T2D (n = 276) with moderate glycemic control (HbA1c of 7-8%), matched by gender, were analyzed. Serum 1,5-AG levels were measured using an automated enzymatic method (GlycoMark, Inc.). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for 1,5-AG showed sensibility of 65.3% and specificity of 91.1% to detect T2D at cut-off point of 92 µmol/L. The results were similar to the groups' discrimination by glycemia (sensibility/specificity, 62.2%; 89.0%) at cut-off point of 6.3 mmol/L. HbA1c was the best discriminator (sensibility/specificity, 87.4%; 94.2%) at a cut-off point of 5.8% (40 mmol/mol). The serum 1,5-AG concentration was not able to discriminate T2D in the presence of moderate glycemic control with no overt nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , ROC Curve , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Biomarkers , Diabetes Complications , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Hyperglycemia/complications
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18766, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249148

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic approaches for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus rely most on the usage of oral hypoglycaemic drugs. These drugs have adverse side effects and hence alternative medicines are continuously explored. The present study intends to investigate the antidiabetic potential of the flavonoids present in Gracilaria corticata. The flavonoids were isolated (FEGC) and their inhibitory activity on the carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase was analysed. The flavonoids were found to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 302 µg and 75 µg respectively. The synergistic effect of FEGC and luteolin was also investigated and the results show that both FEGC and luteolin inhibited synergistically at half their IC50 values. The observations of this study reveal that the flavonoids of G. corticata have potential antidiabetic activity and can act independently or synergistically in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


Subject(s)
Gracilaria/classification , Rhodophyta/adverse effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Glucosidases/pharmacology , Amylases/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
13.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249173

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health problem worldwide; it is characterized by a group of metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia with accelerated atherosclerosis, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and elevated uric acid with increased risk of gout. The incidence of MS has increased considerably in recent decades and has attracted considerable attention. A number of clinical and translational laboratory studies have implicated the activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the development of MS, therefore establishing a strong link between chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases. This paper aims to review new developments on NLRP3 inflammasome in MS for better understanding of chronic inflammation in metabolic diseases. We will also provide new insights into using NLRP3 inflammasome as an innovative therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/pharmacology , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Uric Acid/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Obesity, Abdominal/pathology , Hypertension/pathology
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18586, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132054

ABSTRACT

Vanadyl sulfate (VS) is an ingredient in some food supplements and experimental drugs. This study was designed to assay the effects of VS on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal tissue of rats with diabetes type 2. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups as follow: non-diabetics, non-treated diabetics and VS-treated diabetics. Diabetes type 2 has been induced through high fat diet and fructose in the animals. Diabetic rats were treated with 25 mg/kgBW of VS in water for 12 weeks. At the end of study, glucose and insulin were measured using commercially available kits in serum and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in renal homogenates of animals were measured by related methods. Compared to controls, glucose and insulin were increased significantly in non-treated diabetic rats (p-value <0.05) that showed the induction of diabetes type 2 in rats. The results showed that in VS-treated diabetic rats compared to the non-treated diabetic group, vanadyl sulfate significantly reduced the glucose and insulin secretion and changed renal inflammatory and oxidative markers, except protein carbonyl so that we couldn't find any significant changes. Our study showed that vanadyl supplementation had positive effects on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers in kidney of diabetic rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sulfates/analysis , Vanadates/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-10/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Insulin Secretion , Insulin/pharmacology
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056865

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To examine the relationship between the level of glycemic control and coated tongue in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with xerostomia. Material and Methods: This study was an analytical survey and involved 64 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, aged between 17 to 65 years old with 34 males and 30 females. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was determined from the patient's medical records. The level of glycemic control was obtained from the patient's last blood sugar examination. Xerostomia was diagnosed with a questionnaire, while coated tongue diagnosis based on clinical features and the severity of coated tongue was assessed using the Kojima index Results: There was a significant relationship between the level of glycemic control and coated tongue (p=0.0026) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with xerostomia. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the level of glycemic control and the severity of the coated tongue (p=0.001). Specifically, poor glycemic control was associated with a higher occurrence of the coated tongue as well as more severe tongue coating Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the level of glycemic control in and coated tongue in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with xerostomia. Therefore, diabetes mellitus patients should control their level of glycemic control to prevent the oral complication of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tongue Diseases/pathology , Xerostomia/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Glycemic Control , Medical Records , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Glycemic Index , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Indonesia/epidemiology
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(5): 1084-1093, set.-oct. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902227

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus tiene prevalencia nacional cercana al 60% y sus complicaciones se producen fundamentalmente por mal control metabólico por lo que el manejo y reducción de este, es objetivo principal de los programas de control para la enfermedad. Objetivo: caracterizar algunas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en 3 Consultorios Médicos de la Familia del Policlínico "Milanés" del municipio de Matanzas durante el periodo comprendido de mayo del 2013 a mayo del 2014. Materiales y Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo-transversal, con un universo conformado por 129 pacientes dispensarizados con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en 3 consultorios médicos de la familia del policlínico "Milanes", la muestra quedó integrada por 85 pacientes seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple. Las variables objeto de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, hábitos tóxicos y antecedentes patológicos personales. Resultados: el mayor % de diabéticos correspondió al sexo femenino y a los pacientes mayores de 70 años, según antecedentes patológicos personales prevaleció la hipertensión arterial con 57 pacientes para el 67,1% de la muestra. Al distribuir los pacientes según hábitos tóxicos se aprecian una baja prevalencia del hábito de fumar con un 14,1% y 3,5% para el consumo de alcohol. Conclusiones: hubo un predominio del sexo femenino con aumentos de la incidencia de la enfermedad a partir de los 60 años de edad. Entre los antecedentes patológicos personales se asocia la hipertensión arterial, seguido de las enfermedades cerebrovascular. Al distribuirse los pacientes según hábitos tóxicos, predominó el hábito de fumar (AU).


Introduction: diabetes mellitus shows a national prevalence of around 60 % and its complications are produced mainly due to a bad metabolic control; therefore the metabolic control management and reduction is the main objective of this disease's control programs. Aim: to characterize several clinical and epidemiologic variables of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Family Physician Offices of the Policlinic "Milanés", municipality of Matanzas, during the period from May 2013 to May 2014. Material and Methods: a cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in a universe of 129 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Family Physician Offices of the Polyclinic "Milanes"; the sample was formed by 85 patients chosen by simple randomized sampling. The studied variables were: age, sex, toxic habits and personal pathological antecedents. Results: the highest percent of diabetic patients were female ones and patients aged more than 70 years. According to the personal pathologic antecedents, arterial hypertension prevailed with 57 patients, for 67.1 % of the sample. When grouping the patients according to their toxic habits, it was found a low prevalence of smoking (14.1 %) and alcohol consumption (3.5 %). Conclusions: the female sex prevailed with an increase of the disease's incidence beginning after the age of 60 years. Among other personal pathologic antecedents, arterial hypertension is associated, followed by vascular brain diseases. When grouping the patients according to their toxic habits, smoking predominated (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Medical Records , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Observational Studies as Topic , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis
17.
Braspen J ; 32(1): 49-53, jan.-mar. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847919

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diabetes é uma doença que recebe atualmente grande atenção da saúde pública, em virtude da sua prevalência em proporções epidêmicas. A avaliação do estado nutricional em pacientes diabéticos é de suma importância, contribuindo para traçar um tratamento mais adequado. O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) tem sido um dos marcadores nutricionais mais utilizados. Recentemente, novos índices foram desenvolvidos, tentando driblar as limitações apresentadas pelos antigos índices. Método: Estudo transversal, com 86 pacientes de unidade básica de saúde. Coletaram-se medidas de peso, altura, circunferência da cintura (CC) e do quadril. Calcularam-se os índices, que foram divididos em tercis, para relacionar com a glicemia. Resultados: O grupo mostrou-se predominantemente obeso, com risco muito elevado para outras doenças crônicas (segundo a CC e de acordo com a relação cintura quadril) e glicemia elevada. Encontrou-se p<0,05 para a diferença entre as médias de glicemia dos tercis extremos de IMC, CC e Body Roundness Index. Conclusões: O Body Roundness Index mostrou relação com a glicemia, em concordância com os índices/medidas antropométricos tradicionais IMC e CC.(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes is one of the priorities in the field of public health, because of its prevalence in epidemic proportions. The assessment of nutritional status in diabetic patients is of paramount importance, helping to chart a more appropriate treatment. The body mass index (BMI) has been one of the most widely used nutritional markers. Recently, new indexes were developed trying to circumvent the limitations presented by the old rates. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 86 patients of a basic health unit. They collected weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip. It was calculated indexes, which were divided into tertiles to relate to blood glucose. Results: The group showed predominantly obese, with very high risk for other chronic diseases (according to WC and second waist-hip ratio) and high blood sugar. P<0.05 for the difference between the average blood glucose extreme tertiles of BMI, WC and Body Roundness Index was met. Conclusions: The Body Roundness Index was related to blood glucose levels, in accordance with the traditional anthropometric index / measures BMI and WC.(AU)


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Overweight
18.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 9-17, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the advent of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors to control glucose and treat diabetes, laboratory data aided by either timed or spot glucose levels in the urine could be used as an alternative marker of drug response. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between overnight urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and morning spot urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio (UGCR). METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 215 participants with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To exclude external factors such as food intake and physical activity, urine samples collected overnight at an 8-hr interval and the first-voided morning spot urine were collected and compared. RESULTS: The median values of overnight 8-hr UGE in participants with NGT (N=14), pre-diabetes (N=41), and T2DM (N=160) were 35.0 mg, 35.6 mg, and 653.4 mg, respectively. In participants with T2DM, the median values of overnight 8-hr UGCR and first-voided morning spot UGCR (M-UGCR) were 1.37 mg/mg and 0.16 mg/mg, respectively. Quantitative analyses using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a good reliability of measurement of the overnight 8-hr UGCR and M-UGCR (ICC=0.943, P<0.001). The M-UGCR was also significantly related to the overnight 8-hr UGE (r=0.828, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: M-UGCR and overnight 8-hr UGCR showed good agreement, suggesting that M-UGCR be used as a simple index for estimating overnight amounts of UGE in patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Creatinine/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Glucose/analysis , Linear Models , Prospective Studies , Urinalysis
19.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 28-33, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is generally known as a sensitive marker of renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. It can be used to help predict the occurrence of nephropathy and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes. Individuals with prediabetes have a tendency to develop macrovascular and microvascular pathology, resulting in an increased risk of retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic renal diseases. We evaluated the clinical value of a strip test for measuring the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in prediabetes and diabetes. METHODS: Spot urine samples were obtained from 226 prediabetic and 275 diabetic subjects during regular health checkups. Urinary ACR was measured by using strip and laboratory quantitative tests. RESULTS: The positive rates of albuminuria measured by using the ACR strip test were 15.5% (microalbuminuria, 14.6%; macroalbuminuria, 0.9%) and 30.5% (microalbuminuria, 25.1%; macroalbuminuria, 5.5%) in prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. In the prediabetic population, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of the ACR strip method were 92.0%, 94.0%, 65.7%, 99.0%, and 93.8%, respectively; the corresponding values in the diabetic population were 80.0%, 91.6%, 81.0%, 91.1%, and 88.0%, respectively. The median [interquartile range] ACR values in the strip tests for measurement ranges of 300 mg/g were 9.4 [6.3-15.4], 46.9 [26.5-87.7], and 368.8 [296.2-575.2] mg/g, respectively, using the laboratory method. CONCLUSIONS: The ACR strip test showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, suggesting that the test can be used to screen for albuminuria in cases of prediabetes and diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Albumins/analysis , Creatinine/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Immunoassay , Prediabetic State/pathology , Reagent Strips/chemistry
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 165 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846550

ABSTRACT

A incidência da obesidade e do diabetes do tipo 2 tomou proporções epidêmicas nos últimos anos, atingindo bilhões de indivíduos em todo o mundo. A descoberta de formas inovadoras capazes de reduzir as alterações metabólicas associadas a estas doenças é fundamental para minimizar o seu impacto na qualidade de vida da população e na economia dos países. Muitos estudos têm demonstrado que os compostos bioativos de alimentos possuem efeitos benéficos à saúde. O camu-camu e o cupuaçu são frutas nativas da região amazônica com potencial agroeconômico ainda inexplorado, que contêm um grande número de compostos fitoquímicos que podem atuar sobre o metabolismo corporal. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos dos compostos fenólicos de extratos do camu-camu e do cupuaçu no desenvolvimento da obesidade e do diabetes tipo 2 em ensaios in vivo e in vitro, e identificar os possíveis metabólitos envolvidos nestes efeitos. Os extratos ricos em compostos fenólicos da polpa comercial destes frutos foram extraídos em fase sólida, caracterizados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE/DAD) e avaliados quanto à inibição da atividade de enzimas digestivas in vitro. Os extratos obtidos foram então testados em duas diferentes concentrações (2,25 e 4,5 mg de equivalentes de catequina/Kg de peso corporal para o cupuaçu; 7 e 14 mg de equivalentes de ácido gálico/Kg de peso corporal para o camu camu) em um modelo animal de obesidade e resistência insulínica induzida por dieta com alto teor de lipídios e sacarose em camundongos C57BL/6J. Foram investigados os efeitos destes compostos sobre as homeostases glicídica e lipídica através de análises séricas, testes de tolerância à insulina e à glicose e conteúdo de lipídios hepáticos e fecais. O extrato do camu camu apresentou flavonóis, ácido elágico e elagitaninos em sua composição. A suplementação com o extrato de compostos fenólicos do camu camu reduziu o ganho de peso corporal e diminuiu a intolerância à glicose e à insulina, independente da dose administrada. No entanto, a administração destes extratos não apresentou efeitos sobre o metabolismo lipídico. Estes resultados foram associados a um possível efeito de saciedade, com consequente redução da ingestão da dieta e da glicolipotoxicidade, e com um efeito anti-inflamatório devido à diminuição dos níveis de proteína C reativa. Já o extrato de cupuaçu apresentou flavanóis, flavonas e proantocianidinas em sua composição. A suplementação com o extrato de cupuaçu na maior dose testada melhorou a homeostase da glicose e principalmente dos lipídios, protegendo o tecido hepático dos danos causados pela dieta com alto teor de lipídios e sacarose. Estes efeitos foram associados à inibição de enzimas digestivas, com consequente menor absorção de lipídios provenientes da dieta, reduzindo assim a resistência à insulina no fígado, a hiperglicemia e a dislipidemia. Ainda, foi avaliada a distribuição de metabólitos no trato gastrointestinal de camundongos após a administração aguda do extrato de cupuaçu. Foi possível identificar a complexa mistura de polifenóis presentes no extrato de cupuaçu ao longo do trato gastrointestinal, que posteriormente foi metabolizada pela microbiota. Entre os metabólitos encontrados estão as agliconas hipolaetina e isoscutelareína, e os metabolitos microbianos da epicatequina como o 3,4-diHPP-2-ol e a 5-(3,4-dihidroxiphenil)-γ-valerolactona. De acordo com estes resultados, as diferenças na composição de compostos fenólicos encontradas entre os extratos das duas frutas foram responsáveis pelos diferentes resultados nos protocolos in vivo e a identificação dos metabólitos microbianos possibilita o conhecimento dos compostos possivelmente implicados nos efeitos benéficos. Novos estudos podem contribuir para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos, bem como quais metabólitos estão associados aos efeitos benéficos que os compostos presentes nestas duas frutas apresentaram neste estudo


The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes reached epidemic proportions in recent years, arriving to billions of people around the world. The discovery of innovative ways that can reduce the metabolic abnormalities associated with these diseases is essential to minimize its impact on the population's quality of life and the economy of the countries. Many studies have demonstrated that food bioactive compounds have beneficial health effects. Camu-camu and cupuassu are native fruits of the Amazon region with unexplored agroeconomic potential, which contain a large number of phytochemical compounds that can act on body metabolism. Thus, the objective of this study was verify the effects of phenolic compounds of camu-camu and cupuassu extracts on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in vivo and in vitro, and identfy the possible metabolites involved in these effects. The phenolic compound-rich extracts were obtained from commercial frozen fruit pulps by solid phase extraction, characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/DAD) and evaluated for inhibition of digestive enzymes activities in vitro. Then, the extracts were tested at two different doses (2.25 and 4.5 mg catechin equivalents/kg body weight for cupuassu; 7 and 14 mg of gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight for camu camu) in an animal model (C57BL/6J mice) of obesity and insulin resistance induced by high fat high sucrose diet. The effects of extract supplementation on glucose and lipid homeostasis were assessed by serum analysis, insulin and glucose tolerance tests in mice, and contents of fat in liver and fecal samples. Camu camu extract presented flavonols, ellagic acid and ellagitannins in its composition. Supplementation with camu camu phenolic extract reduced weight gain and decreased glucose and insulin intolerance independent of the dose administered. However, no effects on lipid metabolism were found. These findings were associated with a possible effect of satiety with a consequent reduction in energy intake and glicolipotoxicity, and anti-inflammatory properties. Cupuassu extract presented flavanols, flavones and proanthocyanidins in its composition. Supplementation with cupuacu extract at the highest dose improved glucose homeostasis and plasmatic lipid levels, protecting the liver tissue from damage caused by diet rich in lipids and sucrose. These effects were associated with inhibition of digestive enzymes, with consequent lower absorption of lipids from the diet, thereby reducing the insulin resistance in the liver, the hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the distribution of metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of mice was evaluated after acute administration of cupussu extract by HPLC-ESI-QTOF. We identified the complex mixture of polyphenols present in cupuassu extract along the gastrointestinal tract, which was subsequently metabolized by the intestinal microbiota. Among detected metabolites are hypolaetin and isoscutellarein aglycones and microbial metabolites of epicatechin as 3,4-diHPP-2-ol and 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-γvalerolactone. According to these results, the differences in the composition of phenolic compounds found between the two fruit extracts were responsible for the different effects in vivo and identification of microbial metabolites enables the knowledge of the compounds potentially implicated in the beneficial effects. New studies can contribute to a better understanding of the metabolism and mechanisms of action


Subject(s)
Malvaceae/classification , Myrtaceae/classification , Phenolic Compounds/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Dyslipidemias , Polyphenols , Homeostasis , Obesity/pathology
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