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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511470

ABSTRACT

A Doença Renal do Diabetes (DRD) é assintomática nos estágios iniciais da doença, e por esse motivo, a maioria dos pacientes é diagnosticada somente quando já apresenta várias complicações. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o rastreio da DRD está sendo realizado de maneira adequada em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) atendidos na atenção primária à saúde (APS) do Sistema Único de Saúde. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com duração de cinco meses, na APS dos municípios de Bernardino de Campos e Salto Grande, SP. Os critérios de inclusão foram: diagnóstico de DM2, idade > 18 anos, e ser acompanhado nas unidades participantes do estudo. Um total de 1093 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e aceitaram participar do estudo. Foi verificado que 398 (36,4%) dos pacientes nunca realizaram os exames de albumina urinária e creatinina, e não tiveram calculados a relação albumina/creatinina em amostra de urina com o cálculo da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) estimada pela CKD-EPI a partir da creatinina sérica; 401 (36,7%) dos pacientes realizaram estes exames e tiveram estes índices calculados nos últimos 12 meses. Estes 401 pacientes realizaram estes exames e cálculos de rastreio da DRD uma vez a cada 12 meses nos últimos 5 anos. Os demais pacientes (294; 26,9%) realizaram somente exame de creatinina sérica nos últimos 12 meses. Os resultados demonstraram que o rastreamento da DRD não está sendo realizado de maneira adequada na maioria dos pacientes (AU).


Diabetes Kidney Disease (DRD) is asymptomatic in the early stages of the disease, and for this reason, most patients are diagnosed only when they already have several complications. The aim of this study was to assess whether DRD screening is being carried out properly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) treated in primary health care (PHC) of the Unified Health System. A cross-sectional study was carried out, lasting five months, in the PHC of the municipalities of Bernardino de Campos and Salto Grande, SP. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of DM2, age > 18 years, and being monitored in the units participating in the study. A total of 1093 met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. It was found that 398 (36.4%) of the patients had never performed urine albumin and creatinine tests, and they did not calculate the albumin/creatinine ratio in a urine sample, together with the calculation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by CKD-EPI from serum creatinine; in contrast, 401 (36.7%) of the patients underwent these exams and had these indexes calculated in the last 12 months. These 401 patients had these DRD screening tests and calculations performed once every 12 months for the last 5 years. Os demais pacientes (294; 26,9%) realizaram somente exame de creatinina sérica nos últimos 12 meses. Os resultados demonstraram que o rastreamento da DRD não está sendo realizado de maneira adequada na maioria dos pacientes (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
2.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 450-455, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of self-efficacy between self-management ability and self-management behavior and its differences among patients with different disease courses through mediation tests.@*METHODS@#In the study, 489 patients with type 2 diabetes who attended the endocrinology departments of four hospitals in Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from July to September 2022 were enrolled as the study population. They were investigated by General Information Questionnaire, Diabetes Self-Management Scale, Chinese version of Diabetes Empowerment Simplified Scale, and Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale. Mediation analyses were performed using the linear regression model, Sobel test, and Bootstrap test in the software Stata version 15.0 and divided the patients into different disease course groups for subgroup analysis according to whether the disease course was > 5 years.@*RESULTS@#In this study, the score of self-management behavior in the patients with type 2 diabetes was 6.16±1.41, the score of self-management ability was 3.99±0.74, and the score of self-efficacy was 7.05±1.90. The results of the study showed that self-efficacy was positively correlated with self-management ability (r=0.33) as well as self-management behavior (r=0.47) in the patients with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.01). The mediating effect of self-efficacy accounted for 38.28% of the total effect of self-management ability on self-management behaviors and was higher in the behaviors of blood glucose monitoring (43.45%) and diet control (52.63%). The mediating effect of self-efficacy accounted for approximately 40.99% of the total effect for the patients with disease course ≤ 5 years, while for the patients with disease course > 5 years, the mediating effect accounted for 39.20% of the total effect.@*CONCLUSION@#Self-efficacy enhanced the effect of self-management ability on the behavior of the patients with type 2 diabetes, and this positive effect was more significant for the patients with shorter disease course. Targeted health education should be carried out to enhance patients' self-efficacy and self-management ability according to their disease characteristics, to stimulate their inner action, to promote the development of their self-management behaviors, and to form a more stable and long-term mechanism for disease management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Self Efficacy , Self-Management , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Blood Glucose , Self Care
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 679-683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on liver protein kinase B (Akt)/forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) signaling pathway in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of EA on improving liver insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes mellitus.@*METHODS@#Twelve male 2-month-old ZDF rats were fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish diabetes model. After modeling, the rats were randomly divided into a model group and an EA group, with 6 rats in each group. In addition, six male Zucker lean (ZL) rats were used as the blank group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6), "Weiwanxiashu" (EX-B 3), and "Pishu" (BL 20). The ipsilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Weiwanxiashu" (EX-B 3) were connected to EA device, continuous wave, frequency of 15 Hz, 20 min each time, once a day, six times a week, for a total of 4 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) in each group was compared before modeling, before intervention and after intervention; the serum levels of insulin (INS) and C-peptide were measured by radioimmunoassay method, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated; HE staining method was used to observe the liver tissue morphology; Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of Akt, FoxO1 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver.@*RESULTS@#Before intervention, compared with the blank group, FBG was increased in the model group and the EA group (P<0.01); after intervention, compared with the model group, FBG in the EA group was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the serum levels of INS and C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and the protein expression of hepatic FoxO1 and PEPCK were increased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of hepatic Akt was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the serum levels of INS and C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and the protein expression of hepatic FoxO1 and PEPCK were decreased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of hepatic Akt was increased (P<0.01) in the EA group. In the model group, the hepatocytes were structurally disordered and randomly arranged, with a large number of lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In the EA group, the morphology of hepatocytes tended to be normal and lipid vacuoles were decreased.@*CONCLUSION@#EA could reduce FBG and HOMA-IR in ZDF rats, improve liver insulin resistance, which may be related to regulating Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Insulin Resistance , C-Peptide , Electroacupuncture , Liver , Signal Transduction , Insulin , Lipids
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 288-291, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939888

ABSTRACT

Theoretically, a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires a dramatic change in an individual's way of life. Weight loss and physical activity can lead to remission of diabetes, which has been associated with a lower risk of developing complications. Today, the importance of a healthy lifestyle is further highlighted by data showing that obesity and diabetes increase the risk of severe complications from coronavirus disease 2019. However, remission rarely occurs in reality, probably due to the inability of people with T2DM to adhere to the intensive lifestyle interventions that are necessary. The complexity of contributing factors may explain why making these changes is so challenging and underscore the fact that there is no magical solution for T2DM. Instead, hard work from both patients and health care providers is needed for the conversion to be achieved. This article calls for more research on the underlying reasons why adhering to a healthy way of life is so difficult for people with diabetes and obesity. Clearly defining these barriers would facilitate the planning of effective policies to promote the adoption of appropriate lifestyle changes early in the course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Life Style , Obesity/therapy
6.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 433-436, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927402

ABSTRACT

To explore the possible new mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) based on the islet inflammatory response. Islet macrophages, pancreatic adipose cells and islet β cells all participate in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and the three could form a network interaction. Acupuncture could regulate the functional phenotype of islet macrophages, improve the ectopic deposition of pancreatic adipose and repair the function of islet β cells, and play a unique advantage of overall regulation. It is suggested that acupuncture can be a potential treatment strategy for T2DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Macrophages
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 323-326, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346114

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los pacientes con diabetes experimentan dificultades para mantener el control glucémico durante el confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19, con el riesgo de presentar complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes y COVID-19 grave. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la conversión de un centro de atención primaria presencial de diabetes a un servicio de telemedicina por llamada telefónica. Métodos: Se realizaron consultas médicas por llamada telefónica durante la etapa inicial del confinamiento (abril a junio de 2020), para continuar el seguimiento de pacientes ingresados a un programa de atención multicomponente en diabetes. Resultados: Se realizaron 1118 consultas por llamada telefónica para continuar el seguimiento de 192 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Participaron diferentes profesionales de distintas áreas de la salud: atención médica, educación en diabetes, nutrición, psicología y podología. Conclusiones: La atención multicomponente en diabetes se transformó con éxito de un esquema de atención presencial a un servicio de telemedicina. Numerosos pacientes de atención primaria pueden ser candidatos a telemedicina. Se debe considerar un rediseño del modelo de atención que incorpore la telemedicina para mitigar la carga de morbimortalidad en enfermedades crónicas impuesta por la pandemia de COVID-19, pero también para la era pos-COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: Patients with diabetes experience difficulties to maintain glycemic control during the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with the risk of developing diabetes chronic complications and severe COVID-19. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conversion of an outpatient diabetes primary care center from a face-to-face care modality to a telemedicine care service by telephone. Methods: Medical consultations were made by telephone during the initial phase of confinement (April to June 2020), to then continue the follow-up of patients admitted to a multicomponent diabetes care program. Results: A total of 1,118 consultations were made by telephone and follow-up was subsequently continued in 192 patients with type 2 diabetes. Different professionals from different health areas participated, including medical care, diabetes education, nutrition, psychology and podiatry. Conclusions: Multicomponent diabetes care was successfully transformed from a face-to-face care modality to a telemedicine service. Many primary care patients may be candidates for telemedicine. A redesign of the care model that incorporates telemedicine should be considered to mitigate chronic diseases burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by COVID-19 pandemic, but also for the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Telemedicine/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data
8.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e267, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289391

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La estrecha relación que existe entre diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y obesidad ha dado lugar a la creación del término "diabesidad", considerándose la nueva enfermedad del siglo XXI. La dupla entre estas produce grave lesión en el tejido hepático, músculo esquelético y sistema cardiovascular. Es importante un estilo de vida saludable y buena adherencia farmacológica para combatir esta pandemia. Objetivo: Describir aspectos generales acerca de la fisiopatología y el tratamiento de la diabesidad. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica no sistemática en las bases de datos Science Direct, EMBASE, LILACS, Redalyc, SciELO y PubMed. Los criterios de inclusión fueron publicaciones en inglés y español, en las que el título, palabras clave o resumen incluyen información pertinente al objetivo de estudio, periodicidad no mayor de cinco años. En la búsqueda se obtuvieron 50 artículos, de los cuales fueron seleccionados 35. Conclusión: La insulinorresistencia es el factor determinante para la progresión hacia diabetes mellitus tipo 2, en calidad de respuesta del tejido adiposo frente a altos niveles de ácidos grasos libres (lipotoxicidad), consecuencia de la obesidad, obligando al páncreas a secretar grandes cantidades de insulina, que con el tiempo compromete su funcionalidad. En la actualidad, existen diversas alternativas no farmacológicas, farmacológicas y quirúrgicas para el abordaje de la diabesidad, donde la prevención representa un aspecto de vital importancia(AU)


Introduction: The close relation among diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity has led to the creation of the term "diabesity," considering it the new disease of XXI century. The fusion of these two diseases produces severe lesions in the hepatic tissue, the skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system. It is important a healthy lifestyle and a good pharmacological adherence to fight this so called pandemic. Objective: Describe general aspects related to the physiopathology and treatment of diabesity. Method: It was carried out a non-systematic bibliographic search in databases like Science Direct, EMBASE, LILACS, Redalyc, SciELO and PubMed. The inclusion criteria were publications in English and Spanish language, with a periodicity of no more than 5 years, in which the title, keywords and abstract included information that will be relevant for the objective of the study. In the search 50 articles were found, of which 35 were selected. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is the key factor for the progression towards diabetes mellitus type 2, as a response of the adipose tissue to high levels of free fatty acids (lipotoxicity), which is a consequence of obesity, and obligates the pancreas to secrete big amounts of insulin that as time goes by compromises its functionality. Nowadays, there are different non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical alternatives to address the diabesity, in which prevention represents an aspect of vital importance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/physiopathology , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Obesity/therapy
9.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e53729, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368132

ABSTRACT

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a costly, lifestyle-related disorder, its management is very critical and challenging hence lifestyle intervention may a cornerstone in the reversal and management of T2DM. This study designed to assess the impact of lifestyle intervention holistic (LIH) Model on blood glucose levels (BGL), Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), and medical treatment cost in T2DM patients. This prospective, quasi-experimental study was conducted among 224 T2DM patients in Delhi Diabetes Research Center (DDRC), New Delhi. The study participants were allocated into two groups-Lifestyle Intervention Counseling (LIC) group received lifestyle-based counseling through the LIH model while the Usual-care group received only standard treatment. Study outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3rd, 6th, and 12th month and data were analyzed through SPSS. Study results revealed that LIC participants had decreased in fasting blood glucose 0.26 mg dL-1(-4.37 to 4.89), blood glucose postprandial -70.16 mg dL-1(-85.15 to -55.16), HbA1C -2.82% (-5.26 to -0.37), medicine cost (p < 0.004), hospitalization cost (p < 0.011), and cost of surgery (p < 0.0005). A significant improvement also observed in HRQOL and adherence towards a holistic model in LIC group. The study concludes that lifestyle-based counseling and its adherence was cost-effective and significantly improves BGL, HRQoL, and medical treatment in T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycemic Control , Life Style , Quality of Life , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Blood Glucose , Exercise , Counseling , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251260

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the association between dental visits and variation in the glycated hemoglobin index (A1C) of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with well or not well glycemic control over time. Methods: Patients with T2DM, A1C ≥ 7% (not well-controlled) and < 7% (well-controlled), who attended a primary care service and were followed up from January 2010 to May 2018. The outcome was the variation of A1C obtained from reference laboratories. At the beginning of the study, a questionnaire with behavioral, clinical, and socioeconomic information was carried out. Multiple linear regression analyses tested interaction terms of all variables with the initial glycemic level (not well-controlled or well-controlled). Results: The sample consisted of 507 people, 65% women, and 66% individuals 55 to 74 years old, followed on average for 5.4 years. There was an interaction (p = 0.01) between dental visits and initial A1C. Patients not well-controlled with at least one dental visit had an average reduction in A1C of -0.56 percentage point (95%CI -1.06 - -0.56), whereas the well-controlled group who also had at least one dental visit had an increase of 0.34 percentage point (95%CI -0.18 - 0.87). Conclusion: Dental visits were associated with an improvement in A1C of approximately a half-percentage point in patients who had the initial A1C considered as not well-controlled.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre consultas odontológicas e variação no índice de hemoglobina glicada (A1C) em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) com controle glicêmico bom ou não ao longo do tempo. Métodos: Pacientes com DM2, A1C ≥ 7% (não controlado) e < 7% (bem controlado), que compareceram a um serviço de atenção primária e foram acompanhados de janeiro de 2010 a maio de 2018. O desfecho foi a variação de A1C, obtidos em laboratórios de referência. No início do estudo, foi aplicado um questionário com informações comportamentais, clínicas e socioeconômicas. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão linear múltipla para controle de fatores de confusão, e testou-se a interação de todas as variáveis com o nível glicêmico inicial (não controlado ou controlado). Resultados: A amostra foi composta de 507 pessoas, 65% mulheres e 66% indivíduos de 55 a 74 anos, acompanhados em média por 5,4 anos. Houve interação (p = 0,01) entre as consultas odontológicas e níveis iniciais de A1C. Pacientes não controlados com pelo menos uma consulta odontológica tiveram redução média de A1C de -0,56 pontos percentuais (intervalo de confiança de 95% — IC95% -1,06 - -0,56), enquanto o grupo controlado que também teve pelo menos uma consulta odontológica teve aumento de 0,34 ponto percentual (IC95% -0,18 - 0,87). Conclusão: As visitas ao dentista foram associadas à melhora na A1C de aproximadamente meio ponto percentual em pacientes que tiveram a A1C inicial considerada não bem controlada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Primary Health Care , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
11.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(5): e20210032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1286376

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo elaborar um modelo interpretativo sobre a adesão ao autocuidado de pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método estudo de método misto realizado em quatro Unidades Básicas de Saúde. O estudo quantitativo transversal foi composto por 329 participantes, elegeram-se variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e o questionário de atividades de autocuidado. No estudo qualitativo, com 31 participantes, utilizou-se a vertente construtivista da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se a estatística descritiva e a codificação inicial e focalizada. Resultados a maioria dos participantes é do sexo feminino, casada, com um a cinco anos de estudo, aposentada e com renda de um a três salários-mínimos. Obteve-se baixa adesão à alimentação saudável, à atividade física e ao monitoramento glicêmico. A adesão desejável foi relacionada ao uso de medicamentos e cuidados com os pés. Na etapa qualitativa, obteve-se como fenômeno: Enfrentando a complexidade do tratamento do Diabetes Mellitus e buscando o autocuidado. Este foi sustentado por duas categorias: Encontrando as dificuldades para seguir o tratamento e Valorizando os aspectos facilitadores do tratamento que deram subsídios para a elaboração do modelo. Conclusões e implicações para a prática foi elaborado um modelo interpretativo cujos elementos demonstram a complexidade do fenômeno e contribuem para a adesão ao autocuidado nessa população.


Resumen Objetivo elaborar un modelo interpretativo sobre adhesión al autocuidado de personas con Diabetes Mellitus en Atención Primaria de Salud. Método estudio de método mixto realizado en cuatro Unidades Básicas de Salud. El estudio cuantitativo transversal fue compuesto por 329 participantes, se eligieron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y el cuestionario de actividades de autocuidado. En el estudio cualitativo, con 31 participantes, se utilizó el enfoque constructivista de Grounded Theory. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva y codificación inicial y focalizada. Resultados la mayoría de los participantes son mujeres, casadas, con uno a cinco años de estudio, jubiladas y con ingresos de uno a tres salarios mínimos. Se obtuvo una baja adhesión a la alimentación saludable, la actividad física y el control glucémico. La adhesión deseable se relacionó con el uso de medicamentos y el cuidado de los pies. En la etapa cualitativa se obtuvo el siguiente fenómeno: Enfrentando la complejidad del tratamiento de la Diabetes Mellitus y buscando el autocuidado. Esto fue apoyado por dos categorías: Encontrando las dificultades para seguir el tratamiento y Valorando los aspectos facilitadores del tratamiento que apoyaron el desarrollo del modelo. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica se desarrolló un modelo interpretativo cuyos elementos demuestran la complejidad del fenómeno y contribuyen a la adhesión al autocuidado en esta población.


Abstract Objective to develop an interpretive model on the adherence to self-care of people with Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care. Method a mixed-method study conducted in four Basic Health Units. The cross-sectional quantitative study was composed of 329 participants, sociodemographic and clinical variables and the questionnaire of self-care activities were chosen. In the qualitative study, with 31 participants, the constructivist strand of Grounded Theory was used. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and initial and focused coding. Results most participants are female, married, with one to five years of schooling, retired, and with an income of one to three minimum wages. Low adherence to healthy eating, physical activity, and glycemic monitoring was obtained. The desirable adherence was related to the use of medications and foot care. In the qualitative step, the phenomenon was: Facing the complexity of the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and seeking self-care. This was supported by two categories: Encountering difficulties to follow the treatment and valuing the facilitating aspects of the treatment that provided subsidies for the development of the model. Conclusions and implications for practice an interpretative model was elaborated whose elements demonstrate the complexity of the phenomenon and contribute to the adherence to self-care in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Primary Health Care , Self Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Exercise , Prevalence , Qualitative Research , Grounded Theory , Diet, Healthy , Glycemic Control
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200037, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased apoptosis in the pancreas and beta cell death causes reduced insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training and testosterone administration on apoptosis marker (p53 protein) in the pancreas tissue in animal with diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was induced by high fat diet and injection of low dose STZ (35mg/kg; ip). After 2 months of treatment with testosterone (2mg/kg/day) or voluntary exercise alone or in combination, apoptosis (tunnel assay) and p53 protein (ELISA method) were measured. Testosterone and exercise decreased the blood glucose, HbA1c levels, HOMA-IR, p53 protein expression and increased insulin level in treated diabetic and diabetic castrated groups. Simultaneous treatment of these groups with testosterone together voluntary exercise had an additive effect on reducing p53 expression, blood glucose, HbA1c levels, HOMA-IR and subsequently decreasing apoptosis. Our results suggest that the apoptosis decreasing effect of testosterone and voluntary exercise is associated with the reduced levels of blood glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR that subsequently decreased the expression of p53 level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Exercise , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Apoptosis , Glycemic Control
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 347-353, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indonesia is high. However, to date, little is known about why Indonesian T2DM patients choose CAM therapies, how their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of CAM affects their choices, or how demographics correlate with patient choices. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the KAP and predictors of CAM usage in T2DM patients in Indonesia.@*METHODS@#This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Patients were interviewed using a questionnaire. Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare demographic and clinical data, as well as KAP assessments, between T2DM patients who use and do not use CAM. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate predictors of CAM usage.@*RESULTS@#A total of 628 T2DM patients were enrolled in the study. CAM therapies were used by 341 patients (54.3%). The most common therapies were herbs and spiritual healing, used by 100.0% and 68.3% of CAM-using patients, respectively. CAM therapies were frequently recommended by family members (91.5%), and CAM users had significantly more knowledge and more positive attitudes toward CAM therapies than nonusers. Among users, 66% said they would not follow their healthcare providers' instructions to not use CAM therapies, and 69.5% said they would not disclose their plan to use CAM therapies with their healthcare provider. Neither demographic nor clinical characteristics were associated with CAM use. The factors that best predicted the use of CAM therapies were their availability and low cost (odds ratio [OR] = 4.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.01-7.01), the belief that CAM therapies were safe (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.40-2.95), the belief that CAM therapies could help with diabetes control (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15-2.66), and the belief that CAM therapies could help maintain physical health (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.13-2.49).@*CONCLUSION@#CAM therapy users were more knowledgeable and had more positive attitudes toward CAM, but most of them chose not to disclose their CAM use to their healthcare providers. CAM use in Indonesia was associated with its accessibility, affordability, safety and effectivity, but not with any demographic or clinical characteristics. This study provided new evidence and insights for nurses and physicians in Indonesia that will help to design educational programs about the safety and efficacy of CAM therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Indonesia , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 866-870, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887498

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture at @*METHODS@#Sixty patients with type-2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. Both groups were treated with basic treatment, and the observation group was additionally treated with acupuncture at Neiting (ST 44), Xiangu (ST 43), Dadu (SP 2), Taibai (SP 3), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The changes of TCM symptom score, Toronto clinical assessment (TCSS) score, visual analogue scale (VAS) score of pain and serum tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) level were observed before and after treatment in the two groups, and the clinical effects of the two groups were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the TCM syndrome score and the TCSS score in the two groups were reduced after treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Rivers , Treatment Outcome
16.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e52728, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146306

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar as atividades de autocuidado em pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Método: estudo transversal que incluiu 40 pacientes. Aplicou-se 2 instrumentos para coleta de dados: questionário sociodemográfico e questionário de atividades de autocuidado com o diabetes, aplicados entre janeiro e março de 2020. Resultados: a menor pontuação foi para o item "Realizar exercício físico específico (nadar, caminhar, etc)", com média 0,6 (DP=1,54) dias por semana, e a maior para o item "Tomar medicamentos conforme recomendados (insulina ou comprimidos)" com média 5,1 (DP=2,74) dias por semana. Quanto ao tabagismo, 92,5% referiram não ter fumado cigarro nos últimos sete dias. Conclusão: as atividades de autocuidado prevalentes relacionaram-se as intervenções farmacológicas, enquanto os cuidados não farmacológicos, incluindo a alimentação e realização de exercícios físicos, foram menos frequentes.


Objective: to evaluate self-care activities in patients with type-2 Diabetes Mellitus. Method: this cross-sectional study included 40 patients. Two instruments ­ a sociodemographic questionnaire and a questionnaire on diabetes self-care activities ­ were applied between January and March 2020. Results: the item "Perform specific physical exercise (swimming, walking, etc.)" scored lowest, averaging 0.6 (SD = 1.54) days a week, and "Taking medications as recommended (insulin or pills)" scored highest, with mean 5.1 (SD = 2.74) days a week. 92.5% reported not having smoked cigarettes in the prior seven days. Conclusion: selfcare activities relating to pharmacological interventions predominated, while non-pharmacological care, including food and physical exercise, was less frequent.


Objetivo: evaluar las actividades de autocuidado en pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Método: este estudio transversal incluyó a 40 pacientes. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos, un cuestionario sociodemográfico y un cuestionario sobre actividades de autocuidado de la diabetes, entre enero y marzo de 2020. Resultados: el ítem "Realizar ejercicio físico específico (nadar, caminar, etc.)" obtuvo la puntuación más baja, con una media de 0,6 (DE = 1,54) días a la semana, y "Tomar los medicamentos según lo recomendado (insulina o píldoras)" obtuvo la puntuación más alta, con una media de 5,1 (DE = 2,74) días a la semana. El 92,5% informó no haber fumado cigarrillos en los siete días anteriores. Conclusión: predominaron las actividades de autocuidado relacionadas con las intervenciones farmacológicas, mientras que la atención no farmacológica, incluida la alimentación y el ejercicio físico, fue menos frecuente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Self Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control
17.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(3): e1059, ago.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1178523

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) possui uma crescente prevalência e elevada morbimortalidade. As condições socioeconômicas podem influenciar os cuidados gerais do paciente e o tratamento medicamentoso. Objetivos: avaliar o perfil clínico e estilo de vida de pacientes com DM2, em atendimento multiprofissional na atenção primária à saúde. Metodologia: estudo transversal realizado à pacientes de baixa renda, inseridos no Programa de Diabetes de uma Unidade de Saúde paranaense através de visitas domiciliares, sendo denominados grupo 1 (em acompanhamento multiprofissional a mais de sete anos) e Grupo 2 (a menos de sete anos). A coleta de dados deu-se por meio de questionário após a aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa nº 1.617.516 em 2016. O programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences foi utilizado para as análises estatísticas descritivas. Resultados: houve prevalência do sexo feminino (74,7%) e idade média de 62,2 anos (± 10,3), com diferença significativa na idade entre os grupos (p=0,001). Entre os fatores comportamentais avaliados, o consumo de bebida alcoólica foi maior no grupo 2 (p=0,009), assim como a prática de atividade física de 7 a 9 vezes na semana (p=0,045). Entre as comorbidades apresentadas estão a hipertensão arterial (82%), dislipidemia (62%) e agravos cardíacos (69,3%, p=0,050). O intervalo entre as consultas regulares e o tempo que ficou sem tratamento medicamentoso após o diagnóstico médico foi significativo entre os grupos (p=0,006 e 0,002 respectivamente). Houve melhor adesão ao tratamento contínuo no grupo 1 (42,6%) em comparação ao grupo 2 (35,4%), repercutindo na maior aderência ao uso de insulina no grupo 1 (p=0,002). Conclusão: os dois grupos tinham baixa renda e escolaridade, elevados índices de falta de aderência ao tratamento, elevada comorbidades e baixa observância aos hábitos adequados de vida. O grupo de maior tempo de DM2 teve maior janela terapêutica. Apesar de um programa estruturado de acompanhamento, falta melhor adequação das orientações multiprofissionais.


Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) has an increasing prevalence and rate of morbidity and mortality. Socioeconomic conditions often influence overall patient care and drug treatment. Objective: To assess clinical profiles and lifestyles of patients with DM2 through a multidisciplinary intervention. in primary health care. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with low-income patients who were part of a Diabetes Prevention Program of a Healthcare Unit in Paraná by means of home care visits. Group 1 has received multidisciplinary home care assistance for more than seven years while Group 2 has received that assistance for less than seven years. The data was collected using a questionnaire approved by the Research Ethics Committee no. 1,617,516 of 2016. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A prevalence of 74.7% in women at an average age of 62.2 years (± 10.3) were observed, showing a significant difference in age between both groups (p=0.001). Among behavioral factors analyzed, alcohol consumption was found to be higher in Group 2 (p=0.009), but physical activity was practiced between seven and nine times per week (p=0.045). Hypertension (82%), dyslipidemia (62%) and heart disease (69.3%, p=0.050) were some of the comorbidities reported. The time interval between general consultation and time without treatment was significant among the groups (p=0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Better adherence to continuous treatment was observed in Group 1 (42.6%) compared to Group 2 (35.4%), which translated into better adherence to insulin in Group 1 (p=0.002). Conclusions: Both groups reported low levels of income, education and healthy lifestyles in contrast to high rates of treatment adherence and comorbidities. The group that received longer DM2 assistance had a larger therapeutic window. Despite having a structured follow-up program, recommendations from the multidisciplinary team need to be improved and adapted.


Introducción: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) presenta una creciente prevalencia y una tasa elevada de morbilidad y mortalidad. Las condiciones socioeconómicas suelen influir en la atención general a los pacientes y en el tratamiento farmacológico. Objetivo: Evaluar el perfil clínico y el estilo de vida de los pacientes con DM2 a través de una intervención multidisciplinar en la atención primaria de salud. Materiales y Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en pacientes de bajos ingresos que eran parte del Programa de Diabetes de una Unidad de Servicios de Salud en Paraná a través de visitas domiciliarias. En el Grupo 1 han recibido asistencia multidisciplinar por más de siete años mientras que en el Grupo 2 han recibido esta asistencia por un tiempo menor a siete años. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de un cuestionario aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación nro. 1.617.516 de 2016. Se utilizó el software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) para el análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: Se observó una prevalencia en mujeres del 74,7 % y una edad promedio de 62,2 años (± 10,3), con una diferencia significativa de edad entre los grupos (p=0,001). Entre los factores de comportamiento evaluados, se encontró que el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas fue mayor en el grupo 2 (p=0,009), pero que practicaban alguna actividad física entre siete y nueve veces por semana (p=0,045). Entre las comorbilidades presentadas figuraban la hipertensión (82 %), dislipidemia (62 %) y enfermedades cardíacas (69,3 %, p=0,050). El intervalo transcurrido entre la consulta general y el tiempo sin tratamiento farmacológico tras el diagnóstico médico fue significativo entre los grupos (p=0,006 y 0,002, respectivamente). Se presentó una mejor adherencia al tratamiento continuo en el Grupo 1 (42,6 %) en comparación con el Grupo 2 (35,4 %), lo que se tradujo en una mayor adherencia al uso de insulina en el Grupo 1 (p=0,002). Conclusión: En ambos grupos se presentaron niveles de ingreso, educación y hábitos de vida saludable bajos. en contraste con tasas de adherencia al tratamiento y comorbilidades altas. El grupo que había tenido DM2 por más tiempo tuvo una ventana terapéutica más grande. A pesar de contar con programa de seguimiento estructurado, hace falta mejorar y adaptar las indicaciones del equipo multidisciplinario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Care Team , Primary Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Life Style
18.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e569, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1126588

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad durante los últimos años ha sido postulado como tratamiento no farmacológico para enfermedades como la diabetes tipo II en diferentes poblaciones, sin embargo, son pocos los estudios que se han realizado en adultos mayores. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto agudo de una sesión de Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad sobre los niveles de glucosa en adultos mayores físicamente activos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental. La muestra estuvo conformada por 19 adultos mayores (60-85 años). El grupo fue sometido a una sesión de Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad, en la que se combinaron ejercicios de fuerza con resistencia cardiovascular, y se realizaron 12 ejercicios con duración de 30 segundos de trabajo por 10 de descanso. La intensidad de la sesión fue controlada a través de la Escala de Percepción del Esfuerzo OMNI-GSE. Se midió la talla (cm), el peso (kg) e índice de masa corporal. Los niveles de glucosa en sangre fueron determinados antes y después de la sesión. Resultados: Se obtuvo una disminución significativa en los niveles de glucosa en sangre posterior a la realización de la sesión de Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad (pre: 140,5 mg/dL y post: 116,1 mg/dL; p < 0,01) Conclusiones: El Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad reduce en una sola sesión los niveles de glucosa en sangre en adultos mayores(AU)


Introduction: in recent years, High-Intensity Interval Training has been recognized as a non-pharmacological treatment for diseases like type II diabetes in a variety of populations. However, few studies about this topic have been conducted with elderly people. Objective: determine the acute effect of a High-Intensity Interval Training session on glucose levels in physically active elderly people. Methods: an experimental study was conducted. The sample was 19 elderly people aged 60-85 years. The group participated in a High-Intensity Interval Training session in which strength and cardiovascular resistance exercises were combined. The 12 exercises performed had a duration of 30 seconds' work and 10 seconds' rest. The intensity of the session was controlled with the OMNI-GSE Effort Perception Scale. Measurements were taken of the height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index of participants. Blood glucose levels were gauged before and after the session. Results: a significant reduction in blood glucose levels was obtained after the conduct of the High-Intensity Interval Training session (pre: 140.5 mg/dl and post: 116.1 mg/dl; p < 0.01). Conclusions: in only one session, High-Intensity Interval Training reduces blood glucose levels in elderly people(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Intervention Studies , Glycemic Index/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 190-194, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131072

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of SCI-R to adults with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods The SCI-R is a 15-question survey that reflects how well patients with diabetes have adhered to treatment recommendations. A pretest (n = 40) was first performed to improve comprehension of the survey items. A final version was then self-administered in another 75 adults with type 2 diabetes to determine the survey's reliability and validity according to its association with HbA1c. Finally, we conducted a test-retest reliability analysis over three weeks to stabilize the sample and determine intra-observer variability. Results After the pretest phase, the final sample's (N = 75) mean age was 59.9 ± 7.5 years and mean HbA1c level was 8.6 ± 1.5% (70 ± 16.4 mmol/mol). The initial Cronbach's alpha was 0.61; however, further analysis showed that four items had low item correlation and were excluded from the final version, which increased the Cronbach's alpha to 0.63. In predictive validity analysis, HbA1c levels correlated significantly with total survey scores (r = -0.38, P = 0.001). The intra-class correlation coefficient between baseline and three-week scores was 0.93, which indicates high reproducibility. Conclusions The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SCI-R is a valid tool for measuring treatment adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Self Care/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Translating , Brazil , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Cultural Characteristics , Middle Aged
20.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; abr. 27, 2020. 17 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | MTYCI, PIE, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1118191

ABSTRACT

A acupuntura se caracteriza pela estimulação de pontos cutâneos específicos por meio do uso de agulhas. A auriculoterapia consiste na estimulação mecânica de pontos específicos do pavilhão auricular com esferas de aço, ouro, prata, plástico, agulhas ou sementes de mostarda. A acupuntura é recomendada para promoção, manutenção e recuperação da saúde, bem como prevenção de agravos e doenças. Além disso, parece propiciar a liberação de neurotransmissores e outras substâncias responsáveis pela promoção da analgesia. A auriculoterapia promove a regulação psíquico-orgânica do indivíduo. Ambas as práticas foram incorporadas no SUS mediante Portaria nº 971, de 03 de maio de 2006. Qual é a eficácia/efetividade e a segurança da acupuntura e da auriculoterapia para o tratamento de diabete melito tipo 2 (DM2) em adultos e/ou idosos? As buscas foram realizadas em cinco bases de dados sem restrição de ano de publicação. Foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas em inglês, português e espanhol que avaliaram os efeitos de ambas as tecnologias no tratamento da diabete melito tipo 2 na população adulta e idosa. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica foi realizada por meio do AMSTAR 2, feita por uma pesquisadora e revisada por outra. Nesta revisão rápida, produzida em cinco dias, foram utilizados atalhos metodológicos, de maneira que apenas o processo de seleção foi realizado em duplicidade e de forma independente. Resultados Dos 66 relatos encontrados nas bases, foi incluída uma revisão sistemática com metanálise que atendeu aos critérios de elegibilidade. A avaliação da qualidade indica que a revisão é de baixa qualidade metodológica. A revisão apresentou resultados sobre o uso de acupuntura e auriculoterapia no controle glicêmico de pessoas com DM2. Houve pouca informação sobre a segurança da prática de acupuntura e nenhuma sobre auriculoterapia. A prática de acupuntura, da eletroacupuntura e auriculoterapia combinadas com cuidado usual mostraram efeito no controle da glicemia de jejum, glicemia duas horas depois de um teste de tolerância à glicose e hemoglobina glicosilada. Somente em relação a prática de acupressão que houve resultados sem significância estatística. A revisão sistemática abordou o uso da auriculoterapia, observando resultados benéficos no controle glicêmico. Foram encontradas poucas informações sobre eventos adversos para avaliar essas práticas são seguras. Embora os resultados sejam favoráveis à acupuntura, eles são baseados em uma única revisão sistemática que analisou estudos primários com alto risco de viés. A própria revisão foi avaliada como de baixa qualidade metodológica, por isso as evidências devem ser vistas com cautela. Além disso, a heterogeneidade dos resultados estatísticos é elevada e faltam informações sobre o tempo de acompanhamento dos participantes dos ensaios. Os relatos sobre eventos adversos são escassos e não permitem tecer considerações sobre a segurança do uso dessas tecnologias em pacientes diabéticos


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Electroacupuncture/methods , Treatment Outcome , Acupuncture, Ear/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy
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