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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 119-128, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352967

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sarcoidosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria, granulomatosa de etiología desconocida. Puede afectar cualquier órgano siendo la afectación pulmonar la más frecuente. La piel se compromete en aproximadamente 30% de los casos, pudiendo ser inicial o único. La sarcoidosis es muy rara en el Paraguay. Objetivos: Realizar una revisión de los casos de sarcoidosis observados en el Servicio de Dermatología del Hospital Nacional en el periodo 2010-2020; determinando sus características demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriales y evolutivas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y observacional. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 5 casos, todas mujeres de raza blanca, con edades que oscilaban de 41 a 63 años. Las formas clínicas fueron papulosa en 3 casos, en placa 1 y mixta 1. Las lesiones cutáneas eran asintomáticas y estaban ubicadas preferentemente en rostro (4 casos). El compromiso sistémico se objetivó en las primeras consultas en 2 casos (pulmonar, ocular y ganglionar en 1 y del aparato lagrimal en otro). En todos los casos el diagnóstico se fundamentó en la correlación clínico-histológica, con el hallazgo de los granulomas sarcoides. Todos recibieron clobetasol tópico, 3 pacientes ciclos de prednisona y 2 hidroxicloroquina. La evolución fue favorable en 3 casos y 2 no volvieron a sus controles. Conclusión: La sarcoidosis con manifestaciones cutáneas es rara en nuestro Servicio, pero representa un desafío diagnóstico, que debe ser oportuno para diferenciarla de otras patologías más prevalentes en nuestro medio


Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It can affect any organ, lung involvement being the most frequent. The skin is compromised in approximately 30% of the cases, and can be initial or unique. Sarcoidosis is very rare in Paraguay. Objectives: To carry out a review of the sarcoidosis cases observed in the Dermatology Service of the National Hospital in the period 2010-2020; determining their demographic, clinical, laboratory and evolutionary characteristics. Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and observational study. Results: 5 cases were diagnosed; all white women; with ages ranging from 41 to 63 years. The clinical forms were papular in 3 cases, in plate 1 and mixed 1. The skin lesions were asymptomatic and were preferably located on the face (4 cases). Systemic involvement was observed in the first consultations in 2 cases (pulmonary, ocular and lymph node in 1 and the lacrimal apparatus in another). In all cases the diagnosis was based on the clinical-histological correlation, with the finding of sarcoid granulomas. All received topical clobetasol, 3 patients received prednisone cycles and 2 hydroxychloroquine. The evolution was favorable in 3 cases and 2 did not return to their controls. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis with skin manifestations is rare in our Service, but it represents a diagnostic challenge that must be timely to differentiate it from other more prevalent pathologies in our setting


Subject(s)
Sarcoidosis , Pathology , Skin , Demography , Disease , Dermatology , Diagnosis , Laboratories
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-21, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352455

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos del neurodesarrollo corresponden a un grupo de cuadros clínicos de base neurobiológica. En el caso particular del trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), las dificultades centrales están dadas por deficiencias de la comunicación / interacción social y por la presencia de patrones de comportamiento restrictivos o repetitivos. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento se basan actualmente en criterios comportamentales. Según datos recogidos en diferentes países, al menos 1 niño sobre 100 se desarrolla con alguna forma de autismo. Visto los resultados positivos asociados con las intervenciones tempranas, desde hace algunos años se realizan importantes esfuerzos con el objetivo de disminuir la edad la identificación. En entornos pediátricos es indispensable una familiarización con los criterios actuales de diagnóstico, los procesos de evaluación comportamental y etiológica, las condiciones médicas y comporta-mentales asociadas (trastornos del sueño y de la alimentación, convulsiones, síntomas gastrointestinales) que afectan la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del niño y su familia. Con el objetivo de promover prácticas basadas en evidencia sobre identificación y diagnóstico, varias guías clínicas y estándares de práctica han sido publicados en diferentes países. El siguiente artículo revisa y sintetiza estas recomendaciones sobre la identificación y el diagnóstico del TEA en los primeros años de vida. Esta revisión ha sido efectuada a la luz de recomendaciones de la comunidad internacional que recalcan la necesidad de programas y servicios locales basados en evidencia y sensibles culturalmente, particularmente en contextos de medianos y bajos ingresos.


Neurodevelopmental disorders correspond to a group of neurobiological-based clinical pictures. In the particular case of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), central difficulties are caused by deficiencies in communication/social interaction and by the presence of restrictive or repetitive behavior patterns. Diagnosis and treatment are currently based on behavioral criteria. According to data collected in different countries, at least 1 child out of 100 develops with some form of autism. Given the positive results associated with early interventions, for some years now, important efforts have been made with the aim of reducing the age of identification. In pediatric settings, familiarization with current diagnostic criteria, behavioral and etiological evaluation processes, and associated medical and behavioral conditions (sleep and eating disorders, seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms) affect the functionality and quality of life of the child and his family. To promote evidence-based practices on identification and diagnosis, several clinical guidelines and standards of practice have been published in different countries. The following article reviews and synthesizes these recommendations on the identification and diagnosis of ASD in the first years of life. This review has been carried out in light of recommendations from the international community that emphasize the need for evidence-based and culturally sensitive local programs and services, particularly in low and middle income settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autistic Disorder , Behavior , Disabled Children , Early Diagnosis , Diagnosis
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211817, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253160

ABSTRACT

Tumors of the maxillomandibular complex are a heterogeneous group of lesions with a wide spectrum of clinical and histopathological characteristics. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of odontogenic and non-odontogenic tumors associated with maxillary bones in a Reference Center for Oral Lesions. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on the medical records of a Reference Center for Oral Lesions at the State University of Feira de Santana, from 2006 to 2018. The data was initially analyzed in a descriptive manner. For bivariate analysis, Pearson's chi-square test was applied. The level of significance was set at 5%, where p≤ 0.05 is considered significant. Results: The prevalence of tumors was 2.27%. The average age of the individuals was 22.2 (± 15.1) years, the majority being up to 39 years (79.59%) and female (69.40%). A statistically significant difference was observed in relation to age (p = 0.00), as well as regarding the location of tumors in the anterior or posterior region (p = 0.02). Odontogenic tumors were benign, with odontoma being most frequent (46.90%), followed by ameloblastoma (16.30%). As for the non-odontogenic, neurofibroma (4.10%) and osteoma (4.10%) were the most common across the benign, while osteosarcoma accounted for 6.10% of cases. Conclusion: Odontogenic tumors were the most frequent in women, with age up to 39 years, odontoma being most common in the posterior region of the mandible. Among nonodontogenic tumors, central neurofibroma and osteoma were the most common. Osteosarcoma was more frequent in men over 40 years old and in the mandible region


Subject(s)
Pathology, Oral , Jaw Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; nov, 05, 2021. 53 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1352951

ABSTRACT

Se puede prevenir y/o reducir el riesgo de complicaciones por la mala circulación en los pies (ulceraciones e infecciones) con una adecuada estrategia que comprenda el tamizaje, la clasificación del riesgo y medidas efectivas de prevención y tratamiento. En vista de estos riesgos, es importante que las personas con diabetes reciban una atención integral que incluya la evaluación regular de los pies y un manejo de las complicaciones por un equipo multidisciplinario, de forma oportuna y eficaz, con el fin de reducir la morbilidad relacionada con las infecciones, larga estancia hospitalaria y las amputaciones, para esto es necesario contar con los lineamientos para establecer las directrices del abordaje integral, multidisciplinario e interinstitucional en lo referente a la prevención, control, diagnóstico, tratamiento y rehabilitación del pie diabético, de la población que requiera de estos servicios de salud


It can prevent and / or reduce the risk of complications from poor circulation in the feet (ulcerations and infections) with an adequate strategy that includes screening, classification of the risk and effective prevention and treatment measures. In view of these risks, it is important that people with diabetes receive comprehensive care that include regular foot evaluation and team management of complications multidisciplinary, in a timely and effective manner, in order to reduce morbidity related to infections, long hospital stay and amputations, for this it is necessary to have the guidelines to establish the guidelines of the comprehensive, multidisciplinary and inter-institutional approach with regard to the prevention, control, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of diabetic foot, of the population requiring these health services


Subject(s)
Attention , Diabetic Foot , Diagnosis , Foot , Mass Screening , Risk , Morbidity , Infections
5.
Ludovica pediátr ; 24(1): 6-14, Ene.-Jul.2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, Redbvs, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1293217

ABSTRACT

Introducción:La transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi constituye, en la actualidad, la vía que genera mayor cantidad de nuevos casos de infección aguda. El diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano aseguran una elevada probabilidad de cura parasitológica. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el seguimiento de potenciales casos de Chagas Congénito, estimar la tasa de transmisión materno-fetal y la capacidad diagnóstica del microhematocrito. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal sobre hijos de mujeres con Chagas, que concurrieron al Laboratorio Central del H.I.A.E.P. Sor María Ludovica durante abril 2013-febrero 2019. Los niños fueron estudiados por microhematocrito y pruebas serológicas. Los resultados se obtuvieron del Sistema Informático de Laboratorio de Wiener®. Resultados: En el período de tiempo evaluado, fueron estudiados por microhematocrito un total de 268 niños (edad promedio= 2,35 meses), obteniéndose 16 resultados positivos. De los 252 niños con microhematocrito negativo, 58 fueron seguidos por pruebas serológicas hasta el año de vida, obteniéndose 3 resultados positivos. Se evidenció una pérdida de seguimiento serológico del 77%. La tasa de transmisión congénita estimada fue del 6,9% y el porcentaje de detección diagnóstica de la técnica directa, del 84,2%. Conclusión: La búsqueda de infección congénita en hijos de mujeres con Chagas, y su seguimiento hasta el año de vida, resulta esencial para lograr la detección y tratamiento temprano de nuevos casos. Sin embargo, la pérdida de seguimiento de potenciales casos de Chagas Congénito resulta alarmante. Esto enfatiza la necesidad de plantear estrategias sólidas para mejorar la aplicación del algoritmo diagnóstico


Introduction:Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi transmission is currently the route that generates the largest number of new cases of acute infection. Early diagnosis and treatment ensure a high probability of parasitological cure. The aim of this article was to evaluate the follow-up of possible cases of Congenital Chagas, to estimate the maternal-fetal transmission rate and the diagnostic capacity of microhematocrit. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on children born from Chagasic women, who attended the Central Laboratory of the H.I.A.E.P Sor María Ludovica during April 2013-February 2019. The children were studied by microhematocrit and serological tests. The results were obtained from the Wiener® Laboratory Information System. Results: In the evaluated time period, a total of 268 children (mean age = 2.35 months) were studied by microhematocrit, obtaining 16 positive results. Among the 252 children with negative microhematocrit, 58 were followed by serological tests up to one year of life, obtaining 3 positive results. A 77% loss of serological follow-up was evidenced. The estimated congenital transmission rate was 6.9% and the percentage of diagnostic detection of the direct technique was 84.2%. Conclusion: The search for congenital infection in children born from Chagasic women, and its follow-up until one year of life, is essential to achieve the early detection and treatment of new cases. However, the loss of follow-up of potential cases of Congenital Chagas is alarming. This emphasizes the need to propose solid strategies to improve the application of the diagnostic algorithm


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Serologic Tests , Chagas Disease , Diagnosis
6.
San Salvador; MINSAL; 2 ed; ago. 24, 2021. 18 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1292035

ABSTRACT

En El Salvador la Tuberculosis continúa siendo uno de los problemas de salud púbica. Cada año son diagnosticados entre 3,000 a 3,500 personas de las cuales el 40% están al interior del sistema penitenciario, el 16% (500 casos) en el Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social y el 39% en la red de establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud. Por lo que en los presentes lineamientos establecen las disposiciones para la atención de salud de las personas con tuberculosis presuntiva y seguimiento de casos diagnosticados en el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud, durante la pandemia por COVID-19


In El Salvador, Tuberculosis continues to be one of the public health problems. Every year between 3,000 to 3,500 people are diagnosed, of which 40% are within the prison system, 16% (500 cases) in the Salvadoran Social Security Institute and 39% in the network of establishments of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, these guidelines establish the provisions for the health care of people with presumptive tuberculosis and follow-up of cases diagnosed in the National Integrated Health System, during the COVID-19 pandemic


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Prisons , Diagnosis
7.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(1): [47-56], 15/07/2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282399

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objeto o processo de diagnóstico da soro positividade para o HIV e por objetivos: descrever processo de revelação do diagnóstico positivo para HIV e discutir a vivência do preconceito e suas consequências para vida cotidiana. Método: Entrevistas com 49 pessoas que vivem com HIV (PVHIV). Técnica de análise de conteúdo lexical, com auxílio do software Iramuteq 0.7 alpha 2. Resultados: As condições de vida de pessoas que vivem com HIV são permeadas pelo estigma, preconceito e discriminação. A revelação do diagnóstico para a sociedade não é uma tarefa fácil e nem sempre ocorre. Após impacto inicial do diagnóstico, a vida segue com mudanças cotidianas, os sentimentos de desespero e medo são aplacados com o tempo, entretanto o preconceito persiste. Conclusão: Os resultados mostram complexo cenário de se (con) viver com o vírus e /ou com a síndrome. A descoberta do diagnóstico, aceitação, decisão sobre revelação, reunir meios de enfrentamento do preconceito e prosseguir vivendo, exige que PVHIV tenham suporte e se reprogramem para enfrentar desafios diários.


This study had as its object the process of diagnosing serum positive for HIV and its objectives: to describe the process of disclosing the positive diagnosis for HIV and to discuss the experience of prejudice and its consequences for everyday life. Method: Interviews with 49 people living with HIV (PLHIV). Lexical content analysis technique, with the aid of the Iramuteq 0.7 alpha 2 software. Results: The living conditions of people living with HIV are permeated by stigma, prejudice and discrimination. Disclosing the diagnosis to society is not an easy task and does not always occur. After the initial impact of the diagnosis, life continues with daily changes, the feelings of despair and fear are appeased over time, however prejudice persists. Conclusion: The results show a complex scenario of (con) living with the virus and / or the syndrome. The discovery of diagnosis, acceptance, decision on disclosure, gathering means to face prejudice and continue living, requires that PLHIV have support and reprogram themselves to face daily challenges.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prejudice , HIV , Diagnosis
8.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(1): [1-11], 15/07/2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282324

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se caracterizar as EDA realizadas na Comunidade de Saúde de Mossoró, RN, no período de 2008 a 2013, definindo a taxa de exames normais e a prevalência dos principais achados sugestivos de patologias digestivas. Trata-se de um estudo transversal e retrospectivo, no qual se analisou 10311 laudos de EDA. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas pelo SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 20.0), com nível de confiança95% e um p < 0,05, utilizando-se testes Qui-quadrado. Pelos dados levantados, constatamos que a EDA é um exame prático e seguro, com raríssimas complicações, sendo a agitação e a presença de alimento no estômago as limitações mais comuns. Na análise descritiva geral observou-se que a maioria dos exames foi realizada no gênero feminino, formando mais de 70% da amostra total. A faixa etária predominante, independente do gênero, foi 41 a 60 anos. As patologias frequentes no segmento esofágico foram as Esofagites. No segmento gástrico, a maior frequência de achados foram as Gastrites, que são mais frequentes com o avançar da idade. Na Transição Gastroduodenal, as úlceras de Canal Pilórico são os achados mais descritos, mas observamos também modestos achados de duodenites. No duodeno, os principais achados foram úlceras duodenais, seguidas pelas duodenites e sinais de atrofia. Portanto, as EDA são mais realizadas no gênero feminino, mas apresentam maior percentual de exames normais, sendo a maior frequência de achados encontrada no gênero masculino. Assim, após analisar as 10.311 EDA, é possível prever os achados mais comuns encontrados a EDA.


This study aimed to characterize the EDA held in Mossoro Health Community, RN, from 2008 to 2013, setting the rate of normal examinations and the prevalence of the main findings suggestive of digestive pathologies. It is a cross-sectional retrospective study, which analyzed 10,311 reports of EDA. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20.0), with a confidence level 95% and p <0.05, using chi-square tests. Raised by the data, we found that EDA is a practical and safe exam, with very few complications, agitation and presence of food in the stomach the most common limitations. In general descriptive analysis it was observed that most of the exams was held in females, forming more than 70% of the total sample. The predominant age group, regardless of gender, was 41-60 years. The frequent pathologies in esophageal segment were Esophagitis. Gastric segment, the highest frequency of findings were Gastritis, which are more common with advancing age. Gastroduodenal in Transition, the Channel Pyloric ulcers are the most described findings, but also observed modest findings of duodenitis. In the duodenum, the main findings were duodenal ulcers, followed by duodenitis and signs of atrophy. Therefore, the EDA are more performed in females, but have a higher percentage of normal results, with the highest frequency of findings found in males. So after analyzing 10,311 EDA, it is possible to predict the most common findings EDA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diagnosis , Duodenitis , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Gastritis
9.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 109-113, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249652

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) represents one of the top ten causes of death in the world. Its insidious onset and nonspecific symptoms usually result in delayed diagnosis. The objective is to evaluate the characteristics of patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis in follow-up at a South American reference hospital. Method: Retrospective evaluation of the medical records of patients of both sexes and between 0 and 80 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis of the spine between 2009 and 2018. The variables were analyzed based on groups: epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, microbiological, imaging tests and treatment. Results: Total of 26 cases, about 80.8% male, mean age 41.6 ± 22.46 years. Axial pain was the most prevalent symptom (84.6%), the VAS score was 6.85 ± 2.87. The mean time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 23.8 ± 24.1 weeks (4-96). The most affected region was the thoracic spine (50% of the cases). Most participants (61.4%) had no change in neurological function (Frankel D and E) at the beginning of treatment and after 6 months, and 84.5% improved. During treatment 34.6% required surgery and the main indication was isolated neurological deficit (55.5%). The most frequently performed procedure was decompression and arthrodesis (55.5%). The average time to cure was 12.0 ± 8.8 months (8-48). Conclusion: Disease with insidious onset, nonspecific symptoms, high frequency of negative microbiological tests in cases with the disease. A small number of the cases required surgical treatment and most of them achieved good neurological recovery. Level of evidence IV; Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: A tuberculose (TB) é uma das dez principais causas de morte no mundo. O início insidioso e os sintomas inespecíficos geralmente resultam em atraso do diagnóstico. O objetivo é avaliar as características dos pacientes com espondilodiscite tuberculosa em acompanhamento, em um hospital de referência sul-americano. Método: Avaliação retrospectiva de dados de prontuários, diagnóstico de tuberculose da coluna vertebral entre 2009 e 2018, de ambos os sexos, entre 0 e 80 anos de idade. As variáveis foram analisadas com base em grupos: epidemiológicas, clínicas, laboratoriais, microbiológicas, exames de imagem e tratamento. Resultados: Total de 26 casos, cerca de 80,8% do sexo masculino, média de idade de 41,6 ± 22,46 anos. A dor axial foi o sintoma mais prevalente (84,6%), o escore da EVA foi de 6,85 ± 2,87. A média de tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico foi de 23,8 ± 24,1 semanas (4-96). A região mais acometida foi a coluna torácica (50% dos casos). A maioria (61,4%) dos participantes apresentou função neurológica inalterada (Frankel D e E) no início do tratamento e 6 meses depois, sendo que 84,5% obtiveram melhora. No tratamento, 34,6% necessitaram de cirurgia, e a principal indicação foi déficit neurológico isolado (55,5%). O procedimento mais realizado foi descompressão e artrodese (55,5%). O tempo médio até a cura foi de 12,0 ± 8,8 meses (8-48). Conclusão: Doença de início insidioso, sintomas inespecíficos, grande frequência de exames microbiológicos negativos em casos com a doença. A menor parte dos casos necessitou de tratamento cirúrgico e a maioria apresentou boa recuperação neurológica. Nível de evidência IV; Série de casos.


RESUMEN Objetivo: La tuberculosis (TB) es una de las diez principales causas de muerte en el mundo. El inicio insidioso y los síntomas inespecíficos generalmente resultan en atraso del diagnóstico. El objetivo es evaluar las características de los pacientes con espondilodiscitis tuberculosa en acompañamiento en un hospital de referencia sudamericano. Método: Evaluación retrospectiva de datos de historiales clínicos, diagnóstico de tuberculosis de la columna vertebral entre 2009 y 2018, de ambos sexos, entre 0 y 80 años de edad. Las variables fueron analizadas con base en grupos: epidemiológicas, clínicas, de laboratorio, microbiológicas, exámenes de imagen y tratamiento. Resultados: Total de 26 casos, cerca de 80,8% del sexo masculino, promedio de edad de 41,6 ± 22,46 años. El dolor axial fue el síntoma más prevalente (84,6%). El puntaje de la EVA fue de 6,85 ± 2,87. El promedio de tiempo entre el inicio de los síntomas y el diagnóstico fue de 23,8 ± 24,1 semanas (4-96). La región más acometida fue la columna torácica (50% de los casos). La mayoría (61,4%) de los participantes presentó función neurológica inalterada (Frankel D y E) al inicio del tratamiento y seis meses después, siendo que 84,5% obtuvo mejora. En el tratamiento, 34,6% precisó cirugía, y la principal indicación fue déficit neurológico aislado, (55,5%). El procedimiento más realizado fue descompresión y artrodesis (55,5%). El tiempo promedio hasta la cura fue de 12,0 ± 8,8 meses (8-48). Conclusión: Enfermedad de inicio insidioso, síntomas inespecíficos, alta frecuencia de exámenes microbiológicos negativos en casos con la enfermedad. La menor parte de los casos requirió tratamiento quirúrgico y la mayoría presentó buena recuperación neurológica. Nivel de evidencia IV; Serie de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Spinal , Spine , Tuberculosis , Diagnosis
10.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(277): 5785-5792, jun.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1253547

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the difficulties reported by health professionals during the screening service, given the difficulties in assisting suspected or confirmed patients at COVID-19. Method: This is an experience report of the care provided in nursing screening to health professionals to collect samples for the diagnosis of COVID-19, between April and July 2020, at a public university in central Brazil. Results: The difficulties reported were: limited access to Personal Protective Equipment in the workplace; restricted access to diagnostic testing for COVID-19 and poor knowledge about the differentiation and purpose of the tests. Conclusion: The performance of nursing to health professionals in the pandemic is extremely important. Strategic approaches by government agencies and health institutions regarding training for health professionals and access to equipment necessary for workers' health are relevant.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir las dificultades reportadas por los profesionales de la salud durante el servicio de cribado, dadas las dificultades para atender a pacientes sospechosos o confirmados en COVID-19. Método: Se trata de un informe de experiencia de la atención brindada en el cribado de enfermería a profesionales de la salud para recolectar muestras para el diagnóstico de COVID-19, entre abril y julio de 2020, en una universidad pública del centro de Brasil. Resultados: Las dificultades reportadas fueron: acceso limitado a Equipo de Protección Personal en el lugar de trabajo; acceso restringido a las pruebas de diagnóstico para COVID-19 y poco conocimiento sobre la diferenciación y el propósito de las pruebas. Conclusión: El desempeño de la enfermería a los profesionales de la salud en la pandemia es de suma importancia. Los enfoques estratégicos de las agencias gubernamentales y las instituciones de salud con respecto a la capacitación de los profesionales de la salud y el acceso a los equipos necesarios para la salud de los trabajadores son relevantes.(AU)


Objetivo: Descrever as dificuldades relatadas pelos profissionais de saúde perante a assistência a pacientes suspeitos ou confirmados da COVID-19, durante um atendimento em triagem para realização de exame. Método: Trata-se de um relato de experiência dos atendimentos em triagem de enfermagem à profissionais de saúde para coleta de amostras para o diagnóstico da COVID-19, entre abril a julho de 2020, em uma universidade pública da região central do Brasil. Resultados: As dificuldades reportadas foram: acesso limitado aos Equipamentos de Proteção Individual nos ambientes de trabalho; acesso restrito a testagem diagnóstica para COVID-19 e pouco conhecimento sobre a diferenciação e finalidade dos testes. Conclusão: A atuação da enfermagem aos profissionais da saúde na pandemia é de extrema importância. É relevante abordagens estratégicas de órgãos governamentais e de instituições de saúde acerca de capacitação para os profissionais da saúde e acesso aos equipamentos necessários para a saúde do trabalhador.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Triage , Health Personnel , COVID-19/diagnosis , Public Health Nursing , Mass Screening , Diagnosis
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1529, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280365

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La población pediátrica no ha sido las más vulnerable a laCOVID-19. La vigilancia epidemiológica estricta y las estrategias tomadas, permiten identificar y realizar análisis clínico epidemiológico en esta población. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde la óptica clínica y epidemiológica a pacientes pediátricos ingresados en centros de aislamiento. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal en 316 infantes sospechosos de contactos de personas con COVID-19, edades entre 1 y 18 años e ingresados en los centros de aislamiento de Cienfuegos, desde el 11 de marzo al 30 de junio de 2020.Las variables: edad, sexo, casos sospechosos o contactos, mes de ingreso, sintomatología clínica y casos confirmados. Los datos se expresaron en valores absolutos y relativos. Resultados: Fueron sospechosos 36,7 por ciento niños, 63,3 por ciento contactos; 96,9 por ciento fueron remitidos desde sus áreas de salud. Solo 5 (1,6 por ciento) niños fueron confirmados con la enfermedad y todos tuvieron evolución favorable. Predominaron las edades de 5 a 9 años y de 15 a 18 años con 24,4 y 24,7 por ciento, respectivamente, sin diferencia de género;64,9 por ciento fueron asintomáticos. Los síntomas clínicos más frecuentes fueron: tos (56,8 por ciento) y fiebre (55,9 por ciento). Solo 9 (8,1 por ciento)con dificultad respiratoria. Conclusiones: La enfermedad en la población pediátrica de la provincia Cienfuegos no constituye un problema de salud por el bajo porcentaje de niños confirmados con la enfermedad en los centros de aislamiento. Se reafirma que una de las formas de transmisión es de hombre a hombre y es el aislamiento fundamental para el control y diagnóstico(AU)


Introduction: The pediatric population has not been the most vulnerable to COVID-19. Strict epidemiological surveillance and the strategies taken, allow to identify and perform a clinical-epidemiological analysis in this population. Objective: Characterize from the clinical and epidemiological points of view pediatric patients admitted to isolation centers. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study of 316 infants who were suspected cases or contacts of people with COVID-19, in ages from 1 to 18 years and who were admitted to the isolation centers of Cienfuegos province, from March 11 to June 30, 2020. The variables used were: age, sex, suspected cases or contacts, month of admission, clinical symptomatology, and confirmed cases. The data were expressed in absolute and relative values. Results: 36.7 percent children, and 63.3 percent contacts were suspected; 96.9 percent were referred from their health areas. Only 5 (1.6 percent) children were confirmed with the disease and all had favorable evolution. The ages from 5 to 9 and from 15 to 18 years predominated with 24.4 percent and 24.7 percent, respectively, without gender difference; 64.9 percent were asymptomatic. The most common clinical symptoms were: cough (56.8 percent) and fever (55.9 percent). Only 9 patients (8.1 percent) had respiratory distress. Conclusions: This disease in the pediatric population of Cienfuegos province is not a health problem because of the low percentage of children confirmed with the COVID-19 in isolation centers. It is confirmed that one of the forms of transmission is person-to-person and isolation is vital for control and diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiological Monitoring , Gender Identity
12.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-17, jun. 2021. ilus., tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284388

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el aumento de la incidencia de las micosis ha generado la necesidad de desarrollar técnicas in vitro para el estudio de la susceptibilidad a los antifùngicos; El documento CLSI M27-A2 es el método de referencia para estudios de sensibilidad en levaduras. No obstante, este no subsana las necesidades de rutina de los laboratorios, principalmente por ser laboriosos; en consecuencia, métodos alternativos surgen ante la necesidad de contar con técnicas más sencillas, una de ellos es el ATB FUNGUS 3 que permite determinar la sensibilidad de Candida frente a diferentes antifùngicos. OBJETIVO: validar el método comercial ATB FUNGUS 3, frente al método de referencia M27-A2, con el fin de conocer su valor diagnóstico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se determinó la eficacia del método a través de parámetros de test diagnóstico; además, se evaluó la sensibilidad de 50 cepas de Candida albicans frente a Fluconazol (FLZ) e Itraconazol (ITZ) mediante el método comercial y el de referencia. RESULTADOS: se encontró que el ATB - FUNGUS 3 presenta una especificidad para FLZ de 100%, sensibilidad de 91%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) de 56%, valor predictivo negativo (VPN) de 100%, con una eficacia diagnóstica de 92%, calculados para un intervalo de confianza (IC) de 95%; para ITZ la especificidad y sensibilidad fue de 88 % y 90% respectivamente, con un VPP de 64%, un VPN de 97%, eficacia diagnóstica de 90%, IC 95%. Para las pruebas de concordancia, el índice Kappa para FLZ e ITZ fue de 0,67 y 0,68 respectivamente. La prueba de Likelihood ratio para el FLZ fue (LR+) de 11,25 mientras que el (LR-) fue 0; para el ITZ (LR+) de 9,19 y el (LR-) fue 0,14. Reproducibilidad de 90 % (FLZ) y 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONES: el ATB FUNGUS 3, es una técnica rápida, de fácil realización y reproducible; pero el desempeño global de la técnica, sugiere que aún no es confiable para el diagnóstico en laboratorios, debido a los valores bajos obtenidos en los VPP, que indican que se podría derivar en errores al momento de determinar una cepa como sensible o resistente, punto importante al momento de decidir la conducta terapéutica.


INTRODUCTION: the higher incidence of mycoses has generated the need to develop in vitro techniques for susceptibility study to antifungal agents. CLSI M27-A2 is a reference method for yeast susceptibility studies. However, this method does not meet the needs of routine laboratories because it is difficult to follow all the processes. Consequently, alternative methods arise due to the need for simpler techniques. Then, one of them is ATB FUNGUS 3 which allows determining Candida's sensitivity to different antifungal agents. OBJECTIVE: validate the commercial method ATB FUNGUS 3 compared with the reference method M27-A2 in order to know its diagnostic value. MATERIAL AND METHODS: efficacy was determined by diagnostic test parameters. Moreover, sensitivity of 50 strains of Candida albicans at Fluconazole (FLZ) and Itraconazole (ITZ) was evaluated by the commercial and reference methods. RESULTS: ATB - FUNGUS 3 presents a specificity for FLZ of 100%, sensitivity of 91%, positive predictive value (PPV) 56%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100% with a diagnostic efficacy of 92%, calculated for a 95% confidence interval (CI). For ITZ, the specificity and sensitivity were 88% and 90% respectively, with a PPV 64%, a NPV 97% with a diagnostic efficacy of 90%, 95% CI. For the concordance tests, the Kappa index for FLZ and ITZ was 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. The Likelihood ratio test for FLZ was (LR +) of 11.25 while the (LR-) was 0; for ITZ (LR +) of 9.19 and the (LR-) was 0.14. Reproducibility of 90% (FLZ) and 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONS: the ATB FUNGUS 3 is a fast, easy and reproducible technique. However, the overall performance of the technique suggests that this method hasn't been reliable for diagnostic laboratory yet, because PPVS obtained low values. These PPVS indicate that it could lead to errors when determining a strain as sensitive or resistant. This is an important point when deciding the therapeutic conduct.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Antifungal Agents , Confidence Intervals , Diagnosis
13.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1448,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280381

ABSTRACT

A finales del año 2019 se diagnosticó en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, una neumonía severa causada por un agente zoonótico de nueva estructura, al cual se denominó SARS-CoV-2, causante de la COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Por tratarse de una enfermedad capaz de ocasionar un síndrome respiratorio agudo grave de evolución fatal y amplia diseminación, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró el brote de este nuevo padecimiento en enero de 2020 y, al expandirse por todo el mundo es declarada como pandemia en el mes de marzo del mismo año(AU)


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Physical Distancing , COVID-19
14.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 35-45, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280491

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se hace una correlación entre la osteoatrosis y las condiciones laborales, hábitos y estilos de vida de los trabajadores informales del centro de Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Identificar la relación de la osteoartritis y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas con las condiciones sociodemográficas, laborales, hábitos y estilos de vida en un grupo de trabajadores informales de Medellín, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal, con fuente primaria de información de 686 trabajadores informales. Se realizó una encuesta asistida, previa toma de consentimiento. Se seleccionaron 289 trabajadores con diagnóstico de enfermedad crónica o degenerativa, ≥18 años, con ≥5 años en su oficio. Se realizaron análisis exploratorios y de asociación con prueba Chi2, y cálculo de RP con IC del 95%. Resultados: el 79,9% de la población padecía alguna enfermedad crónica. El 3,46% presentaba diagnóstico de osteoartritis, siendo significativamente mayor (p<0,05) en quienes tenían entre 21 y 30 años en su oficio (RP=5,62. IC:1,20;26,34). También fue mayor la prevalencia de osteoartritis en; >45 años (RP=2,26), mujeres (RP:4,44), trabajadores sedentarios (RP=1,71), obesos (RP=3,40), así como en quienes habían sido obreros (RP=1,30), en aquellos que tenían puestos de venta semiestacionaria (RP=2,21), vendían productos de cosecha y perecederos (RP=1,78), en quienes trabajaban >8 horas diarias (RP:2,77), ≤5días a la semana (RP=3,10), no tenían espacio suficiente para moverse (RP=2,08), y en quienes tenían posturas o movimientos forzados (RP=2,72). Conclusión: En la población de vendedores informales del centro de Medellín, los factores sociodemográficos, laborales, hábitos y estilos de vida modificables se relacionan con una mayor prevalencia de osteoartritis.


Abstract Introduction: A correlation is made regarding osteoarthrosis and working conditions and lifestyles of informal workers in Medellin downtown. Objective: To identify the prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases, and the relationship of osteoarthritis with sociodemographic and work conditions, habits and lifestyles, in a group of informal workers from Medellín, Colombia. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, with a primary source of information, with 686 workers. An assisted survey was applied, after obtaining consent. 289 workers with a diagnosis of chronic or degenerative disease, ≥18 years old, with ≥5 years in their profession were included. Exploratory and association analysis with Chi2 test, and calculation of PR with 95% CI. Results: 79.9% of them suffered from a chronic disease. 3.46% had a diagnosis of osteoarthrosis, being significantly higher (p <0.05) in those who had spent between 21 and 30 years performing their profession (PR=5,62.CI:1,20;26,34). The prevalence of osteoarthrosis was also higher in; >45 years (PR=2.26), women (PR=4,44), sedentary workers (PR=1,71), obese (PR=3,40), as well as those who had been brick-layers (PR=1,30), in those who had semi-stationary sales positions (PR=2,21), they sold harvest and perishable products (PR=1,78), in those who worked> 8 hours a day (PR:2,77), ≤ 5 days a week (PR=3,10), they did not have enough space to move (PR = 2.08), and in those who had forced postures or movements (PR=2,72). Conclusion: sociodemographic and work factors, habits and modifiable lifestyles are related to a higher prevalence of osteoarthrosis in this working population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis , Working Conditions , Habits , Life Style , Posture , Work , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Commerce , Diagnosis , Occupational Groups
15.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 21-27, ene.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280489

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar la tendencia de la incidencia de cáncer de cuello uterino invasivo en mujeres entre 20 y 39 años en Manizales, Colombia, 2003-2018. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, de base poblacional. Se evaluaron las tendencias temporales en la incidencia (con referencia a Población Segi, por 100.000 mujeres/año) utilizando la regresión de Joinpoint (Joint Point Regression Program v. 4.7.0.0 del National Cancer Institute de los EEUU) para estimar los cambios porcentuales anuales y años de variación significativa en las tendencias. Resultados: Se realizó el estudio con un total de 116 pacientes, cuya edad promedio al momento del diagnóstico fue 33.7 años. Sólo se hallaron 3 casos de cáncer invasivo en mujeres entre 20 y 25 años. El mayor número de casos se presentó en el grupo de mujeres de 35 a 39 años. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el carcinoma escamocelular. El 45.6% de los casos se diagnosticaron en etapas tempranas. El Cambio Porcentual Anual Promedio calculado mediante el modelo de regresión Joinpoint mostró un descenso de 7,9% en la tasa de incidencia entre 2003 y 2018, con un punto de quiebre en el año 2010. Conclusiones: El cáncer de cuello uterino en Manizales tiene escasa frecuencia en mujeres menores de 25 años y para edades entre 20 y 39 años muestra una tendencia a la disminución en el tiempo, en particular desde el año 2010 en adelante.


Abstract Objective: This article analyzes the invasive uterine cancer occurrences in women between 20 and 39 years old in Manizales, Colombia, 2003-2018. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, population-based study. Temporary trends of occurrences were evaluated (as referring to Population Segi, per 100,000 women / year) by using the Joinpoint regression (Joint Point Regression Program v. 4.7.0.0 of the National Cancer Institute of the USA), in order to estimate annual percentage changes and number of years of significant variation in trends. Results: The study was carried out with a total of 116 patients, whose average age at the time of diagnosis was 33.7 years. Only 3 invasive cancer cases were found in women between the ages of 20 and 25. The greatest number of cases occurred in the group of women between 35 and 39 years old. The most frequent histological type was squamous cell carcinoma. 45.6% of cases were diagnosed in early stages. The Average Annual Percentage Change calculated using the Joinpoint regression model showed a 7.9% decrease in the incidence rate between 2003 and 2018, with a breaking point in 2010. Conclusions: Cervical cancer in Manizales is infrequent in women under the age of 25; and, for ages between 20 and 39, it has shown a tendency to decrease over time, particularly from 2010 onwards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Uterine Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Colombia , Diagnosis , Joints , Methods , Neoplasms
16.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(3): 231-238, mayo-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341290

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los sistemas dinámicos y la geometría fractal han sido el sustrato para el advenimiento de una ley matemática aplicada al diagnóstico de la dinámica cardíaca en 21 horas. Objetivo: Confirmar la aplicabilidad clínica de la ley matemática exponencial en 16 horas a partir de un estudio de concordancia diagnóstica frente a la norma de referencia. Materiales y método: Se realizó un estudio con 250 registros electrocardiográficos continuos y ambulatorios; 50 pertenecían a pacientes normales y 200 a pacientes con diversas enfermedades cardíacas. Se simuló la secuencia de frecuencias cardíacas y se construyeron los atractores correspondientes. Se calculó la dimensión fractal y la ocupación del atractor en el espacio generalizado de box-counting. Por último, se estableció el diagnóstico fisicomatemático en 16 y 21 horas y se efectuó la validación estadística. Resultados: Los espacios de ocupación para normalidad en la rejilla pequeña se encontraron entre 205 y 372, y entre 56 y 201 para dinámicas patológicas, lo cual permitió evidenciar la capacidad del método para diferenciar normalidad de enfermedad a través de la ocupación espacial de los atractores con base en la ley matemática en 16 horas. Se hallaron valores de sensibilidad y especificidad del 100% y un coeficiente kappa del orden de 1, luego de comparar el diagnóstico fisicomatemático frente a la norma de referencia. Conclusión: La ley matemática exponencial en 16 horas demostró su utilidad como herramienta de ayuda diagnóstica y predictiva, lo cual permitió diferenciar normalidad y estados evolutivos hacia enfermedad y agudización.


Abstract Introduction: Dynamic systems and fractal geometry have been the substrate for the rising of a mathematical law applied to the diagnosis of cardiac dynamics in 21 hours. Objective: To confirm the clinical applicability of the exponential mathematical law in 16 hours, with a study of diagnostic agreement against the Gold Standard. Materials and method: It was made a study with 250 ambulatory and continuous electrocardiographic recordings, 50 belonged to normal patients and 200 to patients with various cardiac pathologies. The sequence of heart rates was simulated, and attractors were constructed. It was calculated the fractal dimension of the attractor and its occupation in the generalized Box-Counting space. Finally, it was determined the physical-mathematical diagnostic in 16 and 21 hours, and statistical validation was performed. Results: The occupation spaces in the small grid were between 205 and 372 for normality, and between 56 and 201 for pathologic dynamics, which demonstrated the ability of the method to differentiate normal condition from sickness, through spatial occupation of attractors according to mathematical law in 16 hours. There were obtained values of sensitivity and specificity of 100% and Kappa coefficient was 1, after comparing the physic-mathematical analysis against the Gold Standard. Conclusion: The exponential mathematical law in 16 hours proved its utility as diagnostic and predictive tool support, allowing to differentiate normal, developmental stages to disease and exacerbation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dynamic Filters , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Diagnosis
17.
Infectio ; 25(2): 135-137, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250080

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente a quien se le diagnosticó una Infección de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) por la técnica de PCR múltiple y en quién se logró por esta técnica, detectar cuatro agentes diferentes simultáneamente: Neisseria gonorreae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum y Trichomonas vaginalis, situación esta, que no hubiera sido posible utilizando el procedimiento estándar.


Summary Here we report the case of a patient with a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STI) in whom four different agents were detected by a multiple PCR technique: Neisseria gonorreae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum / parvum and Trichomonas vaginalis. This detection of multiple agents would not have been possible using conventional procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Diagnosis , Molecular Biology , Trichomonas vaginalis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Mycoplasma hominis , Methods
18.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 98-114, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252498

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 se transmite principalmente a través de la vía aérea. La media del tiempo desde la exposición hasta la presentación de la sintomatología es de 5 días. Los pacientes infectados pueden permanecer asintomáticos o tener un amplio espectro de manifestaciones como: fiebre, tos seca y malestar general. Aproximadamente, el 20% de pacientes con la COVID-19 requiere hospitalización (10% en área general, el 5% requiere cuidados intermedios y el 5% restante ingresa a cuidados intensivos debido a su estado de gravedad). Los exámenes de laboratorio y radiológicos muestran anomalías de común presentación, pero inespecíficas. El diagnóstico es a través de la prueba de reacción en cadena de polimerasa de transcripción inversa cuando detecta SARS CoV-2. El objetivo de la revisión que se presenta es sintetizar elementos importantes relacionados con la fisiolopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y diagnóstico de la COVID-19.


SARS CoV-2 is transmitted primarily through the airway. The mean time from exposure to presentation of symptoms is 5 days. Infected patients can remain asymptomatic or have a wide spectrum of manifestations such as: fever, dry cough, and general malaise. Approximately 20% of patients with COVID-19 require hospitalization (10% in the general area, 5% require inter-mediate care, and the remaining 5% enter intensive care due to their serious condition). Labora-tory and radiological examinations show common but nonspecific abnormalities. Diagnosis is through the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test when it detects SARS CoV-2. This systematic review aimed to synthesize important elements related to the physiopathology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pathology , Coronavirus Infections , Natural History , Patients , Signs and Symptoms , Diagnosis
19.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(2): 45-38, may. 26, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283238

ABSTRACT

En El Salvador a la fecha, la técnica utilizada por el sistema nacional de salud para la obtención de la muestra para realizar PCR para SARS-CoV-2 es hisopado nasofaríngeo, diferentes investigadores han descrito la muestra de saliva como una muestra biológica útil para la detección de SARS-Cov-2, por esta razón se observa la oportunidad de aplicarla como una alternativa disponible para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Evaluar la autotoma de muestra de saliva y secreción nasofaríngea por pacientes no hospitalizados como una alternativa de menor riesgo biológico y de menor costo que los hisopados nasofaríngeos convencionales. Se procesaron las muestras de una mezcla de saliva y secreción faríngea obtenida por carraspeo autotomada por el paciente; la amplificación se realizó por RT-qPCR de los genes E y RdRp. Las muestras positivas se reevaluaron desde su extracción para confirmar la estabilidad de material genético de SARS-CoV-2 en la saliva y secreción nasofaríngea. Resultados. El promedio de resultados positivos fue de 7,05 por cada 100 pruebas COVID-19 realizadas con hisopado, este resultado es similar al 8 % de positividad durante el mismo período de estudio utilizando como muestra saliva y secreción faríngea autotomada por el paciente. Las ocho muestras positivas mantuvieron su reactividad para los genes E y RdRp al primer, tercer y quinto mes posdiagnóstico inicial para los dos protocolos utilizados. De igual forma, los eluidos de ARN positivos iniciales se mantuvieron positivos al primer, tercer y quinto mes. Conclusión. La muestra de saliva y secreción faríngea y su utilización para el diagnóstico de infección por SARSCoV-2 podría ser una alternativa de bajo costo, no invasiva, al menos de igual utilidad que el hisopado nasofaríngeo para el estudio de población sintomática ambulatoria o con exposición a nivel comunitario


In El Salvador to date, the technique used by the national health system to obtain the sample to perform PCR for SARS-CoV-2 is nasopharyngeal swab, different researchers have described the saliva sample as a useful biological sample for the detection of SARS-Cov-2, for this reason the opportunity to apply it as an available alternative for the diagnosis of this disease is observed. To evaluate self-sampling of saliva and nasopharyngeal secretion by non-hospitalized patients as an alternative with lower biological risk and lower cost than conventional nasopharyngeal swabs. Samples of a mixture of saliva and pharyngeal secretion obtained by clearing the patient's throat were processed; amplification was carried out by RT-qPCR of the E and RdRp genes. Positive samples were re-evaluated from extraction to confirm the stability of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in saliva and nasopharyngeal secretion. Results. The average of positive results was 7.05 per 100 COVID-19 tests performed with swabs, this result is similar to the 8% positivity during the same study period using saliva and pharyngeal secretion self-collected by the patient as a sample. The eight positive samples maintained their reactivity for the E and RdRp genes at the first, third and fifth month after initial diagnosis for the two protocols used. Similarly, the initial positive RNA eluates remained positive at the first, third, and fifth months. Conclution. The sample of saliva and pharyngeal secretion and its use for the diagnosis of infection by SARSCoV-2 could be a low-cost, non-invasive alternative, at least as useful as the nasopharyngeal swab for the study of the outpatient symptomatic population or those with exposure to community level


Subject(s)
Saliva , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , Diagnosis
20.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 267-274, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Brazilian students' mathematical achievement was repeatedly observed to fall below average levels of mathematical attainment in international studies such as PISA. Objective: In this article, we argue that this general low level of mathematical attainment may interfere with the diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia when a psychometric criterion is used establishing an arbitrary cut-off (e.g., performance<percentile 10) may result in misleading diagnoses. Methods: Therefore, the present study evaluated the performance of 706 Brazilian school children from 3rd to 5th grades on basic arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Results: In line with PISA results, children presented difficulties in all arithmetic operations investigated. Even after five years of formal schooling, less than half of 5th graders performed perfectly on simple addition, subtraction, or multiplication problems. Conclusions: As such, these data substantiate the argument that the sole use of a psychometric criterion might not be sensible to diagnose dyscalculia in the context of a generally low performing population, such as Brazilian children of our sample. When the majority of children perform poorly on the task at hand, it is hard to distinguish atypical from typical numerical development. As such, other diagnostic approaches, such as Response to Intervention, might be more suitable in such a context.


RESUMO. O desempenho em matemática dos estudantes brasileiros mostra-se consistentemente abaixo da média mundial em estudos internacionais como o PISA. Objetivo: No presente artigo, argumenta-se que um baixo desempenho geral na matemática, a exemplo dos estudantes brasileiros, pode interferir no diagnóstico de discalculia do desenvolvimento quando um critério puramente psicométrico é usado para estabelecer um ponto de corte arbitrário (por exemplo, desempenho<percentil 10), o que pode resultar em falsos diagnósticos. Métodos: Para tanto, investigou-se o desempenho de 706 estudantes brasileiros do 3º ao 5º ano escolar em operações aritméticas básicas de adição, subtração e multiplicação. Resultados: De forma consistente com os resultados do PISA, as crianças apresentaram dificuldades em todas as operações aritméticas investigadas. Mesmo após cinco anos de escolarização formal, menos da metade dos estudantes do 5º ano foi capaz de completar a tarefa envolvendo cálculos simples de adição, subtração ou multiplicação. Conclusões: Dessa forma, os resultados reforçam o argumento de que o uso exclusivo de um critério psicométrico pode não ser apropriado para o diagnóstico de discalculia no contexto de uma população com desempenho geral baixo, como no caso crianças brasileiras da presente amostra. Quando a maioria das crianças tem um desempenho aquém do esperado, torna-se difícil distinguir o desenvolvimento numérico atípico do típico. Portanto, outras abordagens diagnósticas, como Resposta à Intervenção, podem ser mais adequadas em tal contexto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Dyscalculia , Learning Disabilities , Mathematics
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