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1.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 97-100, 2023.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411350

ABSTRACT

Introduction. La maladie hémorroïdaire interne est la plus fréquente des affections proctologiques et constitue un motif extrêmement répandu de consultation en proctologie. L'objectif de ce travail était de décrire les aspects cliniques de la maladie hémorroïdaire interne à l'hôpital du district de la commune IV de Bamako. Patients et méthodes. Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale descriptive sur un groupe de malades vus en consultation à l'unité de Gastro-entérologie de l'hôpital du district de la commune IV de Bamako. Entre le 1er Novembre 2019 et le 31 Octobre 2020, le recrutement des patients a été réalisé. Les variables recueillies étaient les données sociodémographiques (âge, sexe, profession), les symptômes anaux (saignement anal, douleur anale, suintements muco-glaireux, prurit anal), les facteurs de risque (les troubles du transit intestinal, la période du troisième trimestre de la grossesse, l'accouchement, le post-partum immédiat), les stades de la maladie hémorroïdaire interne, les autres pathologies anales associées, les complications, l'hémogramme. Résultats. Durant la période d'étude, 128 patients ont été vus en consultation parmi lesquels 85 avaient une maladie hémorroïdaire interne, soit une fréquence de 66,40%. La procidence hémorroïdaire a été observée chez 18,8% de nos patients. En fonction de son degré, le grade I représentait 34,1%, le grade II 55,3%, le grade III 9,4% et le grade IV 1,2%. Conclusion. Cette première étude réalisée sur la maladie hémorroïdaire interne à l'hôpital du district de la commune IV de Bamako montre que la maladie hémorroïdaire interne est l'affection proctologique la plus fréquente.


Introduction. Internal haemorrhoidal disease is the most common proctological condition and is an extremely common reason of consultation in proctology. The objective of this work was to describe the clinical aspects of internal haemorrhoidal disease in the district hospital of the commune IV of Bamako. Patients and methods. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on a cohort of patients seen in consultation at the Gastroenterology Unit of the District Hospital of Bamako's commune IV. The recruitment was carried out between November 1, 2019 and October 31, 2020. The variables of study were socio-demographic data (age, sex, profession), anal symptoms (anal bleeding, anal pain, muco-glue oozing, anal pruritus), risk factors (intestinal transit disorders, third trimester of pregnancy, childbirth, immediate postpartum), stages of internal haemorrhoidal disease, other associated anal pathologies, complications, blood count. Results. During the study period, 128 patients were seen in consultation, among whom 85 had internal haemorrhoidal disease (66.40%). Hemorrhoidal procidence was found in 18.8% of patients. Concerning the severity, grade I represented 34.1%, grade II 55.3%, grade III 9.4% and grade IV 1.2%. Conclusion. This pioneer study on internal haemorrhoidal disease in the district hospital of commune IV of Bamako (Mali) showed that internal hemorrhoidal disease is the most common proctological condition in Bamako.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain , Signs and Symptoms, Digestive , Diagnosis , Hemorrhoids , Referral and Consultation
2.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 43-46, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411401

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Ces vingt dernières années, on assiste à une augmentation spectaculaire du nombre de cas de diabète de type 1 avec une mortalité plus élevée en Afrique Noire en lien avec les difficultés d'accès aux soins, à la rupture de suivi engendrant un nombre élevé de perdus de vue. L'objectif du travail est de déterminer le profil épidémiologique des enfants diabétiques perdus de vue dans notre pratique. Patients et méthodes. C'est une étude transversale à visée descriptive et analytique qui a concerné les enfants diabétiques perdus de vue de 2002 à 2019 dans le service de diabétologie du CHU de Yopougon. Résultats. Durant l'étude 195 enfants ont été suivi dans le service, 90 ont été considérés comme perdus de vue soit une fréquence de 46,15 %. L'âge moyen des perdus de vue était de 14,6 ± 5,3 avec des extrêmes allant de 2 à 20 ans. Ils sont majoritairement de sexe F dans 50,6 %. Dans 37 % on retrouve un niveau socio-économique faible calculé selon l'indice IPSE avec une association statistiquement significative entre les classes socio-économiques moyenneinferieure et moyenne (p respectivement < 0,01 et 0,001). La plupart des perdus (84,5 %) n'ont pas d'assurance maladie. Le lieu de résidence était urbain (Abidjan) dans 73 %. Ils ont issus d'une famille biparentale dans 79 ,8 % des cas. Une association statistiquement significative a été retrouvée entre la non-scolarisation et la perte de vue (P < 0,05).Conclusion. Le manque de suivi chez les enfants diabétiques a des conséquences drastiques sur le pronostic de la maladie au long cours, marqué par une mortalité de 11 % qui touche essentiellement les populations à revenu faible


Introduction. Over the past twenty years, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of cases of type 1 diabetes with a higher mortality rate in Black Africa due to difficulties in accessing care but also a lack of follow-up resulting in a high number of people being lost to follow-up. Our work aims to determine the epidemiological profile of diabetic children lost to follow-up. Patients and methods. This was a cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical aims which concerned diabetic children lost to follow-up from 2002 to 2019 in the diabetes department of the University Hospital of Yopougon. Results. During the study period, 195 children were followed up in the department, 90 were considered as lost to follow-up, i.e. a frequency of 46.15%. The average age of the lost to follow-up was 14.6 ± 5.3 years with extremes ranging from 2 to 20 years. The majority of them were male (50.6%). Thirty-seven percent had a low socioeconomic level calculated according to the IPSE index, with a statistically significant association between the lowermiddle and middle socioeconomic classes (p < 0.01 and 0.001 respectively). Most of the lost (84.5%) did not have health insurance. The place of residence was urban (Abidjan) in 73%. They came from a two-parent family in 79.8% of cases. A statistically significant association was found between non-education and loss of sight (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The lack of follow-up in diabetic children has drastic consequences on the prognosis of the disease in the long term marked by a mortality of 11% which affects mainly low-income populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Epidemiology , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Lost to Follow-Up , Social Class , Continuity of Patient Care
3.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 101(1): 10-19, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411560

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the financial and time cost of breast cancer biomarker analysis by immunohistochemistry with that by the Xpert® STRAT4 assay. Methods We estimated costs (personnel, location, consumables and indirect) and time involved in breast cancer diagnosis at the Butaro Cancer Centre of Excellence, Rwanda, using time-driven activity-based costing. We performed a cost-minimization analysis to compare the cost of biomarker analysis for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status with immunohistochemistry versus STRAT4. We performed sensitivity analyses by altering laboratory-specific parameters for the two methods. Findings We estimated that breast cancer diagnosis in Rwanda costs 138.29 United States dollars (US$) per patient when conducting biomarker analysis by immunohistochemistry. At a realistic immunohistochemistry antibody utilization efficiency of 70%, biomarker analysis comprises 48.7% (US$ 67.33) of diagnostic costs and takes 33 min. We determined that biomarker analysis with STRAT4 yields a reduction in diagnosis cost of US$ 7.33 (10.9%; 7.33/67.33), and in pathologist and technician time of 20 min (60.6%; 20/33), per patient. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that no cost savings would be made in laboratories with antibody utilization efficiencies over 90%, or where only estrogen and/or progesterone receptor status are assessed; however, such operational efficiencies are unlikely, and more laboratories are pursuing human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 analysis as targeted therapies become increasingly available. Conclusion Breast cancer biomarker analysis with STRAT4 has the potential to reduce the required human and capital resources in subSaharan African laboratories, leading to improved treatment selection and better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis , RNA, Messenger , Estrogens , Pathology, Molecular , Genetics
4.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 113(1): 42-48, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1412828

ABSTRACT

Background. Epilepsy is often diagnosed through clinical description, but inter-observer interpretations can be diverse and misleading. Objective. To assess the utility of smartphone videos in the diagnosis of paediatric epilepsy.Methods. The literature was reviewed for evidence to support the use of smartphone videos, inclusive of advantages, ethical practice and potential disadvantages. An existing adult-based quality of video (QOV) scoring tool was adapted for use in children. A pilot study used convenience sampling of videos from 25 patients, which were reviewed to assess the viability of the adapted QOV tool against the subsequent diagnosis for the patients with videos. The referral mechanism of the videos was reviewed for the source and consent processes followed. Results. A total of 14 studies were identified. Methodologies varied; only three focused on videos of children, and QOV was formally scored in three. Studies found that smartphone videos of good quality assisted the differentiation of epilepsy from non-epileptic events, especially with accompanying history and with more experienced clinicians. The ethics and risks of circulation of smartphone videos were briefly considered in a minority of the reports. The pilot study found that the adapted QOV tool correlated with videos of moderate and high quality and subsequent diagnostic closure.Conclusions. Data relating to the role of smartphone video of events in children is lacking, especially from low- and middle-income settings. Guidelines for caregivers to acquire good-quality videos are not part of routine practice. The ethical implications of transfer of sensitive material have not been adequately addressed for this group. Prospective multicentre studies are needed to formally assess the viability of the adapted QOV tool for paediatric videos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Seizures , Cell Phone , Epilepsy , Smartphone , Video Recording , Diagnosis
5.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 018-029, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402658

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en Paraguay es del 58 % en la población adulta, y 34,5 % en niños y adolescentes. Para enfrentar esta situación existen varios tratamientos, siendo el quirúrgico el medio terapéutico actual que permite obtener la mayor pérdida de peso y por tiempo más prolongado. Objetivo: describir la morbimortalidad de las cirugías bariátricas en el Hospital Nacional de Itauguá en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2017 y setiembre 2021. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo de corte transversal, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de obesidad que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico entre enero 2017 a setiembre del 2021. Se recabaron 126 historias clínicas, 121 de ellos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: de 121 pacientes, 82 % eran mujeres y 18 % hombres, con una edad media de 37 años. Se realizó una gastrectomía vertical en 68 % y by-pass gástrico en 21 %, con una estadía hospitalaria promedio de 61 h. La fístula fue la complicación postoperatoria más frecuente (7 %) seguida de la dehiscencia de anastomosis (2 %). La morbilidad de la cirugía bariátrica fue 11 %, con una mortalidad del 1 %. Conclusión: la morbilidad de la cirugía bariátrica en el Hospital Nacional de Itauguá es baja, con una mortalidad aceptable. La técnica más realizada es la gastrectomía vertical y la fístula es la complicación más común.


Introduction: the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Paraguay is 58 % in the adult population, and 34.5 % in children and adolescents. There are several treatments to deal with these conditions, with surgery being the current therapeutic option that allows for the greatest weight loss and for the longest time. Objective: to describe the morbidity and mortality of bariatric procedures at the Hospital Nacional, Itauguá from January 2017 to September 2021. Metodology: descriptive, observational, retrospective cross-sectional study, with a non- probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases of all patients diagnosed with obesity who received surgical treatment between January 2017 and September, 2021. 126 medical records were collected, 121 of them met the inclusion criteria. Results: of 121 patients, 82 % were women and 18 % men, with a mean age of 37 years. Vertical gastrectomy was performed in 68 % and gastric bypass in 21 %, with an average hospital stay of 61 hours. Fistula was the most frequent postoperative complication (7 %) followed by anastomosis dehiscence (2 %). The morbidity of bariatric surgery was 11 %, with a mortality of 1 %. Conclusion: the morbidity of bariatric surgery at the Hospital Nacional, Itauguá is low, with an acceptable mortality rate. The most common technique is sleeve gastrectomy and fistula is the most common complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Morbidity , Mortality , Overweight , Bariatric Surgery , Length of Stay , Obesity , Paraguay/epidemiology , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Prevalence , Diagnosis , Fistula
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411338

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: avaliar a prevalência do risco da Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono e seus fatores associados em idosos da comunidade atendidos em uma academia-escola universitária. Métodos: trata-se de estudo epidemiológico transversal, realizado com idosos participantes do Projeto da Terceira Idade da Universidade de Rio Verde, realizado entre abril e maio de 2019. A coleta de dados foi executada por meio da aplicação de questionário composto por avaliação sociodemográfica, antropométrica, das condições prévias de saúde, de autopercepção de saúde, de sonolência diurna excessiva, da qualidade do sono, além da avaliação de risco para desenvolver Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono. Resultados: entre os 75 indivíduos analisados, 50,7% apresentaram risco de Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono. Obesidade (p=0,001), aumento da circunferência de pescoço (p=0,004), baixo nível socioeconômico (p=0,034), baixa qualidade do sono (p=0,007) e sonolência diurna excessiva (p=0,006) apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com o diagnóstico da Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono. Conclusão: a maior parte dos indivíduos avaliados apresentou algum grau da Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono. Sugere-se que aqueles idosos que apresentaram algum dos fatores associados a esta condição possam passar por avaliação específica, como a polissonografia, e a criação de medidas para que a promoção da reduçã o de peso seja imediatamente instituída a fim de minimizar os riscos, a piora da síndrome bem como suas possíveis complicações.


Objectives: to evaluate the prevalence of the risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and its associated factors in elderly individuals from the community who attended a University School Academy. Methods: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out with elderly participants of the Third Age Project at the University of Rio Verde, conducted between April and May 2019. Data collection was performed through the application of a questionnaire composed of sociodemographic, anthropometric assessment, previous health conditions, self-perception of health, excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep quality, in addition to risk assessment for developing Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Results: among the 75 individuals analyzed, 50.7% were at risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Obesity (p=0.001), increased neck circumference (p=0.004), low socioeconomic status (p=0.034), poor sleep quality (p=0.007), and excessive daytime sleepiness (p=0.006) were statistically associated with the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Conclusion: most of the evaluated individuals presented some degree of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, it is suggested that those elderly individuals who presented any of the factors associated with this condition may undergo specific evaluation, such as polysomnography, and the creation of measures for weight reduction promotion is immediately instituted in order to minimize the risks, the worsening of the syndrome as well as its possible complications.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep , Social Class , Syndrome , World Health Organization , Aged , Weight Loss , Diagnosis , Sleep Quality
7.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405588

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En Costa Rica la elaboración del expediente odontológico o ficha clínica no se realiza de manera habitual en todos los pacientes como ocurre en muchos países donde es exigido por ley. La realización del expediente únicamente está normada en el Código de Ética del Colegio de Cirujanos Dentistas de Costa Rica, es decir que no realizarlo se considera una falta ético-disciplinaria con pocas repercusiones para la persona profesional; sin embargo, tiene consecuencias graves en los esfuerzos para identificar a un ser humano. Este estudio tiene como propósito describir el impacto de la ausencia o la mala calidad de datos odontológicos antemortem en los casos de identificación realizados por la Unidad de Odontología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal en un período de casi ocho años (2015-2022). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión detallada en la base de datos del Sistema de Medicina Legal (SIMEL) del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de la totalidad de solicitudes de interconsulta de la Sección de Patología Forense desde enero de 2015 hasta agosto de 2022. La información recopilada fue tabulada en Excel e incluyó tanto los resultados del análisis pericial como las características de la información antemortem disponible. Resultados: El análisis de los datos permitió determinar que en un período de casi 8 años se realizaron 165 valoraciones con fines de identificación, de las cuales se identificaron positivamente 51 individuos, 9 casos presentaron información insuficiente y 105 no contaban con expediente odontológico. Conclusiones: el expediente odontológico completo es indispensable para lograr una identificación positiva, un expediente incompleto o inexistente anula la posibilidad de identificar a un ser humano. La necesidad de contar con legislación que convierta la realización y preservación de los expedientes odontológicos de forma obligatoria con fines de identificación es necesaria en Costa Rica.


Abstract Introduction: In Costa Rica the elaboration of dental records or clinical files is not performed routinely in all patients as it is required by law in many countries. The completion of the dental record is only regulated by the Code of Ethics of the Colegio de Cirujanos Dentistas de Costa Rica (Board of Dental Surgeons of Costa Rica), which means that failure to do so is considered an ethical-disciplinary offense with few consequences for the professional; however, it has serious consequences in the efforts to identify a person. This study aims to describe the impact of the absence or poor quality of antemortem data in identification cases performed by the Forensic Odontology Unit of the Department of Legal Medicine over a period of almost eight years (2015-2022). Materials and Methods: A detailed review was performed in the database of the Forensic Medicine System (SIMEL) of the Legal Medicine Department of the Judicial Investigation Organism of the totality of interconsultation requests of the Forensic Pathology Section from January 2015 to August 2022. The information collected was tabulated in Excel and included both the results of the expert analysis and the characteristics of the available antemortem information. Results: The analysis of the data made it possible to determine that in a period of almost 8 years 165 assessments were carried out for identification purposes, of which 51 individuals were identified, 9 cases presented insufficient information and 105 had no dental files. Conclusions: A complete dental record is indispensable for a positive identification; an incomplete or non-existent record nullifies the possibility of identifying a human being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forensic Anthropology , Forensic Dentistry , Forms and Records Control , Costa Rica , Diagnosis
8.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361739

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: contribuir para a compreensão do desenvolvimento histórico do conceito de ansiedade, das classificações dos transtornos ansiosos e suas manifestações clínicas, bem como para a atualização sobre o processo de avaliação diagnóstica. Métodos: todas as edições das classificações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) - CID e da Associação Psiquiátrica Americana (APA) - DSM foram examinadas, além de livros-texto de referência de psiquiatria clínica, de publicações sobre a história e a evolução desses diagnósticos e de publicações produzidas pelas equipes responsáveis pela revisão das classificações atuais. Resultados: entende-se por ansiedade um estado afetivo normal, como um sintoma ou um termo para nomear um grupo de transtornos mentais. Nas primeiras e subsequentes edições das classificações da OMS e da APA, entre 1948 e 1975, os quadros ansiosos faziam parte do grupo das psiconeurose/neuroses. A partir do DSM-III (1980), o grupo das neuroses foi fragmentado em diversos outros, entre os quais os transtornos de ansiedade, o que foi seguido pela CID-10 (1992), apesar de alguma distinção na composição dos subtipos. Para as últimas versões, houve um empenho de compatibilização entre as duas, contudo restaram diferenças: o DSM-5 (2013) adota critérios diagnósticos; a CID-11 (2019) utiliza descrições clínicas e diretrizes diagnósticas, além de abordagens dimensionais para alguns transtornos. Conclusão: ocorreram modificações nas classificações psiquiátricas atuais, no grupo dos transtornos de ansiedade, que precisam ser disseminadas e agregadas a estratégias de formação e qualificação profissionais, incrementando habilidades diagnósticas e permitindo uma comunicação mais uniforme e precisa na prática clínica.


Objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the historical development of the concept of anxiety, the classifications of anxiety disorders and their clinical manifestations, as well as to update on the diagnostic evaluation process. Methods: all editions of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO) - ICD and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) - DSM were examined, in addition to reference textbooks on clinical psychiatry, publications on the history and evolution of these diagnoses, and scientific articles produced by the teams responsible for reviewing the current classifications. Results: anxiety is understood as a normal affective state, as a symptom, or as a term to name a group of mental disorders. In the first and subsequent editions of the WHO and APA classifications, between 1948 and 1975, anxiety disorders were part of the psychoneuroses/neuroses group. As of DSM-III (1980) onwards, the neuroses group was fragmented into several others, including anxiety disorders, which was followed by ICD-10 (1992), despite some different choices of subtypes. For the latest versions, there was a compatibility effort between them. However, differences remained: DSM-5 (2013) adopts diagnostic criteria; ICD-11 (2019) uses clinical description and diagnostic guidelines, in addition to dimensional approaches for some disorders. Conclusion: modifications have occurred in current psychiatric classifications, in the group of anxiety disorders, which need to be disseminated and added to professional training and qualification strategies, increasing diagnostic skills and providing for more uniform and accurate communication in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Psychiatry , Health , Health Strategies , Diagnosis , History , Mental Disorders
9.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 24(2): 19-42, out. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1412873

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: avaliar o funcionamento psicodinâmico de pacientes pós-tentativa de suicídio através do Diagnóstico Psicodinâmico Operacionalizado (OPD-2) e de outros instrumentos complementares. MÉTODOS: estudo de caso utilizando métodos mistos de análise (quali-quantitativa). Os pacientes foram avaliados em follow up 3 anos após a primeira entrevista (que ocorreu logo após a tentativa de suicídio), e dois deles concordaram em participar do follow up. RESULTADOS: observou-se nível moderado de funcionamento global nos pacientes. Os conflitos psíquicos com maior prevalência foram o de 'autoestima' e 'necessidade de ser cuidado' versus 'autossuficiência'. Em suas relações, mostraram-se dependentes, impulsivos e exigentes, o que ocasiona sensação constante de abandono. Nessa perspectiva, o medo de ser abandonado faz com que se distanciem e se isolem. Os fatores protetivos de tendências suicidas foram a qualidade da rede de apoio (MOS), a maior interação social, a maior estabilidade do self, o nível de defesas maduras e o tratamento em saúde mental posterior à alta hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: o OPD-2 demonstrou-se um instrumento apropriado para uma ampla compreensão psicológica de pessoas que tiveram tentativas de suicídio.(AU)


OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the psychodynamic functioning of patients after suicide attempts through the Operationalization Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) and other complementary instruments. METHODS: case study using mixed methods of analysis (quali-quantitative). Patients were evaluated in follow up 3 years after the first interview (which occurred shortly after the suicide attempt), and two of them has agreed in participating of the follow up. RESULTS: a moderate level of overall functioning was observed in the patients. The most prevalent psychic conflicts were 'self-esteem' and 'need to be cared for' versus 'self-sufficiency'. In their relationships, they have shown up to be dependent, impulsive and demanding, which causes a constant feeling of abandonment. In this perspective, the fear of being abandoned causes them to distance themselves and be isolated. The protective factors of suicidal tendencies were the quality of the support network (MOS), the greater social interaction, the greater stability of the self, the level of mature defenses and the mental health treatment after hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: OPD-2 proved to be an appropriate instrument for a broad psychological comprehension of people who had suicide attempts.(AU)


OBJETIVO: evaluar el funcionamiento psicodinámico de pacientes tras intentos de suicidio a través del Diagnóstico Psicodinámico Operacionalizado (OPD-2) y otros instrumentos complementarios. MÉTODOS: estudio de caso utilizando métodos mixtos de análisis (cuali-cuantitativo). Los pacientes fueron evaluados en el seguimiento 3 años después de la primera entrevista (que ocurrió poco después del intento de suicidio), y dos de ellos han aceptado participar del seguimiento. RESULTADOS: se observó un nivel moderado de funcionamiento general en los pacientes. Los conflictos psíquicos más prevalentes fueron la "autoestima" y la "necesidad de ser atendido" versus la "autosuficiencia". En sus relaciones se han mostrado dependientes, impulsivos y exigentes, lo que provoca un constante sentimiento de abandono. En esta perspectiva, el miedo al abandono hace que se distancien y se aíslen. Los factores protectores de las tendencias suicidas fueron la calidad de la red de apoyo (MOS), la mayor interacción social, la mayor estabilidad del yo, el nivel de defensas maduras y el tratamiento de salud mental tras el alta hospitalaria. CONCLUSIÓN: OPD-2 resultó ser un instrumento apropiado para una amplia comprensión psicológica de las personas que tuvieron intentos de suicidio.(AU)


Subject(s)
Social Support , Suicide, Attempted , Mental Health , Protective Factors , Diagnosis
10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 302-311, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410008

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la exactitud de gota gruesa (GG) frente a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa para la malaria asociada al embarazo (MAE). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de pruebas diagnósticas en nueve bases de datos. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica con QUADAS. Se estimó sensibilidad, especificidad, cociente de probabilidad positivo (CPP) y negativo (CPN), razón de odds diagnóstica (ORD) y área bajo la curva ROC. Se determinó la heterogeneidad con el estadístico Q de Der Simonian-Laird y la incertidumbre con el porcentaje de peso de cada estudio sobre el resultado global. Resultados. Se incluyeron diez estudios con 5691 gestantes, 1415 placentas y 84 neonatos. En los estudios con nPCR (PCR anidada) y qPCR (PCR cuantitativa) como estándar, los resultados de exactitud diagnóstica fueron estadísticamente similares, con sensibilidad muy baja (50 y 54%, respectivamente), alta especificidad (99% en ambos casos), alto CPP y deficiente CPN. Usando nPCR la OR diagnóstica fue 162 (IC95%=66-401) y el área bajo la curva ROC fue 95%, mientras que con qPCR fueron 231 (IC95%=27-1951) y 78%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Mediante un protocolo exhaustivo se demostró el bajo desarrollo de investigaciones sobre la exactitud diagnóstica de la GG en MAE. Se demostró que la microscopía tiene un desempeño deficiente para el diagnóstico de infecciones asintomáticas o de baja parasitemia, lo que afianza la importancia de implementar otro tipo de técnicas en el seguimiento y control de las infecciones por malaria en las gestantes, con el fin de lograr el control y posible eliminación de la MAE.


ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the accuracy of thick smear (TS) versus quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Materials and methods. We carried out a systematic review of diagnostic tests in nine databases. Methodological quality was evaluated with QUADAS. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the ROC curve were estimated. Heterogeneity was determined with the Der Simonian-Laird Q method and uncertainty with the weighted percentage of each study on the overall result. Results. We included 10 studies with 5691 pregnant women, 1415 placentas and 84 neonates. In the studies with nested PCR (nPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the standard, the diagnostic accuracy results were statistically similar, with very low sensitivity (50 and 54%, respectively), high specificity (99% in both cases), high PLR and poor NLR. When nPCR was used, the DOR was 162 (95%CI=66-401) and the area under the ROC curve was 95%, while with qPCR it was 231 (95%CI=27-1951) and 78%, respectively. Conclusions. We demonstrated that research on the diagnostic accuracy of TS in PAM is limited. Microscopy showed poor performance in the diagnosis of asymptomatic or low parasitemia infections, which reinforces the importance of implementing other types of techniques for the follow-up and control of malaria infections in pregnant women, in order to achieve the control and possible elimination of PAM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnant Women , Systematic Review , Malaria , Meta-Analysis , Diagnosis , Gout
11.
San Salvador; MINSAL; sept. 23, 2022. 43 p. graf, ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1396975

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos establecen orientaciones para la vigilancia, respuesta, diagnóstico y atención de casos en el marco de la emergencia por viruela símica, basada en las recomendaciones dadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y estará sujeto a actualizaciones acorde a la nueva evidencia que se vaya generando


These guidelines establish guidelines for the surveillance, response, diagnosis and care of cases in the framework of the monkeypox emergency, based on the recommendations given by the World Health Organization, and will be subject to updates according to the new evidence that is generated


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Diagnosis , El Salvador
12.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(2): 155-165, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1395018

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los virus de inmunodeficiencia y leucemia felina representan un problema de gran envergadura para los felinos domésticos debido a la multiplicidad de sintomatologías que manifiestan. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer, retrospectivamente, la prevalencia en la presentación de ViLeF y VIF en pacientes de seis clínicas de pequeños animales en Bogotá y Chía, en relación con factores como su edad, raza y género. Se realizó un estudio transversal y retrospectivo, mediante la recopilación de datos de 1.014 historias clínicas de pacientes felinos que ingresaron a seis clínicas de la ciudad de Bogotá y Chía, para determinar la prevalencia de VIF y ViLeF y la asociación de estas con factores como edad, género y raza, entre 2015 y 2019, a través de la prueba OR. La detección de los virus se realizó mediante una prueba rápida basada en inmunocromatografía. La mayor prevalencia para cada enfermedad por año fue: 12,3% para VIF en 2012 y 18% para ViLeF en 2019. Los machos presentaron mayores seroprevalencias para ambas enfermedades durante la mayoría los años evaluados. Factores como raza (criolla: VIF: 1,85; ViLeF: 2,01), género (macho: VIF: 1,53 OR; ViLeF: 1,64) y edad (> 7 años: VIF: 3,82; ViLeF: 3,21) se relacionaron positivamente con la presentación de ambas enfermedades en la población felina evaluada.


Abstract Immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus represent major problems for domestic felines due to the multiplicity of symptoms they manifest. The objective of the present study was to establish, retrospectively, the prevalence in the presentation of FeLV and FIV in patients from six small animal clinics in Bogota and Chia, related to factors such as age, race, and gender. A cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out, collecting data from 1.014 clinical records of feline patients who were admitted to six clinics in the city of Bogota and Chia, to determine the prevalence of FIV and FeLV and their association with factors such as age, gender, and race, between 2015 and 2019 through the OR test. The detection of the viruses was carried out through a rapid test based on immunochromatography. The highest prevalence for each disease per year was 12,3% for FIV in 2012 and 18% for FeLV in 2019. Males presented higher seroprevalences for both diseases during most of the years evaluated. Factors such as race (Creole: FIV: 1,85; FeLV: 2,01), gender (male: FIV: 1.53 OR, FeLV: 1,64), and age (> 7 years: FIV: 3.82; FeLV: 3.21) were positively related to the presentation of both diseases in the feline population evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Viruses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukemia , Chronic Disease , Disease , Chromatography, Affinity , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline , Leukemia Virus, Feline , Diagnosis , Retroviridae , Hospitals, Animal
13.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 36-39, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396499

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis (OM) es una complicación de las úlceras en pie diabético que habitualmente es subdiagnosticada y tratada en forma tardía e inadecuada. La demora en el tratamiento de estos pacientes aumenta el riesgo de amputación. En esta revisión, se analiza la bibliografía actual acerca del diagnóstico de OM y se realizan recomendaciones en base a la misma, y a las características de los pacientes, los insumos y las posibilidades en nuestro medio.


Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (OM) is a diabetic foot ulcer complication. Usually, it is misdiagnosed and the treatment is delayed and inadequate. Delaying the treatment of these patients rises the risk of amputation. In this revision, current bibliography about this topic is updated and clinical practice recommendations are done, based on the publications and adapted to the characteristics of our country


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis , Biopsy , Diabetic Foot , Diagnosis
14.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ago. 18, 2022. 26 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1402398

ABSTRACT

El Plan nacional de salud visual ha sido desarrollado en colaboración con el Comité Visión 2020, del cual el Ministerio de Salud es el ente rector, junto a diferentes organizaciones públicas y privadas del país y aborda las prioridades para prevenir los factores de riesgo, diagnosticar y brindar tratamiento de las enfermedades que causan deficiencia visual y ceguera prevenible, haciendo para cada una, un análisis de la magnitud del problema, barreras, objetivos y estrategias a ejecutar que deberán integrarse a las diferentes intervenciones que se ejecutan en el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud


The National Visual Health Plan has been developed in collaboration with the Vision 2020 Committee, of which the Ministry of Health is the governing body, together with different public and private organizations in the country and addresses the priorities to prevent risk factors, diagnose and provide treatment for diseases that cause visual impairment and preventable blindness, making for each one, an analysis of the magnitude of the problem, barriers, objectives and strategies to be executed that must be integrated into the different interventions that are carried out in the National Integrated Health System


Subject(s)
Eye Health , Vision Disorders , Health Systems , Risk Factors , Diagnosis , El Salvador
15.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 170-183, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1377465

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La prediabetes es un estado intermedio de hiperglicemia, con una alta prevalencia en la población colombiana. Su relación con enfermedad cardiovascular y complicaciones macro y microvasculares se ha establecido, incrementando la evidencia científica en la literatura reciente. Objetivo: Describir las enfermedades cardiovasculares (complicaciones macrovasculares) relacionadas con prediabetes, su diagnóstico, fisiopatología, el enfoque de manejo y el tratamiento avalado para prevenir estas complicaciones. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, mediante búsqueda de artículos científicos en Medline entre 2015 y 2021. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 83 artículos. Se describe la relación de prediabetes con enfermedad cardiovascular, mortalidad, diagnóstico y tratamiento conforme a la literatura actualizada. Conclusiones: La importancia de la prediabetes radica en su asociación con complicaciones macrovasculares y su mortalidad, lo que pone en evidencia la importancia de estudiarla, seguirla y tratarla para evitar la progresión a diabetes mellitus, el desarrollo de desenlaces que finalizan en aumento de la morbimortalidad, alteración de la calidad de vida e incremento de los costos en salud.


Introduction: Prediabetes is an intermediate state of hyperglycemia with a high prevalence in the Colombian population. The relationship between prediabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as its association with macro and microvascular complications has been established, with scientific evidence increasing in recent literature. Objective: To describe cardiovascular diseases (macrovascular complications) related to prediabetes, their diagnosis, physiopathology, management approach, and treatment to prevent those complications. Materials and methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted, searching for scientific articles in Medline during the 2015-2021 period. Results: 83 articles were selected, which described the relationship between prediabetes with cardiovascular disease, mortality, diagnosis, and treatment based on recent reports. Conclusions: The importance of prediabetes lies in its association with macrovascular complications and its mortality. This association highlights the importance of studying, monitoring, and treating this disease to avoid its progression to diabetes mellitus, the development of outcomes that end in increased morbidity and mortality, diminished quality of life, and increased health care costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Disease , Prediabetic State , Cardiovascular Diseases , Morbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis
16.
San salvador; MINSAL; 3 ed; ago. 17, 2022. 162 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1392944

ABSTRACT

El presente documento integra la información contenida en las tres ediciones de los Lineamientos técnicos para la atención integral de personas con COVID-19. En la primera edición se presentaron, entre otros aspectos, las primeras definiciones de caso, el abordaje inicial del paciente, así como el manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos en caso de complicaciones; la segunda edición incorporó las posibles alternativas de tratamiento medicamentoso, que sin evidencia científica robusta, está siendo utilizado en diferentes sistemas de salud a nivel mundial, para ofrecer una opción de reducción en la mortalidad causada por la enfermedad, tomando en consideración los efectos adversos inherentes al mismo; la tercera edición presentó la sistematización del tratamiento extrahospitalario y hospitalario. En el presente documento se incluye la actualización del manejo hospitalario en adultos, se incorpora un apartado especial sobre la atención del paciente pediátrico, el manejo perioperatorio, el abordaje de las posibles comorbilidades quirúrgicas y el diagnóstico radiológico de imágenes.


This document integrates the information contained in the three editions of the Technical Guidelines for the comprehensive care of people with COVID-19. In the first edition, among other aspects, the first case definitions, the initial approach to the patient, as well as the management in the intensive care unit in case of complications were presented; the second edition incorporated the possible drug treatment alternatives, which, without robust scientific evidence, are being used in different health systems worldwide, to offer an option to reduce mortality caused by the disease, taking into account the inherent adverse effects the same; the third edition presented the systematization of outpatient and hospital treatment. This document includes an update on hospital management in adults, a special section on pediatric patient care, perioperative management, the approach to possible surgical comorbidities, and radiological imaging diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Patient Care , COVID-19 , Patients , Health Systems , El Salvador
17.
Rev. APS ; 25(1): 174-186, 25/07/2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393380

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As massas cervicais são causas frequentes de encaminhamentos aos ambulatórios de otorrinolaringologia, muitas vezes com pouca abordagem na atenção primária à saúde. Sendo assim, a falta de uma rotina de manejo pode deixar o médico assistente inseguro e por vezes confuso quanto ao caminho de investigação a ser seguido, tornando-se necessário elaborar e aplicar uma rotina propedêutica que facilite e direcione o raciocínio clínico para diagnóstico de massas cervicais. Desenvolvimento: Através de revisão da literatura de artigos científicos coletados nos portais Medline, Lilacse PubMed,utilizando descritores específicos como: necklump; head and neck cancer; epidemiology of head and neck cancere consulta à literatura médica específica, foi elaborado um fluxograma para diagnóstico inicial das massas cervicais. Conclusão: Os autores elaboraram um fluxograma para a investigação e diagnóstico das massas cervicais de fácil memorização e aplicabilidade, adequado às condições estruturais de instituições públicas, e visando melhor atendimento, minimização de riscos, bem como qualificação dos profissionais. O fluxograma proposto visa ao diagnóstico diferencial entre doenças malignas e benignas, focando o que pode ser feito em nível de atenção primária à saúde.


Introduction: Neck masses are frequent causes of referrals to otorhinolaryngology clinics, often with a little approach in primary health care. Therefore, the lack of a usual approach can make the attending physician unsafe and prone to error, thus, it is necessary toelaborate a propaedeutic routine for the diagnosis of neck masses. Development: From a literature review of scientific articles collected on Medline, Lilacsand PubMedportals using specific descriptors such as: neck lump; head and neck cancer; epidemiology of head and neck cancer and using specific medical literature, a flowchart had been prepared for initial diagnosis of neck masses. Conclusion: The authors sought a practical form, easy to remember and applicable, appropriate to public institutions, aiming for better care, minimizing risks as well as the qualifications of professionals, targeting on the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign diseases, and what can be done at primary level of health care.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms
19.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(2): 133-138, jul. 22, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1380068

ABSTRACT

Las disautonomías son el resultado de un mal funcionamiento del sistema nervioso autónomo, entre las cuales se encuentra el síndrome de taquicardia ortostática postural, un problema de salud variable y complejo que tiene una prevalencia considerable, principalmente en adolescentes y mujeres. Este produce una amplia variedad de signos y síntomas que son similares a los de otras patologías, lo que, sumado a la falta de pruebas diagnósticas específicas, muchas veces retrasa el diagnóstico. A pesar de la existencia de criterios estandarizados para determinar la presencia del síndrome, existe aún una brecha en el conocimiento acerca del mismo. Esto dificulta el abordaje del padecimiento y, por consiguiente, su tratamiento oportuno. Conocer más sobre este síndrome y los factores que dificultan su diagnóstico temprano permitiría mejorar la atención de los pacientes y su calidad de vida


Dysautonomias are the result of a malfunction of the autonomic nervous system, among which is the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, a variable and complex health problem that has a considerable prevalence, mainly in adolescents and women. It produces a wide variety of signs and symptoms that are similar to those of other pathologies, which, added to the lack of specific diagnostic tests, often delays diagnosis. Despite the existence of standardized criteria to determine the presence of the syndrome, there is still a gap in knowledge about it. This hinders the approach to the condition and, consequently, its timely treatment. Understanding more about this syndrome and the factors that hinder its early diagnosis would improve patient care and quality of life


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System , Diagnosis , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Tachycardia , El Salvador , Primary Dysautonomias
20.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(2): 153-158, jul. 22, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1380076

ABSTRACT

La caries dental es un problema de salud pública que para el año 2016 afectaba a 3500 millones de personas. En los menores de seis años, la progresión de la lesión es más rápida, exponiéndolos a la caries de la temprana infancia y pérdidas dentales prematuras. Determinar el estado de salud/enfermedad del componente bucal de niños de parvularia de un centro escolar con vulnerabilidad social y económica del municipio de San Salvador, en el año 2018, según el índice y la prevalencia de la enfermedad de caries dental. El estudio es descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal, prospectivo. Las unidades de análisis son niños de cuatro y cinco años de edad, respetando todos los aspectos éticos y la confidencialidad. Se tomó el total del universo, conformado por 96 niños. Resultados. La frecuencia de caries dental en la población en estudio es del 95 %, el índice de dientes cariados, extraídos y obturados es de 6,38, que según la Organización Mundial de Salud es muy alto. La superficie dental más afectada es la oclusal, en los cuadrantes superiores, con un aproximado del 40 %, y en los inferiores, un aproximado del 20 %. La mayoría de la población en estudio padece de caries dental, siendo una minoría la que mantiene la cavidad bucal en estado óptimo


Dental caries is a public health problem, in 2016 it affected 3500 million people. In children under six years of age, the progression of the lesion is faster, exposing them to early childhood caries and premature dental loss. To determine the health/disease status of the oral component of nursery school children from a school with social and economic vulnerability in the municipality of San Salvador, in 2018, according to the index and prevalence of dental caries disease. The study is descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective. The units of analysis are children between four and five years of age, respecting all ethical aspects and confidentiality. The total of the universe made up of 96 children was taken. Results. The frequency of dental caries in the study population is 95 %, the decayed, missing and filled caries index is 6,38, which according to the World Health Organization is very high. The most affected tooth surface is occlusal, in the upper quadrants with approximately 40 % and in the lower quadrants with approximately 20 %. The majority of the population under study suffers from dental caries, being a minority that maintains the oral cavity in an optimal state.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Minors , Diagnosis , Mouth , Prevalence , Dental Caries , Mouth Diseases
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