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Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 420-426, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152816


Resumen Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia de DD de acuerdo con los criterios de las guías del 2009 y 2016, y su relación con la distensibilidad arterial sistémica (DAS) y la resistencia vascular periférica (RVP). Material y métodos: Se analizó a 306 pacientes ≥ 40 años de edad, con fracción de expulsión ≥ 50%. Se calcularon en todos DAS y RVP. Resultados: La prevalencia de DD fue de 32.7% y 22.9% según las guías de 2009 y 2016, respectivamente (p = < 0.0001). De acuerdo con las guías del 2009, los pacientes con DD presentaron una media de DAS menor que aquéllos con función normal (p = 0.0001), de modo similar a las guías del 2016 (p = 0.0007). La DD, según las guías de 2009 y 2016, mostró valores más altos de RVP que los normales (p = 0.005 y p = 0.018, respectivamente). Asimismo, la DD fue predictora, en el análisis univariado, de DAS < 0.60 Hg-1 y RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1 según ambas guías. En el análisis multivariado, la DD, de acuerdo con las guías del 2009, persistió como predictor independiente de RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1. Conclusión: Las guías del 2016 reducen la prevalencia de DD. Ésta, tanto en las guías del 2009 como en las del 2106, fue predictor univariado de DAS < 0.60 ml.mmHg-1 y RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1. La DD, de acuerdo con las guías de 2009, resultó predictora independiente de RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1.

Abstract Objectives: To assess the prevalence of developmental disabilities (DD) according to the criteria of the 2009 and 2016 guidelines, and its association with systemic arterial compliance (DAS) and peripheral vascular resistance (RVP). Material and methods: 306 patients aged ≥ 40 years, with ejection fraction ≥ 50% were analyzed. It was estimated in all DAS and RVP. Results: The prevalence of DD was 32.7% and 22.9% according to the 2009 and 2016 guidelines, respectively (p ≤ 0.0001). Patients with DD according to the 2009 guideline had a lower average of DAS than those with normal function (p = 0.0001). Similar with the 2016 guide (p = 0.0007). The presence of DD according to the 2009 and 2016 guideline showed higher RVP values than normal values (p = 0.005 and p = 0.018, respectively). The DD according to both guidelines was a predictor, in the univariate analysis, of DAS < 0.60 ml.mmHg−1 and RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. The DD according to the 2009 guideline persisted as an independent predictor, in the multivariate analysis, of RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. Conclusion: The 2016 guide decreases the prevalence of DD. The DD, both from the 2009 and 2106 guidelines, were univariate predictors of DAS <0.60 ml.mmHg−1 and RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. The DD according to the 2009 guide, was an independent predictor of RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Diastole/physiology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Prevalence , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Hemodynamics
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 284-292, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088875


Abstract Background: Diastolic dysfunction, commonly evaluated by echocardiography, is an important early finding in many cardiomyopathies. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) often requires specialized sequences that extends the test time. Recently, feature-tracking imaging has been made available, but still requires expensive software and lacks clinical validation. Objective: To assess diastolic function in patients with aortic valve disease (AVD) and compare it with normal controls by evaluating left ventricular (LV) longitudinal displacement by CMR. Methods: We compared 26 AVD patients with 19 normal controls. Diastolic function was evaluated as LV longitudinal displacement in 4-chamber view cine-CMR images using steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence during the entire cardiac cycle with temporal resolution < 50 ms. The resulting plot of atrioventricular junction (AVJ) position versus time generated variables of AVJ motion. Significance level of p < 0.05 was used. Results: Maximum longitudinal displacement (0.12 vs. 0.17 cm), maximum velocity during early diastole (MVED, 0.6 vs. 1.4s-1), slope of the best-fit line of displacement in diastasis (VDS, 0.22 vs. 0.03s-1), and VDS/MVED ratio (0.35 vs. 0.02) were significantly reduced in AVD patients compared with controls, respectively. Aortic regurgitation showed significantly worse longitudinal LV shortening compared with aortic stenosis. Higher LV mass indicated worse diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: A simple linear measurement detected significant differences on LV diastolic function between AVD patients and controls. LV mass was the only independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction in these patients. This method can help in the evaluation of diastolic dysfunction, improving cardiomyopathy detection by CMR, without prolonging exam time or depending on expensive software.

Resumo Fundamentos: A disfunção diastólica, comumente avaliada por ecocardiografia, é um importante achado precoce na maioria das cardiomiopatias. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) frequentemente requer sequências específicas que prolongam o tempo de exame. Recentemente, métodos de imagens com monitoramento de dados (feature-tracking) foram desenvolvidos, mas ainda requerem softwares caros e carecem de validação clínica. Objetivos: Avaliar a função diastólica em pacientes com doença valvar aórtica (DVA) e compará-la a controles normais pela medida do deslocamento longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) por RMC. Métodos: Nós comparamos 26 pacientes com DVA com 19 controles normais. A função diastólica foi avaliada como uma medida do deslocamento longitudinal do VE nas imagens de cine-RMC no plano quatro câmaras usando a sequência steady state free precession (SSFP) durante todo o ciclo cardíaco com resolução temporal < 50 ms. O gráfico resultante da posição da junção atrioventricular versus tempo gerou variáveis de movimento da junção atrioventricular. Utilizamos nível de significância de p < 0,005. Resultados: Deslocamento longitudinal máximo (0,12 vs. 0,17 cm), velocidade máxima em início de diástole (0,6 vs. 1,4s-1), velocidade máxima na diástase (0,22 vs. 0,03s-1) e a razão entre a velocidade máxima na diástase e a velocidade máxima em diástole inicial (0,35 vs. 0,02) foram significativamente menores nos pacientes com DVA em comparação aos controles normais, respectivamente. Pacientes com insuficiência aórtica apresentaram medidas de encurtamento longitudinal do VE significativamente piores em comparação aqueles com estenose aórtica. O aumento da massa ventricular esquerda indicou pior disfunção diastólica. Conclusões: Esta simples medida linear detectou diferenças significativas na função diastólica do VE entre pacientes com DVA e controles normais. A massa ventricular esquerda foi o único preditor independente de disfunção diastólica nesses pacientes. Este método pode auxiliar na avaliação da disfunção diastólica, melhorando a detecção de cardiomiopatias por RMC sem prolongar o tempo de exame ou depender de caros softwares.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Diastole/physiology , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Atrioventricular Node/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Node/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Bundle of His/physiopathology , Bundle of His/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1084-1089, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055075


Abstract Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic progressive disorder with high mortality and morbidity rate, associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially heart failure (HF). The pathophysiological changes related to OSA can directly affect the diastolic function of the left ventricle. Objectives: To assess the association of the risk of OSA, evaluated by the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and echocardiographic (ECHO) parameters related to diastolic dysfunction in individuals without HF assisted in primary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study that included 354 individuals (51% women) aged 45 years or older. All individuals selected were submitted to an evaluation that included the following procedures: consultation, filling out the BQ, clinical examination, laboratory examination and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile intervals, and categoric variables in absolute and relative frequencies. The variables associated with risk of OSA and at the 0.05 level integrated the gamma regression models with a log link function. A value of p < 0.05 was considered an indicator of statistical significance. Exclusion criteria were presence of HF, to fill out the BQ and patients with hypertension and obesity not classified as high risk for OSA by other criteria. All individuals were evaluated on a single day with the following procedures: medical appointment, BQ, laboratory tests and ECHO. Results: Of the 354 individuals assessed, 63% were classified as having high risk for OSA. The patients with high risk for OSA present significantly abnormal diastolic function parameters. High risk for OSA confirmed positive and statistically significant association, after adjustments, with indicators of diastolic function, such as indexed left atrium volume LAV-i (p = 0.02); E'/A' (p < 0.01), A (p = 0.02), E/A (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our data show that patients at high risk for OSA present worsened diastolic function parameters measured by TDE.

Resumo Fundamento: A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é um transtorno crônico, progressivo, com alta morbimortalidade e associado às doenças cardiovasculares (DCV), entre elas a insuficiência cardíaca (IC). As alterações fisiopatológicas relacionadas com a AOS podem impactar diretamente a função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Estimar a associação entre risco de AOS, avaliada pelo Questionário de Berlim (QB), e parâmetros do ecocardiograma, relacionados com a função diastólica, em indivíduos sem IC na atenção primária. Métodos: Estudo transversal que incluiu 354 indivíduos (51% mulheres) com idade igual ou superior a 45 anos. Todos os indivíduos selecionados foram submetidos a uma avaliação que constou dos seguintes procedimentos: consulta, preenchimento do QB e exame clínico, realização de exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma Doppler transtorácico (EDT). Os dados contínuos são apresentados em medianas e intervalos interquartílicos e os categóricos em frequências absolutas e relativas. As variáveis que apresentaram associação ao risco de AOS em nível de 0,05 integraram os modelos de regressão gama com função de ligação log link. Análise bruta: Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado como indicador de significância estatística. Resultados: Dos 354 indivíduos analisados, 63% foram classificados como tendo alto risco para AOS. Os pacientes com alto risco para AOS apresentam alterações significativas dos parâmetros que avaliam a função diastólica. Alto risco para AOS confirmou sua associação positiva e estatisticamente significativa, após ajuste, a indicadores de disfunção diastólica - VAE-i (p = 0,02); E'/A' (p < 0,01); A (p = 0,02); E/A (p < 0,01). Conclusão: Nossos dados mostram que pacientes com alto risco de AOS apresentam piora dos parâmetros de função diastólica medidos pelo EDT.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Polysomnography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Diastole/physiology , Hypertension/complications
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 451-457, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020508


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the aortic wall elasticity using the maximal rate of systolic distension (MRSD) and maximal rate of diastolic recoil (MRDR) and their correlation with the aortic size index (ASI). Methods: Forty-eight patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm were enrolled in this study. A standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol was used to calculate MRSD and MRDR. Both MRSD and MRDR were expressed as percentile of maximal area/10-3 sec. ASI (maximal aortic diameter/body surface area) was calculated. A correlation between MRSD, MRDR, ASI, and the patient's age was performed using regression plot. Results: A significant correlation between MRSD (t=-4,36; r2=0.29; P≤0.0001), MRDR (t=3.92; r2=0.25; P=0.0003), and ASI (25±4.33 mm/m2; range 15,48-35,14 mm/m2) is observed. As ASI increases, aortic MRSD and MRDR decrease. Such inverse correlation between MRSD, MRDR, and ASI indicates increased stiffness of the ascending aorta. A significant correlation between the patient's age and the decrease in MRSD and MRDR is observed. Conclusion: MRSD and MRDR are significantly correlated with ASI and the patient's age. They seem to describe properly the increasing stiffness of aortas. These two new indexes provide a promising, accessible, and reproducible approach to evaluate the biomechanical property of the aorta.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aorta/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Systole/physiology , Diastole/physiology , Dilatation, Pathologic , Elasticity
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 392-398, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950084


ABSTRACT Objective: Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH), especially the mild form of ScH, is controversial because thyroid hormones influence cardiac function. We investigate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in ScH and evaluate the effect of 5-month levothyroxine treatment. Subjects and methods: Fifty-four patients with newly diagnosed mild ScH (4.2 <TSH < 10.0 mU/L) and 30 euthyroid subjects matched by age were analysed. Laboratory analyses and an echocardiography study were done at the first visit and after 5 months in euthyroid stage in patients with ScH. Results: Compared to healthy controls, patients with ScH had a lower E/A ratio (1.03 ± 0.29 vs. 1.26 ± 0.36, p < 0.01), higher E/e' sep. ratio (762 ± 2.29 vs. 6.04 ± 1.64, p < 0.01), higher myocardial performance index (MPI) (0.47 ± 0.08 vs. 0.43 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), lower global longitudinal strain (GLS) (-19.5 ± 2.3 vs. −20.9 ± 1.7%, p < 0.05), and lower S wave derived by tissue Doppler imaging (0.077 ± 0.013 vs. 0.092 ± 0.011 m/s, p < 0.01). Levothyroxine treatment in patients with ScH contributed to higher EF (62.9 ± 3.9 vs. 61.6 ± 4.4%, p < 0.05), lower E/e' sep. ratio (6.60 ± 2.06 vs. 762 ± 2.29, p < 0.01), lower MPI (0.43 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.08%, p < 0.01), and improved GLS (-20.07 ± 2.7 vs. −19.55 ± 2.3%, p < 0.05) compared to values in ScH patients at baseline. Furthermore, in all study populations (ScH patients before and after levothyroxine therapy and controls), TSH levels significantly negatively correlated with EF (r = −0.15, p < 0.05), E/A (r = −0.14, p < 0.05), GLS (r = −0.26, p < 0.001), and S/TDI (r = −0.22, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with E/e' sep. (r = 0.14, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism versus healthy individuals had subtle changes in certain parameters that indicate involvement of systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Although the values of the parameters were in normal range, they were significantly different compared to ScH and the control group at baseline, as well as to the ScH groups before and after treatment.The results of our study suggest that patients with ScH must be followed up during treatment to assess improvement of the disease. Some of the echocardiography obtained parameters were reversible after levothyroxine therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Systole/drug effects , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Diastole/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Systole/physiology , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Thyroxine/blood , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed , Diastole/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888046


Abstract Background: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.

Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico deve fazer parte do tratamento de pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de treinamento produzidos por dois modelos distintos (contínuo x intervalado) e sua repercussão sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-IAM com função ventricular normal. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar pós-IAM foram avaliados ecocardiograficamente 21 dias após o evento. Aqueles com FEVE = 50% (n = 29) foram incluídos e randomizados: controle (GC n = 10), treinamento contínuo (GTC n = 9) e treinamento intervalado (GTI n = 10). Após, foi realizado um teste de natação com controle de lactato. A partir do resultado foi definido o limiar de lactato (LL) para determinar as intensidades do treinamento. Após seis semanas, foram reavaliados com ecocardiografia e controle de lactato. Como desfecho, foram avaliados: diâmetros diastólico e sistólico final (DDF, DSF, mL), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE, %), lactato de repouso, livre de carga (LC), lactato com 12 g e 13,5 g de carga adicional. Para a comparação dos grupos em relação às variáveis quantitativas do estudo, foi considerado o modelo de análise da variância com um fator (ANOVA). Nas comparações múltiplas dos grupos foi usado o teste de Newman-Keuls. Na comparação entre as duas avaliações, dentro de cada grupo, foi usado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Com relação à análise intragrupos, entre o período pré- e pós-treinamento foi identificado semelhança para DDF, DSF, FEVE, porém o GC apresentou diferença significativa para a variável DDF (p = 0,008). Houve diferença do GTI para L12g (p = 0,002) e L13,5g (p = 0,032) e para o GTC na variável L12g (p = 0,014). Não houve diferença para as variáveis ecocardiográficas entre os grupos. Houve diferença nas variáveis LC e L12g na segunda avaliação (p = 0,016 e p = 0,031, respectivamente) e entre os grupos: GTI vs. GC (p = 0,019) e GTC vs. GC (p = 0,035). Conclusão: Os dois métodos produziram efeito de treinamento sem alterar a função ventricular.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/blood , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 231-239, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888029


Abstract Background: Despite significant advances in understanding the pathophysiology and management of asthma, some of systemic effects of asthma are still not well defined. Objectives: To compare heart function, baseline physical activity level, and functional exercise capacity in young patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and healthy controls. Methods: Eighteen healthy (12.67 ± 0.39 years) and 20 asthmatics (12.0 ± 0.38 years) patients were enrolled in the study. Echocardiography parameters were evaluated using conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Results: Although pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were within normal limits, these parameters differed significantly between the control and asthmatic groups. PAT was lower (p < 0.0001) and PASP (p < 0.0002) was higher in the asthma group (114.3 ± 3.70 ms and 25.40 ± 0.54 mmHg) than the control group (135.30 ± 2.28 ms and 22.22 ± 0.40 mmHg). The asthmatic group had significantly lower early diastolic myocardial velocity (E', p = 0.0047) and lower E' to late (E'/A', p = 0.0017) (13.75 ± 0.53 cm/s and 1.70 ± 0.09, respectively) compared with control group (15.71 ± 0.34 cm/s and 2.12 ± 0.08, respectively) at tricuspid valve. In the lateral mitral valve tissue Doppler, the asthmatic group had lower E' compared with control group (p = 0.0466; 13.27 ± 0.43 cm/s and 14.32 ± 0.25 cm/s, respectively), but there was no statistic difference in the E'/A' ratio (p = 0.1161). Right isovolumetric relaxation time was higher (p = 0.0007) in asthmatic (57.15 ± 0.97 ms) than the control group (52.28 ± 0.87 ms), reflecting global myocardial dysfunction. The right and left myocardial performance indexes were significantly higher in the asthmatic (0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.37 ± 0.01, respectively) compared with control group (0.40 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.01, respectively) (p = 0.0383 and p = 0.0059, respectively). Physical activity level, and distance travelled on the six-minute walk test were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Changes in echocardiographic parameters, evaluated by conventional and TDI, were observed in mild-to-moderate asthma patients even with normal functional exercise capacity and baseline physical activity level. Our results suggest that the echocardiogram may be useful for the early detection and evoluation of asthma-induced cardiac changes.

Resumo Fundamento: Apesar de avanços significativos no entendimento da fisiopatologia e manejo da asma, alguns efeitos sistêmicos da asma ainda não são bem definidos. Objetivos: Comparar a função cardíaca, o nível de atividade física basal, e a capacidade funcional de pacientes jovens com asma leve a moderada com controles saudáveis. Métodos: Dezoito voluntários saudáveis (12,67 ± 0,39 anos) e 20 pacientes asmáticos (12,0 ± 0,38 anos) foram incluídos no estudo. Os parâmetros de ecocardiografia foram avaliados pelo exame de ecocardiogragia com Doppler convencional e tecidual (EDT). Resultados: Apesar de o tempo de aceleração pulmonar (TAP) e da pressão arterial sistólica pulmonar (PASP) encontrarem-se dentro da faixa de normalidade, esses parâmetros foram significativamente diferentes entre o grupo controle e o grupo asmático. O TAP foi menor (p < 0,0001) e a PASP maior (p < 0,0002) no grupo de indivíduos asmáticos (114,3 ± 3,70 ms e 25,40 ± 0,54 mmHg) que o grupo controle (135,30 ± 2,28 ms e 22,22 ± 0,40 mmHg). O grupo asmático apresentou velocidade diastólica inicial do miocárdio (E', p = 0,0047) e relação entre E' e velocidade tardia mais baixas (E'/A', p = 0,0017) (13,75 ± 0,53 cm/s e 1,70 ± 0,09, respectivamente) em comparação ao grupo controle (15,71 ± 0,34 cm/s e 2,12 ± 0,08, respectivamente) na valva tricúspide. No exame Doppler tecidual do anel mitral lateral, o grupo asmático apresentou menor E' em comparação ao grupo controle (p = 0,0466; 13,27 ± 0,43 cm/s e 14,32 ± 0,25 cm/s, respectivamente), mas não houve diferença estatística na razão E'/A' (p = 0,1161). O tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico foi maior no grupo de pacientes asmáticos (57,15 ± 0,97 ms) que no grupo controle (52,28 ± 0,87 ms) (p = 0,0007), refletindo uma disfunção global do miocárdio. O índice de performance miocárdica direito e esquerdo foi significativamente maior no grupo asmático (0,43 ± 0,01 e 0,37 ± 0,01, respectivamente) que no grupo controle (0,40 ± 0,01 e 0,34 ± 0,01, respectivamente) (p = 0,0383 e p = 0,0059 respectivamente). O nível de atividade física e a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos foram similares entre os grupos. Conclusão: Mudanças nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos, avaliados pela ecocardiografia convencional e pela EDT foram observadas em pacientes com asma moderada a grave com capacidade funcional e nível de atividade física basal normais. Nossos resultados sugerem que o ecocardiograma pode ser útil para a detecção precoce e a evolução de alterações cardíacas induzidas pela asma. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; 110(3):231-239)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Function/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Quality of Life , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed/methods , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 30(4): f:132-l:139, out.-dez. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876235


O estudo da função diastólica na ecocardiografia tem como tarefas primordiais: 1) Reconhecimento/Categorização da disfunção diastólica e 2) Identificação de sinais do aumento das pressões de enchimento do ventrículo esquerdo. O guideline ASE 2016 de avaliação da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo abre possibilidades para o emprego de novas tecnologias que auxiliam no processo diagnóstico. Realiza-se revisão da literatura sobre as evidências clínicas e sobre o aplicabilidade de parâmetros da ecocardiografia com strain na avaliação da função diastólica em pacientes com fração de ejeção preservada

Humans , Male , Female , Diastole/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Patients , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Biomedical Technology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Heart Atria , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Sex Factors
Clinics ; 72(7): 432-437, July 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890708


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between diastolic function and the different beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure due to different causes. METHODS: The 104 enrolled patients were divided into an ischemic cardiomyopathy group (n=27) and a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy group (n=77) according to the cause of heart failure. Before implantation, left ventricular diastolic function was evaluated in all patients using echocardiography. After six months of follow-up, the beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy were evaluated using a combination of clinical symptoms and echocardiography parameters. RESULTS: The ischemic cardiomyopathy group included significantly more patients with restrictive filling than the non-ischemic cardiomyopathy group. The response rate after the implantation procedure was significantly higher in the non-ischemic cardiomyopathy group than in the ischemic cardiomyopathy group. Degrees of improvement in echocardiography parameters were significantly greater in the non-ischemic cardiomyopathy group than in the ischemic cardiomyopathy group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that a restrictive filling pattern was an independent factor that influenced responses to cardiac resynchronization therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This study again confirmed that the etiology of heart failure affects the beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy and a lower degree of improvement in ventricular systolic function and remodelling was observed in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients than in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. In addition, systolic heart failure patients with severe diastolic dysfunction had poor responses to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Ischemic cardiomyopathy patients exhibited more severe diastolic dysfunction than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients, which may be a reason for the reduced beneficial effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Diastole/physiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/complications
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(6): 552-563, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887879


Abstract Background: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance is in need of a simple and robust method for diastolic function assessment that can be done with routine protocol sequences. Objective: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) model-based volumetric assessment of diastolic function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and compare the results obtained with the model with those obtained by echocardiography. Methods: The study participants provided written informed consent and were included if having undergone both echocardiography and cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) CMR on the same day. Guide points at the septal and lateral mitral annulus were used to define the early longitudinal relaxation rate (E'), while a time-volume curve from the 3D model was used to assess diastolic filling parameters. We determined the correlation between 3D CMR and echocardiography and the accuracy of CMR in classifying the diastolic function grade. Results: The study included 102 subjects. The E/A ratio by CMR was positively associated with the E/A ratio by echocardiography (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001). The early diastolic relaxation velocity by tissue Doppler and longitudinal relaxation rate for the lateral mitral annulus displacement were positively associated (p = 0.007), as were the ratio between Doppler E/e' and CMR E/E' (p = 0.01). CMR-determined normalized peak E (NE) and deceleration time (DT) were able to predict diastolic dysfunction (areas under the curve [AUCs] = 0.70 and 0.72, respectively). In addition, the lateral E/E' ratio showed good utility in identifying diastolic dysfunction (AUC = 0.80). Overall, echocardiography and CMR interobserver and intraobserver agreements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient range 0.72 - 0.97). Conclusion: 3D modeling of standard cine CMR images was able to identify study subjects with reduced diastolic function and showed good reproducibility, suggesting a potential for a routine diastolic function assessment by CMR.

Resumo Fundamento: A ressonância magnética cardíaca necessita de um método simples e robusto para a avaliação da função diastólica que pode ser feito com sequências protocolares de rotina. Objetivo: Desenvolver e validar a avaliação volumétrica da função diastólica através de um modelo tridimensional (3D) com utilização de imagens de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e comparar os resultados obtidos com este modelo com os obtidos por ecocardiografia. Métodos: Os participantes do estudo assinaram um termo de consentimento e foram incluídos se tivessem sido submetidos no mesmo dia tanto à ecocardiografia quanto à cine RMC com precessão livre no estado estacionário (steady-state free precession, SSFP). Pontos-guia foram utilizados no anel mitral septal e lateral para definir a velocidade de estiramento no início da diástole (E'), enquanto curvas de volume-tempo do modelo 3D foram utilizadas para avaliar os parâmetros de enchimento diastólico. Foram determinadas a correlação entre a RMC 3D e a ecocardiografia, além da acurácia da RMC em classificar o grau de função diastólica. Resultados: Ao todo, 102 sujeitos foram incluídos no estudo. A razão E/A pela RMC esteve positivamente associada com a razão E/A obtida pela ecocardiografia (r = 0,71, p < 0,0001). Estiveram positivamente associadas a velocidade de relaxamento diastólico inicial ao Doppler tecidual e a velocidade de relaxamento longitudinal de deslocamento do anel mitral lateral (p = 0,007), bem como a razão entre E/e' por Doppler e E/E' pela RMC (p = 0,01). A velocidade normalizada de pico de enchimento (EM) determinada pela RMC e o tempo de desaceleração (TD) foram capazes de predizer a disfunção diastólica (áreas sob a curva [AUCs] = 0,70 e 0,72, respectivamente). Além disso, a razão E/E' lateral mostrou boa utilidade para a identificação da disfunção diastólica (AUC = 0,80). No geral, a ecocardiografia e a RMC apresentaram excelente concordância interobservador e intraobservador (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse 0,72 - 0,97). Conclusão: Uma modelagem 3D de imagens padrões de cine RMC foi capaz de identificar os indivíduos do estudo com função diastólica reduzida e mostrou uma boa reprodutibilidade, sugerindo ter potencial na avaliação rotineira da função diastólica por RMC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke Volume/physiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Diastole/physiology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(4): 323-330, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838725


Abstract Background: Resistance and aerobic training are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for hypertension. However, the number of sessions required until the hypotensive effect of the exercise has stabilized has not been clearly established. Objective: To establish the adaptive kinetics of the blood pressure (BP) responses as a function of time and type of training in hypertensive patients. Methods: We recruited 69 patients with a mean age of 63.4 ± 2.1 years, randomized into one group of resistance training (n = 32) and another of aerobic training (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and one repetition maximum (1RM) testing was performed. BP was measured before each training session with a digital BP arm monitor. The 50 training sessions were categorized into quintiles. To compare the effect of BP reduction with both training methods, we used two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for the BP values obtained before the interventions. The differences between the moments were established by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 6.9 mmHg and 5.3 mmHg, respectively, with resistance training and 16.5 mmHg and 11.6 mmHg, respectively, with aerobic training. The kinetics of the hypotensive response of the SBP showed significant reductions until the 20th session in both groups. Stabilization of the DBP occurred in the 20th session of resistance training and in the 10th session of aerobic training. Conclusion: A total of 20 sessions of resistance or aerobic training are required to achieve the maximum benefits of BP reduction. The methods investigated yielded distinct adaptive kinetic patterns along the 50 sessions.

Resumo Fundamento: Os treinamentos de força e aeróbio são indicados para o tratamento adjuvante da hipertensão. Entretanto, o número de sessões necessárias até estabilização do efeito hipotensor com o exercício ainda não está claramente estabelecido. Objetivo: Estabelecer a cinética adaptativa das respostas tensionais em função do tempo e do tipo de treinamento em hipertensos. Métodos: Foram recrutados 69 hipertensos com idade média de 63,4 ± 2,1 anos, randomizados em um grupo de treinamento de força (n = 32) e outro de treinamento aeróbio (n = 32). Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e testes de uma repetição máxima (1RM). A pressão arterial (PA) foi medida antes de cada sessão de treinamento com um aparelho de pressão digital de braço. As 50 sessões de treinamento foram categorizadas em quintis. Para comparar o efeito da redução da PA entre os métodos de treinamentos (between), utilizamos análise de covariância (ANCOVA) bifatorial ajustada para os valores de PA pré-intervenção. As diferenças entre os momentos foram estabelecidas por análise de variância (ANOVA) unifatorial. Resultados: As reduções na PA sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) foram de 6,9 mmHg e 5,3 mmHg, respectivamente, com o treinamento de força e 16,5 mmHg e 11,6 mmHg, respectivamente, com o treinamento aeróbio. A cinética hipotensiva da PAS apresentou reduções significativas até a 20ª sessão em ambos os grupos. Observou-se estabilização da PAD na 20ª sessão com o treinamento de força e na 10ª sessão com o aeróbio. Conclusão: São necessárias 20 sessões de treinamento de força ou aeróbio para alcance dos benefícios máximos de redução da PA. Os métodos investigados proporcionaram padrões cinéticos adaptativos distintos ao longo das 50 sessões.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Resistance Training , Post-Exercise Hypotension/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Kinetics , Analysis of Variance , Diastole/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(5): e5742, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839290


Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively. After 6 weeks, the animals were submitted to echocardiogram and functional analysis by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) in basal condition, hypoxia, and SERCA2a blockage with cyclopiazonic acid at calcium concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mM. Western-blot analyses were used for SERCA2a and phospholamban detection. Data analysis was carried out with Student's t-test and ANOVA. AoS enhanced left atrium and E and A wave ratio, with preserved ejection fraction. Basal condition in IPM showed similar increases in developed tension (DT) and resting tension (RT) in AoS, and hypoxia was similar between groups. After cyclopiazonic acid blockage, final DT was equally decreased and RT was similar between groups, but the speed of relaxation was decreased in the AoS group. Western-blot was uniform in all evaluations. The hypothesis was confirmed, since functional parameters regarding SERCA2a were changed in the AoS group.

Animals , Male , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Diastole/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Indoles , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/analysis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(4): 341-347, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792947


ABSTRACT Objective Several studies have shown that left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is increased in individuals with diabetes. However, there are scarce data about LV function in prediabetics. This study assessed the early changes in LV diastolic and systolic myocardial function in normotensive prediabetics using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Subjects and methods We evaluated 94 patients with prediabetes (mean age of 50.8 ± 6.9 years, 78 female) without known cardiovascular diseases and 70 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics. Systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle was evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography according to the latest consensus recommendations including TDE. Results The mean results of septal and lateral parts of the mitral annulus Pulsed wave TDE showed that myocardial systolic wave (Sm), myocardial early diastolic wave (Em) and Em to atrial peak velocity (Am) ratio were significantly lower whereas early diastolic peak flow velocity (E) to Em ratio, myocardial isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRTm), myocardial isovolumetric contraction time (IVCTm) and myocardial performance index (MPI) values were significantly higher in patients with prediabetes (preDM). In addition, mean left atrium (LA) diameter measured with M-mode echocardiography was significantly higher in prediabetics than controls. Conclusion PreDM is associated with subclinical LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction as evaluated by TDE.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prediabetic State/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diastole/physiology , Heart/physiology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 130-133, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786996


Introdução: A medida acurada do tamanho do anel valvar aórtico tem importância fundamental para o planejamento do implante percutâneo de prótese valvar aórtica transcateter (TAVI) em pacientes comestenose valvar aórtica grave. Embora haja recomendação de se realizar a medida na sístole, pouco se sabe sobre a importância das diferenças entre as dimensões sistólica e diastólica do anel. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivos referidos para TAVI foram avaliados com tomografia computadorizada para medida do anel valvar na sístole e na diástole. Área, circunferência, diâmetros máximo e mínimo, e seus diâmetros médios derivados foram obtidos em ambas as fases do ciclo cardíaco. Gráficos de Bland Altman foram construídos para se avaliarem as diferenças entre as medidas.Resultados: Foram incluídos na análise 41 pacientes com estenose aórtica grave. As médias da área, circunferência e diâmetros médios foram discretamente maiores na sístole. No entanto, em 35% dos pacientes, as dimensões diastólicas foram maiores. Essas diferenças, embora estatisticamente significantes, foram pequenas (a maior diferença de 0,6 mm no diâmetro médio). Gráficos de Bland Altman revelaram bons níveis de concordância entre as medidas sistólicas e diastólicas em todos os parâmetros avaliados.Conclusões: Observamos pequenas diferenças nas dimensões sistólicas e diastólicas no anel valvar aórtico à tomografia computadorizada, as quais, embora estatisticamente significantes, provavelmente não impactam na seleção da prótese e nem no resultado do procedimento.

Background: Accurate aortic valve annulus sizing has critical importance for the planning of percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Although there is a recommendation to perform the measurement during systole, little is known about the importance of the differences between systolic and diastolic dimensions of the annulus. Methods: Consecutive patients referred for TAVI were evaluated with computed tomography for valve annulus sizing during systole and diastole. Area, circumference, minimum and maximum diameters, and their mean derived diameters were obtained in both phases of the cardiac cycle. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to evaluate the differences between the measures. Results: The analysis included 41 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Mean area, circumference, and diameters were slightly greater in systole. However, in 35% of patients, diastolic dimensions were greater.These differences, although statistically significant, were small (the greatest difference of 0.6 mm in mean diameter). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between systolic and diastolic measurements on all parameters evaluated Conclusions: Small differences were observed in the systolic and diastolic dimensions of the aortic valve annulus with computed tomography scan, which, although statistically significant, probably do not impact the selection of prosthesis or the procedure outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Diastole/physiology , Systole/physiology , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Femoral Artery/surgery , Echocardiography/methods , Aortic Valve Stenosis/therapy , Prosthesis Implantation , Statistical Analysis
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(2): 171-173, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792644


Abstract Objective: To complement the ISO 5840 standards concerning the duration of left ventricular systole and diastole as a function of changes in heart rates according to in vivo studies from the physiologic literature review. Methods: The systolic and diastolic durations from three in vivo studies were compared with the durations of systole proposed by the ISO 5840:2010 and ISO 5840-2:2015 for hydrodynamic performance assessment of prosthetic heart valves. Results: Based on the in vivo studies analyzed, the systolic durations proposed by the ISO 5840 standard seemed consistent for 45 and 120 beats per minute (bpm), and showed diverse results for the 70 bpm condition. Conclusion: Information on the realistic validation of the operation of left ventricular models for different heart rates were obtained.

Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis/standards , Heart Rate/physiology , Systole/physiology , Pulsatile Flow , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Diastole/physiology , Hydrodynamics , Models, Cardiovascular
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(2): 105-112, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775094


Background: Heart failure prediction after acute myocardial infarction may have important clinical implications. Objective: To analyze the functional echocardiographic variables associated with heart failure in an infarction model in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into two groups: control and infarction. Subsequently, the infarcted animals were divided into groups: with and without heart failure. The predictive values were assessed by logistic regression. The cutoff values predictive of heart failure were determined using ROC curves. Results: Six months after surgery, 88 infarcted animals and 43 control animals were included in the study. Myocardial infarction increased left cavity diameters and the mass and wall thickness of the left ventricle. Additionally, myocardial infarction resulted in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, characterized by lower area variation fraction values, posterior wall shortening velocity, E-wave deceleration time, associated with higher values of E / A ratio and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate. Among the infarcted animals, 54 (61%) developed heart failure. Rats with heart failure have higher left cavity mass index and diameter, associated with worsening of functional variables. The area variation fraction, the E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate were functional variables predictors of heart failure. The cutoff values of functional variables associated with heart failure were: area variation fraction < 31.18%; E / A > 3.077; E-wave deceleration time < 42.11 and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate < 69.08. Conclusion: In rats followed for 6 months after myocardial infarction, the area variation fraction, E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate are predictors of heart failure onset.

Fundamento: A predição de insuficiência cardíaca após o infarto agudo do miocárdio pode ter importantes implicações clínicas. Objetivo: Analisar as variáveis funcionais ecocardiográficas associadas com insuficiência cardíaca no modelo do infarto em ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: infarto e controle. Após, os animais infartados foram divididos em grupos com e sem insuficiência cardíaca. Os valores preditivos foram avaliados por regressão logística. Os valores de corte preditivos de insuficiência cardíaca foram determinados por meio de curvas ROC. Resultados: Após 6 meses da cirurgia, 88 animais com infarto e 43 animais controle foram incluídos no estudo. O infarto aumentou os diâmetros das cavidades esquerdas, a massa e a espessura da parede do ventrículo esquerdo. Adicionalmente, o infarto resultou em disfunção sistólica e diastólica, caracterizada por menores valores da fração de variação de área, velocidade de encurtamento da parede posterior, tempo de desaceleração da onda E, associada com maiores valores da relação E/A e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca. Dentre os animais infartados, 54 (61%) desenvolveram insuficiência cardíaca. Ratos com insuficiência cardíaca apresentaram maiores índices de massa e diâmetros das cavidades esquerdas, associadas com piora das variáveis funcionais. A fração de variação de área, relação E/A, tempo de desaceleração da onda E e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca foram variáveis funcionais preditoras de insuficiência cardíaca. Os valores de corte das variáveis funcionais associados com insuficiência cardíaca foram: fração de variação de área < 31,18%; E/A > 3,077; tempo de desaceleração da onda E < 42,11 e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca < 69,08. Conclusão: Em ratos acompanhados por 6 meses após o infarto, a fração de variação de área, relação E/A, tempo de desaceleração da onda E e tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico ajustado pela frequência cardíaca são preditores do aparecimento de insuficiência cardíaca.

Animals , Male , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Models, Animal , Diastole/physiology , Heart Failure , Heart Rate/physiology , Myocardial Infarction , Rats, Wistar , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(4): 333-339, out.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770035


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de disfunção miocárdica e seu valor prognóstico em pacientes com sepse grave e choque séptico. Métodos: Pacientes sépticos adultos, admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, foram estudados de forma prospectiva por meio de ecocardiografia transtorácica dentro das primeiras 48 horas após sua admissão e, então, entre o sétimo e o décimo dias. As variáveis ecográficas de função biventricular, inclusive a relação E/e', foram comparadas entre sobreviventes e não sobreviventes. Resultados: Foi realizado um total de 99 ecocardiogramas (53 na admissão e 46 entre os dias 7 e 10) em 53 pacientes com média de idade de 74 anos (desvio padrão de 13 anos). Estava presente disfunção sistólica em 14 (26%); disfunção diastólica foi observada em 42 (83%) pacientes; e ambos os tipos de disfunção estavam presentes em 12 (23%) pacientes. A relação E/e', ou índice de disfunção diastólica, foi o melhor preditor de mortalidade hospitalar segundo a área sob a curva ROC (0,71) e se constituiu em um preditor independente do desfecho, conforme determinado pela análise multivariada (odds ratio - OR = 1,36 [1,05 - 1,76]; p = 0,02). Conclusão: Em pacientes sépticos admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, a disfunção sistólica determinada ecograficamente não se associa com aumento da mortalidade. Em contraste, a disfunção diastólica foi um preditor independente do desfecho.

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of myocardial dysfunction and its prognostic value in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods: Adult septic patients admitted to an intensive care unit were prospectively studied using transthoracic echocardiography within the first 48 hours after admission and thereafter on the 7th-10th days. Echocardiographic variables of biventricular function, including the E/e' ratio, were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Results: A total of 99 echocardiograms (53 at admission and 46 between days 7 - 10) were performed on 53 patients with a mean age of 74 (SD 13) years. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction was present in 14 (26%) and 42 (83%) patients, respectively, and both types of dysfunction were present in 12 (23%) patients. The E/e' ratio, an index of diastolic dysfunction, was the best predictor of hospital mortality according to the area under the ROC curve (0.71) and was an independent predictor of outcome, as determined by multivariate analysis (OR = 1.36 [1.05 - 1.76], p = 0.02). Conclusion: In septic patients admitted to an intensive care unit, echocardiographic systolic dysfunction is not associated with increased mortality. In contrast, diastolic dysfunction is an independent predictor of outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shock, Septic/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Sepsis/complications , Prognosis , Shock, Septic/mortality , Systole/physiology , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Sepsis/metabolism , Diastole/physiology , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 145-150, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757999


AbstractBackground:The prevalence and clinical outcomes of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction have not been well elucidated.Objective:To analyze the prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction and its association with mortality.Methods:Patients with acute myocardial infarction (n = 1,474) were prospectively included. Patients without heart failure (Killip score = 1), with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (Killip score > 1 and left ventricle ejection fraction ≥ 50%), and with systolic dysfunction (Killip score > 1 and left ventricle ejection fraction < 50%) on admission were compared. The association between systolic dysfunction with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and in-hospital mortality was tested in adjusted models.Results:Among the patients included, 1,256 (85.2%) were admitted without heart failure (72% men, 67 ± 15 years), 78 (5.3%) with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (59% men, 76 ± 14 years), and 140 (9.5%) with systolic dysfunction (69% men, 76 ± 14 years), with mortality rates of 4.3%, 17.9%, and 27.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Logistic regression (adjusted for sex, age, troponin, diabetes, and body mass index) demonstrated that heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.35–6.27; p = 0.006) and systolic dysfunction (OR 5.38; 95% CI 3.10 to 9.32; p < 0.001) were associated with in-hospital mortality.Conclusion:One-third of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted with heart failure had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Although this subgroup exhibited more favorable outcomes than those with systolic dysfunction, this condition presented a three-fold higher risk of death than the group without heart failure. Patients with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction encounter elevated short-term risk and require special attention and monitoring during hospitalization.

ResumoFundamento:A prevalência e os desfechos clínicos em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio ainda não foram bem elucidados.Objetivo:Analisar a prevalência de insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada no infarto agudo do miocárdio e sua associação com a mortalidade.Métodos:Pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio (n = 1.474) foram incluídos prospectivamente. Pacientes admitidos sem insuficiência cardíaca (Killip = 1), com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (Killip > 1 e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≥ 50%) e com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica (Killip > 1 e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo < 50%) foram comparados. A associação entre insuficiência cardíaca sistólica e com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada, com a mortalidade hospitalar foi testada em modelos ajustados.Resultados:Dentre os incluídos, 1.256 (85,2%) pacientes foram admitidos sem insuficiência cardíaca (72% homens, 67 ± 15 anos), 78 (5,3%) com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (59% homens, 76 ± 14 anos) e 140 (9,5%) com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica (69% homens, 76 ± 14 anos), com mortalidade, respectivamente, de 4,3; 17,9 e 27,1% (p < 0,001). A regressão logística (ajustada para sexo, idade, troponina, diabetes e índice de massa corporal) demonstrou que insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (odds ratio de 2,91; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 1,35-6,27; p = 0,006) e insuficiência cardíaca sistólica (odds ratio de 5,38; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 3,10-9,32; p < 0,001) se associaram à mortalidade intra-hospitalar.Conclusão:Um terço dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio admitidos com insuficiência cardíaca apresentou fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada. Apesar de esse subgrupo ter evolução mais favorável que os pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca sistólica, ele apresentou risco de morte três vezes maior do que o grupo sem insuficiência cardíaca. Pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio e insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada apresentaram elevado risco em curto prazo e mereceram especial atenção e monitorização durante a internação hospitalar.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Diastole/physiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hospitalization , Prognosis , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology