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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0003, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529931

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na área de atuação do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba, destacando o impacto da sorologia positiva para hepatite B no descarte dos tecidos para transplante. Métodos: O estudo é transversal e utilizou dados do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2022. Dados sobre procedência, idade, sexo, causa do óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação, resultados sorológicos e motivo de descarte das córneas dos doadores foram coletados. Resultados: O maior motivo de descarte foi por sorologia positiva (56,5%), sendo positivadas as sorologias positivas para hepatite B e HBsAg em 11,1% e 4,75% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Conclusão: A sorologia positiva para hepatite B como um critério de descarte absoluto é responsável por grande parcela de descartes, apesar da pouca informação sobre suas repercussões e representação de infectividade nos receptores do transplante.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the profile of human ocular tissue donors in the area covered by the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB), highlighting the impact of positive serology for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) in the disposal of tissues for transplantation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional that uses data from the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB) between January 2013 and December 2022. Data on origin, age, sex, cause of death, time between death and enucleation, serological results, and reason for discarded donor corneas were collected. Results: The main reason for discarding was due to positive serology (56.5%), with positive anti-HBc and HBsAg serology in 11.1% and 4.75% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Anti-HBc positive serology as an absolute disposal criterion is responsible for great part of disposals, despite little information about its repercussions and representation of infectivity in transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Corneal Transplantation/standards , Corneal Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/standards , Eye Banks/standards , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Serologic Tests/standards , Hepatitis B virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/analysis
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 754-769, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424943

ABSTRACT

A pandemia do novo coronavírus colocou em alerta os sistemas de saúde, estabelecendo sentimentos de instabilidade e de medo. O trabalho é e importante pilar para o traçado de políticas públicas. Objetivo: analisar a contaminação pelo COVID-19 em profissionais de hospital de referência no Pará. Metodologia: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, quantitativo, observacional, com aplicação de série temporal no período de março de 2020 a março de 2022. Foram incluídos todos os servidores atuantes durante a pandemia, que apresentaram atestados médicos com diagnóstico de COVID, e/ou testagem positiva, ou atestados por suspeita de contaminação. O perfil de servidores foi analisado, explorando as variáveis sexo, idade, convivência ou não com parceiros, grau de escolaridade, cargo e setor; juntamente com a incidência de casos confirmados e incidência total (suspeitos e confirmados). Resultados: O total de afastamentos do trabalho devido ao diagnóstico de COVID-19 foi de 1.420 casos, mais 839 casos suspeitos; sendo que 173 trabalhadores apresentaram reincidência. A incidência foi maior nos meses de maio de 2020, março de 2021 e janeiro de 2022. Houve predominância do sexo feminino e da categoria de enfermagem. Setores administrativos e financeiros apresentaram maior porcentagem de contaminados durante a pandemia (73,40%), proporcionalmente ao quantitativo de servidores atuantes na lotação. Entretanto, foram servidores da assistência direta ao paciente que apresentaram maior porcentagem de reinfecção. Conclusão: Foi possível visualizar três ondas na distribuição temporal dos casos de COVID-19, com destaque para elevação nos primeiros meses de 2022. O declínio no diagnóstico de casos novos no hospital estudado após dois anos de pandemia pode representar esforços individuais e coletivos em resistir às dificuldades da conjuntura. É importante observar o comportamento da pandemia em distintas regiões do Brasil para atualização de estratégias de enfrentamento como um todo.


The new coronavirus pandemic has put health systems on alert, establishing feelings of instability and fear. Working is an important pillar for the design of public policies. Objective: to analyze the contamination by COVID-19 in professionals of a reference hospital in Para's State. Methodology: This is a retrospective, quantitative, observational study, with the application of a time series from March 2020 to March 2022. All civil servants working during the pandemic, who presented medical certificates with a diagnosis of COVID, and/or or positive test, or attestations for suspected contamination. The servants' profile was analyzed, exploring the variables sex, age, living or not with partners, education level, position and sector; along with the incidence of confirmed cases and total incidence (suspected and confirmed). Results: The total number of absences from work due to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 1,420 cases, plus 839 suspected cases; 173 workers presented recurrence. The incidence was higher in the months of May 2020, March 2021 and January 2022. There was a predominance of females and the nursing category. Administrative and financial sectors had a higher percentage of people infected during the pandemic (73.40%), proportionally to the number of servers working in the capacity. However, it was direct patient care workers who had the highest percentage of reinfection. Conclusion: It was possible to visualize three waves in the temporal distribution of COVID-19 cases, with emphasis on an increase in the first months of 2022. The decline in the diagnosis of new cases in the hospital studied after two years of the pandemic may represent individual and collective efforts to resist to the difficulties of the situation. It is important to observe the behavior of the pandemic in different regions of Brazil to update coping strategies in a general scenery.


La nueva pandemia de coronavirus ha puesto en alerta a los sistemas de salud, estableciendo sentimientos de inestabilidad y miedo. El trabajo es un pilar importante para el diseño de políticas públicas. Objetivo: analizar la contaminación por COVID-19 en profesionales de un hospital de referencia en el Estado de Pará. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo, cuantitativo, observacional, con la aplicación de una serie de tiempo de marzo de 2020 a marzo de 2022. Todos los funcionarios que trabajaron durante la pandemia, que presentaron certificados médicos con diagnóstico de COVID, y/o o test positivo, o atestados por sospecha de contaminación. Se analizó el perfil de los funcionarios, explorando las variables sexo, edad, convivencia o no con la pareja, nivel de escolaridad, cargo y sector; junto con la incidencia de casos confirmados y la incidencia total (sospechosos y confirmados). Resultados: El número total de bajas laborales por diagnóstico de COVID-19 fue de 1.420 casos, más 839 casos sospechosos; 173 trabajadores presentaron recurrencia. La incidencia fue mayor en los meses de mayo de 2020, marzo de 2021 y enero de 2022. Hubo predominio del sexo femenino y de la categoría de enfermería. Los sectores administrativo y financiero presentaron mayor porcentaje de infectados durante la pandemia (73,40%), proporcionalmente al número de servidores que trabajaban en esa función. Sin embargo, fueron los trabajadores de atención directa al paciente los que presentaron el mayor porcentaje de reinfección. Conclusiones: Fue posible visualizar tres olas en la distribución temporal de los casos de COVID-19, destacándose un aumento en los primeros meses de 2022. La disminución en el diagnóstico de nuevos casos en el hospital estudiado después de dos años de pandemia puede representar esfuerzos individuales y colectivos para resistir a las dificultades de la situación. Es importante observar el comportamiento de la pandemia en diferentes regiones de Brasil para actualizar las estrategias de afrontamiento en un escenario general.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Occupational Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Government Employees , Reinfection/epidemiology , Health Services Research
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Disaster Management , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Obligatory Vaccination , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248295, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431129

ABSTRACT

Este ensaio propõe que a Covid-19 pode operar como um analisador, dentro da perspectiva da análise institucional, iluminando um determinado modo de organização social que promove profundas desigualdades e ameaça a vida em diversos níveis e revelando as condições sociais, institucionais e políticas de produção de sofrimento no corpo profissional de Enfermagem. A pandemia desvelou um conjunto de marcas relacionadas à profissão, agravadas pela crise sanitária, reforçando a naturalização das relações de cuidado atribuídas ao feminino, bem como um conjunto de clivagens e hierarquias internas à profissão a partir da sinergia de marcadores da diferença, como gênero, cor/raça, classe e geração. Além disso, este trabalho mostra a presença de uma necropolítica nas respostas à pandemia que banaliza a vida e permite morrer determinados grupos sociais. A ideia de "profissionais de linha de frente" é criticada em suas metáforas bélicas, mas tomada como figura de linguagem em sua potência para afirmar que existem corpos que, pelas marcas sociais e históricas e pela interdependência do cuidado, são mais presentes e exigidos e, portanto, mais vulneráveis à doença e ao sofrimento dela decorrente.(AU)


The essay proposes that Covid-19 can operate as an analyzer, within the perspective of institutional analysis, illuminating a certain mode of social organization that promotes profound inequalities and threatens life at various levels, revealing the social, institutional and political conditions for the production of suffering in the professional nursing body. The pandemic would unveil a set of marks related to the profession, aggravated by the sanitary crisis, reinforcing the naturalization of the care relations attributed to the feminine, as well as a set of cleavages and internal hierarchies to the profession from the synergy of markers of difference as gender, color/race, class and generation. The work shows the presence of necropolitics in responses to the pandemic, which trivializes life and allows certain social groups to die. The idea of "front-line professionals" is criticized in its war metaphors, but taken as a figure of speech in its potency to affirm that there are bodies that by social and historical marks, and by the interdependence of care, are more present and demanded, and therefore more vulnerable to disease and the resulting suffering.(AU)


El ensayo propone que el Covid-19 puede funcionar como analizador, desde la perspectiva del análisis institucional, revelando las condiciones sociales, institucionales y políticas de producción de sufrimiento de enfermeras. La pandemia revela algunas marcas relacionadas con la profesión, agravadas por la crisis de salud, reforzando la naturalización de la atribución del cuidado a lo femenino y un conjunto de jerarquías internas de la profesión. El trabajo también muestra la presencia de una necropolítica en las respuestas a la pandemia. La idea de "profesionales de primera línea" es criticada, pero tomada como una figura del lenguaje en su potencia para afirmar que hay cuerpos que, por las marcas sociales e históricas y por la interdependencia del cuidado, están más presentes y demandados, y por lo tanto más vulnerables a la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nursing , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Self-Testing , COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pain , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Patients , Politics , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality of Life , Race Relations , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Women, Working , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Nursing Theory , Occupational Risks , Burnout, Professional , Virus Diseases , Vaccines , Nursing Research , Accidents, Occupational , Carrier State , Mental Health , Mortality , Models, Nursing , Occupational Health , Workload , Professional Autonomy , Long-Term Care , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Immunization Programs , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Continuity of Patient Care , Feminism , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Air Pollution , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Emergencies , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Essential Public Health Functions , Health Status Disparities , Ethics, Professional , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Program of Risk Prevention on Working Environment , Air Contamination Effects , Evidence-Based Nursing , Fear , Remuneration , Early Medical Intervention , Medicalization , Ambulatory Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Burnout, Psychological , Patient Care , Caregiver Burden , Models, Biopsychosocial , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Gender Equity , Vaccine Development , Community Resources , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Working Conditions , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Accident Prevention , Health Occupations , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Hierarchy, Social , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humanism , Life Support Care , Masks , Muscle Tonus , Night Care , Nursing Care , Nursing, Practical , Nursing, Team , Occupational Diseases
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e241608, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448958

ABSTRACT

O distanciamento social ocasionado pela pandemia de Covid-19 levou a profundas mudanças na rotina das famílias com crianças pequenas, aumentando o estresse no ambiente doméstico. Este estudo analisou a experiência de planejamento e implementação de um projeto de extensão universitária que ofereceu orientação a pais com filhos de 0 a 11 anos por meio de chamadas de áudio durante a pandemia. O protocolo de atendimento foi desenvolvido para atender às necessidades de famílias de baixa renda e listava problemas específicos relacionados ao confinamento em casa e ao fechamento das escolas seguidos por uma variedade de estratégias de enfrentamento. A análise de 223 queixas relatadas pelos usuários em 130 ligações revelou que 94% dos problemas referidos pelos pais foram contemplados pelo protocolo de atendimento e estavam relacionados aos problemas externalizantes (39%) ou internalizantes (26%) das crianças ou ao declínio do bem-estar subjetivo dos pais (29%). Serviços de apoio devem orientar os pais quanto ao uso de práticas responsivas e assertivas que promovam o bem-estar emocional da criança e estabeleçam expectativas comportamentais em contextos estressantes. A diminuição dos conflitos entre pais e filhos resultante do uso dessas estratégias tende a reduzir o sofrimento dos pais, aumentando sua sensação de bem-estar subjetivo. Recomenda-se ampla divulgação dessas iniciativas e seguimento dos casos.(AU)


The social distancing the COVID-19 pandemic entailed has led to profound changes in the routine of families with young children, increasing stress in the home environment. This study analyzed the experience of planning and implementing a university extension program that offered support to parents with children from 0 to 11 years old via audio calls during the COVID-19 pandemic. The service protocol was developed to meet the needs of low-income families and listed specific problems related to home confinement and school closure followed by a variety of coping strategies. The analysis of 223 complaints reported by users in 130 calls revealed that 94% of the problems reported by parents were addressed by the protocol and were related to children's externalizing (39%) or internalizing (26%) problems or to the decline in parents' subjective well-being (29%). Support services should guide parents on the use of responsive and assertive practices that promote the child's emotional well-being and set behavioral expectations in stressful contexts. The reduction in conflicts between parents and children resulting from the use of these strategies tends to reduce parents' suffering, increasing their sense of subjective well-being. Wide dissemination of these initiatives and case follow-up are recommended.(AU)


La distancia social causada por la pandemia de COVID-19 condujo a cambios profundos en la rutina de las familias con niños pequeños, aumentando el estrés en el entorno del hogar. Este estudio analizó la experiencia de planificar e implementar un proyecto de extensión universitaria que ofreció orientación a los padres con niños de cero a 11 años a través de llamadas de audio durante la pandemia COVID-19. El protocolo de atención se desarrolló para satisfacer las necesidades de las familias de bajos ingresos y enumeró problemas específicos relacionados con el confinamiento en el hogar y el cierre de la escuela, seguido de una variedad de estrategias de afrontamiento. El análisis de 223 quejas informadas por los usuarios en 130 llamadas reveló que el 94% de los problemas informados por los padres fueron abordados por el protocolo de atención y estaban relacionados con los problemas de externalización (39%) o internalización (26%) de los niños o la disminución del bienestar subjetivo de los padres (29%). Los servicios de apoyo deberían aconsejar a los padres sobre el uso de prácticas receptivas y asertivas que promuevan el bienestar emocional del niño y establezcan expectativas de comportamiento en contextos estresantes. La reducción de los conflictos entre padres e hijos como resultado del uso de estas estrategias tiende a reducir el sufrimiento de los padres, aumentando su sensación de bienestar subjetivo. Se recomienda una amplia difusión de estas iniciativas y seguimiento de casos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Orientation , Parents , Personal Satisfaction , Child , Problem Behavior , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Appetite , Play and Playthings , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychomotor Agitation , Quality of Life , Reading , Recreation , Remedial Teaching , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , School Health Services , Self Concept , Autistic Disorder , Sleep , Social Adjustment , Social Conditions , Social Conformity , Social Environment , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Task Performance and Analysis , Telephone , Temperament , Therapeutics , Time , Unemployment , Violence , Behavior Therapy , Work Hours , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Child Abuse, Sexual , Boredom , Neurosciences , Virus Diseases , Activities of Daily Living , Bereavement , Exercise , Divorce , Child Abuse , Child Development , Mental Health , Mass Vaccination , Relaxation Therapy , Immunization , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Rights , Parenting , Panic Disorder , Interview , Cognition , Domestic Violence , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Lecture , Disabled Children , Wit and Humor , Internet , Creativity , Crisis Intervention , Crying , Disaster Vulnerability , Psychosocial Impact , Personal Autonomy , Death , Friends , Aggression , Depression , Drive , Economics , Education, Special , Educational Status , Emotions , Empathy , Faculty , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Fear , Binge Drinking , Meals , Return to Work , Hope , Optimism , Pessimism , Self-Control , Phobia, Social , Psychosocial Support Systems , Work-Life Balance , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Screen Time , Disgust , Sadness , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Psychosocial Intervention , Teleworking , Financial Stress , Food Insecurity , Sentiment Analysis , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Family Support , Government , Guilt , Holistic Health , Homeostasis , Hospitalization , Household Work , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Leisure Activities , Loneliness , Mental Disorders
7.
Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 17(1): 10-26, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411563

ABSTRACT

Background: Ebola Virus causes disease both in human and non-human primatesespecially in developing countries. In 2014 during its outbreak, it led to majority of deaths especially in some impoverished area of West Africa and its effect is still witnessed up till date. Materials and Methods:We studied the spread of Ebola virus and obtained a system of equations comprising of eighteen equations which completely described the transmission of Ebola Virus ina population where control measures were incorporated and a major source of contacting the disease which is the traditional washing of dead bodies was also incorporated. We investigated the local stability of the disease-free equilibrium using the Jacobian Matrix approach and the disease-endemic stability using the center manifold theorem. We also investigated the global stability of the equilibrium points using the LaSalle's Invariant principle.Results: The result showed that the disease-free and endemic equilibrium where both local and globally stable and that the system exhibits a forward bifurcation.Conclusions: Numerical simulations were carried out and our graphs show that vaccine and condom use is best for susceptible population, quarantine is best for exposed population, isolation is best for infectious population and proper burial of the diseased dead is the best to avoid further disease spread in the population and have quicker and better recovery.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine
8.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 61(1): 37-49, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1416389

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are several risk factors being used to identify undiagnosed HIV-infected adults. As the number of undiagnosed people gets less and less, it is important to know if existing risk factors and risk assessment tools are valid for use. Methods: Data from the Tanzania and Zambia Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) household surveys which were conducted during 2016 was used. We first included 12 risk factors (being divorced, separated or widowed; having an HIV+ spouse; having one of the following within 12-months of the survey: paid work, slept away from home for ≥1-month, having multiple sexual partners, clients of sex workers, sexually transmitted infection, being tuberculosis suspect, being very sick for ≥3-months; ever sold sex; diagnosed with cervical cancer; and had TB disease into a risk assessment tool and assessed its validity by comparing it against HIV test result. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the tool were assessed. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve comparison statistics was also used to determine which risk assessment tool was better. Results: HIV prevalence was 2.3% (2.0%-2.6%) (n=14,820). For the tool containing all risk factors, HIV prevalence was 1.0% when none of the risk factors were present (Score 0) compared to 3.2% when at least one factor (Score ≥1) was present and 8.0% when ≥4 risk factors were present. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 82.3% (78.6%-85.9%), 41.9%(41.1%-42.7%), 3.2%(2.8%-3.6%), and 99.0%(98.8%-99.3%), respectively. The use of a tool containing conventional risk factors (all except those related with working and sleeping away) was found to have higher AUC (0.65 vs 0.61) compared to the use of all risk factors (p value <0.001). Conclusions: The use of a screening tool containing conventional risk factors improved HIV testing yield compared to doing universal testing. Prioritizing people who fulfill multiple risk factors should be explored further to improve HIV testing yield.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Undiagnosed Diseases , Tanzania , Zambia , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
9.
PAMJ One Health ; 10(4): 1-14, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425381

ABSTRACT

Introduction: as Zambia moves towards attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control, it is clear significant efforts are required to facilitate achievement of UNAIDS treatment targets by 2030. To accelerate progress towards global target of 95% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) knowing their status, country is promoting community-based HIV testing and same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, there are uncertainties of how this strategy affects immediate and early engagement in program settings. To address this research gap, we analysed a programme data of PLHIV newly diagnosed and initiated on ART in community and health facility settings. Study objectives were to estimate the proportion of immediate engagement, to estimate early engagement among newly diagnosed PLHIV and, to examine factors independently associated with immediate and early engagement in care among newly diagnosed PLHIV offered same-day ART initiation. Methods: we included all newly diagnosed PLHIV aged 18 years or older and provided same-day ART initiation between October 2018 and January 2019 in Lusaka District. Immediate engagement was estimated as proportion of newly diagnosed PLHIV who visited the health facility at least once within 14 days after same-day ART initiation, whereas early engagement as proportion of newly diagnosed PLHIV active 6 months after same-day ART initiation. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to assess association of outcomes with key background characteristics. Results: of 12,777 newly diagnosed PLHIV who initiated same day ART 7,943 (62%) were tested and initiated in the community. Overall, 6,257 (49%) engaged within 14 days (median 15, IQR: 13-37). Older individuals (36-49 years) were more likely to be engaged at 14 days (aRR 1.29; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.18; p<0.001) and retained at 6 months (aRR1.27;95%CI 1.21-1.34P<0.001) whilst risk of attrition at 6 months was highest in younger ages (18-24 years) (aRR 0.79;95 %CI 0.76-0.82; p<0.001). Conclusion: to adequately address the HIV epidemic targeted engagement approaches are required particularly in the younger ages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis
10.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 38(1): 16-20, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1427108

ABSTRACT

Objectifs : Déterminer la prévalence de l'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) chez les enfants (sujets contact) des sujets porteurs chroniques de l'Ag HBs (sujets index) et rechercher les facteurs associés à cette infection chez ces enfants.Patients et méthodes: il s'est agi d'étude rétrospective transversale portant sur les patients positifs pour l'Ag HBs (sujets index), dont la famille (sujets contact: conjoints et enfants) a été soumise à un dépistage systématique de l'infection par le VHB. Résultats: L'âge médian de nos 44 sujets était de 43,1 ± 7,49 ans. Le nombre moyen d'enfants par sujet index était de 2,3 ± 1,1. L'âge médian des 92 enfants était de 9,3 ± 4,55 (de 1 à 15 ans) et 43 (44,8%) étaient vaccinés contre le VHB. La fréquence de l'infection par le VHB était de 24%. Les facteurs indépendants associés à l'infection par le VHB chez les enfants étaient l'ADN du VHB pour les sujets index> 2000 UI/ml (OR = 11,5; p = 0,001), l'existence du VHB chez les deux parents (OR = 7,9; p = 0,03) et l'absence de vaccination contre le VHB chez les enfants (OR = 30,9; p = 0,003). Conclusion: La couverture vaccinale des enfants des sujets index était insuffisante. Outre la transmission verticale, le risque de transmission intrafamiliale était élevé en présence d'au moins un des trois facteurs associés


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children (contact subjects) of chronic HBsAg (index subjects) and to investigate the factors associated with this infection in these children. Patients and methods: this was a retrospective cross-sectional study of HBsAg positive patients (index subjects), whose families (contact subjects: spouses and children) were routinely screened for HBV infection. Results: The median age of our 44 subjects was 43.1 ± 7.49 years. The average number of children per index subject was 2.3 ± 1.1. The median age of the 92 children was 9.3± 4.55 (1 to 15 years) and 43 (44.8%) were vaccinated against HBV. The prevalence of HBV infection was 24%. The independent factors associated with HBV infection in children were HBV DNA for index subjects> 2000 IU/ml (OR = 11.5; p = 0.001), the existence of HBV in both parents (OR = 7.9; p = 0.03) and no HBV vaccination in children (OR = 30.9; p = 0.003). Conclusion: Immunization coverage of children of index subjects was insufficient. In addition to vertical transmission, the risk of intrafamilial transmission was high in the presence of at least one of the three associated factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Disease Transmission, Infectious
11.
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 143-153, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509396

ABSTRACT

Background Blood transfusion saves human lives, but also it can be a route for TransfusionTransmissible Infections (TTIs) including Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis. Objective This study aimed to explore the risk factors associated with TTIs among blood donors at Regional Centre for Blood Transfusion (RCBT) of Karongi, Rwanda. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study design conducted among 36,708 blood donors from 2015 to 2019. Data were extracted from the system known as eProgesaused and the outcome variable were TTIs including HBV, HCV and HIV (measured using Enzyme Immuno-Assay/Chemiluminescence Immunoassay) and syphilis (determined by Rapid Reagin Plasma). Descriptive statistics was computed to describe the characteristics of the blood donors. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were performed to assess the risk factors associated with TTIs. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study found that the overall prevalence of TTIs was 2.1%, while the prevalences of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis were 1.3%, 0.4%, 0.06%, and 0.34%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that the factors associated with HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis were being male, age more than 25 years, being married, living in urban areas, first time blood donors and blood donors living in Rusizi, Rusizi, Nyamasheke and Karongi districts. Conclusion This study revealed that the most frequent TTI was HBV among blood donors and the main risk groups were males, age group of 26-35 years, married and first time donors. Hence, while developing health policies to reduce the effects of HBV infection on safe blood transfusion, these study findings should be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion , HIV Infections , Hepatitis B virus , Hepacivirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Syphilis
12.
Ethiop. j. health sci. (Online) ; 33(2 Special Issue): 127-133, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 as pandemic declared by WHO on March 11, 2020 and first case detected in Ethiopia on March 13/2020. The COVID-19 caused a global crisis, including millions of lives lost, public health systems in shock and economic and social disruption. Strategies depend on how an existing health system is organized. Even though public health emergency operation centers of the Ethiopia switched to emergency response, there is no national evidence about infection prevention and control. Therefore, this project aimed to assess the level of infection prevention and control and management of COVID- 19 in Ethiopia, 2021. METHODS: The cross-sectional study conducted at four regions and one city (Amhara, Oromia, SNNPR, Sidama Region, and Dire Dawa). Being with zonal health departments and woredas health offices, primary health care units were selected. The data were collected electronically through Kobocollect software from November 08-28/2021. Descriptive analysis like frequency and percentage was conducted by SPSS software version 25 and the results were presented by tables, figures and narration. RESULTS: Data were collected from 16 hospitals, 92 health centers, and 344 health posts. All hospitals have designated COVID-19 focal person. There were significant number of woredas and PHCUs who didn't have IPC guidelines and protocols. About 11 woredas had no any type of diagnostic tests for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that there were significant gaps on Infection prevention and control practice, shortage of personal protective equipment, isolation and specimen transportation problem, lack of call centers. We recommend concerned bodies to fill the identified gaps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Disease Prevention , Infections
13.
Rwanda j. med. health sci. (Online) ; 6(1): 53-60, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1518123

ABSTRACT

Introduction Partner notification is among strategies adopted by WHO to identify people at risk of HIV infection among sexual partners with people living with HIV to achieve the 90-90-90 target. There is still a gap in Sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To assess the determinants of partner notification among people infected with HIV in Bushenge hospital. Methods An unmatched case control study was conducted, 141 people who successfully notified their sexual partners as controls and 141 who did not as cases were selected to identify the factors associated with partner notification. Data were analyzed with Stata V13. Results Most cases were female 81(58%); 91(64.5%) of cases and 97(68.8.5%) of controls were in couple, 40(28.8%)of cases and 67(48%) of controls had multiple partner. Thirty-five 35(25%) of cases and 51(36%) of controls were newly diagnosed; 73(74%) of cases and 78(86.6%) suppressed the viral load. Notification approach was associated with partner notification, aOR = 9, CI[2.8, 29]. Conclusion Partner notification as one of the strategies to reach the first 90 requires more efficient and effective efforts. Different initiatives are needed especially in partner notification approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sexual Partners , HIV Infections , Contact Tracing , Health Strategies , Disease Transmission, Infectious
14.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1519744

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: La pratique de la dentisterie implique un risque d'exposition à des microorganismes responsables de nombreuses maladies telles que l'Hépatite, la COVID-19, le VIH-SIDA. OBJECTIFS: Contribuer à l'étude des risques de contamination infectieuse des praticiens. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale de type descriptive d'une durée de quatre mois allant de juin à septembre 2022. RÉSULTATS: Parmi les 100 praticiens interrogés, les chirurgiens-dentistes ont été les plus représentés avec un taux de 63%. Moins de la moitié des praticiens soit 46% avaient une expérience professionnelle compris entre 5 et 10 ans. Parmi nos enquêtés, 62% connaissaient les techniques de prévention d'hygiène. 76% ont été vaccinés contre la COVID-19 et 49% ont été vaccinés contre l'Hépatite B et 65% ont affirmé avoir été piqués ou coupés par un objet souillé. CONCLUSION: Il ressort de cette étude la nécessité de sensibiliser les praticiens sur les mesures de prévention contre les infections au cabinet dentaire.


INTRODUCTION: The practice of dentistry involves a risk of exposure to microorganisms responsible for many diseases such as Hepatitis, COVID-19, HIV-AIDS. OBJECTIVE: Contribute to the study of the risks of infectious contamination of practitioners. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study lasting four months from June to September 2022. RESULTS: Among the 100 practitioners questioned, dental surgeons were the most represented with a rate of 63%. Less than half of the practitioners, or 46%, had professional experience of between 5 and 10 years. Among our respondents, 62% knew the hygiene prevention techniques. 76% had been vaccinated against COVID-19 and 49% had been vaccinated against Hepatitis B and 65% said they had been bitten or cut by a soiled object. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need to educate practitioners on preventive measures against infections in the dental office.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Dental Offices , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , COVID-19 , Dentists , Hepatitis
15.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 030-043, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402679

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el primer caso de COVID-19 se confirmó en Paraguay el 7 de marzo de 2020. No se han encontrado publicaciones que haya caracterizado la frecuencia y características clínicoepidemiológica de COVID-19 en estudiantes de medicina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y características clínicas de estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacífico en el periodo académico 2020-2021. Metodología: estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, que incluyó a estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacifico. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta virtual por Google Docs© que incluía la edad, sexo, curso, síntomas, secuelas, pruebas laboratoriales y resultados para SARS-CoV-2 y gravedad del cuadro. Resultados: se encuestaron 342 estudiantes entre 18 a 42 años de los 6 cursos, 70,8 % de sexo femenino, 66,4 % presentó síntomas compatibles con COVID-19, el más frecuente (44,2 %) fue el dolor de cabeza. El 67,5 % estuvo en contacto con alguna persona con COVID-19 y 40,4 % informó no haber respetado estrictamente la cuarentena, el 61,7 % se realizó alguna prueba laboratorial y de ellos el 42,7 % resultó positivo para el SARS-CoV-2, 98,9 % cursó con cuadro leve. El 86,7 % conocía el nexo de contagio. Se observó significativamente (p<0,001) mayor frecuencia de COVID19 en los estudiantes ≤21 años (65 % vs 32 %), los que tuvieron contacto con persona con COVID19 (49,1 % vs 10,5 %), y aquellos que presentaron síntomas compatibles (48,8 % vs 18,6 %). Conclusiones: casi la mitad de los participantes presentaron resultados positivos para SARS-CoV2, lo que pone de manifiesto una alta transmisión comunitaria.


Introduction: the first case of COVID-19 in Paraguay was confirmed on March 7, 2020. No publications characterizing the frequency and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in medical students have been found. Objective: to determine the frequency of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and clinical characteristics of medical students at the Universidad del Pacífico during the 2020-2021 academic period. Methodology: this was a cross-sectional descriptive observational study, that included medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico. The data was obtained through an online survey by Google Docs© that included age, sex, academic year, symptoms, sequelae, laboratory testing and results for SARS-CoV-2 and severity of the condition. Results: 342 students between 18 and 42 years of age from the 6 courses were surveyed, 70.8% were female; 66.4 % presented symptoms compatible with COVID-19, the most frequent (44.2 %) was headache. 67.5 % were in contact with someone with COVID-19 and 40.4 % reported not strictly following quarantine guidelines, 61.7 % underwent some laboratory testing and 42.7 % of them were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 98.9 % had a mild infection. 86.7 % knew the contagion source. A significantly (p<0.001) higher frequency of COVID-19 was observed in students ≤21 years old (65 % vs 32 %), those who had contact with a person with COVID-19 (49.1 % vs 10.5 %), and those who presented compatible symptoms (48.8 % vs 18.6 %). Conclusions: almost half of the participants presented positive results for SARS-CoV-2, which shows high community transmission.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Universities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data
16.
Cambios rev med ; 21(2): 863, 30 Diciembre 2022. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un problema de salud pública actual asociado con alta mortalidad, hospitalización prolongada, alternativas terapéuticas reducidas, mayores costos económicos y la posibilidad de brotes hospitalarios. OBJETIVO. Describir los principales genes involucrados con resistencia antimicrobiana en hospitales del Ecuador. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó una descripción retrospectiva no experimental, de artículos indexados relacionados con resistencia antimicrobiana en hospitales del Ecuador, con evidencia desde el año 2009 al 2022. La revisión de bibliografías se llevó a cabo en bases de datos como Pubmed, Science Direct y Google Scholar. RESULTADOS. De un grupo original de 77 artículos, se seleccionaron 33 documentos. En Ecuador, varios estudios han descrito los mecanismos moleculares involucrados en la resistencia bacteriana. Sin embargo, en bacterias menos comunes, falta investigación sobre los genes asociados. CONCLUSIONES. Las principales bacterias multirresistentes descritas en Ecuador son Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y Acinetobacter baumanni, las cuales presentan genes involucrados en la producción de carbapenemasas (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaOXA-48). Estas bacterias presentan altos niveles de resistencia a los antibióticos y son objeto de vigilancia epidemiológica por parte del sistema nacional de salud. A nivel local, otras bacterias presentan mecanismos de resistencia a los carbapenémicos (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter sp.), pero no existen descripciones detalladas del genotipo, sus características microbiológicas o la clínica del paciente. El conocimiento de las tasas de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en los diferentes hospitales, la implementación de un plan de administración de antibióticos, el uso correcto de los equipos de protección personal, el aislamiento de las personas con infecciones multirresistentes, así como el trabajo colaborativo entre las diferentes áreas del hospital, son esenciales para reducir la propagación de estos patógenos.


INTRODUCTION. Antimicrobial resistance is a current public health problem associated with high mortality, prolonged hospitalization, reduced therapeutic alternatives, increased economic costs, and the potential for hospital outbreaks. OBJECTIVE. To describe the main genes involved with antimicrobial resistance in hospitals in Ecuador. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective non-experimental description of indexed articles related to antimicrobial resistance in hospitals in Ecuador was carried out, with evidence from 2009 to 2022. The review of bibliographies was carried out in databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. RESULTS. From an original group of 77 articles, 33 papers were selected. In Ecuador, several studies have described the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial resistance. However, in less common bacteria, research on the associated genes is lacking. CONCLUSIONS. The main multidrug-resistant bacteria described in Ecuador are Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanni, which present genes involved in the production of carbapenemases (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaOXA-48). These bacteria present high levels of antibiotic resistance and are subject to epidemiological surveillance by the national health system. Locally, other bacteria present mechanisms of resistance to carbapenemics (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter sp.), but there are no detailed descriptions of the genotype, their microbiological characteristics or the patient's clinic. Knowledge of antimicrobial resistance rates in different hospitals, the implementation of an antibiotic stewardship plan, the correct use of personal protective equipment, the isolation of individuals with multidrug-resistant infections, as well as collaborative work between different areas of the hospital, are essential to reduce the spread of these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Health Surveillance , Opportunistic Infections , Bacteremia , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitals , Noxae , R Factors , Cross Infection , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Acinetobacter baumannii , Ecuador , Escherichia coli , Epidemiologic Surveillance Services , Personal Protective Equipment , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(4): 883-892, out.-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411133

ABSTRACT

There are several diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Brazil. Campaigns run by federal, state and municipal governments and civil society organizations are one way to prevent Aedes aegypti contagion more effectively. The reach and effectiveness of these campaigns can be problematized through the analysis of the utterances they contain. Taking a discursive perspective and adopting the evidential paradigm, nine utterances from such campaigns were analyzed. The goal was to analyze the (persuasive) communication strategies used in Brazilian campaigns to prevent the spread of Aedes aegypti between 2013 and 2018. The analysis revealed discursive markers of authoritarianism and a disconnect between domestic and public spaces. The authoritarian nature is revealed in the use of language that holds citizens individually account-able for any potential non-participation in disease prevention, failing to assure the effective delivery of public health education.


Várias doenças transmitidas pelo vetor Aedes aegypti persistem neste século XXI no Brasil. Uma das formas de se tentar tornar mais eficaz a prevenção do contágio é por meio de campanhas realizadas pelos governos (federal, estadual ou municipal) e por entidades da sociedade civil. Porém, o alcance e a eficácia destas campanhas podem ser problematizados pela análise de enunciados.A partir de uma perspectiva discursiva e do paradigma indiciário foram analisados nove enunciados veiculados em campanhas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar o jogo de interpretação (persuasão) de campanhas brasileiras de prevenção ao Aedes aegypti, veiculadas entre 2013-2018. Há marcas discursivas de autoritarismo e de cisão entre o espaço da casa e da rua nos enunciados das campanhas analisadas. Este autoritarismo decorre da atribuição pelo Estado de culpa individual ao cidadão, pela suposta não efetiva participação deste último na prevenção, e não garante eficácia na educação em saúde coletiva.


Varias enfermedades transmitidas por el vector Aedes aegypti persisten en este siglo XXI en Brasil. Una de las formas de tratar de hacer más efectiva la prevención del contagio es a través de campañas realizadas por los gobiernos (federal, estatal o municipal) y por entidades de la sociedad civil.Analizar el alcance y la efectividad de estas campañas puede ser problematizado por el análisis de declaraciones. Desde una perspectiva discursiva y el paradigma indiciario, se analizaron nueve declaraciones publicadas en campañas en Brasil. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar las estrategias interpretativas (persuasión) de las campanas brasileñas de prevención del Aedes aegypti, difundidas par el gobierno entre 2013-2018. Hay marcas discursivas de autoritarismo y escisión entre el espacio de la casa y la calle en los comunicados de las campañas analizadas. El autoritarismo se deriva de la atribución por parte del Estado de culpabilidad individual al ciudadano, por la supuesta participación ineficaz de éste en la prevención, y no garantiza la efectividad en la educación en salud pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes , Disease Prevention , Vector Borne Diseases , Research , Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious
18.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(3): 33-39, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381093

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo aborda os protocolos odontológicos instituídos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva COVID de um Hospital do Extremo Sul Catarinense. A cavidade oral, considerada uma abertura para a entrada de microrganismos, possui características favoráveis ao seu crescimento, com temperatura e umidade ideais para sua sobrevivência em longo prazo. A odontologia, por manipular diretamente mucosa oral, fica exposta e vulnerável ao contágio do COVID-19, assim como a equipe multiprofissional que manipula o paciente nas diversas áreas de atenção à saúde, no ambiente hospitalar. A COVID-19 é uma infecção respiratória aguda causada pelo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, potencialmente grave, de elevada transmissibilidade e de distribuição global. A maioria das pessoas (cerca de 80%) se recupera da doença sem precisar de tratamento hospitalar. Uma em cada seis pessoas infectadas por COVID-19 fica gravemente doente e desenvolve dificuldade de respirar. As pessoas idosas e as que têm outras condições de saúde, como pressão alta, problemas cardíacos e do pulmão, diabetes ou câncer, têm maior risco de ficarem gravemente doentes. No entanto, qualquer pessoa pode pegar a COVID-19 e ficar gravemente doente. Constatou-se que a aplicação de protocolos odontológicos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva apresenta uma série de vantagens em relação à prevenção da contaminação dos profissionais de saúde, à manutenção da saúde bucal do paciente, aos benefícios gerais para a saúde, à prevenção e ao tratamento de infecções oportunistas, que podem reduzir o tempo de internação do paciente, pois infecção generalizada e pneumonia são doenças nosocomiais também causadas por distúrbios na microbiota oral. Os resultados mostraram que não há cirurgiões dentistas atuando na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, os protocolos não são específicos para área de odontologia e os equipamentos de proteção individuais são utilizados, porém, não em todos atendimentos(AU)


The present study addresses the dental protocols established in the COVID Intensive Care Unit of a Hospital in Extremo Sul Santa Catarina. The oral cavity, considered an opening for the entry of microorganisms, has characteristics favorable to its growth, with ideal temperature and humidity for its long-term survival. Dentistry, by directly manipulating the oral mucosa, is exposed and vulnerable to COVID-19 contagion, as well as the multidisciplinary team that handles the patient in the different areas of health care, in the hospital environment. COVID-19 is a potentially serious acute respiratory infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, with high transmissibility and global distribution. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. One in six people infected with COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Elderly people and those with other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes or cancer, are at increased risk of becoming seriously ill. However, anyone can take COVID-19 and become seriously ill. It was found that the application of dental protocols in the Intensive Care Unit has a number of advantages in relation to the prevention of contamination of health professionals, the maintenance of the patient's oral health, the general benefits for health, prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, which can reduce the patient's hospital stay, as generalized infection and pneumonia are nosocomial diseases also caused by disorders in the oral microbiota. The results showed that there are no dentists working in the Intensive Care Unit, the protocols are not specific to the field of dentistry and individual protective equipment is used, however, not in all cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Dentists , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Patient Care Team , Oral Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Length of Stay , Mouth Mucosa
19.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública; 1 ed; Set. 2022. 14 p. ilus.(Serie Nota Técnica, 036).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, INS-PERU, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1402626

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe la evidencia científica disponible respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso obligatorio de mascarilla versus en el ámbito escolar, a partir de estudios realizados en instituciones educativas en un contexto de disponibilidad de vacunas. Se reportó una asociación significativa entre escuelas con orden de uso obligatorio de mascarillas y una reducción importante en el número de casos de COVID-19 en estudiantes y trabajadores de las escuelas. Sin embargo, la evidencia procede de cuatro estudios ecológicos, no fue posible determinar el efecto aislado del uso de mascarillas de otras medidas de mitigación y el análisis no tomó en cuenta factores como nivel de adherencia o cumplimiento del mandato, tipo de mascarilla empleada, transmisión en el hogar, los diferentes protocolos para detección de casos en las escuelas incluidas y su capacidad para detectar los casos asintomáticos. Todos los estudios se realizaron en un periodo de disponibilidad de vacunas, en su mayoría para niños de 12 años o más, y previo a la circulación de la variante Omicron. Un análisis secundario identificó que la mayor intensidad de la transmisión comunitaria, mayor nivel de individualismo de la población y el nivel de educación secundaria en comparación a nivel pre-escolar, se asociaron con un incremento del riesgo de infección en las escuelas. El riesgo disminuyó con la aplicación de medidas preventivas únicas (distanciamiento físico o uso de mascarillas) o combinadas (distanciamiento físico y uso de mascarillas) versus ninguna medida y con el aumento en la inmunidad de la población. Respecto a los efectos psicosociales y en la comunicación, los resultados de 6 estudios fueron heterogéneos. No se encontró un efecto importante en la capacidad de los niños para inferir las emociones a partir de rostros con mascarillas, no hubo diferencias en el rendimiento cognitivo cuando los niños estuvieron expuestos previamente al uso de mascarillas frente a los que no la usaron y la comprensión del lenguaje fue similar cuando el orador usaba o no la mascarilla, en ausencia de ruido. Por otro lado, se evidenció un menor desempeño en la capacidad de reconocimiento facial y una alteración en el procesamiento de los rostros que usaban una mascarilla.


Subject(s)
Safety , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Education, Primary and Secondary , Absenteeism , Facial Recognition , Physical Distancing , N95 Respirators , COVID-19 , Disaster Mitigation , Immunity , Masks
20.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 107-113, julio-diciembre 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392148

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: los parásitos son organismos que viven en el interior o sobre otra especie para su propio beneficio. Logran afectar plantas, animales y humanos. Los niños son más vulnerables a infectarse, pero la incidencia ha disminuido en Costa Rica gracias a la mejora en salubridad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el conocimiento general que tiene la población costarricense con respecto a las parasitosis infantiles. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo transversal, a una muestra de 196 sujetos. Se presentó encuesta a costarricenses mayores de 18 años que tuvieran un dispositivo con acceso a internet. Se consultó sobre el conocimiento del cuadro clínico de las parasitosis infantiles en Costa Rica. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes eran universitarios (68.3%). El 89.9% cree que los parásitos de las mascotas pueden infectar a los humanos. Los parásitos más conocidos fueron los piojos 173 (88.3%). La parte del cuerpo que se considera más afectada por los parásitos es el estómago (75.5%). La principal medida preventiva contra las parasitosis más conocidas es lavarse las manos (67.9%). Conclusión: muchos participantes creen que los humanos se pueden infectar por los mismos parásitos de los animales. Los piojos fueron los parásitos más conocidos y las garrapatas las menos conocidas. La mayoría considera el vómito o la diarrea como los síntomas principales de las parasitosis y creen que el estómago es el más afectado en una infección. Además, señalan que la principal medida preventiva para evitar el contagio es el lavado de manos.


Objective: parasites are organisms that live inside or on another species for their own benefit, managing to affect plants, animals, and humans. Children are more vulnerable to infection, but the incidence has decreased thanks to the improvement in Costa Rican sanitation. The aim was to evaluate the general knowledge that the Costa Rican population has regarding childhood parasitosis. Methodology: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 196 subjects. A survey was conducted among Costa Ricans over 18 years of age who had a device with internet access. The participants were asked about their knowledge on the clinical picture of childhood parasitosis in Costa Rica. Results: most of the participants were college students (68.3%). 89.9% of them believe that pet parasites can infect humans. The best-known parasites were lice, marked by 173 (88.3%) people. The stomach is the part of the body considered most affected, with 148 (75.5%) responses. The main known preventive measure is washing hands with soap and water, answered by 133 participants (67.9%). Conclusion: Many participants believe that humans can be infected by the same parasites as animals. Lice were the best known and ticks the least. Most of the people consider vomiting and/or diarrhea as one of the main symptoms and believe that the stomach is the most affected part during the infection. In addition, they consider that the main preventive measure to avoid contagion is hand washing.


Objetivo: Parasitas são organismos que vivem em ou sobre outra espécie para seu próprio benefício. Eles conseguem afetar plantas, animais e humanos. As crianças são mais vulneráveis à infecção, mas a incidência diminuiu na Costa Rica graças a melhorias no saneamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento geral que a população costarriquenha tem sobre parasitas infantis.Metodologia: estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal, com amostra de 196 sujeitos.Uma pesquisa foi apresentada a costarriquenhos maiores de 18 anos que possuíam um dispositivo com acesso à internet. O conhecimento do quadro clínico de parasitas infantis na Costa Rica foi consultado.Resultados:a maioria dos participantes era universitária (68.3%). 89.9% acreditam que parasitas de animais de estimação podem infectar humanos. Os parasitas mais conhecidos foram os piolhos 173 (88.3%). A parte do corpo considerada mais afetada pelos parasitas é o estômago (75.5%). A principal medida preventiva contra os parasitas mais conhecidos é a lavagem das mãos (67.9%).Conclusão: muitos participantes acreditam que humanos podem ser infectados pelos mesmos parasitas de animais. Os piolhos foram os parasitas mais conhecidos e os carrapatos os menos conhecidos. A maioria considera vômito ou diarreia como os principais sintomas dos parasitas e acredita que o estômago é o mais afetado em uma infecção. Além disso, apontam que a principal medida preventiva para evitar o contágio é a lavagem das mãos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Parasitic Diseases , Parasites , Ticks , Water , Sanitation , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Knowledge , Diarrhea , Pets
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