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Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 17(1): 10-26, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411563


Background: Ebola Virus causes disease both in human and non-human primatesespecially in developing countries. In 2014 during its outbreak, it led to majority of deaths especially in some impoverished area of West Africa and its effect is still witnessed up till date. Materials and Methods:We studied the spread of Ebola virus and obtained a system of equations comprising of eighteen equations which completely described the transmission of Ebola Virus ina population where control measures were incorporated and a major source of contacting the disease which is the traditional washing of dead bodies was also incorporated. We investigated the local stability of the disease-free equilibrium using the Jacobian Matrix approach and the disease-endemic stability using the center manifold theorem. We also investigated the global stability of the equilibrium points using the LaSalle's Invariant principle.Results: The result showed that the disease-free and endemic equilibrium where both local and globally stable and that the system exhibits a forward bifurcation.Conclusions: Numerical simulations were carried out and our graphs show that vaccine and condom use is best for susceptible population, quarantine is best for exposed population, isolation is best for infectious population and proper burial of the diseased dead is the best to avoid further disease spread in the population and have quicker and better recovery.

Vaccines , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 61(1): 37-49, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1416389


Introduction: There are several risk factors being used to identify undiagnosed HIV-infected adults. As the number of undiagnosed people gets less and less, it is important to know if existing risk factors and risk assessment tools are valid for use. Methods: Data from the Tanzania and Zambia Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) household surveys which were conducted during 2016 was used. We first included 12 risk factors (being divorced, separated or widowed; having an HIV+ spouse; having one of the following within 12-months of the survey: paid work, slept away from home for ≥1-month, having multiple sexual partners, clients of sex workers, sexually transmitted infection, being tuberculosis suspect, being very sick for ≥3-months; ever sold sex; diagnosed with cervical cancer; and had TB disease into a risk assessment tool and assessed its validity by comparing it against HIV test result. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the tool were assessed. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve comparison statistics was also used to determine which risk assessment tool was better. Results: HIV prevalence was 2.3% (2.0%-2.6%) (n=14,820). For the tool containing all risk factors, HIV prevalence was 1.0% when none of the risk factors were present (Score 0) compared to 3.2% when at least one factor (Score ≥1) was present and 8.0% when ≥4 risk factors were present. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 82.3% (78.6%-85.9%), 41.9%(41.1%-42.7%), 3.2%(2.8%-3.6%), and 99.0%(98.8%-99.3%), respectively. The use of a tool containing conventional risk factors (all except those related with working and sleeping away) was found to have higher AUC (0.65 vs 0.61) compared to the use of all risk factors (p value <0.001). Conclusions: The use of a screening tool containing conventional risk factors improved HIV testing yield compared to doing universal testing. Prioritizing people who fulfill multiple risk factors should be explored further to improve HIV testing yield.

HIV Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Undiagnosed Diseases , Tanzania , Zambia , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(3): 33-39, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381093


O presente estudo aborda os protocolos odontológicos instituídos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva COVID de um Hospital do Extremo Sul Catarinense. A cavidade oral, considerada uma abertura para a entrada de microrganismos, possui características favoráveis ao seu crescimento, com temperatura e umidade ideais para sua sobrevivência em longo prazo. A odontologia, por manipular diretamente mucosa oral, fica exposta e vulnerável ao contágio do COVID-19, assim como a equipe multiprofissional que manipula o paciente nas diversas áreas de atenção à saúde, no ambiente hospitalar. A COVID-19 é uma infecção respiratória aguda causada pelo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, potencialmente grave, de elevada transmissibilidade e de distribuição global. A maioria das pessoas (cerca de 80%) se recupera da doença sem precisar de tratamento hospitalar. Uma em cada seis pessoas infectadas por COVID-19 fica gravemente doente e desenvolve dificuldade de respirar. As pessoas idosas e as que têm outras condições de saúde, como pressão alta, problemas cardíacos e do pulmão, diabetes ou câncer, têm maior risco de ficarem gravemente doentes. No entanto, qualquer pessoa pode pegar a COVID-19 e ficar gravemente doente. Constatou-se que a aplicação de protocolos odontológicos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva apresenta uma série de vantagens em relação à prevenção da contaminação dos profissionais de saúde, à manutenção da saúde bucal do paciente, aos benefícios gerais para a saúde, à prevenção e ao tratamento de infecções oportunistas, que podem reduzir o tempo de internação do paciente, pois infecção generalizada e pneumonia são doenças nosocomiais também causadas por distúrbios na microbiota oral. Os resultados mostraram que não há cirurgiões dentistas atuando na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, os protocolos não são específicos para área de odontologia e os equipamentos de proteção individuais são utilizados, porém, não em todos atendimentos(AU)

The present study addresses the dental protocols established in the COVID Intensive Care Unit of a Hospital in Extremo Sul Santa Catarina. The oral cavity, considered an opening for the entry of microorganisms, has characteristics favorable to its growth, with ideal temperature and humidity for its long-term survival. Dentistry, by directly manipulating the oral mucosa, is exposed and vulnerable to COVID-19 contagion, as well as the multidisciplinary team that handles the patient in the different areas of health care, in the hospital environment. COVID-19 is a potentially serious acute respiratory infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, with high transmissibility and global distribution. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. One in six people infected with COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Elderly people and those with other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes or cancer, are at increased risk of becoming seriously ill. However, anyone can take COVID-19 and become seriously ill. It was found that the application of dental protocols in the Intensive Care Unit has a number of advantages in relation to the prevention of contamination of health professionals, the maintenance of the patient's oral health, the general benefits for health, prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, which can reduce the patient's hospital stay, as generalized infection and pneumonia are nosocomial diseases also caused by disorders in the oral microbiota. The results showed that there are no dentists working in the Intensive Care Unit, the protocols are not specific to the field of dentistry and individual protective equipment is used, however, not in all cases(AU)

Dentists , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Patient Care Team , Oral Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Length of Stay , Mouth Mucosa
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(4): 883-892, out.-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411133


There are several diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Brazil. Campaigns run by federal, state and municipal governments and civil society organizations are one way to prevent Aedes aegypti contagion more effectively. The reach and effectiveness of these campaigns can be problematized through the analysis of the utterances they contain. Taking a discursive perspective and adopting the evidential paradigm, nine utterances from such campaigns were analyzed. The goal was to analyze the (persuasive) communication strategies used in Brazilian campaigns to prevent the spread of Aedes aegypti between 2013 and 2018. The analysis revealed discursive markers of authoritarianism and a disconnect between domestic and public spaces. The authoritarian nature is revealed in the use of language that holds citizens individually account-able for any potential non-participation in disease prevention, failing to assure the effective delivery of public health education.

Várias doenças transmitidas pelo vetor Aedes aegypti persistem neste século XXI no Brasil. Uma das formas de se tentar tornar mais eficaz a prevenção do contágio é por meio de campanhas realizadas pelos governos (federal, estadual ou municipal) e por entidades da sociedade civil. Porém, o alcance e a eficácia destas campanhas podem ser problematizados pela análise de enunciados.A partir de uma perspectiva discursiva e do paradigma indiciário foram analisados nove enunciados veiculados em campanhas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar o jogo de interpretação (persuasão) de campanhas brasileiras de prevenção ao Aedes aegypti, veiculadas entre 2013-2018. Há marcas discursivas de autoritarismo e de cisão entre o espaço da casa e da rua nos enunciados das campanhas analisadas. Este autoritarismo decorre da atribuição pelo Estado de culpa individual ao cidadão, pela suposta não efetiva participação deste último na prevenção, e não garante eficácia na educação em saúde coletiva.

Varias enfermedades transmitidas por el vector Aedes aegypti persisten en este siglo XXI en Brasil. Una de las formas de tratar de hacer más efectiva la prevención del contagio es a través de campañas realizadas por los gobiernos (federal, estatal o municipal) y por entidades de la sociedad civil.Analizar el alcance y la efectividad de estas campañas puede ser problematizado por el análisis de declaraciones. Desde una perspectiva discursiva y el paradigma indiciario, se analizaron nueve declaraciones publicadas en campañas en Brasil. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar las estrategias interpretativas (persuasión) de las campanas brasileñas de prevención del Aedes aegypti, difundidas par el gobierno entre 2013-2018. Hay marcas discursivas de autoritarismo y escisión entre el espacio de la casa y la calle en los comunicados de las campañas analizadas. El autoritarismo se deriva de la atribución por parte del Estado de culpabilidad individual al ciudadano, por la supuesta participación ineficaz de éste en la prevención, y no garantiza la efectividad en la educación en salud pública.

Humans , Aedes , Disease Prevention , Vector Borne Diseases , Research , Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 030-043, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402679


Introducción: el primer caso de COVID-19 se confirmó en Paraguay el 7 de marzo de 2020. No se han encontrado publicaciones que haya caracterizado la frecuencia y características clínicoepidemiológica de COVID-19 en estudiantes de medicina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y características clínicas de estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacífico en el periodo académico 2020-2021. Metodología: estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, que incluyó a estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacifico. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta virtual por Google Docs© que incluía la edad, sexo, curso, síntomas, secuelas, pruebas laboratoriales y resultados para SARS-CoV-2 y gravedad del cuadro. Resultados: se encuestaron 342 estudiantes entre 18 a 42 años de los 6 cursos, 70,8 % de sexo femenino, 66,4 % presentó síntomas compatibles con COVID-19, el más frecuente (44,2 %) fue el dolor de cabeza. El 67,5 % estuvo en contacto con alguna persona con COVID-19 y 40,4 % informó no haber respetado estrictamente la cuarentena, el 61,7 % se realizó alguna prueba laboratorial y de ellos el 42,7 % resultó positivo para el SARS-CoV-2, 98,9 % cursó con cuadro leve. El 86,7 % conocía el nexo de contagio. Se observó significativamente (p<0,001) mayor frecuencia de COVID19 en los estudiantes ≤21 años (65 % vs 32 %), los que tuvieron contacto con persona con COVID19 (49,1 % vs 10,5 %), y aquellos que presentaron síntomas compatibles (48,8 % vs 18,6 %). Conclusiones: casi la mitad de los participantes presentaron resultados positivos para SARS-CoV2, lo que pone de manifiesto una alta transmisión comunitaria.

Introduction: the first case of COVID-19 in Paraguay was confirmed on March 7, 2020. No publications characterizing the frequency and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in medical students have been found. Objective: to determine the frequency of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and clinical characteristics of medical students at the Universidad del Pacífico during the 2020-2021 academic period. Methodology: this was a cross-sectional descriptive observational study, that included medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico. The data was obtained through an online survey by Google Docs© that included age, sex, academic year, symptoms, sequelae, laboratory testing and results for SARS-CoV-2 and severity of the condition. Results: 342 students between 18 and 42 years of age from the 6 courses were surveyed, 70.8% were female; 66.4 % presented symptoms compatible with COVID-19, the most frequent (44.2 %) was headache. 67.5 % were in contact with someone with COVID-19 and 40.4 % reported not strictly following quarantine guidelines, 61.7 % underwent some laboratory testing and 42.7 % of them were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 98.9 % had a mild infection. 86.7 % knew the contagion source. A significantly (p<0.001) higher frequency of COVID-19 was observed in students ≤21 years old (65 % vs 32 %), those who had contact with a person with COVID-19 (49.1 % vs 10.5 %), and those who presented compatible symptoms (48.8 % vs 18.6 %). Conclusions: almost half of the participants presented positive results for SARS-CoV-2, which shows high community transmission.

Students, Medical , Universities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública; 1 ed; Set. 2022. 14 p. ilus.(Serie Nota Técnica, 036).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1402626


La presente publicación describe la evidencia científica disponible respecto a la efectividad y seguridad del uso obligatorio de mascarilla versus en el ámbito escolar, a partir de estudios realizados en instituciones educativas en un contexto de disponibilidad de vacunas. Se reportó una asociación significativa entre escuelas con orden de uso obligatorio de mascarillas y una reducción importante en el número de casos de COVID-19 en estudiantes y trabajadores de las escuelas. Sin embargo, la evidencia procede de cuatro estudios ecológicos, no fue posible determinar el efecto aislado del uso de mascarillas de otras medidas de mitigación y el análisis no tomó en cuenta factores como nivel de adherencia o cumplimiento del mandato, tipo de mascarilla empleada, transmisión en el hogar, los diferentes protocolos para detección de casos en las escuelas incluidas y su capacidad para detectar los casos asintomáticos. Todos los estudios se realizaron en un periodo de disponibilidad de vacunas, en su mayoría para niños de 12 años o más, y previo a la circulación de la variante Omicron. Un análisis secundario identificó que la mayor intensidad de la transmisión comunitaria, mayor nivel de individualismo de la población y el nivel de educación secundaria en comparación a nivel pre-escolar, se asociaron con un incremento del riesgo de infección en las escuelas. El riesgo disminuyó con la aplicación de medidas preventivas únicas (distanciamiento físico o uso de mascarillas) o combinadas (distanciamiento físico y uso de mascarillas) versus ninguna medida y con el aumento en la inmunidad de la población. Respecto a los efectos psicosociales y en la comunicación, los resultados de 6 estudios fueron heterogéneos. No se encontró un efecto importante en la capacidad de los niños para inferir las emociones a partir de rostros con mascarillas, no hubo diferencias en el rendimiento cognitivo cuando los niños estuvieron expuestos previamente al uso de mascarillas frente a los que no la usaron y la comprensión del lenguaje fue similar cuando el orador usaba o no la mascarilla, en ausencia de ruido. Por otro lado, se evidenció un menor desempeño en la capacidad de reconocimiento facial y una alteración en el procesamiento de los rostros que usaban una mascarilla.

Safety , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Education, Primary and Secondary , Absenteeism , Facial Recognition , Physical Distancing , N95 Respirators , COVID-19 , Disaster Mitigation , Immunity , Masks
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 107-113, julio-diciembre 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392148


Objetivo: los parásitos son organismos que viven en el interior o sobre otra especie para su propio beneficio. Logran afectar plantas, animales y humanos. Los niños son más vulnerables a infectarse, pero la incidencia ha disminuido en Costa Rica gracias a la mejora en salubridad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el conocimiento general que tiene la población costarricense con respecto a las parasitosis infantiles. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo transversal, a una muestra de 196 sujetos. Se presentó encuesta a costarricenses mayores de 18 años que tuvieran un dispositivo con acceso a internet. Se consultó sobre el conocimiento del cuadro clínico de las parasitosis infantiles en Costa Rica. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes eran universitarios (68.3%). El 89.9% cree que los parásitos de las mascotas pueden infectar a los humanos. Los parásitos más conocidos fueron los piojos 173 (88.3%). La parte del cuerpo que se considera más afectada por los parásitos es el estómago (75.5%). La principal medida preventiva contra las parasitosis más conocidas es lavarse las manos (67.9%). Conclusión: muchos participantes creen que los humanos se pueden infectar por los mismos parásitos de los animales. Los piojos fueron los parásitos más conocidos y las garrapatas las menos conocidas. La mayoría considera el vómito o la diarrea como los síntomas principales de las parasitosis y creen que el estómago es el más afectado en una infección. Además, señalan que la principal medida preventiva para evitar el contagio es el lavado de manos.

Objective: parasites are organisms that live inside or on another species for their own benefit, managing to affect plants, animals, and humans. Children are more vulnerable to infection, but the incidence has decreased thanks to the improvement in Costa Rican sanitation. The aim was to evaluate the general knowledge that the Costa Rican population has regarding childhood parasitosis. Methodology: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 196 subjects. A survey was conducted among Costa Ricans over 18 years of age who had a device with internet access. The participants were asked about their knowledge on the clinical picture of childhood parasitosis in Costa Rica. Results: most of the participants were college students (68.3%). 89.9% of them believe that pet parasites can infect humans. The best-known parasites were lice, marked by 173 (88.3%) people. The stomach is the part of the body considered most affected, with 148 (75.5%) responses. The main known preventive measure is washing hands with soap and water, answered by 133 participants (67.9%). Conclusion: Many participants believe that humans can be infected by the same parasites as animals. Lice were the best known and ticks the least. Most of the people consider vomiting and/or diarrhea as one of the main symptoms and believe that the stomach is the most affected part during the infection. In addition, they consider that the main preventive measure to avoid contagion is hand washing.

Objetivo: Parasitas são organismos que vivem em ou sobre outra espécie para seu próprio benefício. Eles conseguem afetar plantas, animais e humanos. As crianças são mais vulneráveis à infecção, mas a incidência diminuiu na Costa Rica graças a melhorias no saneamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento geral que a população costarriquenha tem sobre parasitas infantis.Metodologia: estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal, com amostra de 196 sujeitos.Uma pesquisa foi apresentada a costarriquenhos maiores de 18 anos que possuíam um dispositivo com acesso à internet. O conhecimento do quadro clínico de parasitas infantis na Costa Rica foi consultado.Resultados:a maioria dos participantes era universitária (68.3%). 89.9% acreditam que parasitas de animais de estimação podem infectar humanos. Os parasitas mais conhecidos foram os piolhos 173 (88.3%). A parte do corpo considerada mais afetada pelos parasitas é o estômago (75.5%). A principal medida preventiva contra os parasitas mais conhecidos é a lavagem das mãos (67.9%).Conclusão: muitos participantes acreditam que humanos podem ser infectados pelos mesmos parasitas de animais. Os piolhos foram os parasitas mais conhecidos e os carrapatos os menos conhecidos. A maioria considera vômito ou diarreia como os principais sintomas dos parasitas e acredita que o estômago é o mais afetado em uma infecção. Além disso, apontam que a principal medida preventiva para evitar o contágio é a lavagem das mãos.

Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Parasitic Diseases , Parasites , Ticks , Water , Sanitation , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Knowledge , Diarrhea , Pets
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 488-495, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378893


Esta resenha aborda o filme Contágio (Contagion), longa-metragem norte-americano de 2011, com direção de Steven Soderbergh e roteiro de Scott Z. Burns. O filme acompanha a trajetória de disseminação de um vírus zoonótico a partir de Hong Kong para o resto do mundo. Enquanto isso, autoridades científicas e sanitárias se mobilizam para combater a nova doença, que rapidamente atinge diversos países, fazendo milhares de vítimas. Em 2020, a procura pelo thriller aumentou devido à semelhança com a pandemia de covid-19, evidenciando o potencial do cinema para a divulgação científica ao abordar conceitos, processos e controvérsias da ciência. Com um roteiro cientificamente apurado, Contágio também ressalta o potencial preditivo da ciência em relação a emergências sanitárias.

This review addresses the 2011 American feature film Contagion, directed by Steven Soderbergh and screenplayed by Scott Z. Burns. The film follows the trajectory of the spread of a zoonotic virus from Hong Kong to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, scientific and health authorities are mobilizing to fight the new disease, which is rapidly reaching several countries, claiming thousands of victims. In 2020, the demand for the thriller increased due to the similarity with the covid-19 pandemic, highlighting the potential of cinema for science communication by approaching science's concepts, processes and controversies. With a scientifically accurate script, Contagion also underlines the predictive potential of science in relation to health emergencies.

Esta reseña aborda el largometraje estadounidense de 2011 Contagio (Contagion), dirigido por Steven Soderbergh y con guión de Scott Z. Burns. La película sigue la trayectoria de la propagación de un virus zoonótico desde Hong Kong al resto del mundo. Mientras tanto, las autoridades científicas y sanitarias se movilizan para combatir la nueva enfermedad, que rápidamente llega a varios países y se cobra miles de víctimas. En 2020 aumentó la demanda del thriller por la similitud con la pandemia del covid-19, destacando el potencial del cine para la divulgación científica al abordar conceptos, procesos y controversias de la ciencia. Con un guión científicamente certero, Contagio también destaca el potencial predictivo de la ciencia en relación con las emergencias sanitarias.

Humans , Viruses , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Motion Pictures , Disease , Fictional Work , Pandemics , COVID-19
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 25Fev. 2022. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390958


Este estudo articulou relações entre o perfil de ciclistas de lazer e mudanças em seus hábitos de pedalar em função da pandemia provocada pelo SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19). Os dados foram obtidos por formulário eletrônico e tratados em plataforma específica. O total de ciclistas respondentes foi de 87. Em perfil, obteve-se: idade, renda, nível de escolaridade e fontes de informação/notícias. Sobre como pedalam em função da pandemia, tivemos: pedala só ou em grupo e com ou sem máscara. Os resultados mostram que os ciclistas têm, predominantemente, idade acima de 30 anos, escolaridade universitária e renda acima de R$2.500. As mídias virtuais são a principal fonte de informação. A ação mais destacada para prevenir o contágio foi o uso de máscara; todavia, não houve relações significativas entre o perfil e novas formas de pedalar (AU).

This study articulated relationships between the profile of leisure cyclists and changes because of the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19). Data were obtained by electronic form and processed in a specific platform. 87 was the total number of cyclists responding. In profile, obtained: age, monthly income, education level and sources of information/news; on the behavior in the practice of cycling we had pedal alone or in groups and with or without mask. The results show that cyclists are predominantly aged over 30 years old, have a university education and an income above R$2,500. Virtual media are the main source of information. The most prominent behavioral change was the use of a mask; however, there were no significant relationships between the profile and behavioral changes (AU).

Esta investigación articuló relaciones entre el perfil de ciclistas de ocio y cambios en la acción de pedalear en función de la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19). Los datos se obtuvieron por cuestionario electrónico, con 87 sujetos y tratados en plataforma específica. Los datos fueron: edad, niveles de renda y escolaridad y donde uno se informa; y sobre cambios se preguntó se pedalea solo o en grupo y si utiliza o no la máscara. Los resultados apuntan que la mayoría de los ciclistas tienen más de 30 años, nivel universitario y renda por arriba de R$2.500 e se informan por las medias virtuales. El principal cambio ha sido el uso de mascara. No se ha encontrado relaciones significativas entre el perfil y los cambios (AU).

Humans , Bicycling , Disease Transmission, Infectious , COVID-19 , Habits , Leisure Activities
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 25Fev. 2022. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391393


Diante do cenário causado pela SARS-CoV-2, este estudo buscou identificar diretrizes das unidades da federação brasileira e refletir sobre os impactos na Educação Física no retorno presencial. Analisou-se quatorze documentos oficiais elaborados até setembro de 2020, utilizando-se de Análise de Conteúdo. Identificaram-se diretrizes gerais de higienização para prevenção do contágio no ambiente escolar e orientações específicas à Educação Física, como reorganização dos espaços, proibição de eventos e atividades coletivas, suspensão de atividades esportivas e adoção de aulas teóricas. Concluiu-se que os protocolos abordam nuances próprias da Educação Física, mas são notáveis os limites de infraestrutura, recursos humanos e materiais para viabilizar o retorno seguro e igualitário (AU).

Given the scenario caused by SARS-CoV-2, this study aiming to identify the guidelines of Brazilian units federation and reflect about impacts of returning on Physical Education. Fourteen official documents prepared by September 2020 were analyzed, using Content Analysis technique. General hygiene guidelines for prevention of contagion in the school environment and specific guidelines for Physical Education were identified, such as reorganization of school spaces, prohibition of events and collective activities, suspension of sports activities and adoption of theorical classes. It was concluded that the protocols address specific nuances to Physical Education, but the limits of infrastructure and human and material resources are remarkable to enable safe return in an equal way (AU).

Dado el escenario del SARS-CoV-2, este estudio identificó las pautas de las unidades de la federación brasileña y reflexionó sobre los impactos en la Educación Física en el retorno presencial. Se analizaron catorce documentos oficiales elaborados hasta septiembre de 2020, utilizando Análisis de Contenido. Se identificaron pautas generales de higiene para la prevención del contagio en el ambiente escolar y pautas específicas para la Educación Física, como reorganizar espacios, prohibir eventos y actividades colectivas, suspender actividades deportivas y adoptar clases teóricas. Se concluyó que los protocolos abordan matices de la EducaciónFísica, pero son notables los límites de infraestructura, recursos humanos y materiales para viabilizar el retorno seguro e igualitario (AU).

Humans , Physical Education and Training , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infrastructure , COVID-19 , Sports , Disease Prevention
São Luís; s.n; 1; 2022. 224 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, SES-MA | ID: biblio-1402654


No final dos anos 40, a ciência descobria o tratamento para a hanseníase, medicamentos para a cura e interrupção do contágio, o que também viabilizou o fim do isolamento de indivíduos em leprosários nos anos subsequentes. Os avanços científicos, contudo, não impediram que o Brasil chegasse ao século XXI com regiões endêmicas de hanseníase. Em parte, a sociedade atual não trata o problema com preocupação, comporta-se, em geral, como se a doença tivesse sido eliminada, quando é fato que o Brasil ocupa a segunda posição entre os países com maior número de casos da doença, perdendo apenas para a Índia. A endemia hansênica é silenciada e faz novas vítimas, como se falar pouco a fizesse desaparecer, junto com os doentes. Também há de se convir que as gerações atuais precisaram conhecer e enfrentar diversos tipos de vírus, surtos, epidemias e pandemia. A hanseníase não detém o mesmo status de preocupação. A doença acomete os mais vulneráveis, geralmente os pobres, residentes em regiões isoladas. O assunto ganha pouco destaque na grande mídia e cabe, portanto, aos profissionais de saúde e ao poder público ofertarem os esclarecimentos devidos sobre a doença e o seu tratamento. Este livro é uma ferramenta histórica e traz visibilidade ao enfrentamento e aos avanços recentes no combate à hanseníase no Maranhão. O árduo trabalho tem alcançado resultados elogiosos e o reconhecimento de organizações brasileiras e internacionais. Com expectativa, desejo que a leitura dos fatos narrados neste material desperte maior interesse sobre o combate à hanseníase, de modo a garantir que o Maranhão e o Brasil estejam livres da doença ainda nesta geração.

Humans , Patient Isolation , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Endemic Diseases , Leprosy , Patients , Public Power , Policy
Research Journal of Heath Sciences ; 10(2): 162-167, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1370656


Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has had tremendous effect on the medical and scientific community. Measures instituted to curb the spread of the disease such as physical distancing and ban on large gatherings have significantly altered conferencing activities of medical professional associations. With no end in sight to the pandemic, it is certain that medical professional associations may have to make do with purely virtual or hybrid conferencing for some time to come. The objective of this paper is to highlight the benefits, disadvantages and challenges of virtual conferencing Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and AJOL databases from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021 for publications describing the benefits, disadvantages and challenges of virtual conferencing during the pandemic. This, together with authors' experience formed the resource base for this work. Conclusion: We propose ways the scientific community in Nigeria can maximize the virtual conferencing while the pandemic lasts. We also advocate increased discussion about how to improve the virtual conferencing culture and the development of guidelines for purely virtual or hybrid scientific conferences

Objectif de l'étude: La pandémie de COVID-19 a eu un effet considérable sur la communauté médicale et scientifique. Les mesures instituées pour freiner la propagation de la maladie, telles que l'éloignement physique et l'interdiction des grands rassemblements, ont considérablement modifié les activités de conférence des associations professionnelles médicales. Sans fin en vue de la pandémie, il est certain que les associations professionnelles médicales devront se contenter de conférences purement virtuelles ou hybrides pendant un certain temps encore. L'objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence les avantages, les inconvénients et les défis de la conférence virtuelle. Méthodes de l'étude : Nous avons effectué des recherches dans les bases de données Pubmed, Embase, Scopus et AJOL du 1er janvier 2021 au 31 décembre 2021 pour trouver des publications décrivant les avantages, les inconvénients et les défis des conférences virtuelles pendant la pandémie. Ceci, combiné à l'expérience des auteurs, a constitué la base de ressources pour ce travail. Conclusion : Nous proposons des moyens pour que la communauté scientifique du Nigéria puisse maximiser les conférences virtuelles pendant la durée de la pandémie. Nous préconisons également une discussion accrue sur la manière d'améliorer la culture des conférences virtuelles et l'élaboration de lignes directrices pour les conférences scientifiques purement virtuelles ou hybrides

Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Social Media , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Congresses as Topic
Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 27(NA): 1-7, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380101


Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a global strategy for reducing female-to-male sexual transmission of HIV. Women whose partners are circumcised benefit from a reduced risk of contracting other sexually transmitted diseases; making their role in VMMC critical. The objective of our study was to identify and synthesize existing evidence related to women's role in promoting VMMC from a regional perspective. The review and selection process were guided by the Problem; Intervention; Comparison and Outcome (PICO) model, which facilitated the exclusion of irrelevant studies. The search strategy search terms for the PICO components with synonyms, related terms and specialist terms were harvested from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)© and Embase©. The inclusion criteria were published studies in English and relevant to women's role in VMMC for the prevention of HIV between 2007 and 2020. Four key categories emerged from the literature as follows: role of women, VMMC uptake, barriers and facilitators of VMMC. The majority of the studies concur on the importance of involving women in VMMC uptake as they have the power to negotiate with their male partners through communication and can persuade men to be circumcised, making it a joint decision. The benefits of VMMC in improving sexual pleasure and attractiveness of the penis seemed to positively convince women to influence and educate men to improve the uptake of VMMC. Women are motivated to convince men to undergo male circumcision (MC) because of the benefits associated with them such as reduction of HIV transmission and cervical cancer. There are, however, limited studies focusing on women's involvement in VMMC; hence, more research to explore this area is recommended.

Humans , Female , Social Support , HIV Infections , Health Education , Circumcision, Male , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Gender Role
African Journal of Reproductive Health ; 26(5): 1-9, May 2022;. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1381702


In Swaziland, the Ministry of Health adopted the prevention of mother-to-transmission (PMTCT) Option A as a feasible and less costly way to expand the PMTCT services nationwide. Despite major success since the programme started, some barriers, such as the challenge of follow-up care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant mothers still exist. The present study aimed to describe the challenges that HIV-positive pregnant mothers encountered on taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) in a health unit of the Manzini region, Swaziland. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was used, and data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews and field notes. Purposive sampling was used to select the study site and the population. Permission was requested from the participants to record the interviews. The study population were HIV-positive pregnant mothers, aged between 18 and 40 years, which were enrolled in the PMTCT B+ programme. The PMTCT B+ programme was perceived as preventing the transfer of HIV transmission from mother to child. It boosts the mother's immune system, prevents opportunistic infections and prolongs life. Challenges of taking ARVs emerged as a theme. The participants displayed knowledge and understanding of the programme, yet discrimination and no support from families and partners were mentioned. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[5]: 41-49).

HIV Long Terminal Repeat , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Foods for Pregnant and Nursing Mothers , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Financial Stress , Mobile Health Units
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-11, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380570


The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa (SA) is associated with uncontrolled transmission in communities and delayed diagnosis of active cases. Active surveillance for TB is provided by community-based services (CBS). Research is required to understand key factors influencing TB screening services in the CBS. This study explored the implementation of active surveillance for TB where community-oriented primary care (COPC) had been successfully implemented to identify these factors.Methods: This was a qualitative study of four established COPC sites across two provinces in SA where active surveillance for TB is implemented. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected healthcare workers in the CBS and citizens in these communities. The recorded interviews were transcribed for data analysis using ATLAS.tisoftware.Results: The factors influencing active surveillance for TB were directly related to the major players in the delivery of CBS. These factors interacted in a complex network influencing implementation of active surveillance for TB. Building effective relationships across stakeholder platforms by community health workers (CHWs) was directly influenced by the training, capacity building afforded these CHWs by the district health services; and acceptability of CBS. Each factor interplayed with others to influence active surveillance for TB.Conclusion: Community health workers were central to the success of active surveillance for TB. The complex interactions of the social determinants of health and TB transmission in communities required CHWs to develop trusting relationships that responded to these issues that have impact on TB disease and linked clients to healthcare.Keywords: tuberculosis; active case finding; community-oriented primary care; community health worker (CHW); community-based services; active surveillance.

Tuberculosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Watchful Waiting , Community Health Workers
S. Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 37(1)2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396122


Background: The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICDs) of South Africa (SA) provides technical support to healthcare workers (HCWs) with regard to infectious diseases through the NICD clinician hotline. Queries to the hotline are often about rabies prophylaxis. An analysis of these queries may help to identify knowledge gaps amongst HCWs regarding prevention of rabies in humans in SA. Methods: A retrospective descriptive review was conducted to analyse rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) queries received by the NICD from 01 January 2016 to 31 December 2019. Results: A total of 4655 queries were received by the NICD clinician hotline for the study period, of which 2461 pertained to rabies PEP (52.87%). The largest number of calls were placedby HCWs (n = 2313/2437; 94.9%). Queries originated mainly from Gauteng (n = 912/2443; 37.3%) and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 875/2443; 35.8%) provinces. A total of 50 different types of animals were related to exposures involving humans. Dogs (67.7%) and cats (11.8%) were the animals most frequently reported and exposure category III was most common (88.6%). Approximately equal numbers of callers were advised active management of administering rabies PEP and conservative management of withholding PEP. This did not seem to be affected by the exposure category related to the call. Conclusion: This analysis shows the ongoing demand by HCWs for technical support regarding patient management following potential exposure to rabies. Gaps in HCWs rabies knowledge provide unique learning points on guiding training to achieve the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030.

Humans , Male , Female , Rabies , Communicable Diseases , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Lyssavirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2): 204-215, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400303


Background: Understanding the socioeconomic status that influences malaria transmission in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa is vital in creating policies and strategies to combat malaria transmission, improve socioeconomic conditions and strengthen the malaria elimination campaign. Objectives: To determine the relationship between socioeconomic status and malaria incidence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Socioeconomic information (gender, age, no formal education, no electricity, no toilet facilities, unemployment) and malaria data for 2011 were obtained from Statistics South Africa and the malaria control program of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa respectively. The analysis was conducted employing the Bayesian multiple regression model. Results: The obtained posterior samples show that all the variables employed in this study were significant and positive predictors of malaria disease at 95% credible interval. The low socioeconomic status that exhibited the strongest association with malaria risk was lack of toilet facilities (odd ratio =12.39; 95% credible interval = 0.61, 24.36). This was followed by no formal education (odd ratio =11.11; 95% credible interval = 0.51, 24.10) and lack of electricity supply (odd ratio =8.94; 95% credible interval = 0.31, 23.21) respectively. Conclusions: Low socioeconomic status potentially sustains malaria transmission and burden. As an implication, poverty alleviation and malaria intervention resources should be incorporated side by side into the socioeconomic framework to attain zero malaria transmission.

Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Malaria
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 21(4): 306-316, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411141


Aim: Women and girls living with and at high risk of HIV (WGL&RHIV) had an increased risk for gender-based violence (GBV) during COVID-19. The study aimed to assess the associations between vaccine hesitancy and GBV, HIV status and psychological distress among these vulnerable women and girls in Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from WGL&RHIV in 10 states in Nigeria between June and October 2021. The dependent variable was vaccine hesitancy. The independent variables were the experience of physical, sexual, economic and emotional GBV, HIV status and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a multivariable logistics regression analysis to test the associations between vaccine hesitancy and the independent variables and covariates. Results: Among the 3 431 participants, 1 015 (22.8%) were not willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Not knowing or willing to disclose HIV status (aOR 1.40) and having mild (aOR 1.36) and moderate (aOR 1.38) symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher odds of vaccine hesitancy. Being a survivor of intimate partner physical violence (aOR 5.76), non-intimate partner sexual violence (aOR 3.41), as well as emotional abuse (aOR 1.55) were significantly associated with respectively more than five, three and one and half times higher odds of vaccine hesitancy. One positive outcome is that HIV-positive women and girls appeared to be more likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine when available. Conclusions: Sexual and gender-based violence, low socio-economic status, psychological distress and an unknown HIV status are essential determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among vulnerable women and girls in Nigeria. National authorities and civil society organisations need to better integrate COVID-19 mitigation activities with HIV and gender-based violence interventions through a more feminist approach that promotes gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls in all their diversity for better access to health services.

Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Intimate Partner Violence , Psychological Distress , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Sex Offenses
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e181772, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1406406


Diferentes trabalhadores estão sujeitos a acidentes com material biológico, que geram não apenas agravos físicos, mas, sobretudo, psicológicos. O coping ocupacional é a tentativa individual de adaptação às situações estressantes no ambiente de trabalho. O estudo analisou as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pelos trabalhadores da área da saúde que se acidentam com material biológico. Adotou como método o estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com dez trabalhadores da área da saúde que trabalham em hospitais e sofreram acidente com exposição a material biológico recentemente, selecionados a partir da estratégia de bola de neve. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e organizadas, e, para análise do conteúdo, foram utilizadas as etapas da técnica propostas por Bardin. Os resultados mostraram que a estratégia de enfrentamento mais representativa para os trabalhadores pesquisados foi o controle por meio da busca de mudança de atitudes em relação às rotinas de trabalho e do aperfeiçoamento técnico. A metodologia utilizada proporcionou a identificação, ainda, de outras estratégias, caso da autoculpabilização e a da interação social. Aponta para a importância da formação integrada e continuada no espaço de trabalho como forma de prevenção e de condução dos acidentes de trabalho.(AU)

Diverse workers are subject to accidents involving biological material, which cause not only physical injury but, above all, psychological damage. Occupational coping is the individual's attempt to adapt to stressful situations in the workplace. The study analyzed the coping strategies of health professionals who suffered accidents involving biological material. It adopted a descriptive method, with a qualitative approach, carried out by using semi-structured interviews with ten health professionals working in hospitals and who had recently suffered accidents involving exposure to biological material, selected with a snowball sampling strategy. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and organized, and for the analysis of the content, the technique of content analysis proposed by Bardin was used. The results showed that the most common coping strategy for the workers surveyed was control by seeking a change of attitudes regarding work routines and technical improvements. The methodology also identified other strategies, such as self-blaming and social interaction. These findings point to the importance of integrated and continuous workplace training as a way to prevent and manage workplace accidents.(AU)

Los trabajadores están sujetos a accidentes con material biológico, los cuales ocasionan no solo agravios físicos, sino también psicológicos. El coping ocupacional es el intento individual de adaptación a las situaciones estresantes en el ambiente de trabajo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las estrategias de enfrentamiento utilizadas por los trabajadores del área de la salud que sufrieron accidentes con material biológico. El método que se utilizó fue el estudio descriptivo, de naturaleza cualitativa, a partir de la aplicación de entrevistas semiestructuradas a diez trabajadores del área de la salud en hospitales y que sufrieron accidentes con materiales biológicos recientemente, seleccionados por la estrategia de bola de nieve. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y organizadas, y para el análisis del contenido se utilizaron las etapas de la técnica propuestas por Bardin. Los resultados mostraron que el control fue la estrategia de enfrentamiento más utilizada mediante la búsqueda de cambio de actitud con relación a las rutinas de trabajo y al perfeccionamiento técnico. La metodología permitió identificar otras estrategias, como la autoculpabilización y la interacción social. Cabe destacar la importancia de la formación integrada y continua en el espacio de trabajo como medio de prevención y de manejo a accidentes de trabajo.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Work , Adaptation, Psychological , Accidents, Occupational , Psychology , Stress, Psychological , Avoidance Learning , Awareness , Wounds and Injuries , Biocompatible Materials , Biological Products , Epidemiology , Occupational Health , Health Strategies , Interview , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Containment of Biohazards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Biological Control Agents , Personal Protective Equipment , Seroconversion , Accident Prevention , Guilt , Health Facility Moving , Health Services Needs and Demand , Infections , Malpractice