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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887974


Overtaking lung cancer,breast cancer is now the most commonly diagnosed cancer seriously threatening people's health and life. As the main effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii,triptolide( TP) has attracted increasing attention due to its multitarget and multi-pathway anti-tumor activity. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer-sensitive TP enables the inactivation of breast cancer cells by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy,interfering in tumor cell metastasis,resisting drug resistance,arresting tumor cell cycle,and influencing tumor microenvironment. It has been recognized as a promising clinical antitumor agent by virtue of its widely accepted therapeutic efficacy. This paper reviewed the anti-breast cancer action and its molecular mechanisms of TP on the basis of the relevant literature in the past ten years,and proposed application strategies in view of the inadequacy of TP to provide a reference for further research on the application of TP in the treatment of breast cancer.

Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds , Female , Humans , Phenanthrenes , Tumor Microenvironment
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131333


Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.

Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.

Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 236-246, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104216


Chloroform extract (CE) and fractions obtained from Aldama arenaria roots were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against 10 human tumor cell lines [leukemia (K-562), breast (MCF-7), ovary expressing a multidrug-resistant phenotype (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), lung (NCI-H460), prostate (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovary (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251), and kidney (786-0)]. CE presented weak to moderate antiproliferative activity (mean log GI50 1.07), whereas fractions 3 and 4, enriched with pimaranetype diterpenes [ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presented moderate to potent activity for most cell lines, with mean log GI50 of 0.62 and 0.59, respectively. The results showed promising in vitro antiproliferative action of the samples obtained from A. arenaria, with the best results for NCI/ADR-RES, HT29, and OVCAR-3, and TGI values ranging from 5.95 to 28.71 µ -1, demonstrating that compounds of this class may be potential prototypes for the discovery of new therapeutic agents.

El extracto de cloroformo (CE) y las fracciones obtenidas de las raíces de Aldama arenaria fueron evaluadas por su actividad antiproliferativa in vitro contra 10 líneas celulares tumorales humanas [leucemia (K-562), mama (MCF-7), ovario que expresa un fenotipo resistente a múltiples fármacos (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), pulmón (NCI-H460), próstata (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovario (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251) y riñón (786-0)]. CE presentó actividad antiproliferativa débil a moderada (log GI50 promedio de 1.07), mientras que las fracciones 3 y 4, enriquecidas con diterpenos de tipo pimarane [ent-pimara-8 (14), ácido 15-dien-19-oico y ent-8 (14), 15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presentaron actividad moderada a potente para la mayoría de las líneas celulares, con un log GI50 promedio de 0.62 y 0.59, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron una prometedora acción antiproliferativa in vitro de las muestras obtenidas de A. arenaria, con los mejores resultados para NCI/ADR-RES, HT29 y OVCAR-3, y valores de TGI que van desde 5.95 a 28.71 µ -1, lo que demuestra que los compuestos de esta clase pueden ser prototipos potenciales para el descubrimiento de nuevos agentes terapéuticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chloroform , Plectranthus/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Cuba , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 20-27, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742509


PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) on proliferation, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells and to explore the possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was cultured and treated with PAB dose- and time-dependent manners. Cell proliferation and invasion ability were measured by MTT assay and Matrigel/Transwell test, respectively. Semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were conducted to detect the expression of EMT markers and the key molecules. Finally, nude mice subcutaneous transplantation tumor model was used to confirm the therapy efficacy of PAB. RESULTS: PAB could inhibit SW1990 cell proliferation and invasion in time- and dose-dependent manners. Vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, YAP, TEAD1, and Survivin were down-regulated (p < 0.01), while E-cadherin, caspase-9, MST1, and pYAP were up-regulated (p < 0.05). Combined PAB and gemcitabine treatment markedly restricted the tumor growth compared with gencitabin or PAB alone groups. CONCLUSION: PAB could inhibit the proliferation and invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells through activating Hippo-YAP pathway and inhibiting the process of EMT.

Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cadherins , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxycytidine/pharmacology , Deoxycytidine/therapeutic use , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Diterpenes/therapeutic use , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Female , Humans , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diet therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vimentin/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7061, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889105


Andrographolide (ANDRO) has been studied for its immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection effects. Because brain hypoxia is the most common factor of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury, we studied the role and possible mechanism of ANDRO in this process using hypoxia-injured astrocytes. Mouse cortical astrocytes C8-D1A (astrocyte type I clone from C57/BL6 strains) were subjected to 3 and 21% of O2 for various times (0-12 h) to establish an astrocyte hypoxia injury model in vitro. After hypoxia and ANDRO administration, the changes in cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Expression changes in apoptosis-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins, main factors of JNK pathway, ATG5, and S100B were determined by western blot. Hypoxia remarkably damaged C8-D1A cells evidenced by reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Hypoxia also induced autophagy and overproduction of S100B. ANDRO reduced cell apoptosis and promoted cell autophagy and S100B expression. After ANDRO administration, autophagy-related proteins, S-100B, JNK pathway proteins, and ATG5 were all upregulated, while autophagy-related proteins and s100b were downregulated when the jnk pathway was inhibited or ATG5 was knocked down. ANDRO conferred a survival advantage to hypoxia-injured astrocytes by reducing cell apoptosis and promoting autophagy and s100b expression. Furthermore, the promotion of autophagy and s100b expression by ANDRO was via activation of jnk pathway and regulation of ATG5.

Animals , Mice , Astrocytes/drug effects , Autophagy/drug effects , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Astrocytes/physiology , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/metabolism , Time Factors , Transfection
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 58 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361660


As peroxirredoxinas (Prx) são enzimas antioxidantes que se destacam pela capacidade de decompor uma grande variedade de hidroperóxidos com elevada eficiência (106-108M-1s-1), mantendo essas moléculas em níveis adequados à homeostase celular. Entretanto, já foi demonstrado que em diversos tipos tumorais os níveis de Prx são extremamente aumentados e experimentos envolvendo sua inativação resultam na diferenciação ou apoptose de células tumorais. Recentemente, foi descoberto um diterpenóide denominado adenantina que seria o primeiro inibidor para as Prx1 e Prx2 de humanos e foi demonstrada que sua aplicação em células de leucemia mieloide aguda promoveu diferenciação ou apoptose dessas células. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho apresenta duas vertentes: 1) A caracterização das alterações estruturais e funcionais promovidas pela ligação da adenantina ao sítio ativo das Prx utilizando Tsa1 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae como modelo biológico, em função da sua alta similaridade com Prx2 de humanos; 2) Avaliação da atividade antitumoral dose dependente de adenantina sobre as linhagens celulares REH e MOLT-4 de leucemia linfoide aguda. No que concerne à primeira linha de investigação, nossos resultados revelam que Tsa1 é suscetível à inibição por adenantina, uma vez que o tratamento reduziu em ~66 % a velocidade de decomposição de peróxido de hidrogênio. Adicionalmente, a mutação da Thr44 de Tsa1, pertencente à chamada tríade catalítica, por uma Ser resultou em uma proteína mais suscetível a alterações na estrutura secundária e à inibição da atividade peroxidásica em função da ligação com adenantina, apresentando uma diminuição de ~85% na velocidade de reação. Características semelhantes foram observadas para a proteoforma Tsa2 de S. cerevisiae, que carreia naturalmente a substituição da Thr44 pela Ser. Análises de sequências de Prx em bancos de dados revelaram que majoritariamente proteínas contendo Ser são encontradas em organismos procariotos, muitos deles patogênicos. Finalmente, demonstramos por meio de ensaios citotoxicidade que as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis, que possuem uma Ser na tríade catalítica, têm seu crescimento inibido pelo tratamento com adenantina (IC50 de 460µM e 77µM, respectivamente), enquanto que para Escherichia coli, que possui Thr nessa posição, a toxicidade da adenantina foi bastante baixa (não foi possível determinar o IC50 nas condições utilizadas). Dessa forma, os dados apresentados neste trabalho demonstram o potencial da utilização da adenantina tanto como antibiótico quanto como antileucêmico

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are antioxidant enzymes which stand out due the ability to decompose a wide variety of hydroperoxides with high efficiency (106-108M-1s-1) maintaining these molecules at suitable levels to cellular homeostasis and participating in several signaling events. However, it has been shown that, in many tumor types, Prx levels are extremely increased and experiments involving its inactivation have resulted in differentiation or apoptosis of tumor cells. It was recently found a diterpenoid, called adenanthin, that would be the first human Prx1 and Prx2 inhibitor and it was demonstrated that its application in acute myeloid leukemia cells was able to promote differentiation or apoptosis. In this context, this work presents two lines of research: 1) Characterization of structural and functional changes promoted by adenanthin binding to Prx active site using Tsa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biological model, due to its high similarity to human Prx2. 2) Evaluation of adenanthin dose-dependent antitumor activity over the acute lymphoid leukemia cell lines REH and MOLT-4. As regards the first line of research, our result reveal that Tsa1 is susceptible to inhibition by adenanthin, since the treatment with this binder reduced the hydrogen peroxide decomposition velocity in ~ 66%. In addition, the replacement of Thr44 from Tsa1, aminoacid belonging to the so-called catalytic triad, by a Ser resulted in a protein more susceptible to alterations in secondary structure and to peroxidase activity inhibition in function of adenanthin binding, presenting ~85% of decrease in reaction velocity. Similar characteristics were observed for Tsa2 proteoform from S. cerevisiae, which naturally carries the substitution of Thr44 by Ser. Prx sequences analyzes in databases revealed that mostly Ser-containing proteins are found in prokaryotic organisms, many of them pathogenic ones. Finally, we demonstrate through cytotoxicity assays that the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which have a Ser in catalytic triad, have their growth inhibited by adenanthin treatment (IC50 of 460µM and 77µM, respectively), whereas for Escherichia Coli, which has Thr at that position, the tocyxicity of adenanthin was quite low (it was not possible to determine the IC50 under the used conditions). Regarding the second line of investigation, we found that adenanthin is able to induce the death of leukemic cell lines REH and MOLT-4, and for the last one, there was an unexpected proliferation of cells treated by the longest incubation period (72 hours), characterizing a possible indication of differentiation process. In this sense, the data presented here demonstrate the potential of adenanthin use in both antibiotic and antileukemic treatment

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Peroxiredoxins/classification , Growth Inhibitors/analysis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/classification , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(6): 481-490, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787323


Abstract Background: Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Methods: Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Results: Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. Conclusion: The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats.

Resumo Fundamento: Diterpenos do tipo labdano induzem uma queda da pressão arterial por meio do relaxamento do músculo liso vascular; todavia, não há estudos que descrevam os efeitos de labdanos em ratos hipertensos. Objetivo: O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar as ações cardiovasculares do labdano ácido ent-3-acetóxi-labda-8(17),13-dieno-15-óico (labda-15-óico) na hipertensão renal dois rins-1 clipe (2R-1C). Métodos: Foram feitos experimentos de reatividade vascular em anéis aórticos isolados de ratos machos 2R-1C e normotensos (2R). A medição de Nitrato/Nitrito (NOx) foi feita nas aortas por meio de ensaio colorimétrico. As medidas de pressão arterial foram feitas em ratos conscientes. Resultados: O ácido labda-15-óico (0,1 - 300 µmol/l) e a forscolina (0,1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxaram as aortas com endotélio intacto e as aortas sem endotélio dos ratos 2R-1C e 2R. O labda-15-óico mostrou-se mais eficaz na indução do relaxamento em aortas com endotélio intacto de 2R pré-contraídas com fenilefrina em comparação àquelas sem endotélio. A forscolina mostrou-se mais potente do que o ácido labda-15-óico na indução do relaxamento vascular nas artérias tanto de ratos 2R-1C quanto de ratos 2R. O aumento dos níveis de NOx induzido pelo ácido labda-15-óico foi menor nas artérias de ratos 2R-1C em comparação a ratos 2R. A administração intravenosa de ácido labda-15-óico (0,3-3 mg/kg) ou forscolina (0,1-1 mg/kg) induziu hipertensão em ratos 2R-1C e 2R conscientes. Conclusão: Os presentes resultados mostram que o labda-15-óico induz relaxamento vascular e hipotensão em ratos hipertensos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Colforsin/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Hypertension, Renovascular/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Phenylephrine/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/chemistry , Colforsin/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Diterpenes/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hypertension, Renovascular/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 837-849, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744855


Comprender el significado del capital social de la diabetes tipo 2 según género, dentro un contexto urbano colombiano. Investigación cualitativa del interaccionismo simbólico. 25 mujeres y 16 hombres, diabéticos, familiares, vecinos y personal asistencial participaron en seis grupos focales. Emergieron 850 códigos que se integraron en un set de 142 códigos de códigos para el ego, el alter y alter ego. Tres categorías y veinte subcategorías fueron identificadas para el diseño del "paradigma de la codificación". El significado no es igual para hombres y mujeres. Los vínculos sociales de las redes sociales, creados cotidianamente por la confianza y la solidaridad para el cuidado, son valorados de manera diferente, debido a experiencias y hechos sociales resultantes de la autoconfianza, la autoeficacia para el apoyo social principalmente y, la autoestima frente al manejo y control de la enfermedad. Los recursos sociales de un individuo son reificados para el manejo y cuidado de la enfermedad como estrategia para disminuir las inequidades en salud.

The aim of this study was to understand the meaning of social capital in relation to type 2 diabetes according to gender, within an urban setting in Colombia, based on a qualitative design for symbolic interactionism. Twenty-four women and 16 men with diabetes, family members, and healthcare personnel participated in six focus groups. A total of 850 codes emerged that comprised a set of 142 codes for ego, alter, and alter ego. Three categories and 20 subcategories were identified for the "coding paradigm design". The meaning differed between men and women. Social ties in social networks, created daily through trust and solidarity for care, were valued differently due to the social experiences and events resulting from self-confidence, self-efficacy for social support, and mainly self-esteem vis-à-vis management and control of the disease. An individual's social resources are reified for the management and care of the disease as a strategy to mitigate health inequalities. .

Compreender o significado do capital social, diabetes tipo 2 por sexo, um contexto urbano da Colômbia. pesquisa qualitativa do interacionismo simbólico. 25 mulheres e 16 homens, diabéticos, familiares, vizinhos e cuidadores participaram seis grupos focais. 850 códigos se que foram integrados em um conjunto de 142 codes para o ego, o alter e alter ego. Três categorias e vinte subcategorias foram identificados para o projeto de "codificação de paradigma". O significado não é o mesmo para homens e mulheres. Laços sociais das redes sociais criadas diariamente pela confiança e solidariedade são valorizados cuidado diferente, porque as experiências sociais e fatos resultantes da auto-confiança, auto-eficácia e de apoio social, principalmente, auto-gestão e controle em relação a doença. Os recursos sociais de um indivíduo são reificadas para a gestão o cuidado da doença como uma estratégia para reduzir as desigualdades na saúde.

Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/agonists , Acetamides/chemistry , Acetamides/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Arrestins/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Databases, Chemical , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Dynorphins/chemistry , Dynorphins/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Ligands , Protein Transport , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 82-87, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744697


OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. .

OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o volume do tumor após a quimioterapia pré-operatória (VTPOS) e antes da quimioterapia pré-operatória (VTPRE) com sobrevida geral aos dois e cinco anos e tempo de vida. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por pacientes consecutivos avaliados de 1989 a 2009, em um serviço de onco-hematologia. Os dados clínicos, histológicos e volumétricos foram coletados a partir dos registros médicos. Para análise, usaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank e regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 32 pacientes, 53,1% do sexo masculino, com mediana de idade ao diagnóstico de 43 meses. Houve associação significativa entre VTPOS >500 mL e a diferença entre o VTPRE e VTPOS (p=0,015) e os tipos histológicos de risco (p=0,008). Verificou-se também uma associação entre a diferença entre o VTPRE e VTPOS e o tumor de predomínio estromal (p=0,037). Quando se avaliou o VTPOS de todos os pacientes, sem um ponto de corte definido, observou-se associação dessa variável com o tempo de vida (p=0,013), isto é, para cada aumento de 10 mL no VTPOS houve um aumento médio de 2% no risco de morte. CONCLUSÕES: Embora os resultados indiquem que o VTPOS poderia ser considerado um preditor isolado de mau prognóstico, independentemente do ponto de corte sugerido na literatura, mais estudos são necessários para substituir a histologia e estadiamento pelo tamanho do tumor como melhor variável prognóstica. .

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Macrocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Euphorbia/chemistry , Molecular Conformation , Macrocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Macrocyclic Compounds/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 485-491
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150261


Triptolide, a diterpene derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., a Chinese medicinal herb, has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells, but its anticancer effects on human osteosarcoma cells have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether triptolide induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We firstly demonstrated that triptolide inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in U2OS cells. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of procaspase-8, -9, Bcl-2, Bid and mitochondrial cytochrome c were downregulated in triptolide-treated U2OS cells, whereas the levels of Fas, FasL, Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were upregulated. These results suggest that triptolide induces apoptosis in U2OS cells by activating both death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Humans , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Proteolysis/drug effects
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(9): 1150-1157, set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699682


Background: The rainforest is an important source of natural compounds with therapeutic properties. Although there are many anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic drugs available to the clinician, there is an ongoing need for new therapeutic drugs with fewer serious adverse effects. Aim: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of lupeol and casearin G on tumor cells, on phagocytic activity and nitric oxide (NO) production by blood mononuclear cells. Material and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of these compounds on cell lines MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) was measured by a colorimetric assay (MTS/PMS) and the sulphorhodamine B assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from eight healthy volunteers. The effect of these compounds on nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using the Griess reaction. Their effect on phagocytic activity of PBMC was also evaluated. Results: Lupeol (≥ 2 mM) resulted in a reduction of both the phagocytic index and the percentage of phagocytic monocytes and macrophages. Treatment of monocytes/macrophages with lupeol (72 µM) and casearin G (4 µM) reduced the production of NO. Neither lupeol (< 969 µM) nor casearin G (< 55 µM) had cytotoxic effects on PBMC. Casearin G showed both cytotoxic (IC50, LC50) and cytostatic (GI50) effects against tumor cells, PC-3 (IC50 = 12.5 µM; GI50 = 13.3 µM; LC50 = 51.9 µM) and MCF-7 (IC50 = 112.8 µM; GI50 = 11.8 µM; LC50 = 49.4 µM), as well as a hemolytic effect (≥ 182 µM). Conclusions: These observations indicate that lupeol and casearin G might be useful compounds in the preparation of anti-inflammatory drugs, whereas casearin G might be useful in the elaboration of antitumor drugs.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Casearia/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Zanthoxylum/chemistry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(1): 71-80, 11/jan. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665802


Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors.

Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Glioblastoma/drug therapy , Mikania/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , /drug effects , /drug effects , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Fas Ligand Protein , Flow Cytometry , Glioblastoma/enzymology , Glioblastoma/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Time Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149765


Triptolide, a compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine preparation of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. However, its effect on ovarian cancer invasion is unknown. We observed that MMP7 and MMP19 expression increased in ovarian cancer tissue. Triptolide treatment inhibited the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells SKOV3 and A2780 at the concentration of 15 nM. We also observed that triptolide suppressed MMP7 and MMP19 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner, down-regulating the expressions of these promoters on mRNA and protein level. Moreover, triptolide enhanced E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer cells. In vivo, triptolide inhibited tumor formation and metastasis in nude mice, and suppressed MMP7 and MMP19 expression; it also enhanced E-cadherin expression in tumor in a dose-dependent manner. Over expression of MMP7 and MMP19, or suppression of E-cadherin expression partially abolished the inhibitory effect of triptolide on invasion of ovarian cancer cells. To summarize, triptolide significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by suppression of MMP7 and MMP19 and up-regulation of E-cadherin expression. This study shows that triptolide is a good candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer and reduction of metastasis.

Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/pharmacology , Cadherins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/drug therapy , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 7/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(3): 228-232, mayo 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687012


Bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether soluble part of the ethanolic extract of Croton funckianus (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae) senescent leaves against Culex quinquefasciatus third instar larvae afforded a diterpenoid with Larvicidal activity called cassipourol. The structure of cassipourol was elucidated by 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR spectroscopy and by comparing their spectroscopic data with that reported in the literature.

El fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayos de la fracción soluble en éter de petróleo del extracto etanólico proveniente de las hojas senescentes de la especie Croton funckianus (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae) frente a larvas de tercer estadio del mosquito zancudo Culex quinquefasciatus condujo a la identificación de un nuevo diterpenoide con actividad larvicida denominado cassipourol. La estructura del cassipourol se elucido empleando espectroscopia RMN 1D (1H, 13C) y 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) y por comparación de sus datos espectroscópicos con los reportados en la literatura.

Culex , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Larvicides , Larva , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(2): 194-200, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586107


INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3 por cento e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1 percent uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3 percent uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.

Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Insecticides , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Tannins/pharmacology , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/ultrastructure , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines , Larva/drug effects , Larva/ultrastructure , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Tannins/isolation & purification
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(4): 823-831, Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567792


A recent reinvestigation of aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa D.C. is described and reports, for the first time, the isolation of iso-kaurenoic acid from this species.

Uma recente reinvestigação das partes aéreas de Wedelia paludosa D.C. é descrita e relata, pela primeira vez, o isolamento do ácido iso-caurenóico desta espécie.

Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Wedelia/chemistry , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(4): 607-616, Oct.-Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622860


The plant of the genus Pterodon (Fabaceae, Leguminosae), commonly known as 'sucupira' or 'faveira', are disseminated throughout the central region of Brazil and has frequently been used in popular medicine for its anti-rheumatic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In recent years, interest in these plants has increased considerably. The biological effects of different phytoextracts and pure metabolites have been investigated in several experimental models in vivo and in vitro. The literature describes flavonoids, triterpene and steroids, while one paper presented studies with proteins isolated from the genus. This review provides an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological research in Pterodon, showing the main chemical compounds studied to date, and focusing on the relationship between these molecules and their biological activity. Furthermore, this study paves the way for more in-depth investigation, isolation and characterization of the molecules of this plant genus.

As plantas do gênero Pterodon (Fabaceae/Leguminosae), conhecidas popularmente como "sucupira branca" ou "faveira", encontram-se distribuídas pela região central do Brasil e são frequentemente utilizadas na medicina popular por suas propriedades antirreumáticas, analgésicas e antiinflamatórias. Nos últimos anos, o interesse por estas plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente. Os efeitos biológicos dos diferentes fitoextratos e metabólitos puros têm sido investigados em vários modelos experimentais in vivo e in vitro. A literatura descreve flavonóides, triterpenos, esteróides e apenas um trabalho mostra estudos com proteínas isoladas do gênero. Esta revisão apresenta de maneira geral as investigações farmacológicas e fitoquímicas de Pterodon, mostrando os principais compostos já estudados, sua composição química, focando na relação entre estas moléculas e sua atividade biológica. Mais ainda, nós abrimos as portas para maior investigação, isolamento e caracterização de moléculas deste gênero de plantas.

Ethnopharmacology , Fabaceae , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Chemical Phenomena , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/parasitology , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Plants, Medicinal/virology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122573


In this study, we have shown that gene expression of human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) is suppressed by triptolide (TPL) in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the downregulation of hST8Sia I gene expression in TPL-treated SK-MEL-2 cells, we characterized the TPL-inducible promoter region within the hST8Sia I gene using luciferase constructs carrying 5'-deletions of the hST8Sia I promoter. Functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the hST8Sia I gene demonstrated that the -1146 to -646 region, which contains putative binding sites for transcription factors c-Ets-1, CREB, AP-1 and NF-kappaB, functions as the TPL-inducible promoter of hST8Sia I in SK-MEL-2 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis and ChIP analysis indicated that the NF-kappaB binding site at -731 to -722 is crucial for TPL-induced suppression of hST8Sia I in SK-MEL-2 cells. This suggests that TPL induces down-regulation of hST8Sia I gene expression through NF-kappaB activation in human melanoma cells.

Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Genes, Reporter , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Sialyltransferases/biosynthesis , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76424


In spite of the importance of phospholipase D (PLD) in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, little is known about the molecules regulating PLD expression. Thus, identification of small molecules inhibiting PLD expression would be an important advance for PLD-mediated physiology. We examined one such here, denoted "Triptolide", which was identified in a chemical screen for inhibitors of PLD expression using cell assay system based on measurement of PLD promoter activity. Triptolide significantly suppressed the expression of both PLD1 and PLD2 with sub-microM potency in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as analyzed by promoter assay and RT-PCR. Moreover, triptolide abolished the protein level of PLD in a time and dose-dependent manner. Triptolide-induced PLD1 downregulation was also observed in all the cancer cells examined, suggesting a general phenomenon detected in various cancer cells. Decrease of PLD expression by triptolide suppressed both basal and PMA-induced PLD activity. In addition, triptolide inhibited activation of NFkappaB which increased PLD1 expression. Ultimately, downregulation of PLD by triptolide inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that triptolide suppresses the expression of PLD via inhibition of NFkappaB activation and then decreases cell proliferation.

Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , NF-kappa B/genetics , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Phospholipase D/genetics
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2007 Oct; 25(4): 364-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53585


PURPOSE: A two-stage nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay system was described that amplifies the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region sequences of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma infections in cell cultures and virus stocks. METHODS: Established cell lines and virus stocks were screened for the presence of Mycoplasma by using nested PCR using two sets of outer and inner primers, amplifies 16S-23S rRNA. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was used to detect and identify most of the species-specific Mycoplasmas involved in cell cultures and virus stock contaminants. Infected cultures detected by PCR-RFLP were further treated with BM-cyclin (5 microg/mL) and passaged for three times and tested for Mycoplasma infections by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Mycoplasma pirum and Mycoplasma orale infections were detected by nested PCR. Species specificity was identified by using RFLP of Vsp I, Cla I and Hin dIII restriction enzymes. Mycoplasma infections were cured by treatment with BM-cyclin. This was further confirmed by non-amplification of PCR amplimers in BM-cyclin treated vs. non-treated cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Regular monitoring of cell cultures for Mycoplasma infections and identification of species-specific Mollicutes will identify the source of contaminations. This approach can be used for quality control of the biological reagents used in cell culture and virology laboratories.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Minocycline/pharmacology , Mycoplasma/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Quality Control , Virology/methods