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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5690-5700, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008767


Rheumatoid arthritis(RA), as a chronic autoimmune disease, has a high incidence and disability rate, causing significant suffering to patients. Due to its complex pathogenesis, it has not been fully elucidated to date, and its treatment remains a challenging problem in the medical field. Although western medicine treatment options have certain efficacy, they require prolonged use and are expensive. Additionally, they carry risks of multiple infections and adverse reactions like malignancies. The Chinese herbal medicine Rhododendron molle is commonly used in folk medicine for its properties of dispelling wind, removing dampness, calming nerves, and alleviating pain in the treatment of diseases like rheumatic bone diseases. In recent years, modern clinical and pharmacological studies have shown that the diterpenoids in R. molle are effective components, exhibiting immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. This makes it a promising candidate for treating RA with a broad range of potential applications. However, R. molle has certain toxic properties that hinder its clinical application and lead to the wastage of its resources. This study reviewed recent research progress on the mechanism of R. molle in preventing and treating RA, focusing on its chemical components, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and summarized the adverse reactions associated with R. molle, aiming to offer new ideas for finding natural remedies for RA and methods to reduce toxicity while enhancing the effectiveness of R. molle. The study seeks to clarify the safety and efficacy of R. molle and its extracts, providing a theoretical basis for its application prospects and further promoting the development and utilization of R. molle resources.

Humans , Rhododendron/chemistry , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Analgesics
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 404-417, mayo 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397089


The objective of the work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ent-kaurene acid derivatives obtained from Coespeletia moritziana (Sch. Bip. Ex Wedd.) Cuatrec., After analysis by GC/MS, IR and NMR. Isolating: kaurenic acid (I), grandifloric acid (II), 15-α-hydroxy kaurenic acid (III), 15 α-acetoxy-kaur 16-en-19-oic acid (IV), Kaurenol (V); and by hemisynthesis: 15,16-epoxy-17-acetoxy-kauran 19-oic acid (VI), 15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (VIII), ester 2,3,4,6 -15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid acetyl α-D-pyranosyl tetra-tetra (VII). Cytotoxicity was tested in human cancer cell lines: uterus (HeLa), lung (A-549), breast (MCF-7), African green monkey kidney non-tumor line (Vero) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CMPS). Compound (I) was active against HeLa, A-549 and Vero. Compounds (II and VIII) showed moderate and good (IC50 ≤ 9 µM) cytotoxicity, respectively, against the five cell lines. Compound (V) showed moderate activity against A-549 and compound (VII), slight cytotoxicity against HeLa and A-549. Results that show the cytotoxic specificity of the isolated kaurenes and derivatives of Coespeletia moritzianaand their therapeutic potential.

El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto citotóxico de derivados del ácido ent-kaureno obtenidos de Coespeletia moritziana (Sch. Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec., previo análisis mediante GC/MS, IR y RMN. Aislandose: ácido kaurénico(I), ácido grandiflorénico (II), ácido 15-α-hidroxi kaurénico(III), ácido 15 α-acetoxi-kaur 16-en-19-oico (IV), Kaurenol (V); y por hemisíntesis: ácido 15,16-epoxi-17-acetoxi-kauran 19-oico (VI), ácido15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oico (VIII), éster 2,3,4,6-tetra acetil α-D-piranosilo del ácido 15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oico (VII). La citotóxicidad fue ensayada en líneas celulares cancerosas humanas: útero (HeLa), pulmón(A-549), mama (MCF-7), línea no tumoral de riñón de mono verde africano (Vero) y células mononucleares humanas de sangre periférica (CMPS). El compuesto (I) resultó activo frente a HeLa, A-549 y Vero. Los compuestos (II y VIII), mostraron moderada y buena (IC50≤9µM) citotoxicidad respectivamente, frente a las cinco líneas celulares. El compuesto (V) presentó moderada actividad frente a A-549 y el (VII), leve citotoxicidad frente a HeLa y A-549. Resultados que evidencian la especificidad citotóxica de los kaurenos aislados y derivados de Coespeletia moritzianay su potencial terapéutico.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 367-374, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936325


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of triptolide (TPL) on inflammatory response and migration of fibroblast like synovial cells (FLS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA-FLS) and the mechanism of circular noncoding RNA (circRNA) 0003353 for mediating this effect.@*METHODS@#We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum samples from 50 hospitalized RA patients and 30 healthy individuals for detecting the expression of circRNA 0003353, immune and inflammatory indexes (ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP, IgA, IgG, IgM, C3, and C4) and DAS28 score. Cultured RA-FLS was treated with 10 ng/mL TPL and transfected with a circRNA 0003353 overexpression plasmid, and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the changes in the viability and migration of the cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to examine the cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of circRNA 003353; Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of p-JAK2, pSTAT3, JAK2 and STAT3 proteins in the treated cells.@*RESULTS@#The expression of circRNA 0003353 was significantly increased in PBMCs from RA patients and showed a good performance in assisting the diagnosis of RA (AUC=90.5%, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98). CircRNA 0003353 expression was positively correlated with ESR, RF and DAS28 (P < 0.05). Treatment with TPL significantly decreased the expression of circRNA 0003353, suppressed the viability and migration ability, decreased the expressions of IL-6 and IL-17, and increased the expression IL-4 in cultured RA-FLS in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.01). TNF-α stimulation of RA-FLS significantly increased the ratios of p-JAK2/JAK2 and p-STAT3/STAT3, which were obviously lowered by TPL treatment (P < 0.01). TPL-treated RA-FLS overexpressing circRNA 0003353 showed significantly increased cell viability and migration ability with decreased IL-4 expression and increased IL-6 and IL-17 expressions and ratios of p-JAK2/ JAK2 and p-STAT3/STAT3 (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of circRNA 0003353 is increased in PBMCs in RA patients and in RA-FLS. TPL treatment can regulate JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway and inhibit the inflammatory response and migration of RA-FLS through circRNA 0003353.

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , RNA, Circular/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Synovial Membrane/pathology
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3249-3256, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887974


Overtaking lung cancer,breast cancer is now the most commonly diagnosed cancer seriously threatening people's health and life. As the main effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii,triptolide( TP) has attracted increasing attention due to its multitarget and multi-pathway anti-tumor activity. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer-sensitive TP enables the inactivation of breast cancer cells by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy,interfering in tumor cell metastasis,resisting drug resistance,arresting tumor cell cycle,and influencing tumor microenvironment. It has been recognized as a promising clinical antitumor agent by virtue of its widely accepted therapeutic efficacy. This paper reviewed the anti-breast cancer action and its molecular mechanisms of TP on the basis of the relevant literature in the past ten years,and proposed application strategies in view of the inadequacy of TP to provide a reference for further research on the application of TP in the treatment of breast cancer.

Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds , Phenanthrenes , Tumor Microenvironment
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1131333


Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.

Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.

Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 236-246, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104216


Chloroform extract (CE) and fractions obtained from Aldama arenaria roots were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against 10 human tumor cell lines [leukemia (K-562), breast (MCF-7), ovary expressing a multidrug-resistant phenotype (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), lung (NCI-H460), prostate (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovary (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251), and kidney (786-0)]. CE presented weak to moderate antiproliferative activity (mean log GI50 1.07), whereas fractions 3 and 4, enriched with pimaranetype diterpenes [ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presented moderate to potent activity for most cell lines, with mean log GI50 of 0.62 and 0.59, respectively. The results showed promising in vitro antiproliferative action of the samples obtained from A. arenaria, with the best results for NCI/ADR-RES, HT29, and OVCAR-3, and TGI values ranging from 5.95 to 28.71 µ -1, demonstrating that compounds of this class may be potential prototypes for the discovery of new therapeutic agents.

El extracto de cloroformo (CE) y las fracciones obtenidas de las raíces de Aldama arenaria fueron evaluadas por su actividad antiproliferativa in vitro contra 10 líneas celulares tumorales humanas [leucemia (K-562), mama (MCF-7), ovario que expresa un fenotipo resistente a múltiples fármacos (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), pulmón (NCI-H460), próstata (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovario (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251) y riñón (786-0)]. CE presentó actividad antiproliferativa débil a moderada (log GI50 promedio de 1.07), mientras que las fracciones 3 y 4, enriquecidas con diterpenos de tipo pimarane [ent-pimara-8 (14), ácido 15-dien-19-oico y ent-8 (14), 15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presentaron actividad moderada a potente para la mayoría de las líneas celulares, con un log GI50 promedio de 0.62 y 0.59, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron una prometedora acción antiproliferativa in vitro de las muestras obtenidas de A. arenaria, con los mejores resultados para NCI/ADR-RES, HT29 y OVCAR-3, y valores de TGI que van desde 5.95 a 28.71 µ -1, lo que demuestra que los compuestos de esta clase pueden ser prototipos potenciales para el descubrimiento de nuevos agentes terapéuticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chloroform , Plectranthus/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Cuba , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4912-4917, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008181


The aim of this paper was to observe the effect of triptolide( TP) on cardiovascular function and its possible mechanism by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in rats with endotoxemia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided intonormal group( NC group),endotoxemia model group( LPS group),TP low concentration intervention group( LPS + TP-L group,25 μg·kg~(-1)),TP middle concentration intervention group( LPS+TP-M group,50 μg·kg~(-1)),TP high concentration intervention group( LPS+TP-H group,100 μg·kg~(-1)) and polymyxin B group( LPS+PMX-B group,0. 2 mg·kg~(-1)). 10 mg·kg~(-1) LPS was injected intraperitoneally for 6 h to replicate the endotoxemia rat model. The rats in TP intervention groups were pre-treated 15 min before intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Rats in each group underwent total arterial intubation to measure hemodynamic parameters: heart rate( HR),left ventricular diastolic pressure( LVDP),the maximum rate of the increase/decrease of left ventricular pressure( ±dp/dtmax). The levels of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma were detected by ELISA. The contents of p65 protein in myocardium and contents of p65,TLR4,i NOS and e NOS protein in thoracic aorta were detected by Western blot. As compared with NC group,the hemodynamic indexes in LPS group were significantly decreased; the contents of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum,TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma,p65 in myocardium,i NOS,e NOS,TLR4 and p65 in vascular tissues were significantly increased. As compared with LPS group,the hemodynamic indexes were significantly improved in LPS+TP-M group,LPS+TP-H group and LPS+PMX-B group; the contents of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum,TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma,p65 in myocardium,i NOS,e NOS,TLR4 and p65 in vascular tissues were significantly decreased in each treatment group. Triptolide has a protective effect on cardiovascular damage in a dose-dependent manner in endotoxemia rats,probably through TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway to improve endothelial function.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Endothelium , Endotoxemia , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5457-5464, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008421


The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of triptolide( TP),the effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii on improving podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition( EMT) induced by high glucose( HG),based on the regulative mechanisms of Nod-like receptor protein 3( NLRP 3) inflammasome in the kidney of diabetic kidney disease( DKD). The immortalized podocytes of mice in vitro were divided into the normal( N) group,the HG( HG) group,the low dose of TP( L-TP) group,the high dose of TP( HTP) group and the mannitol( MNT) group,and treated by the different measures,respectively. More specifically,the podocytes in each group were separately treated by D-glucose( DG,5 mmol·L~(-1)) or HG( 30 mmol·L~(-1)) or HG( 30 mmol·L~(-1)) + TP( 5 μg·L~(-1))or HG( 30 mmol·L~(-1)) + TP( 10 μg·L~(-1)) or DG( 5 mmol·L~(-1)) + MNT( 24. 5 mmol·L~(-1)). After the treatment of HG or TP at 24,48 and 72 h,firstly,the activation of podocyte proliferation was investigated. Secondly,the protein expression levels of the epithelial markers in podocytes such as nephrin and ZO-1,the mesenchymal markers such as collagen Ⅰ and fibronectin( FN) were detected,respectively. Finally,the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein( ASC) as the key signaling molecules of NLRP3 inflammasome activation,as well as the downstream effector proteins including caspase-1,interleutin( IL)-1β and IL-18 were examined,severally. The results indicated that,for the cultured podocytes in vitro,HG could cause the low protein expression levels of nephrin and ZO-1,induce the high protein expression levels of collagen Ⅰ and FN and trigger podocyte EMT. Also HG could cause the high protein expression levels of NLRP3,ASC,caspase-1,IL-1β and IL-18 and induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation. On the other hand,the co-treatment of TP( L-TP or H-TP) and HG for podocytes could recover the protein expression levels of nephrin and ZO-1,inhibit the protein expression levels of collagen Ⅰ and FN and ameliorate podocyte EMT. Also the co-treatment of TP( L-TP or H-TP) and HG could down-regulate the protein expression levels of NLRP3 and ASC,inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduce the protein expression levels of the downstream effector molecules including caspase-1,IL-1β and IL-18. On the whole,HG could activate NLRP3 inflammasome and induce podocyte EMT in vitro. TP at the appropriate dose range could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorate podocyte EMT,which may be one of the critical molecular mechanisms of TP protecting againstpodocyte inflammatory injury in DKD.

Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Diabetic Nephropathies , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Glucose , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Podocytes/drug effects
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5191-5197, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008383


This study aims to investigate the PPARγ agonists isolated from the aqueous extract of Siegesbeckia pubescens( SPA) and their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. The 293 T cells transfected transiently with PPARγ recombinant plasmid were used as a screening model to guide the isolation of PPARγ activitating components,and then PPARγ activities were measured by double luciferase reporter gene assay. The chemical structures were identified by chromatography or spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore,a UC inflammatory model in vitro was established on HT-29 cells by stimulating with TNF-α. The mRNA levels and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines on HT-29 cells,such as IL-1β,TNF-α,IL-8,were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA. The results showed that five diterpenoids were obtained from the fraction D_(50) with the strongest PPARγ activity among others in SPA,and determined as kirenol( 1),darutigenol( 2),enantiomeric-2-ketone-15,16,19-three hydroxypinomane-8( 14)-ene-19-O-β-D-glucoside( 3),darutoside( 4),enantiomeric-2-β,15,16,19-four hydroxypinomane-8( 14)-ene-19-O-β-D-glucoside( 5),respectively. All the compounds exhibited active effects on PPARγ in a concentration-dependent manner( P<0. 01). In addition,compound 1 significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1β mRNA and secretion of IL-8 on HT-29 cells inflammation model( P<0. 001); both compounds 2 and 3 effectively inhibited the expression of IL-1β,TNF-α,IL-8 mRNA and secretion of IL-8( P<0. 01 or P<0. 001),although at different extent; compound 4 significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA( P<0. 01 or P<0. 001),while compound 5 inhibited the expression of IL-1β mRNA obviously( P<0. 001). In conclusion,the diterpenoids 1-5 isolated from S. pubescens have the PPARγ activation activities and potential effects of anti-UC in vitro.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Colitis, Ulcerative , Cytokines/immunology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , HT29 Cells , PPAR gamma/agonists , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7061, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889105


Andrographolide (ANDRO) has been studied for its immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection effects. Because brain hypoxia is the most common factor of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury, we studied the role and possible mechanism of ANDRO in this process using hypoxia-injured astrocytes. Mouse cortical astrocytes C8-D1A (astrocyte type I clone from C57/BL6 strains) were subjected to 3 and 21% of O2 for various times (0-12 h) to establish an astrocyte hypoxia injury model in vitro. After hypoxia and ANDRO administration, the changes in cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Expression changes in apoptosis-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins, main factors of JNK pathway, ATG5, and S100B were determined by western blot. Hypoxia remarkably damaged C8-D1A cells evidenced by reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Hypoxia also induced autophagy and overproduction of S100B. ANDRO reduced cell apoptosis and promoted cell autophagy and S100B expression. After ANDRO administration, autophagy-related proteins, S-100B, JNK pathway proteins, and ATG5 were all upregulated, while autophagy-related proteins and s100b were downregulated when the jnk pathway was inhibited or ATG5 was knocked down. ANDRO conferred a survival advantage to hypoxia-injured astrocytes by reducing cell apoptosis and promoting autophagy and s100b expression. Furthermore, the promotion of autophagy and s100b expression by ANDRO was via activation of jnk pathway and regulation of ATG5.

Animals , Mice , Astrocytes/drug effects , Autophagy/drug effects , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Astrocytes/physiology , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/metabolism , Time Factors , Transfection
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 20-27, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742509


PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) on proliferation, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells and to explore the possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was cultured and treated with PAB dose- and time-dependent manners. Cell proliferation and invasion ability were measured by MTT assay and Matrigel/Transwell test, respectively. Semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were conducted to detect the expression of EMT markers and the key molecules. Finally, nude mice subcutaneous transplantation tumor model was used to confirm the therapy efficacy of PAB. RESULTS: PAB could inhibit SW1990 cell proliferation and invasion in time- and dose-dependent manners. Vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, YAP, TEAD1, and Survivin were down-regulated (p < 0.01), while E-cadherin, caspase-9, MST1, and pYAP were up-regulated (p < 0.05). Combined PAB and gemcitabine treatment markedly restricted the tumor growth compared with gencitabin or PAB alone groups. CONCLUSION: PAB could inhibit the proliferation and invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells through activating Hippo-YAP pathway and inhibiting the process of EMT.

Animals , Female , Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cadherins , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxycytidine/pharmacology , Deoxycytidine/therapeutic use , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Diterpenes/therapeutic use , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diet therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vimentin/metabolism
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 607-612, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941670


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of triptolide (TP) on oxidative stress and apoptosis in TM4 sertoli cells and related molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#TM4 cells were incubated with different concentrations of triptolide for 24 h, then collected for further experiments. Cell proliferation analysis was used to measure the inhibitive effect of triptolide on proliferation of TM4 cells; DCFH-DA (6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) probe was used to stain the TM4 cells, the level change of intracellular ROS was discovered through flow cytometry; the TM4 cells were stained by Annexin V-FITC/PI to detect whether triptolide induced apoptosis in the TM4 cells; Protein was extracted from the TM4 cells in control and triptolide group. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis marker protein cleaved-PARP and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related proteins [p-Akt (Ser473), Akt, p-mTOR (Ser2448), mTOR, p-p70S6K (Thr389), p70S6K].@*RESULTS@#Cell proliferation analysis revealed that triptolide reduced the TM4 cells viability significantly compared with control group in a dosage-dependent manner [10 nmol/L: (73.77±20.95)%, 100 nmol/L: (51.60±10.43)%, 500 nmol/L: (44.34±5.78)%]; The level of intracellular ROS in the TM4 cells was significantly induced in a dosage-dependent manner (P<0.01); triptolide remarkably induced early-stage and late-stage apoptosis in the TM4 cells [control: (3.84±1.50)%, 100 nmol/L: (13.04±2.03)%, 200 nmol/L: (16.24±1.34)%, 400 nmol/L: (18.76±3.45)%]; The expression of cleaved-PARP was significantly upregulated in the TM4 cells after incubation with triptolide (P<0.01); The expression levels of p-Akt/Akt and p-p70S6K/p70s6k were significantly increased compared with control group (P<0.01). No significant change was observed among the expression levels of p-mTOR/mTOR (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In vitro studies showed that triptolide could effectively suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of TM4 sertoli cells. The oxidative stress was upregulated after incubation with triptolide, which may be one of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity in TM4 cells. Treatment of triptolide led to activation of Akt and p70S6K, indicating that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be involved in response to oxidative stress in TM4 cells. The activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was one of the molecular mechanisms involved in triptolide-mediated oxidative stress in TM4 cells. Our study provides insight into alleviating reproductive toxicity of triptolide in clinical and developing male contraceptive.

Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Sertoli Cells/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 200-204, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009541


Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for anticancer therapy. The identification of small molecules that can establish the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is crucial for the targeted treatment of PCa. PC3, DU145, JAC-1, TsuPr1, and LNCaP cells were treated with Andrographolide (Andro) and TRAIL, and the apoptosis was measured using the Annexin V/PI double staining method. Real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of target molecules. RNA interference technique was used to down-regulate the expression of the target protein. We established a nude mouse xenograft model of PCa, which was used to measure the caspase-3 activity in the tumor cells using flow cytometry. In this research study, our results demonstrated that Andro preferentially increased the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at subtoxic concentrations, and the regulation mechanism was related to the up-regulation of DR4. In addition, it also increased the p53 expression and led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. Further research revealed that the DR4 inhibition, p53 expression, and ROS generation can significantly reduce the apoptosis induced by the combination of TRAIL and Andro in PCa cells. In conclusion, Andro increases the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the generation of ROS and up-regulation of p53 and then promotes PCa cell apoptosis associated with the activation of DR4.

Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , PC-3 Cells , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/metabolism , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 58 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361660


As peroxirredoxinas (Prx) são enzimas antioxidantes que se destacam pela capacidade de decompor uma grande variedade de hidroperóxidos com elevada eficiência (106-108M-1s-1), mantendo essas moléculas em níveis adequados à homeostase celular. Entretanto, já foi demonstrado que em diversos tipos tumorais os níveis de Prx são extremamente aumentados e experimentos envolvendo sua inativação resultam na diferenciação ou apoptose de células tumorais. Recentemente, foi descoberto um diterpenóide denominado adenantina que seria o primeiro inibidor para as Prx1 e Prx2 de humanos e foi demonstrada que sua aplicação em células de leucemia mieloide aguda promoveu diferenciação ou apoptose dessas células. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho apresenta duas vertentes: 1) A caracterização das alterações estruturais e funcionais promovidas pela ligação da adenantina ao sítio ativo das Prx utilizando Tsa1 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae como modelo biológico, em função da sua alta similaridade com Prx2 de humanos; 2) Avaliação da atividade antitumoral dose dependente de adenantina sobre as linhagens celulares REH e MOLT-4 de leucemia linfoide aguda. No que concerne à primeira linha de investigação, nossos resultados revelam que Tsa1 é suscetível à inibição por adenantina, uma vez que o tratamento reduziu em ~66 % a velocidade de decomposição de peróxido de hidrogênio. Adicionalmente, a mutação da Thr44 de Tsa1, pertencente à chamada tríade catalítica, por uma Ser resultou em uma proteína mais suscetível a alterações na estrutura secundária e à inibição da atividade peroxidásica em função da ligação com adenantina, apresentando uma diminuição de ~85% na velocidade de reação. Características semelhantes foram observadas para a proteoforma Tsa2 de S. cerevisiae, que carreia naturalmente a substituição da Thr44 pela Ser. Análises de sequências de Prx em bancos de dados revelaram que majoritariamente proteínas contendo Ser são encontradas em organismos procariotos, muitos deles patogênicos. Finalmente, demonstramos por meio de ensaios citotoxicidade que as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis, que possuem uma Ser na tríade catalítica, têm seu crescimento inibido pelo tratamento com adenantina (IC50 de 460µM e 77µM, respectivamente), enquanto que para Escherichia coli, que possui Thr nessa posição, a toxicidade da adenantina foi bastante baixa (não foi possível determinar o IC50 nas condições utilizadas). Dessa forma, os dados apresentados neste trabalho demonstram o potencial da utilização da adenantina tanto como antibiótico quanto como antileucêmico

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are antioxidant enzymes which stand out due the ability to decompose a wide variety of hydroperoxides with high efficiency (106-108M-1s-1) maintaining these molecules at suitable levels to cellular homeostasis and participating in several signaling events. However, it has been shown that, in many tumor types, Prx levels are extremely increased and experiments involving its inactivation have resulted in differentiation or apoptosis of tumor cells. It was recently found a diterpenoid, called adenanthin, that would be the first human Prx1 and Prx2 inhibitor and it was demonstrated that its application in acute myeloid leukemia cells was able to promote differentiation or apoptosis. In this context, this work presents two lines of research: 1) Characterization of structural and functional changes promoted by adenanthin binding to Prx active site using Tsa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biological model, due to its high similarity to human Prx2. 2) Evaluation of adenanthin dose-dependent antitumor activity over the acute lymphoid leukemia cell lines REH and MOLT-4. As regards the first line of research, our result reveal that Tsa1 is susceptible to inhibition by adenanthin, since the treatment with this binder reduced the hydrogen peroxide decomposition velocity in ~ 66%. In addition, the replacement of Thr44 from Tsa1, aminoacid belonging to the so-called catalytic triad, by a Ser resulted in a protein more susceptible to alterations in secondary structure and to peroxidase activity inhibition in function of adenanthin binding, presenting ~85% of decrease in reaction velocity. Similar characteristics were observed for Tsa2 proteoform from S. cerevisiae, which naturally carries the substitution of Thr44 by Ser. Prx sequences analyzes in databases revealed that mostly Ser-containing proteins are found in prokaryotic organisms, many of them pathogenic ones. Finally, we demonstrate through cytotoxicity assays that the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which have a Ser in catalytic triad, have their growth inhibited by adenanthin treatment (IC50 of 460µM and 77µM, respectively), whereas for Escherichia Coli, which has Thr at that position, the tocyxicity of adenanthin was quite low (it was not possible to determine the IC50 under the used conditions). Regarding the second line of investigation, we found that adenanthin is able to induce the death of leukemic cell lines REH and MOLT-4, and for the last one, there was an unexpected proliferation of cells treated by the longest incubation period (72 hours), characterizing a possible indication of differentiation process. In this sense, the data presented here demonstrate the potential of adenanthin use in both antibiotic and antileukemic treatment

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Peroxiredoxins/classification , Growth Inhibitors/analysis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/classification , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(6): 481-490, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787323


Abstract Background: Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Methods: Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Results: Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. Conclusion: The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats.

Resumo Fundamento: Diterpenos do tipo labdano induzem uma queda da pressão arterial por meio do relaxamento do músculo liso vascular; todavia, não há estudos que descrevam os efeitos de labdanos em ratos hipertensos. Objetivo: O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar as ações cardiovasculares do labdano ácido ent-3-acetóxi-labda-8(17),13-dieno-15-óico (labda-15-óico) na hipertensão renal dois rins-1 clipe (2R-1C). Métodos: Foram feitos experimentos de reatividade vascular em anéis aórticos isolados de ratos machos 2R-1C e normotensos (2R). A medição de Nitrato/Nitrito (NOx) foi feita nas aortas por meio de ensaio colorimétrico. As medidas de pressão arterial foram feitas em ratos conscientes. Resultados: O ácido labda-15-óico (0,1 - 300 µmol/l) e a forscolina (0,1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxaram as aortas com endotélio intacto e as aortas sem endotélio dos ratos 2R-1C e 2R. O labda-15-óico mostrou-se mais eficaz na indução do relaxamento em aortas com endotélio intacto de 2R pré-contraídas com fenilefrina em comparação àquelas sem endotélio. A forscolina mostrou-se mais potente do que o ácido labda-15-óico na indução do relaxamento vascular nas artérias tanto de ratos 2R-1C quanto de ratos 2R. O aumento dos níveis de NOx induzido pelo ácido labda-15-óico foi menor nas artérias de ratos 2R-1C em comparação a ratos 2R. A administração intravenosa de ácido labda-15-óico (0,3-3 mg/kg) ou forscolina (0,1-1 mg/kg) induziu hipertensão em ratos 2R-1C e 2R conscientes. Conclusão: Os presentes resultados mostram que o labda-15-óico induz relaxamento vascular e hipotensão em ratos hipertensos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Colforsin/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Hypertension, Renovascular/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Phenylephrine/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/chemistry , Colforsin/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Diterpenes/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hypertension, Renovascular/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 837-849, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744855


Comprender el significado del capital social de la diabetes tipo 2 según género, dentro un contexto urbano colombiano. Investigación cualitativa del interaccionismo simbólico. 25 mujeres y 16 hombres, diabéticos, familiares, vecinos y personal asistencial participaron en seis grupos focales. Emergieron 850 códigos que se integraron en un set de 142 códigos de códigos para el ego, el alter y alter ego. Tres categorías y veinte subcategorías fueron identificadas para el diseño del "paradigma de la codificación". El significado no es igual para hombres y mujeres. Los vínculos sociales de las redes sociales, creados cotidianamente por la confianza y la solidaridad para el cuidado, son valorados de manera diferente, debido a experiencias y hechos sociales resultantes de la autoconfianza, la autoeficacia para el apoyo social principalmente y, la autoestima frente al manejo y control de la enfermedad. Los recursos sociales de un individuo son reificados para el manejo y cuidado de la enfermedad como estrategia para disminuir las inequidades en salud.

The aim of this study was to understand the meaning of social capital in relation to type 2 diabetes according to gender, within an urban setting in Colombia, based on a qualitative design for symbolic interactionism. Twenty-four women and 16 men with diabetes, family members, and healthcare personnel participated in six focus groups. A total of 850 codes emerged that comprised a set of 142 codes for ego, alter, and alter ego. Three categories and 20 subcategories were identified for the "coding paradigm design". The meaning differed between men and women. Social ties in social networks, created daily through trust and solidarity for care, were valued differently due to the social experiences and events resulting from self-confidence, self-efficacy for social support, and mainly self-esteem vis-à-vis management and control of the disease. An individual's social resources are reified for the management and care of the disease as a strategy to mitigate health inequalities. .

Compreender o significado do capital social, diabetes tipo 2 por sexo, um contexto urbano da Colômbia. pesquisa qualitativa do interacionismo simbólico. 25 mulheres e 16 homens, diabéticos, familiares, vizinhos e cuidadores participaram seis grupos focais. 850 códigos se que foram integrados em um conjunto de 142 codes para o ego, o alter e alter ego. Três categorias e vinte subcategorias foram identificados para o projeto de "codificação de paradigma". O significado não é o mesmo para homens e mulheres. Laços sociais das redes sociais criadas diariamente pela confiança e solidariedade são valorizados cuidado diferente, porque as experiências sociais e fatos resultantes da auto-confiança, auto-eficácia e de apoio social, principalmente, auto-gestão e controle em relação a doença. Os recursos sociais de um indivíduo são reificadas para a gestão o cuidado da doença como uma estratégia para reduzir as desigualdades na saúde.

Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/agonists , Acetamides/chemistry , Acetamides/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Arrestins/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Databases, Chemical , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Dynorphins/chemistry , Dynorphins/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Ligands , Protein Transport , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 82-87, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744697


OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. .

OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o volume do tumor após a quimioterapia pré-operatória (VTPOS) e antes da quimioterapia pré-operatória (VTPRE) com sobrevida geral aos dois e cinco anos e tempo de vida. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por pacientes consecutivos avaliados de 1989 a 2009, em um serviço de onco-hematologia. Os dados clínicos, histológicos e volumétricos foram coletados a partir dos registros médicos. Para análise, usaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank e regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 32 pacientes, 53,1% do sexo masculino, com mediana de idade ao diagnóstico de 43 meses. Houve associação significativa entre VTPOS >500 mL e a diferença entre o VTPRE e VTPOS (p=0,015) e os tipos histológicos de risco (p=0,008). Verificou-se também uma associação entre a diferença entre o VTPRE e VTPOS e o tumor de predomínio estromal (p=0,037). Quando se avaliou o VTPOS de todos os pacientes, sem um ponto de corte definido, observou-se associação dessa variável com o tempo de vida (p=0,013), isto é, para cada aumento de 10 mL no VTPOS houve um aumento médio de 2% no risco de morte. CONCLUSÕES: Embora os resultados indiquem que o VTPOS poderia ser considerado um preditor isolado de mau prognóstico, independentemente do ponto de corte sugerido na literatura, mais estudos são necessários para substituir a histologia e estadiamento pelo tamanho do tumor como melhor variável prognóstica. .

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Macrocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Euphorbia/chemistry , Macrocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Macrocyclic Compounds/isolation & purification , Molecular Conformation , Phenotype , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 485-491
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150261


Triptolide, a diterpene derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., a Chinese medicinal herb, has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells, but its anticancer effects on human osteosarcoma cells have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether triptolide induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We firstly demonstrated that triptolide inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in U2OS cells. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of procaspase-8, -9, Bcl-2, Bid and mitochondrial cytochrome c were downregulated in triptolide-treated U2OS cells, whereas the levels of Fas, FasL, Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were upregulated. These results suggest that triptolide induces apoptosis in U2OS cells by activating both death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Humans , M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Proteolysis/drug effects
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(9): 1150-1157, set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699682


Background: The rainforest is an important source of natural compounds with therapeutic properties. Although there are many anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic drugs available to the clinician, there is an ongoing need for new therapeutic drugs with fewer serious adverse effects. Aim: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of lupeol and casearin G on tumor cells, on phagocytic activity and nitric oxide (NO) production by blood mononuclear cells. Material and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of these compounds on cell lines MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) was measured by a colorimetric assay (MTS/PMS) and the sulphorhodamine B assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from eight healthy volunteers. The effect of these compounds on nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using the Griess reaction. Their effect on phagocytic activity of PBMC was also evaluated. Results: Lupeol (≥ 2 mM) resulted in a reduction of both the phagocytic index and the percentage of phagocytic monocytes and macrophages. Treatment of monocytes/macrophages with lupeol (72 µM) and casearin G (4 µM) reduced the production of NO. Neither lupeol (< 969 µM) nor casearin G (< 55 µM) had cytotoxic effects on PBMC. Casearin G showed both cytotoxic (IC50, LC50) and cytostatic (GI50) effects against tumor cells, PC-3 (IC50 = 12.5 µM; GI50 = 13.3 µM; LC50 = 51.9 µM) and MCF-7 (IC50 = 112.8 µM; GI50 = 11.8 µM; LC50 = 49.4 µM), as well as a hemolytic effect (≥ 182 µM). Conclusions: These observations indicate that lupeol and casearin G might be useful compounds in the preparation of anti-inflammatory drugs, whereas casearin G might be useful in the elaboration of antitumor drugs.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Casearia/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Zanthoxylum/chemistry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(1): 71-80, 11/jan. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665802


Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors.

Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Glioblastoma/drug therapy , Mikania/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , /drug effects , /drug effects , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Fas Ligand Protein , Flow Cytometry , Glioblastoma/enzymology , Glioblastoma/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Time Factors