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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 3-11, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362378

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: este estudio busca describir los individuos evaluados por sobredosis de acetaminofén entre 2019 y 2020 en un centro de referencia de trasplante hepático en Colombia. Metodología: estudio derivado del análisis secundario de historias clínicas entre el 1.º de enero de 2019 y el 31 de diciembre de 2020. Los criterios de inclusión abarcan individuos con ingestión aguda y voluntaria de dosis tóxicas de acetaminofén (>4 g/día). Resultados: sesenta y tres casos, 68% mujeres, 67% menores de 18 años y 54% estudiantes. Reportó historia personal de enfermedad psiquiátrica el 60% y el 35% al menos un intento de suicidio previo. La mediana de dosis de acetaminofén fue 15g, 46% refirieron co-ingesta de otras sustancias y 13% estaba bajo efecto de sustancias psicoactivas. El 57% tenía la intención clara de suicidarse, así como 81% vomitó antes de acudir al servicio de urgencias, 22% recibió medidas de descontaminación y 10% no recibió N - acetilcisteína. Quince individuos desarrollaron lesión hepática aguda, nueve con criterios de severidad. Conclusiones: la población era predominantemente joven, la historia de enfermedad psiquiátrica fue muy prevalente y la mayoría refirieron un evento vital que explicara el comportamiento impulsivo de consumo. Ninguno desarrolló criterios para trasplante hepático, lo cual podría explicarse por la edad de los individuos, los episodios de vómito temprano, y la ausencia de enfermedad hepática crónica o de consumo de sustancias hepatotóxicas.


Objective: this study aims to describe patients with overdose intake of acetaminophen between 2019 and 2020 at a reference center for liver transplantation in Colombia. Methodology: study derived from a secondary analysis of the clinical records between January 1st, 2019, to December 31st, 2020. Inclusion criteria were individuals with voluntary acute ingestion of toxic doses of acetaminophen (>4 g/day). Results: sixty-three cases, 68% women, 67% <18-year-old, and 54% students. 60% had personal history of psychiatric illness and 35% reported at least one previous suicide attempt. The median dose of acetaminophen was 15g, 46% referred to co-ingestion with other substances and 13% were under the effect of any psychoactive substance. 57% had a clear intention of suicide. 81% vomited before the arrival to the emergency room, 22% received decontamination intervention with gastric lavage or activated charcoal, and 10% did not receive any dose of N-Acetylcysteine. Fifteen individuals developed an acute liver injury, nine with severity criteria. Conclusions: the population was predominantly young, the personal history of psychiatric disease was highly prevalent, and most of the cases referred a vital event that explains the impulsive behavior in acetaminophen consumption. None developed criteria for liver transplantation, and this could be explained by the young age of the individuals, the episodes of early vomiting, and the absence of chronic liver disease or hepatotoxic substance consumption.


Objetivo:este estudo busca descrever os indivíduos avaliados por sobredose de acetaminofen entre 2019 e 2020 num centro de referência de transplante hepático na Colômbia. Metodologia: estudo derivado da análise secundário de histórias clínicas entre o dia 1.º de janeiro de 2019 e 31 de dezembro de 2020. Os critérios de inclusão abrangem indivíduos com ingestão aguda e voluntária de dose tóxicas de acetaminofen (>4 g/dia).Resultados:sessenta e três casos, 68% mulheres, 67% menores de 18 anos e 54% estudantes. Reportou história pessoal de doença psiquiátrica, 60% e 35% pelo menos uma tentativa de suicídio prévio. A média de dose de acetaminofen foi de 15g, 46% referiram com ingestão de outras sustâncias e 13% estava sob efeito de sustâncias psicoativas. 57% tinham a intenção clara de suicidar-se, assim como 81% vomitou antes de acudir ao serviço de urgências, 22% receberam medidas de descontaminação e 10% não recebeu N - acetilcisteína. Quinze indivíduos desenvolveram lesão hepática aguda, nove com critérios de severidade. Conclusões: a população era predominantemente jovem, a história de doençapsiquiátrica foi muito prevalente e a maioria referiram um evento vital que explicasse o comportamento impulsivo de consumo. Nenhum desenvolveu critérios para transplantehepático, o qual se poderia explicar pela idade dos indivíduos, os episódios de vómito precoce, e a ausência de doença hepática crónica ou de consumo de sustâncias hepatotóxicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetaminophen , Acetylcysteine , Suicide, Attempted , Vomiting, Anticipatory , Charcoal , Decontamination , Emergency Service, Hospital , Dosage , Gastric Lavage , Liver Diseases , Mental Disorders
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18594, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364422

ABSTRACT

Abstract Traditionally dates is consumed as a rich source of iron supplement and the current research discuss the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic seed extract of Rothan date and its application over in vitro anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity against lung cancer cell line (A549). FTIR result of synthesised AgNPs reveals the presence of functional group OH as capping agent. XRD pattern confirms the crystalline nature of the AgNPs with peaks at 38º, 44º, 64º and 81º, indexed by (111), (200), (220) and (222) in the 2θ range of 10-90, indicating the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic Ag. HR- TEM results confirm the morphology of AgNPs as almost spherical with high surface areas and average size of 42 ± 9nm. EDX spectra confirmed that Ag is only the major element present and the Dynamic light scattering (DLS) assisted that the Z-average size was 203nm and 1.0 of PdI value. Zeta potential showed − 26.5mv with a single peak. The results of the biological activities of AgNPs exhibited dose dependent activity with 68.44% for arthritic, antiinflammatory with 63.32% inhibition and anti-proliferative activity illustrated IC50 value of 59.66 µg/mL expressing the potential of AgNPs to combat cancer


Subject(s)
Silver , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chronology as Topic , Nanoparticles , Phoeniceae/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/classification , Seeds , zeta Potential , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Dosage/methods
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18965, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364419

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of present study was to explore protective and curative effects of Malve neglecta on kidneys. In silco study with network pharmacology was performed to find out potential target organs, genes and cellular cell lines which confirmed kidneys as target organ of phyto-constituents present in Malva neglecta extract. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, i.p) was given to induce renal toxicity. Prophylactic study was performed with 300-, 600- and 900 mg/kg doses to find out nephro-protective and -curative effects and curative potential was evaluated at 900 mg/kg dose. Renal function biomarkers, blood urea, BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid, and oxidative stress measuring biomarkers, SOD, CAT, GSH and MDA levels in kidney homogenate were quantified at the end of study. Treatment groups showed decrease in blood urea, BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid levels dose dependently and curative group also showed decline in these biomarkers. SOD, CAT, GSH levels were increased and MDA level decreased in treatment groups significantly as compared to toxic control which revealed the role of oxidative stress in renal damage and anti-oxidant power of MN. Data suggested that use of MN along with drugs causing renal toxicity may prove beneficial due to its nephro- protective and curative effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Malva/metabolism , Neglecta , Therapeutics/instrumentation , Gentamicins , Malvaceae/classification , Creatinine/administration & dosage , Dosage/methods , Antioxidants/adverse effects
4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e200, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Vasopressors are essential in the management of various types of shock. Objective To establish the trend of vasopressors use in the intensive care units (ICU) in a population of patients affiliated with the Colombian Health System, 2010-2017. Methods Observational trial using a population database of patients hospitalized in eleven ICUs in various cities in Colombia. The drugs dispensed to hospitalized patients over 18 years old, from January 2010 until December 2017 were considered. A review and analysis of the vasopressors dispensed per month was conducted, taking into account sociodemographic and pharmacological variables (vasopressor used and daily doses defined per 100/beds/day (DBD). Results 81,348 dispensations of vasopressors, equivalent to 26,414 treatments in 19,186 patients receiving care in 11 hospitals from 7 cities were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 66.3±18.1 years and 52.6 % were males. Of the total number of treatments recorded, 17,658 (66.8 %) were with just one vasopressor. Norepinephrine was the most frequently prescribed drug (75.9 % of the prescriptions dispensed; 60.5 DBD), followed by adrenaline (26.6 %; 41.6 DBD), dopamine (19.4%), dobutamine (16.0 %), vasopressin (8.5 %) and phenylephrine (0.9 %). The use of norepinephrine increased from 2010 to 2017 (+6.19 DBD), whilst the use of other drugs decreased, particularly the use of adrenaline (-60.6 DBD) and dopamine (-10.8 DBD). Conclusions Norepinephrine is the most widely used vasopressor showing a growing trend in terms of its use during the study period, which is supported by evidence in favor of its effectiveness and safety in patients with shock.


Resumen Introducción Los fármacos vasopresores son fundamentales en el manejo de los diferentes tipos de choque. Objetivo Determinar la tendencia de utilización de fármacos vasopresores en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) en una población de pacientes afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia, 2010-2017. Métodos Estudio observacional, a partir de una base de datos poblacional con pacientes hospitalizados en once UCI de diferentes ciudades de Colombia. Se obtuvieron las dispensaciones de pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2017. Se hizo revisión y análisis de la dispensación mensual de vasopresores. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas y farmacológicas (medicamento vasopresor usado y dosis diarias definidas por 100 camas/día [DCD]). Resultados Se revisaron 81.348 dispensaciones de vasopresores, equivalentes a 26.414 terapias en 19.186 pacientes atendidos en 11 hospitales de 7 ciudades, cuya edad promedio fue 66,3±18,1 años y el 52,6 % eran hombres. Del total de terapias registradas, 17.658 (66,8 %) fueron con un solo vasopresor. La norepinefrina fue el más comúnmente prescrito (75,9 % de las dispensaciones; 60,5 DCD), seguido por adrenalina (26,6 %; 41,6 DCD), dopamina (19,4 %), dobutamina (16,0 %), vasopresina (8,5 %) y fenilefrina (0,9 %). El uso de norepinefrina se incrementó de 2010 a 2017 (+6,19 DCD), mientras que el de otros fármacos disminuyó, especialmente adrenalina (-60,6 DCD) y dopamina (-10,8 DCD). Conclusiones La norepinefrina es el fármaco vasopresor más utilizado y el que ha demostrado una tendencia de uso incremental durante el periodo de estudio, lo cual está respaldado por evidencia a favor de su efectividad y seguridad en pacientes con choque.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasopressins , Intensive Care Units , Phenylephrine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dopamine , Epinephrine , Norepinephrine , Dobutamine , Drug Utilization , Dosage , Prescriptions
5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 468-475, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350824

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the efficacy of hydroxyurea (HU) in inhibiting erythrocyte sickling has been well demonstrated, the action of this drug on human neutrophils and the mechanism by which it improves the manifestations of the disease have not been studied thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the cell viability, along with inflammatory and oxidative markers in the neutrophils of sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients and the effects of HU therapy on these cells, by evaluating the dose-responsiveness. Methods: In the present study, 101 patients (45 men and 56 women, aged 18-69 years) with SCA were divided into groups according to the use or not of HU: the SS group (without HU treatment, n = 47) and the SSHU group (under HU treatment, n = 54). The SSHU group was further stratified into subgroups according to the daily dose of the drug that patients already used: SSHU - 0.5 g (n = 19); SSHU - 1 g (n = 26) and SSHU - 1.5-2 g (n = 9). A control group (AA) comprised 50 healthy individuals. Neutrophils isolated from whole blood were analyzed using Trypan Blue, monoiodotyrosine (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) toxicity assays. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and concentrations of interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and malonaldehyde (MDA) were also measured. Results: Neutrophils from SCA patients showed membrane fragility and a significant decrease in cell viability when analyzed by Trypan Blue (p < 0.05), MTT (p < 0.001) and LDH (p = 0.011), compared to the AA group. Levels of inflammatory (MPO, TNF-α, and IL-10) and oxidative markers (SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA) were also altered (p < 0.05) in these cells, showing a significant difference in the SSHU-1g and SSHU - 1.5-2 g groups, compared to the SS group. Treatment with HU reverted the levels of all markers to concentrations similar to those in healthy individuals in a positive dose-effect relationship. Conclusion: The HU did not generate a cytotoxic effect on neutrophils in SCA patients, but it modulated their oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms, promoting cytoprotection with a positive dose-effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hydroxyurea , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Dosage , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde , Neutrophils
7.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hipofraccionamiento moderado (hRt) en cáncer de próstata, consisten en dismi-nuir el tiempo total de tratamiento con radioterapia, lo que mejora la adherencia terapéutica y opti-miza recursos tecnológicos. En cáncer de próstata, existe evidencia robusta con datos maduros a 5 años de seguimiento, donde se evidenció que hRtno es inferior al tratamiento con fraccionamiento estándar en control oncológico, con menor o igual toxicidad aguda y tardía. Se hace una revisión de la evidencia, dosis de tolerancia, contorneo de volúmenes objetivo (GTV-CTV-PTV) / órganos de ries-go, planificación y reproducibilidad del hRt en cáncer de próstata localizado.


Introduction: Moderate hypofractionation (hRt) in prostate cancer consists of reducing the total time of treatment with radiotherapy, which improves therapeutic adherence and optimizes technolog-ical resources. In prostate cancer, there is robust evidence with mature data at 5 years of follow-up, where it was evidenced that hRt is not inferior to treatment with standard fractionation in oncological control, with less or equal acute and late toxicity. A review of the evidence, tolerance dose, contouring of target volumes (GTV-CTV-PTV) / organs at risk, planning and reproducibility of hRt in localized prostate cancer is made.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Radiation , Dosage
8.
Horiz. enferm ; 32(3): 283-296, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los estudiantes de enfermería deben desarrollar habilidades matemáticas para una vez que sean profesionales de esta disciplina no tengan obstáculos con la dosificación de medicamentos, que es una de las funciones que deben desarrollar en el ámbito clínico, y cuya equivocación podría poner en riesgo la seguridad y vida del paciente. OBJETIVO: Analizar de qué manera las habilidades para las matemáticas básicas afecta la realización del cálculo de las dosis de medicamentos por parte de los estudiantes de enfermería en una institución universitaria. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: investigación descriptiva transversal realizada a través del instrumento "Habilidad matemática para el cálculo de las dosis de medicamentos" compuesto por 13 preguntas abiertas y aplicado a 256 estudiantes de los ocho semestres que componen un programa de enfermería. RESULTADOS: El estudio evidenció serias deficiencias en la resolución de situaciones que involucran distintas habilidades matemáticas básicas que debe poseer un estudiante de enfermería. Solo el 30,7% de los estudiantes pudo resolver las situaciones clínicas en las cuales tenía que realizar el cálculo de las dosis de medicamentos; también en el manejo de los porcentajes se encontró dificultades, ya que apenas el 42% logró resolver la situación planteada. La interpretación de conceptos matemáticos básicos mediante la utilización de gráficos fue interpretada adecuadamente por el 50,2%. CONCLUSIÓN: Los hallazgos de la presente investigación, mostraron que deben buscar estrategias de aprendizaje que mejoren las habilidades de los estudiantes de enfermería para la dosificación de medicamentos.


INTRODUCTION: Nursing students must develop mathematical skills so that once they are professionals in this discipline, they do not have obstacles with the dosage of medications, which is one of the functions that they must develop in the clinical field, and whose error could put at risk the safety and life of the patient. OBJECTIVE: To analyze how the skills for basic mathematics affect the calculation of medicine doses by nursing students in a university institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: descriptive cross-sectional research, carried out through the instrument "Mathematical ability to calculate drug doses" made up of 13 open-ended questions and applied to 256 students from the eight semesters that make up a nursing program. RESULTS: The study showed serious deficiencies in the resolution of situations that involve different basic mathematical skills that a nursing student must possess. Only 30.7% of the students were able to resolve the clinical situations in which they had to perform the calculation of the drug doses; Difficulties were also found in managing the percentages, since only 42% managed to resolve the situation. The interpretation of basic mathematical concepts using graphics was adequately interpreted by 50.2%. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present investigation showed that they should seek learning strategies that improve the skills of nursing students for the dosage of medications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Nursing , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Dosage Calculations , Mathematics/education , Dosage , Patient Safety , Medication Errors/nursing
9.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31504, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291421

ABSTRACT

O magnésio é um cátion de localização predominantemente intracelular e de grande importância em várias funções metabólicas. É possível que tenha uma participação importante em processos álgicos e inflamatórios. Sua dosagem sérica possivelmente não representa a realidade de sua concentração corporal. A mensuração do magnésio eritrocitário talvez possa representar um avanço na sua melhor avaliação


Magnesium is a cation with location predominantly intracellular and of great importance in several metabolic functions. It is possible that it plays an important role in pain and inflammatory processes. It's serum dosage possibly does not represent the reality of it's body concentration. The measurement of erythrocyte magnesium may represent an advance in its better evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Erythrocytes , Dosage , Magnesium , Osteoarthritis , Pain , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cations , Inflammation
10.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e55613, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356122

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: este estudo consiste numa reflexão sobre a avaliação da visita domiciliar em programas na primeira infância. Objetivo: discutir as dimensões envolvidas em um modelo de avaliação para a realidade brasileira, além da percepção dos autores a respeito do tema. Método: essa reflexão foi estruturada nos seguintes tópicos: dimensões envolvidas na avaliação da visita domiciliar e o processo avaliativo nos programas brasileiros. Considerando a centralidade e relevância da visita domiciliar nos programas brasileiros com foco na Primeira Infância e a tendência de consolidação dessa tecnologia como forma de intervenção adequada a programas dessa natureza, propõe-se organizar quatro dimensões para a avaliação das visitas domiciliares: dosagem, conteúdo, relacionamento e responsividade do participante. Resultado: avaliar a tecnologia de intervenção dos programas voltados para a primeira infância, no caso a visita domiciliar, permite investigar os processos que ocorrem durante a entrega das visitas domiciliares e abrir a "caixa preta" da intervenção, sendo possível elucidar problemas operacionais e propor recomendações para corrigi-las. Conclusão: o modelo proposto possibilita aos supervisores e tomadores de decisão acompanhar de forma sistemática e ajustar as dimensões que impactam nos resultados dos programas de visita domiciliar voltados para a Primeira Infância.


RESUMEN Introducción: este estudio consiste en una reflexión sobre la evaluación de la visita domiciliaria en programas en la primera infancia. Objetivo: discutir las dimensiones involucradas en un modelo de evaluación para la realidad brasileña, además de la percepción de los autores acerca del tema. Método: esta reflexión fue estructurada en los siguientes tópicos: dimensiones involucradas en la evaluación de la visita domiciliaria y el proceso evaluativo en los programas brasileños. Considerando la centralidad y relevancia de la visita domiciliaria en los programas brasileños con foco en la Primera Infancia y la tendencia de consolidación de esta tecnología como forma de intervención adecuada a programas de esa naturaleza, se propone organizar cuatro dimensiones para la evaluación de las visitas domiciliarias: dosificación, contenido, relación y respuesta del participante. Resultado: evaluar la tecnología de intervención de los programas dirigidos a la primera infancia, en el caso la visita domiciliaria, permite investigar los procesos que ocurren durante la entrega de las visitas domiciliarias y abrir la "caja negra" de la intervención, siendo posible aclarar problemas operativos y proponer recomendaciones para corregirlos. Conclusión: el modelo propuesto posibilita a los supervisores y tomadores de decisiones acompañar de forma sistemática y ajustar las dimensiones que impactan en los resultados de los programas de visita domiciliariadirigidos para la Primera Infancia.


ABSTRACT Introduction: This study consists of a reflection on house call assessment in early childhood programs, which aimed to discuss the dimensions involved in an assessment model for the Brazilian reality, in addition to the authors' perception of the topic. Method: This reflection was structured around the following topics: dimensions involved in house call assessment and the assessment process in Brazilian programs. Considering the centrality and relevance of house calls in Brazilian programs focused on early childhood and the tendency to consolidate this technology as an intervention strategy suitable for programs of this nature, it is proposed to organize four dimensions for house call assessment: dosage, content, relationship, and participant responsiveness. Results: Assessing the intervention technology of programs aimed at early childhood, in this case house calls, allows us to inquire into the processes that occur during house calls and to open the 'black box' of intervention, making it possible to clarify operational issues and propose recommendations to fix them. Conclusion: The model proposed allows supervisors and decision makers to systematically monitor and adjust the dimensions that impact the results of house call programs aimed at early childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , House Calls , Perception , Primary Health Care , Family , Child Development , Child Health , Caregivers , Dosage
11.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e42645, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339635

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar, na literatura científica, publicações acerca dos erros de medicação e os incidentes relacionados, na atenção primária à saúde. Método: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on Line, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scientific Eletronic Library Online e Web of Science. Analisaram-se 17 artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Para extração dos dados, fez-se a leitura, na íntegra, dos artigos selecionados. Resultados: dos 17 estudos analisados, sete (41,17%) foram indexados, tanto no PubMed, quanto no Medline; nove (52,94%) na Web of Science; um (5,9%) na base Scielo; e nenhum na Cinahl. Os estudos apontam fortes evidências na aplicação clínica, sendo que a maioria desses mostra que prescrições com medicamento incorreto, dose incorreta, interações medicamentosas e alergias medicamentosas foram as principais causas de erros com potencial para danos graves. Conclusão: Ainda é crescente o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que visem identificar estratégias e intervenções voltadas aos erros de medicação. Sabe-se que esses estudos fornecem subsídios para o aprimoramento das práticas, além de propiciar maior segurança no processo de medicação, a fim de reduzir os eventos adversos evitáveis.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar, en la literatura científica, publicaciones acerca de los errores de medicación y los incidentes relacionados, en la atención primaria a la salud. Método: se realizó una revisión integradora de la literatura en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on Line, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scientific Eletronic Library Online y Web of Science. Se analizaron 17 artículos que atendieron a los criterios de inclusión. Para la recolección de los datos, fue hecha la lectura, en su totalidad, de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados: de los 17 estudios analizados, siete (41,17%) fueron indexados, tanto en el PubMed, como en el Medline; nueve (52,94%) en la Web of Science; uno (5,9%) en la base Scielo; y ninguno en la Cinahl. Los estudios señalan fuertes evidencias en la aplicación clínica, siendo que la mayoría de ellos muestra que prescripciones con medicamento incorrecto, dosis incorrecta, interacciones y alergias a los fármacos fueron las principales causas de errores con potencial para daños graves. Conclusión: aún es creciente el desarrollo de investigaciones con el objetivo de identificar estrategias e intervenciones dirigidas a los errores de medicación. Sabemos que estos estudios aportan herramientas para el perfeccionamiento de las prácticas, además de ofrecer mayor seguridad en el proceso de medicación, a fin de reducir los eventos adversos evitables.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify, in the scientific literature, publications on medication errors and related incidents in primary health care. Method: An integrative literature review was conducted in the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scientific Electronic Library Online and Web of Science. Seventeen articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. For data extraction, the selected articles were read in full. Results: Of the 17 studies analyzed, seven (41.17%) were indexed in both PubMed and Medline, nine (52.94%) in Web of Science, one (5.9%) in Scielo and none in Cinahl. The studies point to strong evidence in clinical application, most of these show that prescriptions with incorrect drugs, incorrect doses, drug interactions and drug allergies were the main causes of errors with potential for serious harms. Conclusion: The development of research aimed to identify strategies and interventions for medication errors is still growing. It is known that these studies provide subsidies for the improvement of practices, in addition to providing greater safety in the medication process, in order to reduce preventable adverse events.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Medication Errors , Safety , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Health , Health Strategies , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dosage , Prescriptions , Patient Safety
12.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e52102, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339632

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: relatar evento adverso no preparo e administração de heparina endovenosa e ações implementadas pela equipe de saúde. Métodos: trata-se de relato de experiência sobre as ações implementadas após análise de evento adverso no preparo e administração de heparina em paciente internado em um Hospital Universitário do Sul do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos registros do prontuário do paciente, atas de reuniões das equipes envolvida se do plano de ação das medidas instituídas após evento ocorrido em novembro de 2017. A análise dos resultados foi realizada de forma descritiva e o projeto aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: as ações realizadas incluíram a revisão de rotinas e protocolos relacionados ao cálculo de dose, preparo e administração da heparina endovenosa. Houve a inclusão como medicamento de alta vigilância e realização da dupla checagem. Também foram divulgadas orientações e alertas em nível institucional para todos os membros da equipe de enfermagem. Conclusão: a experiência contribuiu para evidenciar a necessidade de monitorar incidentes e seus impactos, encontrar estratégias para reduzi-los por meio de revisões nos processos e implementação de ações na prática assistencial visando maior segurança no preparo e administração de heparina endovenosa.


RESUMEN Objetivo: relatar evento adverso en la preparación y administración de heparina endovenosa y acciones implementadas por el equipo de salud. Métodos: se trata de un relato de experiencia sobre las acciones implementadas tras el análisis de evento adverso en la preparación y administración de heparina en paciente ingresado en un Hospital Universitario del Sur de Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en los registros médicos del paciente, actas de reuniones de los equipos involucrados y del plan de acción de las medidas instituidas tras el evento ocurrido en noviembre de 2017. El análisis de los resultados fue realizado de forma descriptiva y el proyecto aprobado por Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados: las acciones realizadas incluyeron la revisión de rutinas y los protocolos relacionados al cálculo de dosis, preparación y administración de heparina endovenosa. Hubo la inclusión como medicamento de alta vigilancia sanitaria y la realización del doble chequeo. También fueron divulgadas orientaciones y alertas a nivel institucional para todos los miembros del equipo de enfermería. Conclusión: la experiencia contribuye para evidenciar la necesidad de monitorear incidentes y sus impactos, encontrar estrategias para reducirlos por medio de revisiones en los procesos y la implementación de acciones en la práctica asistencial con el objetivo de una mayor seguridad en la preparación y administración de heparina endovenosa.


ABSTRACT Objective: to report an adverse event in the preparation and endovenous administration of heparin and actions implemented by the health team. Methods: this is an experience report on the actions implemented after analyzing an adverse event in the preparation and administration of heparin in a patient admitted to a University Hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected from the patient's medical records, minutes of meetings of the teams involved, and the action plan of the measures instituted after an event that occurred in November 2017. Results were analyzed in a descriptive manner and the project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: the actions carried out included the review of routines and protocols related to the calculation of dose, preparation, and endovenous administration of heparin. There was inclusion as a high-alert medication and double checking. Institutional-level guidelines and alerts were also released to all members of the nursing team. Conclusion: the experience contributed to highlight the need to monitor incidents and their impacts, find strategies to reduce them through process reviews and implementation of actions in care practice aiming at greater safety in the preparation and endovenous administration of heparin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Heparin , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Administration, Intravenous , Patient Care Team , Risk Management , Safety , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Family , Health , Preparedness , Protocols , Disease Prevention , Dosage , Patient Safety , Hospitals, University , Medication Errors , Nursing Care
13.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 24(1): 37-42, 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358879

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: los sistemas intrahospitalarios sobre la distribución de medicamentos comprenden múltiples procesos en cadena, con la participación de diferentes personas por lo que es susceptible a la generación de errores. OBJETIVO: el propósito fue conocer la generación de posibles errores durante el proceso de registro de datos en el sistema intrahospitalario de distribución de medicamentos del Instituto Gastroenterológico Boliviano Japonés de Cochabamba. METODOLOGÍA: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal; donde se utilizó una lista de cotejos para la revisión del registro realizado en los formularios: kardex, recetario/recibo y hoja de tratamiento en el servicio de internación, así como también el registro de medicamentos dispensados realizado en el servicio de farmacia. RESULTADOS: en el servicio de internación se identificó errores de omisión en el kardex de tratamiento, específicamente en el registro de la forma farmacéutica: comprimidos y frascos. En el servicio de farmacia también se encontró errores de omisión en el registro de las mismas formas farmacéuticas. En los servicios de internación y farmacia, se encontró errores de comisión con el registro de dosis diferente en los formularios recibo recetario y hoja de tratamiento y de medicamento dispensado respectivamente superior al 30% en todos los casos. CONCLUSIONES: los errores identificados en el servicio de internación fueron errores de registro de tipo omisión y comisión. En el servicio de farmacia, los errores encontrados fueron errores de registro de tipo comisión.


Introduction: the intra-hospital drug distribution system, comprise multiple chain processes, with the participation of different people, which is susceptible to the generation of errors. Objective: the purpose was to know the generation of possible errors during the data registration process in the intra-hospital drug distribution system of the Japanese Bolivian Gastroenterological Institute of Cochabamba. Methodology: observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study; where a checklist was used to review the record made in the forms: kardex, recipe book / receipt and treatment sheet in the hospitalization service, as well as the record of dispensed drugs made in the pharmacy service. Results: in the hospitalization service, errors of omission were identified in the treatment kardex, specifically in the registry of the pharmaceutical form: tablets and bottles. In the pharmacy service, errors of omission were also found in the registry of the same pharmaceutical formulations. In the hospitalization and pharmacy services, commission errors were found with the registration of different doses in the forms of prescription, receipt and treatment sheet and of dispensed medication, respectively, higher than 30% in all cases. Conclusions: the errors identified in the hospitalization service were omission and commission type registry errors. In the pharmacy service, the errors found were commission-type registration errors.


Subject(s)
Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Biopharmaceutics , Dosage
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350242

ABSTRACT

In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was evaluated in Swiss young male albino mice. Stress was induced in mice by subjecting them to unpredictable mild stress for 21 successive days. Ethanol extract of the leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 21 consecutive days to separate groups of unstressed and stressed mice. Ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed as well as stressed mice in tail suspension test (TST). However, the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) of the extract also significantly decreased immobility period of stressed mice in TST. The extract significantly restored reduced sucrose preference in stressed mice. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Ethanol extract of the leaves significantly decreased plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels; brain MAO-A activity and MDA level; and increased brain reduced glutathione and catalase activity in unstressed as well as stressed mice as compared to their respective vehicle treated controls. Thus, ethanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-Aactivity, reduction of oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Caesalpinia/adverse effects , Ethanol , Sucrose , Fluoxetine , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Dosage
15.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(3): e795, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144537

ABSTRACT

La neumonía intersticial con características autoinmunes por sus siglas en inglés, es una entidad en la que existe un compromiso pulmonar intersticial y hallazgos clínicos y paraclínicos que sugieren una enfermedad del tejido conectivo, aunque no cumplen criterios diagnósticos para ninguna de estas. Con fines de investigación, en el 2015 se describieron criterios para esta entidad, en los que se incluyeron características de los dominios clínicos, serológicos y morfológicos, con diversos patrones de compromiso pulmonar. En la actualidad, hay un aumento en el interés de esta entidad, pues algunos autores sugieren que se pueda tratar de una enfermedad autoinmune per se, cuyo órgano blanco principal sería el pulmón. Dado su reciente reconocimiento, son pocos los casos descritos en la literatura. Con el propósito de contribuir a la mejor identificación de esa entidad, presentamos el caso de una paciente de 68 años con afectación pulmonar en quien después de descartar otras causas se llegó al diagnóstico de neumonía intersticial con características autoinmunes al cumplir los criterios de cada dominio requerido. Se inició tratamiento con micofenolato mofetilo a dosis de 2,5 mg/día. En su evolución clínica, la paciente presentó mejoría y fue dada de alta con tratamiento ambulatorio(AU)


Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features is a condition in which patients can have clinical and serological findings suggesting of a connective tissue disease associated with an interstitial lung disease, nonetheless no criteria for an specific connective tissue disease are meeting. In 2015 classification criteria where proposed, the diagnosis is made in the presence of a combination of features from clinical, serological and morphological domain with various patterns of pulmonary involvement. Currently there is an increase in the interest of this condition, as some authors suggest that it can be an autoimmune pathology per se, whose main target organ would be the lung. Given its recent recognition, there are few cases described in the literature and therefore in order to contribute to the better identification of that entity, we present the case of a 65 year old patient with lung involvement in whom after ruling out other etiological causes reached the diagnosis of I Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune by meeting criteria of each required domain(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Dosage , Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Diseases/diagnosis , Clinical Evolution
16.
Dent. press endod ; 10(3): 63-69, Sept-Dec.2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347990

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) ocorre em cerca de 5% das hospitalizações e até 30% das internações em UTI, possuindo taxas de mortalidade entre 15% e 60%. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar diferentes protocolos de indução da IRA em modelo animal, buscando a padronização do modelo para o estudo da relação bidirecional com a periodontite apical (PA). Métodos: Foram utilizados vinte e quatro ratos divididos em três grupos (n=8): G1) administração de gentamicina na dosagem de 80mg/Kg/dia durante cinco dias; G2) administração de gentamicina na dosagem de 100mg/kg/dia durante oito dias; e G3) administração de gentamicina na dosagem de 100mg/kg/dia durante dez dias. A PA foi induzida em todos os grupos por meio da exposição pulpar dos primeiros e segundos molares superiores e inferiores do lado direito. Após trinta dias da exposição pulpar, os animais foram eutanasiados; os rins, coletados para análise histológica em HE; e as maxilas e mandíbulas, removidas para análise radiográfica. Resultados: A presença da PA foi confirmada em todos os espécimes pelo exame radiográfico. O grupo G3 apresentou índice de mortalidade de 75%, enquanto G1 e G2 não apresentaram mortalidade. Histologicamente, o tecido renal do grupo G2 apresentou alterações teciduais, como dilatação e necrose tubular mais severa, quando comparado ao grupo G1 (p<0,05). Conclusão: Diante do alto índice de mortalidade observado em G3 e dos achados histológicos observados em G1 e G2, o protocolo indicado para o estudo da relação bidirecional com a periodontite apical é o de 100mg/kg/dia durante oito dias (AU).


Introduction: Acute Renal Failure (ARF) occurs in about 5% of hospitalizations and up to 30% of ICU admissions, with mortality rates between 15% and 60%. The objective of this study was to analyze different protocols for the induction of IRA in an animal model, seeking the standardization of the model for the study of bidirectional relationship with apical periodontitis (AP). Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 - Administration of Gentamicin at a dose of 80mg/ kg/day for 5 days; G2 - Administration of Gentamicin at the dose of 100mg/kg/day for 8 days; G3 - Administration of Gentamicin at the dosage of 100mg/kg/day for 10 days. The AP was induced in all groups by means of pulp exposure of the first and second upper and lower molars from the right side. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized, the kidneys collected for histological analysis, and the jaws removed for radiographic analysis. Results: The presence of AP was confirmed in all specimens by radiographic examination. The G3 group had a mortality rate of 75% while G1 and G2 had no mortality. Histologically, the renal tissue of the G2 protocol presented tissue changes such as dilation and more severe tubular necrosis when compared to the G1 protocol (p <0.05). Conclusion: In view of the high mortality rate observed in G3 and the histological findings observed in G1 and G2, the indicated protocol is 100mg/kg/day for 8 days to study the bidirectional relationship with apical periodontitis (AU).


Subject(s)
Periapical Periodontitis , Reference Standards , Renal Insufficiency , Kidney/injuries , Gentamicins , Dosage
17.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 20(36): 57-69, nov.2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1140730

ABSTRACT

El profesional de enfermería cumple un papel relevante en el procedimiento de administración de medicamentos y la seguridad del paciente, en el mantenimiento de la calidad en salud en las instituciones mitigando el margen de error y protegiendo al máximo la integridad del paciente. Por ello en su formación se deben usar metodologías para fortalecer el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, en concordancia debe cambiar sus métodos constantemente en búsqueda de mejorar y ofrecer nuevas herramientas para contar con profesionales competentes que cumplan con los retos laborales e intelectuales. El objetivo: evaluar el impacto del uso de una aplicación tecnológica que fomente el aprendizaje autodidacta, afianzando conocimientos adquiridos en el aula de clase y que a futuro permita consulta rápida durante el desarrollo de la profesión, además el aporte al desarrollo de habilidades de estudio autodidacta y formación continua en todo el personal de enfermería durante su formación y graduación. Metodología: enfoque mixto-descriptivo; se inicio: con una primera fase para la identificación de errores más comunes en la administración de medicamentos, una segunda fase para la construcción de una aplicación tecnológica para que el estudiante de enfermería la utilizara en clase de cuidado al adulto con enfasis en paciente en estado agudo, previa aplicación de pretest de conocimientos, una tercera fase: aplicación de postest para conocer el impacto de la aplicación en su aprendizaje. Resultados: fueron satisfactorios pues en términos generales la aplicación tuvo aceptación y se mostró un avance significativo en sus conocimientos con énfasis en el cálculo de dosis de medicamentos como vasopresores y vasodilatadores. Conclusión: el impacto de la herramienta virtual es positivo en el grupo de estudiantes de la asignatura de quinto semestre, además la investigación promueve la inclusión de la tecnología en el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de asignaturas de enfermería y fortalece el estudio autónomo y así las competencias del saber para permitir brindar cuidados adecuados y prácticas seguras al paciente quien es el pilar de la profesión[AU]


The nursing professional plays a relevant role in the drug administration procedure and patient safety, in maintaining quality in health in institutions, mitigating the margin of error and protecting the integrity of the patient as much as possible. For this reason, in their training, they must use methodologies to strengthen the teaching-learning process, according to which they must change their methods constantly in search of improvement and offer new tools to have competent professionals who meet work and intellectual challenges. The objective: to implement a technological application that encourages self-taught learning, consolidating knowledge acquired in the classroom and that in the future allows quick consultation during the development of the profession, in addition to contributing to the development of self-taught study skills and continuous training throughout the nursing staff during their training and graduation. Methodology: mixed-descriptive approach; Where it started: with a first phase for the identification of the most common errors in the administration of medications, a second phase for the construction of a technological application for the nursing student to use in the adult care class with emphasis on patient in acute state, prior application of knowledge pretest, a third phase: posttest application to know the impact of the application on their learning. Results were satisfactory because in general terms the application was accepted and a significant advance was shown in its knowledge with emphasis on the calculation of doses of drugs such as vasopressors and vasodilators. Conclusion, the impact of the virtual tool is positive in the student group of the Fifth semester subject, the research also promotes the inclusion of technology in the teaching - learning process of nursing subjects and strengthens the autonomous study and thus allows to provide adequate care and safe practices to the patient who is the pillar of the profession[AU]


O profissional de enfermagem desempenha papel relevante no procedimento de administração de medicamentos e na segurança do paciente, na manutenção da qualidade da saúde nas instituições, amenizando a margem de erro e protegendo ao máximo a integridade do paciente. Por isso, em sua formação, devem utilizar metodologias que fortaleçam o processo de ensino- aprendizagem, segundo as quais devem mudar seus métodos constantemente em busca de aprimoramento e oferecer novas ferramentas para ter profissionais competentes que atendam aos desafios do trabalho e intelectuais. Objetivo: implementar uma aplicação tecnológica que incentive a aprendizagem autodidata, consolidando os conhecimentos adquiridos em sala de aula e que no futuro permita uma consulta rápida durante o desenvolvimento da profissão, além de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de competências de estudo autodidata e formação contínua ao longo do equipe de enfermagem durante sua formação e graduação. Metodologia: abordagem descritiva mista; Onde começou: com uma primeira fase para identificação dos erros mais comuns na administração de medicamentos, uma segunda fase para a construção de uma aplicação tecnológica para o aluno de enfermagem utilizar na aula de adulto com ênfase no paciente em estado agudo, aplicação prévia do pré-teste de conhecimentos, uma terceira fase: aplicação do pós-teste para saber o impacto da aplicação na sua aprendizagem. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, pois em termos gerais o pedido foi aceito e mostrou-se um avanço significativo no seu conhecimento com ênfase no cálculo de doses de fármacos como vasopressores e vasodilatadores Conclusão, o impacto da ferramenta virtual é positivo no grupo de alunos do Disciplina do quinto semestre, a pesquisa também promove a inclusão da tecnologia no processo ensino-aprendizagem das disciplinas de enfermagem e fortalece o estudo autônomo e, assim, permite prestar cuidados adequados e práticas seguras ao paciente que é o pilar da profissão[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Nursing , Drug Administration Routes , Clinical Competence , Education, Nursing , Patient Safety , Mobile Applications , Learning , Professional Autonomy , Dosage
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 543-550, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144202

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of combined zoledronic acid and alendronate therapy on bone edema and knee pain in cases of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee. We report our experience with this treatment. Methods A retrospective case series of 11 patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee confirmed by magnetic resonance image (MRI). The patients were treated with a single dose of 5 mg of intravenous zoledronic acid combined with 35 mg twice a week of oral alendronate, for 16 weeks. The visual analogue scale scores were noted before the beginning of the therapy, at 8 weeks, and at 16 weeks of follow-up. The size of the bone marrow edema adjacent to the lesion was measured on T2-weighted MRI coronal images at the beginning of the therapy and at 16 weeks. Results The average visual analogue scale score at 0 weeks was of 7.72, and of 0.81 at 16 weeks of therapy; the difference was statistically significant (p= 0.03). The mean bone marrow involvement at 0 weeks was of 80%, which reduced to 11.81% at 16 weeks of therapy. This change was statistically significant (p= 0.03). Conclusion Our data shows that the combination therapy causes early pain relief and reduction of the bone edema, and it is safe, effective and well-tolerated for a painful disease entity like spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee.


Resumo Objetivo Determinar o efeito do tratamento combinado de ácido zoledrônico e alendronato no edema ósseo e na dor no joelho em casos de osteonecrose espontânea do joelho. A experiência dos autores com este tratamento é relatada. Métodos Série de casos retrospectiva, incluindo 11 pacientes com osteonecrose espontânea do joelho confirmada por ressonância magnética. Os pacientes foram tratados com uma dose intravenosa única de 5 mg de ácido zoledrônico combinada com 35 mg de alendronato oral, 2 vezes por semana, por 16 semanas. Os escores da escala visual analógica foram aferidos antes do começo do tratamento, em 8 semanas e em 16 semanas de acompanhamento. O tamanho do edema da medula óssea adjacente à lesão foi medido em imagens de ressonância magnética coronal ponderadas em T2 no início do tratamento e em 16 semanas. Resultados O escore médio da escala visual analógica em 0 semanas foi de 7,72, contra 0,81 em 16 semanas de tratamento, uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (p= 0,03). O envolvimento médio da medula óssea em 0 semanas foi de 80%, e foi reduzido para 11,81% em 16 semanas de tratamento, uma diferença também estatisticamente significativa (p= 0,03). Conclusão Os dados mostram que a terapia combinada proporciona alívio da dor inicial e redução do edema ósseo, sendo segura, eficaz e bem tolerada em uma enfermidade dolorosa como a osteonecrose espontânea do joelho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis , Pain , Bone and Bones , Bone Marrow , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Combined Modality Therapy , Alendronate , Diphosphonates , Dosage , Visual Analog Scale , Zoledronic Acid , Knee Joint , Necrosis
19.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 208-210, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149829

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El TDAH tiene una prevalencia del 1-4% de la población escolar española. Su tratamiento se realiza con derivados anfetamínicos y, recientemente, con fármacos no esti mulantes; los estudios realizados no han encontrado diferencias de eficacia. Caso clínico: Niña de 7 arios llegó derivada desde neurología por retraso en el aprendizaje y trastornos de conducta. Orientada como TDAH, se inició tratamiento con metilfenidato de liberación inmediata y posteriormente con la fórmula OROS; apareció alopecia areata y se retiró el tratamiento. Tras la reintroducción de metilfenidato de liberación modificada 30:70, se consiguió controlar los síntomas sin que apareciera alopecia. Discusión: Hay antecedentes publicados de 2 casos de alopecia areata con metilfenidato OROS, que se resolvieron tras el aumento de dosis del fármaco, aunque no se conoce clara mente el motivo de este suceso. No hay consenso sobre el uso prioritario de la fórmula de liberación inmediata o la fórmula OROS del metilfenidato.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of 1-4% of the Spanish school population. Its treatment consists of giving amphetamine derivatives and, recently, non-stimulant drugs, without finding any differences in efficacy in the studies performed. Clinical case: A 7-year-old girl was referred from neurology due to learning delay and behaviour disorders. Diagnosed as likely ADHD, treatment was started with immediate release methylphenidate, and later with an osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. When alopecia areata appeared, this treatment was withdrawn. After the re-introduction of modified release methylphenidate 30:70, symptom control was achieved without the appearance of alopecia. Discussion: There is a published history of two cases of alopecia areata with OROS methylp henidate that resolved after increasing the dose of the drug without clearly knowing the reason for this event. There is no consensus on the priority use of the immediate release formula or the OROS methylphenidate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Alopecia , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Alopecia Areata , Dosage
20.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 199-201, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149827

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Trazodone is used as an antidepressant in doses between 150 and 600 mg. At lower doses, it is commonly used to treat insomnia. There are few case reports about confusional symptoms as an undesirable side effect of this drug. We report a case of a patient who presented with delirium after prescription of trazodone 100 mg. She required hospitalisation but, shortly after discontinuation of trazodone, the symptoms disappeared without antipsychotic medication. Seven months after the episode, the patient remains asymptomatic.


RESUMEN La trazodona se usa como antidepresivo en dosis de 150-600 mg. En dosis más bajas, se usa comúnmente para tratar el insomnio. Hay pocos reportes de caso sobre síntomas confusionales como un efecto secundario indeseable de este medicamento. Se presenta el caso de una paciente que acudió con delirio después de la prescripción de trazodona 100 mg. La paciente requirió hospitalización pero, poco después de la interrupción de la trazodona, los síntomas desaparecieron sin medicación antipsicótica. A los 7 meses del episodio, la paciente permanecía asintomática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Trazodone , Delirium , Secondary Effect , Dosage , Prescriptions , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Antidepressive Agents
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