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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4996-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008074

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) gene is closely related to immune response, signal transduction, growth and disease development in mammals. However, only the Drosophila TMED gene has been reported on insects. We identified the TMED family genes of silkworm, Tribolium castaneum, tobacco moth and Italian bee from their genomes, and found that the TMED family gene composition patterns of one α-class, one β-class, one δ-class and several γ-classes arose in the common ancestor of pre-divergent Hymenoptera insects, while the composition of Drosophila TMED family members has evolved in a unique pattern. Insect TMED family γ-class genes have evolved rapidly, diverging into three separate subclasses, TMED6-like, TMED5-like and TMED3-like. The TMED5-like gene was lost in Hymenoptera, duplicated in the ancestors of Lepidoptera and duplicated in Drosophila. Insect TMED protein not only has typical structural characteristics of TMED, but also has obvious signal peptide. There are seven TMED genes in silkworm, distributed in six chromosomes. One of seven is single exon and others are multi-exons. The complete open reading frame (ORF) sequences of seven TMED genes of silkworm were cloned from larval tissues and registered in GenBank database. BmTMED1, BmTMED2 and BmTMED6 were expressed in all stages and tissues of the silkworm, and all genes were expressed in the 4th and 5th instar and silk gland of the silkworm. The present study revealed the composition pattern of TMED family members, their γ class differentiation and their evolutionary history, providing a basis for further studies on TMED genes in silkworm and other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Genes, Insect/genetics , Moths/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Drosophila , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Mammals/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4258-4274, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008025

ABSTRACT

Anti-reflective nanocoatings that mimic the eyes of fruit flies are biodegradable materials with great market potential for a variety of optical devices that require anti-reflective properties. Microbial expression of retinin provides a new idea for the preparation of nanocoatings under mild conditions compared to physicochemical methods. However, the current expression level of retinin, the key to anti-reflective coating, is low and difficult to meet mass production. In this study, we analyzed and screened the best expression hosts for Drosophila-derived retinin protein, and optimized its expression. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were identified as the efficient expression host of retinin, and purified retinin protein was obtained. At the same time, the preparation method of lanolin nanoemulsion was explored, and the best anti-reflective ability of the nano-coating was determined when the ratio of specific concentration of retinin protein and wax emulsion was 16:4, the pH of the nano-coating formation system was 7.0, and the temperature was 30 ℃. The enhanced antireflective ability and reduced production cost of artificial antireflective nanocoatings by determining the composition of nanocoatings and optimizing the concentration, pH and temperature of system components may facilitate future application of artificial green degradable antireflective coatings.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , CHO Cells , Emulsions , Cricetulus , Drosophila , Eye Proteins , Drosophila Proteins
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1396-1410, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010617

ABSTRACT

Females increase aggression for mating opportunities and for acquiring reproductive resources. Although the close relationship between female aggression and mating status is widely appreciated, whether and how female aggression is regulated by mating-related cues remains poorly understood. Here we report an interesting observation that Drosophila virgin females initiate high-frequency attacks toward mated females. We identify 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), a male-derived pheromone transferred to females during mating, which promotes virgin female aggression. We subsequently reveal a cVA-responsive neural circuit consisting of four orders of neurons, including Or67d, DA1, aSP-g, and pC1 neurons, that mediate cVA-induced virgin female aggression. We also determine that aSP-g neurons release acetylcholine (ACh) to excite pC1 neurons via the nicotinic ACh receptor nAChRα7. Together, beyond revealing cVA as a mating-related inducer of virgin female aggression, our results identify a neural circuit linking the chemosensory perception of mating-related cues to aggressive behavior in Drosophila females.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Drosophila/physiology , Drosophila Proteins/physiology , Cues , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Aggression/physiology , Drosophila melanogaster/physiology
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1117-1130, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982468

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has been suggested as a putative anti-aging molecule for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by the activation of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1/Sir2). In this study, we tested the effects of RES and Sirt1/Sir2 on sleep and courtship memory in a Drosophila model by overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose duplications and mutations cause familial AD. We found a mild but significant transcriptional increase of Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) by RES supplementation for up to 17 days in APP flies, but not for 7 days. RES and dSir2 almost completely reversed the sleep and memory deficits in APP flies. We further demonstrated that dSir2 acts as a sleep promotor in Drosophila neurons. Interestingly, RES increased sleep in the absence of dSir2 in dSir2-null mutants, and RES further enhanced sleep when dSir2 was either overexpressed or knocked down in APP flies. Finally, we showed that Aβ aggregates in APP flies were reduced by RES and dSir2, probably via inhibiting Drosophila β-secretase (dBACE). Our data suggest that RES rescues the APP-induced behavioral deficits and Aβ burden largely, but not exclusively, via dSir2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Drosophila/physiology , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Sirtuin 1 , Sleep
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 759-773, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982421

ABSTRACT

The perception of motion is an important function of vision. Neural wiring diagrams for extracting directional information have been obtained by connectome reconstruction. Direction selectivity in Drosophila is thought to originate in T4/T5 neurons through integrating inputs with different temporal filtering properties. Through genetic screening based on synaptic distribution, we isolated a new type of TmY neuron, termed TmY-ds, that form reciprocal synaptic connections with T4/T5 neurons. Its neurites responded to grating motion along the four cardinal directions and showed a variety of direction selectivity. Intriguingly, its direction selectivity originated from temporal filtering neurons rather than T4/T5. Genetic silencing and activation experiments showed that TmY-ds neurons are functionally upstream of T4/T5. Our results suggest that direction selectivity is generated in a tripartite circuit formed among these three neurons-temporal filtering, TmY-ds, and T4/T5 neurons, in which TmY-ds plays a role in the enhancement of direction selectivity in T4/T5 neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Neurites , Drosophila , Neurons , Connectome
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1927-1935, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981412

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of ginsenoside Re(GS-Re) on drosophila model of Parkinson's disease(PD) induced by rotenone(Rot). To be specific, Rot was used to induce PD in drosophilas. Then the drosophilas were grouped and respectively treated(GS-Re: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6 mmol·L~(-1); L-dopa: 80 μmol·L~(-1)). Life span and crawling ability of drosophilas were determined. The brain antioxidant activity [content of catalase(CAT), malondialdehyde(MDA), reactive oxygen species(ROS), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], dopamine(DA) content, and mitochondrial function [content of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8(NDUFB8) Ⅰ activity, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B(SDHB) Ⅱ activity] were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The number of DA neurons in the brains of drosophilas was measured with the immunofluorescence method. The levels of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, cytochrome C(Cyt C), nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-assaciated X protein(Bax), and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in the brain were detected by Western blot. The results showed that model group [475 μmol·L~(-1) Rot(IC_(50))] demonstrated significantly low survival rate, obvious dyskinesia, small number of neurons and low DA content in the brain, high ROS level and MDA content, low content of SOD and CAT, significantly low ATP content, NDUFB8 Ⅰ activity, and SDHB Ⅱ activity, significantly low expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax, large amount of Cyt C released from mitochondria to cytoplasm, low nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and significantly high expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 compared with the control group. GS-Re(0.1, 0.4, and 1.6 mmol·L~(-1)) significantly improved the survival rate of PD drosophilas, alleviated the dyskinesia, increased DA content, reduced the loss of DA neurons, ROS level, and MDA content in brain, improved content of SOD and CAT and antioxidant activity in brain, maintained mitochondrial homeostasis(significantly increased ATP content and activity of NDUFB8 Ⅰ and SDHB Ⅱ, significantly up-regulated expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax), significantly reduced the expression of Cyt C, increased the nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and down-regulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3. In conclusion, GS-Re can significantly relieve the Rot-induced cerebral neurotoxicity in drosophilas. The mechanism may be that GS-Re activates Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, improves antioxidant capacity of brain neurons, then inhibits mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 signaling pathway, and the apoptosis of neuronal cells, thereby exerting the neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Drosophila/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1747-1758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981167

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract is the largest digestive organ and the largest immune organ and detoxification organ, which is vital to the health of the body. Drosophila is a classic model organism, and its gut is highly similar to mammalian gut in terms of cell composition and genetic regulation, therefore can be used as a good model for studying gut development. target of rapmaycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a key factor regulating cellular metabolism. Nprl2 inhibits TORC1 activity by reducing Rag GTPase activity. Previous studies have found that nprl2 mutated Drosophila showed aging-related phenotypes such as enlarged foregastric and reduced lifespan, which were caused by over-activation of TORC1. In order to explore the role of Rag GTPase in the developmental defects of the gut of nprl2 mutated Drosophila, we used genetic hybridization combined with immunofluorescence to study the intestinal morphology and intestinal cell composition of RagA knockdown and nprl2 mutated Drosophila. The results showed that RagA knockdown alone could induce intestinal thickening and forestomach enlargement, suggesting that RagA also plays an important role in intestinal development. Knockdown of RagA rescued the phenotype of intestinal thinning and decreased secretory cells in nprl2 mutants, suggesting that Nprl2 may regulate the differentiation and morphology of intestinal cells by acting on RagA. Knockdown of RagA did not rescue the enlarged forestomach phenotype in nprl2 mutants, suggesting that Nprl2 may regulate forestomach development and intestinal digestive function through a mechanism independent of Rag GTPase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drosophila/genetics , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Carrier Proteins , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Drosophila Proteins/genetics
10.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2022. 58 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390703

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência crescente de resistência antifúngica, a toxicidade, além do pequeno espectro de ação dos antifúngicos convencionais, limita o número de alternativas terapêuticas para doenças causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. Uma das frentes de pesquisa é a proposta de novos usos para drogas existentes chamada de reposicionamento, que diminui o tempo e esforço na busca de novos compostos eficazes. Neste contexto, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico e os mecanismos de ação do composto auranofina contra a espécie Candida albicans, além da toxicidade in vivo. Foram utilizadas cepas padrões de C. albicans (SC5314, ATCC 18804) e as concentrações inibitória mínima (CIM) e fungicida mínima (CFM) foram determinadas. Os mecanismos de ação dos compostos foram avaliados sobre a estrutura celular de C. albicans, com verificação de alterações na morfologia, na parede celular, sobre os fatores de virulência de C. albicans, como transição levedura-hifa e produção de exoenzimas, além do efeito do composto sobre o metabolismo de C. albicans e efeito antifúngico sob condições de estresse osmótico. Para avaliação da toxicidade das concentrações efetivas de auranofina in vivo, foi utilizado o modelo invertebrado, Drosophila melanogaster. Os dados obtidos no ensaio de transição levedura-hifa foram avaliados pelos testes ANOVA e de Tukey e os testes Kruskal-Wallis e de Dunn. foram utilizados na análise do efeito de auranofina sobre o metabolismo fúngico. O nível de significância para todos os testes foi de 5%. Foram verificadas concentrações inibitória e fungicida de auranofina sobre C. albicans. Apesar da ausência de efeitos sobre fatores de virulência, auranofina causou redução no metabolismo fúngico e no crescimento fúngico sob estresse osmótico, sugerindo, nesse caso, um possível efeito direto ou indireto na membrana celular fúngica. Além disso, nas concentrações efetivas não foi observada toxicidade relevante in vivo. Os resultados demonstraram, portanto, que auranofina tem potencial para seu reposicionamento como antifúngico, no entanto, mais estudos são necessários para mais esclarecimentos e utilização adequada do medicamento (AU).


The increasing occurrence of antifungal resistance, toxicity, in addition to the small spectrum of action of conventional antifungals, limits the number of therapeutic alternatives for diseases caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. One of the research fronts is the proposal of new uses for existing drugs called repositioning, which reduces the time and effort in the search for new effective compounds. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the antifungal potential and mechanisms of action of the auranofin compound against Candida albicans, in addition to in vivo toxicity. Standard strains of C. albicans (SC5314, ATCC 18804) were used and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined. The mechanisms of action of the compounds were evaluated on the cellular structure of C. albicans, with verification of changes in morphology, in the cell wall, on the virulence factors of C. albicans, such as yeast-hypha transition and production of exoenzymes, in addition to the effect of the compound on the metabolism of C. albicans and antifungal effect under osmotic stress conditions. To evaluate the toxicity of effective concentrations of auranofin in vivo, the invertebrate model, Drosophila melanogaster, was used. The data obtained in the yeast-hypha transition assay were evaluated by the ANOVA and Tukey tests and the KruskalWallis and Dunn tests. were used to analyze the effect of auranofin on fungal metabolism. The significance level for all tests was 5%. Inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of auranofin were verified on C. albicans. Despite the absence of effects on virulence factors, auranofin caused a reduction in fungal metabolism and fungal growth under osmotic stress, suggesting, in this case, a possible direct or indirect effect on the fungal cell membrane. Furthermore, at effective concentrations, no relevant in vivo toxicity was observed. The results showed, therefore, that auranofin has the potential for its repositioning as an antifungal, however, more studies are needed for further clarification and proper use of the drug (AU).


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Auranofin , Drosophila , Antifungal Agents
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0432018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118052

ABSTRACT

The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is considered the main insect pest of small fruit in the world. Identifying susceptible hosts is essential to develop management strategies. The aim of this study was to verify the level of D. suzukii infestation in blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, cattley guava and Surinam cherry fruits cultivated in the southern region in Brazil, and to determine the infestation index (II) per fruit. The studies were carried out during two harvests (2015/16 and 2016/17) in three areas with organic cultivation of small fruit. The highest level of D. suzukii natural infestation was observed in blackberry (40 to 65% infestation), and strawberry (approximately 30% infestation) fruits. In contrast, blueberries were less preferred (< 7% infestation). For native fruit of the region (cattley guava and Surinam cherry), it was also verified infestation of the fly, demonstrating they are hosts for multiplication in the off-season periods of the other crops. In relation to II, blackberry and Surinam cherry provided a higher average number of insects per gram of fruit (≈ 1.6 adults of D. suzukii). In contrast, blueberries and cattley guava had the lowest insect ratio per gram of fruit (≈ 0.7 adults per gram). The period between late spring to mid-autumn was considered ideal for the pest occurrence in the field. The knowledge of natural infestation levels is essential for understanding the behavior of the pest in the field, which will assist in the design of management strategies.(AU)


A drosófila-da-asa-manchada, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, é considerada o principal inseto-praga de pequenos frutos no mundo. A identificação de hospedeiros suscetíveis é essencial para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o nível de infestação de D. suzukii em frutos de amoreira-preta, mirtileiro, morangueiro, araçazeiro e pitangueira cultivados na região no sul do Brasil e determinar os índices de infestação (II) por fruto. Os estudos foram realizados durante duas safras (2015/16 e 2016/17) em três áreas com cultivo orgânico de pequenas frutas. O maior nível de infestação natural de D. suzukii foi observado em amora-preta (40 a 65% de infestação) e morango (aproximadamente 30% de infestação). Em contraste, o mirtilo foi menos preferido (< 7% de infestação). Para as frutas nativas da região (araçá e pitanga), também ocorreu infestação da mosca, demonstrando serem hospedeiros potenciais para a multiplicação da praga nos períodos de entressafras. Em relação ao II, amoras e pitangas proporcionaram um maior número médio de insetos por grama de fruto (≈ 1,6 adultos de D. suzukii). Por outro lado, mirtilos e araçás apresentaram a menor relação de insetos emergidos por gramas de frutos (≈ 0,7 adultos por grama). O período entre final da primavera até meados do outono foi considerado ideal para a ocorrência da praga no campo. O conhecimento dos níveis de infestação natural é fundamental para o entendimento do comportamento da praga no campo, o que auxiliará no delineamento de estratégias de manejo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drosophila , Fruit/parasitology , Seasons , Brazil , Agricultural Pests , Vaccinium myrtillus , Morus , Fragaria , Introduced Species , Eugenia
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1245-1255, july/aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048928

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate how the surrounding vegetation affects the assemblage of fruit flies. For this, flies were collected in guava orchards with distinct types of surrounding vegetation (exotic pasture, native forest and fruit tree intercropping). The experiment was conducted in Itaporã and Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Weekly samples were collected from March to April 2015. McPhail traps were baited with 5% hydrolyzed corn protein. Species richness, diversity index and abundance were evaluated for each orchard, as well as the species composition of fruit fly between the environments surrounding the orchard and, finally, the sex ratio. A total of 579 individuals were collected of the species Anastrepha fraterculus, A. montei, A. obliqua, A. sororcula, A. striata, A. turpiniae and A. zenildae. The orchard surrounded by native forest had the highest species richness and Shannon diversity. The species composition differed between environments, with the formation of three distinct groups. The environment surrounding the guava orchard influences the richness, diversity, abundance and sex ratio of fruit flies, indicating that the native forest may provide more resources for the maintenance of these insects.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar como a vegetação do entorno dos pomares afeta a assembleia de moscas-das-frutas. Para isto, foram coletadas moscas em pomares de goiabeiras com distintos tipos de vegetação no entorno (pastagens exóticas, mata nativa e fruticultura). O experimento foi conduzido em Itaporã e Dourados, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Amostras semanais foram coletadas de março a abril de 2015. As armadilhas McPhail foram iscadas com 5% de proteína hidrolisada de milho. A riqueza de espécies, o índice de diversidade e a abundância foram avaliados para cada pomar, assim como a composição de espécies de moscas-das-frutas entre os ambientes do entorno do pomar e razão sexual. Um total de 579 indivíduos foram coletados das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. montei, A. obliqua, A. sororcula, A. striata, A. turpiniae e A. zenildae. O pomar cercado por mata nativa apresentou maior riqueza de espécies e diversidade de Shannon. A composição das espécies diferiu entre os ambientes, com a formação de três grupos distintos. O ambiente do entorno do pomar de goiabeira influencia a riqueza, diversidade, abundância e razão sexual das moscas-das-frutas, indicando que a mata nativa pode fornecer mais recursos para a manutenção desses insetos.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Tephritidae , Psidium , Drosophila
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 941-948, may./jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048707

ABSTRACT

Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are an efficient group of insects as predators of various arthropods. Based on records of the predatory ant activity, a survey was carried out on the efficiency in predation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, considering the percentage of removal of larvae using the variables of soil density and moisture content and their effect on the larvae burying. For this, A. fraterculus larvae were released to the soil and observed for 10 min while burying or removed by the ants in a peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) orchard. Eight ant species were recorded removing 32.70% of the larvae. Solenopsis saevissima was the most efficient species, with 42.86% of larvae removal. There were no significant correlations between the predation by ants with soil density and soil moisture content. Despite this, the study pointed out that ants belong to genera Pachycondyla, Pheidole, Pogonomyrmex and Solenopsis can be predators on A. fraterculus larvae, with emphasis on the S. saevissima. These ants can contribute as important agents of conservative biological control of the population of A. fraterculus in peach orchard and their conservation becomes interesting to use of combined control methods aiming to reduce insecticides and aggressive soil management methods.


Formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) são eficientes como predadores de diversos artrópodes. Baseado nos registros de atividade predatória de formigas, um levantamento da eficiência na predação de larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) considerando a porcentagem na remoção das larvas pelas formigas frente às variáveis de densidade e teor de umidade do solo e o seu efeito sobre o tempo de enterramento das larvas, foi realizado. Larvas de A. fraterculus foram liberadas ao solo e observadas por 10 min enquanto enterravam-se ou eram removidas pelas formigas em um pomar de pessegueiro (Prunus persica, Rosaceae). Oito espécies de formigas foram registradas removendo 32.7% das larvas oferecidas. Solenopsis saevissima foi a espécie mais eficiente com 42.9% da remoção de larvas. Não ocorreram correlações significativas entre os registros de predação por formigas com a densidade e o teor de umidade do solo. Apesar disso, o estudo apontou que as formigas pertencentes aos gêneros Pachycondyla, Pheidole, Pogonomyrmex e Solenopsis podem ser predadoras de larvas de A. fraterculus, com ênfase na espécie S. saevissima, podem contribuir como importantes agentes de controle biológico conservativo da população de A. fraterculus em pomar de pessegueiro e que sua conservação torna-se interessante frente ao uso de métodos de controle combinados visando a redução de inseticidas e de métodos agressivos de manejo do solo.


Subject(s)
Ants , Pest Control , Drosophila
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e225-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tauopathies, a class of neurodegenerative diseases that includes Alzheimer's disease (AD), are characterized by the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the human brain. As abnormal alterations in histone acetylation and methylation show a cause and effect relationship with AD, we investigated the role of several Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylase (JHDM) genes, which have yet to be studied in AD pathology. METHODS: To examine alterations of several JHDM genes in AD pathology, we performed bioinformatics analyses of JHDM gene expression profiles in brain tissue samples from deceased AD patients. Furthermore, to investigate the possible relationship between alterations in JHDM gene expression profiles and AD pathology in vivo, we examined whether tissue-specific downregulation of JHDM Drosophila homologs (kdm) can affect tauR406W-induced neurotoxicity using transgenic flies containing the UAS-Gal4 binary system. RESULTS: The expression levels of JHDM1A, JHDM2A/2B, and JHDM3A/3B were significantly higher in postmortem brain tissue from patients with AD than from non-demented controls, whereas JHDM1B mRNA levels were downregulated in the brains of patients with AD. Using transgenic flies, we revealed that knockdown of kdm2 (homolog to human JHDM1), kdm3 (homolog to human JHDM2), kdm4a (homolog to human JHDM3A), or kdm4b (homolog to human JHDM3B) genes in the eye ameliorated the tauR406W-engendered defects, resulting in less severe phenotypes. However, kdm4a knockdown in the central nervous system uniquely ameliorated tauR406W-induced locomotion defects by restoring heterochromatin. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that downregulation of kdm4a expression may be a potential therapeutic target in AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylation , Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Central Nervous System , Computational Biology , Diptera , Down-Regulation , Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Heterochromatin , Histones , Locomotion , Methylation , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Pathology , Phenotype , RNA, Messenger , tau Proteins , Tauopathies , Transcriptome
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 362-374, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The chemical structure of tubulosine has been known since the mid-1960s. However, little is known about its biological and pharmacological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the novel functions of tubulosine in cancer treatment, specifically in breast cancer. METHODS: An Unpaired (Upd)-induced Drosophila cell line and interleukin (IL)-6-stimulated human breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the biological and pharmacological activities of tubulosine in vitro. To investigate the activities of tubulosine, we performed molecular and cellular experiments such as Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, immunoprecipitation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, and immunofluorescence staining using breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Tubulosine exhibited anticancer activity in IL-6-stimulated human breast cancer cells. Moreover, tubulosine reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation level and transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein at 92E in Upd-induced Drosophila cells. Additionally, tubulosine suppressed IL-6-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling, resulting in decreased viability and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by tubulosine was associated with the blocking of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) binding. CONCLUSION: Tubulosine exhibits anticancer activity through functional inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by targeting IL-6Rα/gp130 binding in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that tubulosine may hold promise for the treatment of inflammation-associated cancers, including breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Drosophila , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glycoproteins , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Janus Kinase 2 , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Reverse Transcription , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Tyrosine
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0242018, 2019. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1024604

ABSTRACT

Some species of Lonchaeidae (Diptera) are considered frugivorous and polyphagous pests, and are widely distributed in Neotropical regions. The relationship between a fly and its host plant is important for studies on behavior and distribution of frugivorous flies. The objective of this work was to identify the Lonchaeidae fly species and their host plants in the Cerrado biome, specifically in the state of Piauí, Brazil. Eighty-one adults (33 ♀ and 48 ♂) from the genus Neosilba McAlpine (Lonchaeidae), represented by the species Neosilba inesperata Strikis & Prado, Neosilba pendula Bezzi, and Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine, were collected from fruit samples. Oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and guava (Psidium guajava L.) had the highest frequencies of infestation. A Neosilba species was considered a primary invader in orange. These results are the first ones reported of Lonchaeidae species and their host plants in the state of Piauí.(AU)


Algumas espécies de Lonchaeidae (Diptera) são consideradas pragas frugívoras e polífagas, com ampla distribuição geográfica em regiões neotropicais. A relação mosca/planta hospedeira é de grande valor para estudos de comportamento e distribuição de moscas frugívoras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de Lonchaeidae e suas plantas hospedeiras no bioma Cerrado, especificamente no estado do Piauí, Brasil. Oitenta e um adultos (33 ♀ e 48 ♂) do gênero Neosilba McAlpine (Lonchaeidae), pertencentes às espécies Neosilba inesperata Strikis & Prado, Neosilba pendula Bezzi e Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine, foram coletados de amostras de frutas, sendo a laranja [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] e a goiaba (Psidium guajava L.) as de maiores frequências de infestação. Uma espécie de Neosilba foi considerada um invasor primário em laranjas. Esses resultados são os primeiros relatos de espécies de Lonchaeidae e suas plantas hospedeiras no estado do Piauí.(AU)


Subject(s)
Citrus , Psidium , Drosophila , Grassland , Diptera , Fruit
17.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 64-69, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that induces symptoms such as a decrease in motor function and cognitive impairment. Increases in the aggregation and deposition of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) in the brain may be closely correlated with the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the effects of an adzuki bean extract on the aggregation of Aβ were examined; moreover, the anti-Alzheimer's activity of the adzuki extract was examined. MATERIALS/METHODS: First, we undertook thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the effect of an adzuki bean extract on Aβ42 aggregation. To evaluate the effects of the adzuki extract on the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in vivo, Aβ42-overexpressing Drosophila were used. In these flies, overexpression of Aβ42 induced the formation of Aβ42 aggregates in the brain, decreased motor function, and resulted in cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Based on the results obtained by ThT fluorescence assays and TEM, the adzuki bean extract inhibited the formation of Aβ42 aggregates in a concentration-dependent manner. When Aβ42-overexpressing flies were fed regular medium containing adzuki extract, the Aβ42 level in the brain was significantly lower than that in the group fed regular medium only. Furthermore, suppression of the decrease in motor function, suppression of cognitive impairment, and improvement in lifespan were observed in Aβ42-overexpressing flies fed regular medium with adzuki extract. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal the delaying effects of an adzuki bean extract on the progression of Alzheimer's disease and provide useful information for identifying novel prevention treatments for Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Diptera , Drosophila , Fluorescence , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Neurodegenerative Diseases
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17760, 2018. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974401

ABSTRACT

In the present study we have studied the effect of 25, 50, 75 and 100 µM of luteolin on the transgenic Drosophila expressing human alpha synuclein. The doses of luteolin were established in diet and the PD flies were allowed to feed on it for 24 days. After 24 days of exposure the flies were assayed for climbing assay, oxidative stress markers, caspase-3 & 9 activity and dopamine content. The immunohistochemistry was also performed on the brain sections for the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. The exposure of luteolin showed a dose dependent delay in the loss of climbing ability and activity, reduction in oxidative stress markers, caspase-3&9 activities and results in an increase in the dopamine content. The results obtained for the immunohistochemistry also supports the protective role of luteolin against the damage of the dopaminergic neurons


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Luteolin/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Drosophila
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 901-911, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777003

ABSTRACT

Animals always seek rewards and the related neural basis has been well studied. However, what happens when animals fail to get a reward is largely unknown, although this is commonly seen in behaviors such as predation. Here, we set up a behavioral model of repeated failure in reward pursuit (RFRP) in Drosophila larvae. In this model, the larvae were repeatedly prevented from reaching attractants such as yeast and butyl acetate, before finally abandoning further attempts. After giving up, they usually showed a decreased locomotor speed and impaired performance in light avoidance and sugar preference, which were named as phenotypes of RFRP states. In larvae that had developed RFRP phenotypes, the octopamine concentration was greatly elevated, while tβh mutants devoid of octopamine were less likely to develop RFRP phenotypes, and octopamine feeding efficiently restored such defects. By down-regulating tβh in different groups of neurons and imaging neuronal activity, neurons that regulated the development of RFRP states and the behavioral exhibition of RFRP phenotypes were mapped to a small subgroup of non-glutamatergic and glutamatergic octopaminergic neurons in the central larval brain. Our results establish a model for investigating the effect of depriving an expected reward in Drosophila and provide a simplified framework for the associated neural basis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetates , Pharmacology , Animals, Genetically Modified , Avoidance Learning , Physiology , Biogenic Amines , Metabolism , Conditioning, Operant , Physiology , Drosophila , Physiology , Drosophila Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Physiology , Instinct , Larva , Physiology , Locomotion , Genetics , Nervous System , Cell Biology , Neurons , Physiology , Octopamine , Metabolism , RNA Interference , Physiology , Reward , Statistics, Nonparametric , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 939-950, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775496

ABSTRACT

Drosophila dEAAT2, a member of the excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT) family, has been described as mediating the high-affinity transport of taurine, which is a free amino-acid abundant in both insects and mammals. However, the role of taurine and its transporter in hearing is not clear. Here, we report that dEAAT2 is required for the larval startle response to sound stimuli. dEAAT2 was found to be enriched in the distal region of chordotonal neurons where sound transduction occurs. The Ca imaging and electrophysiological results showed that disrupted dEAAT2 expression significantly reduced the response of chordotonal neurons to sound. More importantly, expressing dEAAT2 in the chordotonal neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate a critical role for Drosophila dEAAT2 in sound transduction by chordotonal neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acoustic Stimulation , Action Potentials , Genetics , Animals, Genetically Modified , Auditory Pathways , Physiology , Calcium , Metabolism , Drosophila , Genetics , Drosophila Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Hearing , Genetics , Larva , Luminescent Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation , Genetics , Nervous System , Cell Biology , Neurons , Metabolism
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