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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411707

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar, por meio da literatura existente, a interação farmacológica de antifúngicos e quimioterápicos. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo de revisão sistemática de acordo com o diagrama de fluxo do processo de pesquisa PRISMA. Os descritores escolhidos foram: drug interactions, CYP inhibitors, antifungal e antineoplastic, mediante análise realizada no MESH. As bases de dados escolhidas foram: Pubmed, Lilacs e Scielo. O período considerado para busca de artigos publicados foi de 2015 a 2020. Resultados: no banco de dados PubMed, foram encontrados 54 artigos, enquanto, nas bases Lilacs e Scielo, não foram encontrados artigos de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos. Dos 54 artigos, 7 foram selecionados para esta revisão. O intervalo com maior número de publicações foi de 2015-2016. Os antifúngicos mais citados nos resultados foram os inibidores fortes da CYP (Cetoconazol, Itraconazol e Voriconazol). Conclusão: a revisão sistemática da literatura mostrou que não existe uma correlação exata entre a interação farmacológica dos antifúngicos com os antineoplásicos, quando administrados de forma simultânea. São necessários mais estudos atuais que possam monitorar e estabelecer, de forma precisa, a relação dessas interações.


Objective: to evaluate, through the existing literature, the pharmacological interaction of antifungals and chemotherapeutics. Methods: a systematic review study was conducted according to the PRISMA research process flow diagram. The descriptors were chosen by analysis performed in MESH. The descriptors chosen were: drug interactions, CYP inhibitors, antifungal and antineoplastic. The databases chosen were: Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo. The period considered for the search of published articles was from 2015 to 2020. Results: in the PubMed database, 54 articles were found, while in the Lilacs and Scielo databases, no articles were found according to the established criteria. Of the 54 articles, 8 were selected for this review. The interval that had the highest number of publications was 2015-2016. The most cited antifungal drugs in the results were the strong CYP inhibitors. Conclusion: the systematic review of the literature showed that there is no exact correlation between the pharmacological interaction of antifungals with antineoplastic drugs when administered simultaneously. More current studies are needed that can accurately monitor and establish the relationship between these interactions.


Subject(s)
Drug Interactions , Itraconazole , Drug Therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors , LILACS , Ketoconazole , Antifungal Agents , Antineoplastic Agents
2.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 38-47, ene.-feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361906

ABSTRACT

Las urgencias odontológicas son, quizá, las razones principales de atención en el consultorio, muchas veces el significado de dolor se encuentra acompañado por inflamación; el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) es común en el ejercicio de la odontología por la excelente respuesta analgésica y antiinflamatoria que tiene, por lo que es importante conocer la fisiopatología de la inflamación y el dolor y cómo actúan los AINES, ya que algunos de estos fármacos tienen respuestas adversas y sitios de acción importantes. Los factores de riesgo por inflamación y dolor nos obligan a conocer la variedad de fármacos que no entran en la clasificación de AINES y que tenemos a disposición, hay más opciones para la elección ante la presencia de inflamación por un factor en particular, cada uno de éstos tienen indicaciones y contraindicaciones que conoceremos, lo cual nos ampliará el conocimiento para dar una prescripción ante la presencia de eventos inflamatorios. Se realizó un estudio detallado de artículos bibliográficos de cada tema, los fármacos más usados en odontología son los AINES, hay poco uso y conocimiento de antiinflamatorios que podemos usar en urgencias, el porcentaje de uso de los AINES derivados del ácido propiónico es alto por la excelente respuesta en pacientes y otras veces por el desconocimiento de más opciones (AU)


Dental emergencies are perhaps the main reasons for care in the office, many times the meaning of pain is accompanied by inflammation, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is common in the practice of dentistry due to the excellent analgesic and anti-inflammatory response it has, important is knowing the pathophysiology of inflammation and pain, how NSAIDs act, some of these drugs have adverse responses and important sites of action, risk factors for inflammation and pain require us to know the variety of drugs that do not enter the classification of NSAIDs and we have at our disposal, there are more options for choosing in the presence of inflammation due to a particular factor, each of these have indications and contraindications that we will know, it expands our knowledge to give a prescription in the presence of inflammatory events. A detailed study of bibliographic articles on each topic was carried out, the drugs most used in dentistry are NSAIDs, there is little use and knowledge of anti-inflammatories that we can use in the emergency room, the percentage of use of NSAIDs derived from propionic acid is high, due to the excellent response in patients and others due to lack of knowledge of more options (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothache , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Inflammation , Pain/pathology , Pain, Postoperative , Propionates , Prostaglandins/physiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Drug Interactions , Cyclooxygenase 1/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Narcotics
3.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(1): 33-39, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359821

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en diciembre de 2019 se reportó por primera vez un brote de COVID-19. Esta enfermedad ha ocasionado millones de muertes a nivel mundial. A la fecha se han probado multiples fármacos, sin encontrar un tratamiento eficaz aún. Objetivo: describir la evolución y el tratamiento farmacológico utilizado en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Material y métodos: estudio observacional en 200 pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en un hospital regional de Acapulco que ingresaron entre marzo y julio de 2020. Se identificaron las características, el tratamiento farmacológico y la evolución de los pacientes. Se realizó analisis univarido, bivariado y multivariado. Resultados: el 60% de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, 83% presentaron al menos una comorbilidad, 56% fallecieron. El fármaco más utilizado fue la enoxaparina, del cual recibir dosis de 60 mg se asoció a menor riesgo de fallecer comparado con recibir 40 mg. Haber recibido hidroxicloroquina, metilprednisolona, moxifloxacino y tener 60 años o más se asoció a un mayor riesgo de morir. Conclusiones: se presentó una elevada mortalidad. El fármaco más utilizado fue la enoxaparina, del cual utilizar dosis de 60 mg disminuyó el riesgo de fallecer


Background: In December 2019, an outbreak of COVID-19 was reported for the first time. This disease has caused millions of deaths worldwide. To date multiple drugs have been tried, without finding an effective treatment yet. Objective: To describe the evolution and the pharmacological treatment used in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. Material and methods: Observational study in 200 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in a regional hospital of Acapulco who were admitted between March and July 2020. The characteristics, pharmacological treatment and evolution of the patients were identified. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: 60% of the patients were male, 83% had at least one comorbidity, 56% died. The most used drug was enoxaparin, of which receiving a 60 mg dose was associated with a lower risk of death, compared to receiving 40 mg. Having received hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone, moxifloxacin and being 60 years or older was associated with a higher risk of progressing to death. Conclusions: There was a high mortality. The most used drug was enoxaparin, of which using doses of 60 mg reduced the risk of death


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Therapeutics , Mortality , Drug Interactions , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Enoxaparin , Mexico
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19868, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383982

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of our study was to assess risk factors for potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) of statins across different phases of treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients: from the point of first medical contact to the coronary angiography (first phase), after coronary angiography to the last day of hospitalization (second phase) and at discharge from hospital (third phase). This was a post hoc analysis of the data collected during the retrospective observational cohort study conducted at the Clinic for Cardiology of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. Patients prescribed statins were identified from the original study population: 156, 240 and 236 patients for the first, second and third phases, respectively. At least one statin pDDI was present in 113 (72.4%), 161 (67.1%) and 139 (58.9%) patients in the first, second and third phases, respectively. Heart failure, arrhythmias after ACS, CRP, triglycerides, length of hospitalization, number of prescribed drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs, and clopidogrel seem to increase the risk of statin pDDIs in at least one treatment phase. Physicians should be vigilant to the possibility of statin pDDIs in ACS patients who have factors that may increase their rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , Risk Factors , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Cardiology/classification , Coronary Angiography/instrumentation , Serbia , Clopidogrel
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 717-724, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940931

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a driving factor that causes non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The epithelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is a crucial discovery in the treatment of lung cancer, particularly the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs is superior to that of the standard chemotherapy for patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Patients with NSCLC use EGFR-TKIs and other medications simultaneously is commonly seen, especially among those with comorbidities, which increases the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of EGFR-TKIs. The most common mechanisms underlying the DDIs of EGFR-TKIs are modulations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and drug transporters [including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], as well as gastrointestinal acid-inhibitory drugs [proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H(2) receptor antagonists (H(2)RA)]. Inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes and drug transporters can inhibit or accelerate the metabolism of EGFR-TKIs, which increase or reduce the exposure of EGFR-TKIs, thereby affect the efficacy and safety of EGFR-TKIs. In addition, PPIs or H(2)RA can decrease the solubility, bioavailability and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. This review summarizes the mechanisms of DDIs of gefitinib, erlotinib, icotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib and osimertinib; the management recommendations for DDIs of those EGFR-TKIs from the Chinese and global guideline, as well as from the recent pre-clinical and clinical studies, which provide the reference and evidence for managing the combination therapies of EGFR-TKIs and other medications in clinics.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Drug Interactions , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210131, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360443

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo identificar os fatores associados ao risco de quedas entre as pessoas com doença de Parkinson cadastradas na Associação Parkinson Santa Catarina. Método estudo transversal exploratório descritivo e de abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 53 pessoas cadastradas na Associação Parkinson Santa Catarina, no município de Florianópolis, Brasil, no período de junho a setembro de 2019. Foram aplicados questionário sociodemográfico, Escala de Hoehn e Yahr, Mini Exame do Estado Mental e Teste de Rastreio do Risco de Queda no Idoso. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados por meio do Sistema online de Ensino-Aprendizagem de Estatística SEstatNet®. Resultados foram identificados fatores de risco, como sexo, aumento da idade, redução da força muscular, instabilidade postural e diminuição da velocidade da marcha. Em relação aos estágios da doença, foi constatado que em todos houve piora da velocidade da marcha e o medo de cair é constante, aumentando com o agravamento da doença e o tempo de diagnóstico. Conclusão e implicações para a prática ao aprofundar o estudo do tema, o enfermeiro consegue compreender os acometimentos motores que levam à fragilização e à queda em pessoas com doença de Parkinson, elaborando estratégias para preveni-las.


RESUMEN Objetivo identificar los factores asociados al riesgo de caídas en personas con enfermedad de Parkinson registradas en la Asociación de Parkinson Santa Catarina. Método estudio descriptivo exploratorio transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo realizado con 53 personas registradas en la Asociación Parkinson Santa Catarina, en la ciudad de Florianópolis, Brasil, de junio a septiembre de 2019. Se aplicaron un cuestionario sociodemográfico, la Escala de Hoehn y Yahr, el Mini Examen del Estado Mental y la Prueba de Detección del Riesgo de Caídas en Ancianos. Los datos se tabularon y analizaron utilizando el Sistema en línea de enseñanza-aprendizaje de estadísticas SEstatNet®. Resultados se identificaron factores de riesgo como sexo, mayor edad, disminución de la fuerza muscular, inestabilidad postural y disminución de la velocidad de la marcha. En cuanto a las etapas de la enfermedad, se encontró que en todas ellas se produjo un empeoramiento de la velocidad de la marcha y el miedo a caer es constante, aumentando con el empeoramiento de la enfermedad y el momento del diagnóstico. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica al profundizar en el estudio del tema, el enfermero es capaz de comprender las deficiencias motoras que conducen a la fragilidad y caída en personas con enfermedad de Parkinson, ideando estrategias para prevenirlas.


ABSTRACT Objective to identify the factors associated with risk of falls among people with Parkinson's disease registered at the Parkinson Santa Catarina Association. Method this is a cross-sectional exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach, carried out with 53 people registered at the Parkinson Santa Catarina Association, in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, from June to September 2019. Sociodemographic questionnaire, Hoehn and Yahr scale, Mini Mental State Examination and Simple Screening Test for Risk of Falls in the Elderly were applied. The data were tabulated and analyzed using the SEstatNet® Statistics Teaching-Learning Online System. Results risk factors were identified, such as sex, increased age, reduced muscle strength, postural instability and decreased gait speed. Regarding the stages of the disease, it was found that in all of them there was a worsening of gait speed and the fear of falling is constant, increasing with the worsening of the disease and diagnosis time. Conclusion and implications for practice by deepening the study of the topic, nurses are able to understand the motor impairments that lead to frailty and fall in people with Parkinson's disease, developing strategies to prevent them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Risk Groups , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Comorbidity , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Drug Interactions , Walking Speed , Pramipexole/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18943, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364427

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate drug interactions based on medical records of patients hospitalized in University Hospital Lauro Wanderley (UHLW) in João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. This was a quantitative, descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted in the medical clinic of the above hospital by analyzing pharmaceutical intervention in medical records. The investigated samples consisted of all medical profiles with drug interaction information of patients hospitalized from June 2016 to June 2017. Most of these drug interactions were determined and classified by Micromedex® Solutions database. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee in Institutional Human Research, protocol number 2.460.206. In total, 331 drug interactions were found in 131 medical profiles. Dipyrone, enoxaparin, sertraline, ondansetron, quetiapine, tramadol, bromopride, amitriptyline, and simvastatin were medications that showed highest interactions. According to Anatomical Therapy Classification (ATC), drugs that act on the central nervous system result in more interactions. The most prevalent interaction was between dipyrone and enoxaparin. Some limitations of this study are the lack of notifications and data on drug interactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Research , Medical Records/classification , Drug Interactions , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Inpatients/classification , Universities , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dipyrone/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/supply & distribution , Simvastatin/supply & distribution , Sertraline/supply & distribution , Quetiapine Fumarate/supply & distribution , Amitriptyline/supply & distribution , Hospitals, University/organization & administration
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19989, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383997

ABSTRACT

Abstract Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are drugs that suppress gastric acid secretion. Its use, without support from scientific evidence, can contribute to polypharmacy, lead to drug interactions and, in the long term, cause serious adverse reactions. Studies advise physicians to deprescribe PPI. A quick review of scientific evidence, also called a rapid systematic review, on the deprescribing of PPI was performed. Evidence searches were performed in the LILACS, Embase, PubMed and NICE evidence databases with the terms "omeprazole", "proton pump inhibitors", "deprescription", "deprescribing". At LILACS these descriptors were also used in Portuguese and Spanish. Of 118 studies identified, four systematic reviews were selected for analysis. Abrupt deprescribing was associated with an increased risk of symptom recurrence. Fear of symptom recurrence is one of the major barriers to patient-related deprescribing. Educational interventions directed at prescribers, pharmacists, and patients are effective strategies in the deprescribing of PPI. Deprescribing process showed to be feasible in different contexts, with different strategies. The process is most effective through actions with educational and guidance materials directed to health professionals and patients, and with the involvement or leadership of the pharmacist.


Subject(s)
Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Deprescriptions , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Polypharmacy , Drug Interactions , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19925, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394039

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of direct-acting antivirals in a Unified Health System pharmacy of Londrina, Brazil. A descriptive observational study was performed from June 2017 to June 2018. Sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables of patients were collected from secondary data sources. Effectiveness was evaluated by sustained virologic response (SVR) and safety was evaluated by adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions (DIs). The mean population (N=30) was 56.6±11.3 years old and almost all patients had comorbidities (93.3%) and concomitant drugs (96.7%). Effectiveness evaluation was possible in 17 patients, and all of them (100.0%) achieved SVR. Eighteen patients (60.0%) reported 38 AEs, mostly mild, such as stomach symptoms and headache. No statistical relation was found between AE occurrence and treatment duration, Ribavirin use, number of comorbidities or number of concomitant drugs. A total of 48 DIs were reported, 18 being severe, and were managed by the pharmacist. The study indicates that the treatment was effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Efficacy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Insurance/classification , Patients/classification , Pharmacists/classification , Unified Health System , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy/methods
10.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(3): e002144, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1398442

ABSTRACT

Lograr un adecuado nivel de anticoagulación con antagonistas orales de la vitamina K suele ser un desafío frecuente en la práctica clínica, dado que su estrecho rango terapéutico suele verse afectado por diversas interacciones farmacológicas,alimentos y condiciones clínicas. A partir de un caso de un paciente anticoagulado que presenta una hemorragia gastro-intestinal posterior a realizar un tratamiento antibiótico, la autora de este artículo revisó la evidencia sobre el riesgo desangrado secundario a la interacción entre este tipo de anticoagulantes y antibióticos orales. Su conclusión tras realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica y seleccionar la mejor evidencia disponible, es que existe un aumento del riesgo relativo desangrado en pacientes anticoagulados que reciben antibióticos, por lo que deberían evitarse aquellos antibióticos con conocido potencial de interacción. Si ello no fuera posible, se recomienda monitorizar el estado de anticoagulación con dosaje de la razón internacional normatizada (RIN) posterior a la introducción del antibiótico. (AU)


Achieving an adequate level of anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonists is often a frequent challenge in clinical practice, given that their narrow therapeutic range is often affected by various drug interactions, food, and clinical conditions. Based on a case of an anticoagulated patient who presented gastrointestinal bleeding after antibiotic treatment, the authorof this article reviewed the evidence on the risk of secondary bleeding due to the interaction between this type of anticoagulants and oral antibiotics. Their conclusion, after performing a literature search and selecting the best available evidence, is that there is an increased relative risk of bleeding in anticoagulated patients receiving antibiotics, so antibiotics with known potential for interaction should be avoided. If it weren't possible, it is recommended to monitor the anticoagulation status with International Normalized Ratio (INR) dosing after the introduction of the antibiotic. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Warfarin/pharmacology , Warfarin/pharmacokinetics , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , International Normalized Ratio , Drug Interactions , Acenocoumarol/pharmacology , Acenocoumarol/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics
13.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(6): 1235-1241, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369539

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar as potenciais interações medicamentosas em prescrições médicas em pacientes acometidos por coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, do tipo documental e retrospectivo realizado no período de abril a junho de 2020. Os dados foram coletados por meio de instrumento semi-estruturado, que abordou os medicamentos utilizados, dados sociodemográficos, e condições clínicas associadas. A análise dos dados efetivou-se numa abordagem quantitativa por estatística descritiva. Resultados: Verificou-se que os fármacos mais utilizados foram azitromicina, ondasetrona, enoxaparina e omeprazol. Ao avaliar as possíveis interações medicamentosas, constatou-se a média de 2,98 por cliente, sendo as de maior gravidade a ondasetrona e azitromicina; cloridrato de ondansetrona di-hidratado e fentanil, assim como midazolam e fentanil. Conclusão: Enfatiza-se a necessidade em avaliar os fármacos prescritos, bem como seus aprazamentos de forma que a assistência ao paciente seja realizada com o mínimo de danos. (AU)


Objective: To identify potential drug interactions of medical prescriptions in patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Methods: This is a descriptive, documentary and retrospective study carried out from April to June 2020. Data were collected using a semi structured instrument, which addressed the drugs used, sociodemographic data, and associated clinical conditions. Data analysis was carried out using a quantitative approach using descriptive statistics. Results: It was found that the most used drugs were azithromycin, wavesetron, enoxaparin and omeprazole. When evaluating the possible drug interactions, an average of 2.98 per client was found, with the most severe being wavesetron and azithromycin; ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate and fentanyl, as well as midazolam and fentanyl. Conclusion: The need to evaluate the prescribed drugs, as well as their schedules, is emphasized so that patient care is carried out with minimal damage. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar posibles interacciones medicamentosas de prescripciones médicas en pacientes afectados por coronavírus síndrome respiratório agudo severo. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, documental y retrospectivo realizado de abril a junio de 2020. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante un instrumento semiestructurado, que abordó los fármacos utilizados, datos sociodemográficos y condiciones clínicas asociadas. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante un enfoque cuantitativo utilizando estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Se encontró que los fármacos maus utilizados fueron azitromicina, wavesetron, enoxaparina y omeprazol. Al evaluar las posibles interacciones medicamentosas, se encontró un promedio de 2,98 por cliente, siendo los más graves el wavesetron y la azitromicina; hidrocloruro de ondansetrón dihidrato y fentanilo, así como midazolam y fentanilo. Conclusión: Se enfatiza la necesidad de evaluar los fármacos prescritos, así como sus horarios, para que la atención al paciente se lleve a cabo con el mínimo daño. (AU)


Subject(s)
Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Interactions
14.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352966

ABSTRACT

Patient safety.Estudo transversal. Objetivo: avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade de sistemas de rastreamento de acesso aberto para interações medicamentosas potenciais (IMp) em comparação com o DRUG-REAX® system e analisar o impacto clínico potencial das IMp de gravidades "Contraindicada" e "Maior" não detectadas. Métodos: amostra composta por 140 pacientes em acompanhamento em um ambulatório especializado no atendimento a pessoas com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) de um hospital universitário. As IMp foram identificadas e classificadas no DRUG-REAX® System e em oito sistemas de rastreamento de acesso aberto. As IMp de gravidade "Contraindicada" e "Maior" foram analisadas segundo o impacto clínico. Utilizou-se estatística descritiva e calculou-se sensibilidade e especificidade dos sistemas de rastreamento na identificação das IMp. Resultados: Os sistemas de acesso aberto pertencentes as bases Drugs.com, UCLA School of Health e CVC Caremark apresentaram sensibilidade e especificidade > 70%. A totalidade dos sistemas de acesso aberto não detectou os pares ciprofibrato + estatinas e metformina + sitagliptina, cujos impactos clínicos incluíram risco de miopatia e rabdomiólise e hipoglicemia, respectivamente. Cerca de um terço (37,5%) dos sistemas de acesso aberto não detectou a IMp ácido acetilsalicílico + hidroclorotiazida, capaz de ocasionar nefrotoxicidade. Conclusão: A maioria dos pares de IMp integra o rol terapêutico de pacientes com DCNT e cujos impactos clínicos são tempo-dependentes. A combinação de julgamento clínico, revisão periódica do plano terapêutico e os atributos de precisão (sensibilidade e especificidade) são fundamentais para garantir a segurança do paciente, sobretudo no contexto ambulatorial. (AU)


This study aims to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of open-access screening systems in detecting potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) compared to the DRUG-REAX® system and analyze the potential clinical impact of PDDIs of "Contraindicated" and "Major" severities not detected. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient clinic specialized in caring for patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) of a university hospital. PDDIs were identified and classified in the DRUG-REAX® System and eight open-access screening systems. The "Contraindicated" and "Major" severity PDDIs were analyzed according to clinical impact. Descriptive statistics were used and the sensitivity and specificity of the screening systems were calculated to identify the PDDIs. Results: The open-access systems Drugs.com, UCLA School of Health and CVC Caremark showed sensitivity and specificity > 70%. All open access systems did not detect the pairs ciprofibrate + statins and metformin + sitagliptin, whose clinical impacts included the risk of myopathy/ rhabdomyolysis and hypoglycemia, respectively. About a third (37.5%) of open-access systems did not detect PDDI acetylsalicylic acid + hydrochlorothiazide, which is capable of causing nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Most pairs of PDDIs are part of the therapeutic role of patients with NCDs and whose clinical impacts are time-dependent. The combination of clinical judgment, periodic review of the therapeutic plan and the attributes of precision (sensitivity and specificity) are essential to ensure patient safety, especially in the outpatient setting. (AU)


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Access to Information , Drug Interactions , Patient Safety , Noncommunicable Diseases , Hospitals, University
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 800-805, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346917

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potentially inappropriate medications, potential drug-drug interactions, and prescribing practices in elderly ambulatory patients. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study on 275 elderly patients attending different outpatient departments. We used the Screening Tool for Older Person's Prescriptions criteria version two to identify potentially inappropriate medications, IBM Micromedex, to categorize potential drug-drug interactions as major and moderate. World Health Organization prescribing indicators were used to evaluate prescribing practices. RESULTS: The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications in 275 prescriptions was 21.9%. Diclofenac was the most common inappropriate drug (n=23). Metoprolol is the second most inappropriate drug (n=12). Amlodipine and clopidogrel, aspirin and furosemide, and aspirin and spironolactone together accounted for 71.42% of major interactions (n=15). Atorvastatin and clopidogrel was the most common moderate drug-drug interaction in our study (n=24). The average number of drugs per encounter, the percentage of drugs with a generic name, and the percentage of drugs from the essential drugs list must be improved. CONCLUSION: There is a need to provide awareness through education about the explicit criteria to identify potentially inappropriate medications and prescribing indicators that aid in rational prescribing in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Interactions , Inappropriate Prescribing
16.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-14, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284430

ABSTRACT

En el nivel primario de atención se detectan errores en la prescripción del tratamiento farmacológico de la diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la prescripción de hipoglucemiantes orales en pacientes atendidos en consultorios del médico de la familia del Policlínico Universitario Hermanos Cruz, municipio Pinar del Río, Cuba. Se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos de tipo descriptivo y transversal clasificado dentro de estos como de indicación-prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico y de factores que condicionan los hábitos de prescripción. El universo estuvo conformado por 1575 pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tratados con hipoglucemiantes orales que pertenecían a los 20 consultorios médicos de la familia.La muestra de estudio se obtuvo por el método de muestreo no probabilístico (por conveniencia) (n=846). La información se obtuvo de la historia clínica y tarjeta control de los pacientes para adquirir estos medicamentos. Predominó la edad de 40-49 años, el sexo femenino y entre 5-10 años de evolución de la enfermedad. No se usó la primera línea de tratamiento en el 43,6 % de los casos, ningún caso tenía estudios de laboratorio para el uso de la Metformina. La prescripción y dosis fue adecuada no así su uso racional. Las interacciones más frecuentes fueron las farmacocinéticas.El uso racional de hipoglucemiantes orales fue deficiente lo que hace necesario ampliar la divulgación de un protocolo de tratamiento para mejorar el uso de estos fármacos en el nivel primario de atención.


Errors in the prescription of drug treatment for type 2 diabetes are detected at the primary level of care. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients attended in the family doctor's offices of the Hermanos Cruz University Polyclinic, Pinar del Río distrit, Cuba. A descriptive and cross-sectional study of the use of medications was carried out, classified within these as indication-prescription with elements of the therapeutic scheme and factors that condition prescription habits. The universe was made up of 1575 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents who belonged to the 20 family medical offices. The study sample was carried out by the non-probabilistic sampling method (for convenience) (n = 846). The information was obtained from the clinical history and control card of the patients to acquire these medications. The age of 40-49 years, the female sex and between 5-10 years of evolution of the disease predominated. The first line of treatment was not used in 43.6% of the cases; no case had laboratory studies for the use of Metformin. The prescription and dose was adequate, but not its rational use. The most frequent interactions were pharmacokinetic ones.The rational use of oral hypoglycemic agents was deficient, which makes it necessary to expand the dissemination of a treatment protocol to improve the use of these drugs at the primary level of care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Age Factors , Cuba , Drug Interactions , Drug Utilization
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 211-222, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are antimalarial drugs, with anti-inflammatory properties that justify their use in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatic diseases. A pandemic caused by the new coronavirus led the entire world's scientific community to look for drugs already available on the market, capable of exercising beneficial actions in the fight against the disease. Preliminary studies in patients, as well as in vitro studies, suggested possible therapeutic effects associated with the use of HCQ and CQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Despite controversies over the effects of these drugs in combating the "cytokine storm" associated with COVID and the dismal of results in different clinical trials in Brazil, their use has been encouraged and several ongoing investigative studies are underway. In addition to the possible beneficial effects on the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2, such drugs include varied effects on the cardiovascular system, ranging from positive developments related to their vasodilator properties to potential negative effects, such as cardiotoxicity. This work presents the main effects exerted by these drugs on the cardiovascular system, in order to contribute to a scientific discussion about the repurposing of these drugs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/toxicity , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/toxicity , Drug Interactions
18.
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 28(1): 20-26, 10 març. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367793

ABSTRACT

A interação dos bloqueadores do sistema renina angiotensina com o SARS-CoV-2 permanece obscura. Os inibidores do sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona (IECAs) e os bloqueadores do receptor AT1 da angiotensina 2 (BRAs) são fármacos com evidências robustas para terapia farmacológica de pacientes portadores, principalmente de hipertensão arterial e insuficiência cardíaca, além de outras comorbidades cardiovasculares. Os pacientes que se beneficiam desta terapêutica são considerados grupos de risco para má evolução desta virose e não há na literatura um consenso a respeito desta questão, em vista do vírus utilizar a expressão da ECA2 para penetração no ser humano. Apesar destas considerações fisiopatológicas da biologia do vírus, as principais diretrizes recomendam não suspender a terapia dos pacientes em uso dos bloqueadores do sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona no curso da infecção com o COVID-19. Aditivamente, o estudo BRACE-CORONA trouxe evidências mais consistentes para não suspensão desses fármacos


The interaction of blockers of the renin angiotensin system with SARS-COV-2 remains unclear. Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin 2 AT1 receptor blockers (BRAs) are drugs with robust evidence for pharmacological therapy for patients with mainly arterial hypertension and heart failure, and other cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients who benefit from this therapy are considered groups at risk for poor evolution of this virus and the literature still does not have a consensus on this issue, in view of the virus using the expression of ECA2 to penetrate in humans. Despite these athophysiological considerations of the biology of the virus, the main guidelines recommend not to suspend therapy for patients using blockers of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in the course of infection with COVID-19. In addition, the BRACE corona study has more consistent evidence for not suspending these drugs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy
19.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 19-25, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362056

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Cancer is a chronic degenerative disease and its diagnosis is often associated with mental distress, doubts and insecurities that can trigger depressive symptoms, causing the need for pharmacological treatment. However, cancer patients often use multiple medications (polypharmacy), thus increasing the chances of potential drug interactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of antidepressant drugs in oncological inpatients and the potential drug interactions of their prescriptions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive, and analytical cross-sectional study conducted with cancer patients aged ≥ 18 years, admitted to a hospital in Southern Brazil, and aware of their diagnosis. Larger and contraindicated drug interactions were analyzed using the Micromedex® and Lexicomp® databases. Results: The sample consisted of 50 patients, 54% were female and the mean age was 53.6 (± 15.3) years. Antidepressant drugs were used in 42% of the patients, escitalopram (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) being the most prescribed. 90% of the patients had some potential interaction and they occurred with any drug prescribed for treatment. Out of the patients using antidepressants, 62% had contraindicated interactions and all had at least one case of major interaction. The drugs most related to contraindicated drug interactions were dipyrone and metoclopramide. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated a high number of contraindicated interactions involving antidepressant drugs. The significance of monitoring and adjusting the pharmacotherapy of these patients is crucial.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: O câncer é uma doença crônico-degenerativa cujo diagnóstico constantemente está associado a sofrimento mental, dúvidas e inseguranças, podendo desencadear sintomas depressivos, de forma que às vezes são necessárias medidas farmacológicas para tratar desses sintomas. Entretanto, pacientes oncológicos frequentemente utilizam vários medicamentos (polifarmácia), aumentando as chances de potenciais interações medicamentosas. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o uso de antidepressivos nos pacientes em tratamento oncológico hospitalizados e as potenciais interações medicamentosas de suas prescrições. Métodos: Estudo transversal, prospectivo, descritivo e analítico realizado com pacientes oncológicos com idade superior a 18 anos, internados em um hospital do Sul do Brasil e cientes de seu diagnóstico. As interações medicamentosas maiores e as contraindicadas foram analisadas por meio das bases de dados Micromedex® e Lexicomp®. Resultados: Na amostra, composta de 50 pacientes, 54% eram do sexo feminino, e a média de idade foi de 53,6 (±15,3) anos. Além disso, dentre a amostra, 42% dos pacientes utilizavam medicamentos antidepressivos, sendo o escitalopram (inibidor seletivo da recaptação de serotonina) o mais prescrito; e 90% dos pacientes apresentaram algum tipo de potencial interação, que ocorreram com quaisquer medicamentos prescritos para o tratamento. Dos pacientes que utilizavam antidepressivos, 62% tiveram interações contraindicadas e todos apresentaram pelo menos um caso de interação maior. Os medicamentos mais relacionados a interações medicamentosas contraindicadas foram a dipirona e a metoclopramida. Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram um elevado número de interações medicamentosas contraindicadas envolvendo medicamentos antidepressivos. Nesse contexto, verifica-se a importância de monitorar e adequar a farmacoterapia desses pacientes.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: El cáncer es una enfermedad crónico-degenerativa, que tiene su diagnóstico frecuentemente asociado a angustia mental, dudas e inseguridad, lo que puede resultar síntomas depresivos, que necesitarán, a menudo, medidas farmacológicas para tratarlos. Sin embargo, los pacientes con cáncer muchas veces usan varios medicamentos (polifarmacia), lo que aumenta las posibilidades de interacciones farmacológicas. Este estudio propone evaluar el uso de antidepresivos en pacientes con cáncer hospitalizados y las posibles interacciones farmacológicas que proceden de sus prescripciones. Métodos: Estudio transversal, prospectivo, descriptivo y analítico realizado con pacientes con cáncer de edad superior a 18 años, ingresados en un hospital en el Sur de Brasil y conscientes de su diagnóstico. Las interacciones farmacológicas más grandes y contraindicadas se analizaron utilizando las bases de datos Micromedex y Lexicomp. Resultados: La muestra consistió en 50 pacientes, el 54% eran mujeres y el promedio de edad fue de 53,6 (±15,3) años. El 42% de los pacientes utilizaban fármacos antidepresivos, de los cuales el escitalopram (inhibidor selectivo de la recaptación de serotonina) fue el más recetado; el 90% de los pacientes tuvieron alguna interacción que ocurrió con cualquier medicamento recetado para el tratamiento. De los pacientes que usaban antidepresivos, el 62% tuvieron interacciones contraindicadas y todos presentaron, al menos, un caso de interacción mayor. Los fármacos más relacionados con las interacciones farmacológicas contraindicadas fueron dipirona y metoclopramida. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio demostraron un alto número de interacciones farmacológicas contraindicadas que involucran fármacos antidepresivos. En este contexto, se verifica la importancia de monitorear y ajustar la farmacoterapia de estos pacientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Interactions , Medical Oncology , Antidepressive Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Drug Therapy
20.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2486, 20210126. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292038

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As interações medicamentosas podem alterar a segurança e/ou efetividade no tratamento das doenças. Alguns medicamentos precisam ser utilizados em jejum e a literatura apresenta informações divergentes sobre o real impacto clínico do uso destes no mesmo horário. Objetivos: Analisar as evidências sobre a relevância clínica de potenciais interações entre inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBPs), levotiroxina e alendronato de sódio. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão narrativa de artigos disponíveis na base de dados PubMed, além de consulta de potenciais interações medicamentosas em fontes de informações sobre medicamentos disponíveis na World Wide Web. Resultados: Em apenas três das 17 fontes de informações consultadas foi relatado uma possível redução dos níveis plasmáticos e/ou da efetividade da levotiroxina, quando administrada de forma concomitante com omeprazol ou outro da classe. Somente uma fonte relata leve redução dos níveis plasmáticos de alendronato de sódio por interação com a levotiroxina, e apenas duas fontes evidenciam possível redução do efeito terapêutico do alendronato de sódio por interação com IBPs. Apenas dois estudos relatam resultados significativos relacionados à existência de interação entre levotiroxina ou alendronato no uso concomitante de IBPs. Em todas as fontes consultadas, as interações são descritas como menores, leves, moderadas ou de significado desconhecido. Todas as fontes de informações sugerem a continuidade da terapia para manejo da interação. Conclusão: Até o momento não há evidências robustas que demonstrem impedimento de uso de inibidores da bomba de prótons, levotiroxina e alendronato de sódio no mesmo horário, sendo essencial o acompanhamento dos parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais.


Introduction: Drug interactions can alter safety and/or effectiveness in the treatment of diseases. Some medications need to be used on an empty stomach and the literature presents divergent information about the real clinical impact of using them at the same time. Objectives: To analyze the evidence on the clinical relevance of potential interactions between proton pump inhibitors, levothyroxine and sodium alendronate. Methods: A narrative review of articles available in the PubMed database was carried out, in addition to consulting potential drug interactions in sources of information on drugs available on the World Wide Web. Results: In only three of the 17 information sources consulted, a report was reported possible reduction in plasma levels and the effectiveness of levothyroxine, when administered concomitantly with omeprazole or another in the class. Only one source reports a slight reduction in plasma sodium alendronate levels due to interaction with levothyroxine, and only two sources show a possible reduction in the therapeutic effect of sodium alendronate through interaction with PPIs. Only two studies report significant results related to the existence of an interaction between levothyroxine or alendronate in concomitant use of PPIs. In all sources consulted, interactions are described as minor, mild, moderate or of unknown significance. All sources of information suggest the continuity of therapy to manage the interaction. Conclusion: To date, there is no robust evidence demonstrating that it is impossible to use proton pump inhibitors, levothyroxine and sodium alendronate at the same time, and it is essential to monitor clinical and laboratory parameters.


Introducción: Las interacciones farmacológicas pueden alterar la seguridad y / o efectividad en el tratamiento de enfermedades. Algunos medicamentos deben usarse con el estómago vacío y la literatura presenta información divergente sobre el impacto clínico real de usarlos al mismo tiempo. Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia sobre la relevancia clínica de las posibles interacciones entre los inhibidores de la bomba de protones, la levotiroxina y el alendronato de sodio. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de los artículos disponibles en la base de datos Pubmed, además de la consulta de posibles interacciones farmacológicas en las fuentes de información sobre medicamentos disponibles en la World Wide Web. Resultados: En solo tres de las 17 fuentes de información consultadas, se informó posible reducción en los niveles plasmáticos y la efectividad de la levotiroxina, cuando se administra concomitantemente con omeprazol u otro en la clase. Solo una fuente informa una ligera reducción en los niveles plasmáticos de alendronato de sodio debido a la interacción con levotiroxina, y solo dos fuentes muestran una posible reducción en el efecto terapéutico del alendronato de sodio a través de la interacción con los IBP. Solo dos estudios informan resultados significativos relacionados con la existencia de una interacción entre levotiroxina o alendronato en el uso concomitante de IBP. En todas las fuentes consultadas, las interacciones se describen como leves, moderadas o de significancia desconocida. Todas las fuentes de información sugieren la continuidad de la terapia para gestionar la interacción. Conclusión: Hasta la fecha, no existe evidencia sólida que demuestre que es imposible usar inhibidores de la bomba de protones, levotiroxina y alendronato de sodio al mismo tiempo, y es esencial monitorear los parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Thyroxine , Alendronate , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Drug Interactions
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