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Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1100-1106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009258


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical phenotype and genetic features of two children with MEGDEL syndrome due to variants of the SERAC1 gene.@*METHODS@#Two children who had presented at the Fujian Medical University Union Hospital respectively on July 14, 2020 and July 28, 2018 were selected as the study subjects. Clinical features and results of genetic testing were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Both children had featured developmental delay, dystonia and sensorineural deafness, along with increased urine 3-methylglutaric acid levels. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to Leigh-like syndrome. Gene sequencing revealed that both children have harbored pathogenic compound heterozygous variants of the SERAC1 gene, including c.1159C>T and c.442C>T in child 1, and c.1168C>T and exons 4~9 deletion in child 2.@*CONCLUSION@#Children with MEGDEL syndrome due to SERAC1 gene variants have variable clinical genotypes. Delineation of its clinical characteristics and typical imaging changes can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Discovery of the novel variants has also enriched the spectrum of SERAC1 gene variants.

Humans , Retrospective Studies , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Dystonia , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 642-647, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985923


Objective: To investigate the clinical features and genetic features of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32 (COXPD32) caused by MRPS34 gene variation. Methods: The clinical data and genetic test of a child with COXPD32 hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics in March 2021 were extracted and analyzed. A literature search was implemented using Wanfang, China biology medicine disc, China national knowledge infrastructure, ClinVar, human gene mutation database (HGMD) and Pubmed databases with the key words "MRPS34" "MRPS34 gene" and "combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32" (up to February 2023). Clinical and genetic features of COXPD32 were summarized. Results: A boy aged 1 year and 9 months was admitted due to developmental delay. He showed mental and motor retardation, and was below the 3rd percentile for height, weight, and head circumference of children of the same age and gender. He had poor eye contact, esotropia, flat nasal bridge, limbs hypotonia, holding instability and tremors. In addition, Grade Ⅲ/6 systolic murmur were heard at left sternal border. Arterial blood gases suggested that severe metabolic acidosis with lactic acidosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple symmetrical abnormal signals in the bilateral thalamus, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Echocardiography showed atrial septal defect. Genetic testing identified the patient as a compound heterozygous variation of MRPS34 gene, c.580C>T (p.Gln194Ter) and c.94C>T (p.Gln32Ter), with c.580C>T being the first report and a diagnosis of COXPD32. His parents carried a heterozygous variant, respectively. The child improved after treatment with energy support, acidosis correction, and "cocktail" therapy (vitaminB1, vitaminB2, vitaminB6, vitaminC and coenzyme Q10). A total of 8 cases with COXPD32 were collected through 2 English literature reviews and this study. Among the 8 patients, 7 cases had onset during infancy and 1 was unknown, all had developmental delay or regression, 7 cases had feeding difficulty or dysphagia, followed by dystonia, lactic acidosis, ocular symptoms, microcephaly, constipation and dysmorphic facies(mild coarsening of facial features, small forehead, anterior hairline extending onto forehead,high and narrow palate, thick gums, short columella, and synophrys), 2 cases died of respiratory and circulatory failure, and 6 were still alive at the time of reporting, with an age range of 2 to 34 years. Blood and (or) cerebrospinal fluid lactate were elevated in all 8 patients. MRI in 7 cases manifested symmetrical abnormal signals in the brainstem, thalamus, and (or) basal ganglia. Urine organic acid test were all normal but 1 patient had alanine elevation. Five patients underwent respiratory chain enzyme activity testing, and all had varying degrees of enzyme activity reduction. Six variants were identified, 6 patients were homozygous variants, with c.322-10G>A was present in 4 patients from 2 families and 2 compound heterozygous variants. Conclusions: The clinical phenotype of COXPD32 is highly heterogenous and the severity of the disease varies from development delay, feeding difficulty, dystonia, high lactic acid, ocular symptoms and reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity in mild cases, which may survive into adulthood, to rapid death due to respiratory and circulatory failure in severe cases. COXPD32 needs to be considered in cases of unexplained acidosis, hyperlactatemia, feeding difficulties, development delay or regression, ocular symptoms, respiratory and circulatory failure, and symmetrical abnormal signals in the brainstem, thalamus, and (or) basal ganglia, and genetic testing can clarify the diagnosis.

Humans , Male , Infant , Acidosis, Lactic , Brain , Brain Stem , Dystonia , Dystonic Disorders , Mitochondrial Diseases
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 339-344, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985873


Objective: To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of children with dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) caused by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene variations. Methods: Clinical data of 9 children with DRD caused by TH gene variations diagnosed in the Department of Children Rehabilitation, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2017 to August 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed, including the general conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, gene variations and follow-up data. Results: Of the 9 children with DRD caused by TH gene variations, 3 were males and 6 were females. The age at diagnosis was 12.0 (8.0, 15.0) months. The initial symptoms of the 8 severe patients were motor delay or degression. Clinical symptoms of the severe patients included motor delay (8 cases), truncal hypotonia (8 cases), limb muscle hypotonia (7 cases), hypokinesia (6 cases), decreased facial expression (4 cases), tremor (3 cases), limb dystonia (3 cases), diurnal fluctuation (2 cases), ptosis (2 cases), limb muscle hypertonia (1 case) and drooling (1 case). The initial symptom of the very severe patient was motor delay. Clinical symptoms of the very severe patient included motor delay, truncal hypotonia, oculogyric crises, status dystonicus, hypokinesia, decreased facial expression, and decreased sleep. Eleven TH gene variants were found, including 5 missense variants, 3 splice site variants, 2 nonsense variants, and 1 insertion variant, as well as 2 novel variants (c.941C>A (p.T314K), c.316_317insCGT (p.F106delinsSF)). Nine patients were followed up for 40 (29, 43) months, and no one was lost to follow-up. Seven of the 8 severe patients were treated by levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride tablets and 1 severe patient was treated by levodopa tablets. All the severe patients responded well to levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride tablets or levodopa tablets. Although the weight of the patients increased and the drug dosage was not increased, the curative effect remained stable and there was no obvious adverse reaction. One severe patient developed dyskinesia in the early stage of treatment with levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride tablets and it disappeared after oral administration of benzhexol hydrochloride tablets. Until the last follow-up, motor development of 7 severe patients returned to normal and 1 severe patient still had motor delay due to receiving levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride tablets for only 2 months. The very severe patient was extremely sensitive to levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride tablets and no improvement was observed in this patient. Conclusions: Most of the DRD caused by TH gene variations are severe form. The clinical manifestations are varied and easily misdiagnosed. Patients of the severe patients responded well to levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride tablets or levodopa tablets, and it takes a long time before full effects of treatment become established. Long-term effect is stable without increasing the drug dosage, and no obvious side effect is observed.

Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Benserazide/therapeutic use , Dystonia/genetics , Hypokinesia/drug therapy , Levodopa/pharmacology , Muscle Hypotonia , Retrospective Studies , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/genetics
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(3): 429-434, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403593


La distonía por mutación en el gen KMT2B es un subtipo recientemente descrito del inicio focal de la enfermedad en los miembros inferiores que, posteriormente, evoluciona a una forma generalizada con compromiso cervical y orofaríngeo, disartria, trastorno secundario de la deglución y discapacidad intelectual. Se describe el caso de una escolar de 10 años de edad, sin antecedentes de consanguinidad ni historia familiar de enfermedad neurológica, que presentó alteración de la marcha y distonía de inicio focal, de curso progresivo a una forma generalizada que afectó sus músculos orofaciales y bulbares con alteración significativa del lenguaje y la deglución. Los estudios metabólicos y sistémicos, incluidas las neuroimágenes, no evidenciaron anormalidades. Se hizo una secuenciación genómica completa y se identificó una nueva variante, probablemente patogénica heterocigota, en el gen KMT2B, la c.1205delC, p.(Pro402Hisfs*5), que causa desplazamiento en el marco de lectura. Este hallazgo explica el fenotipo de la paciente y la distonía de inicio temprano autosómica dominante. Se reporta una nueva mutación heterocigota del gen KMT2B como causa de distonía generalizada de inicio temprano, no reportada en la literatura especializada hasta el momento. El diagnóstico de esta afección tiene implicaciones en el tratamiento y el pronóstico de los pacientes, porque las estrategias terapéuticas tempranas pueden prevenir su rápido deterioro y un curso más grave de la enfermedad.

Introduction: KMT2B-related dystonia is a recently described subtype of focal-onset dystonia in the lower limbs, evolving into a generalized form with cervical, oropharyngeal involvement, dysarthria, swallowing disorder and intellectual disability. Clinical case: We describe the case of a 10-year-old female patient, without a history of consanguinity or neurological disease. She manifested abnormal gait and dystonia with focal onset and progressive course with evolution into generalized dystonia, affecting orofacial and bulbar muscles, significant alteration of language and swallowing. Metabolic and systemic studies, including neuroimaging, were found to be normal. A complete genomic sequencing study was performed identifying a new, probably pathogenic, heterozygous variant in the KMT2B gene, c.1205delC, p. (Pro402Hisfs*5), causing displacement in the reading frame, a finding that explains the patient's phenotype and it is associated to autosomal dominant childhood-onset dystonia-28. Conclusion: We report a new heterozygous mutation in the KMT2B gene as a cause of generalized early-onset dystonia not reported in the literature until the date. The diagnosis of this pathology has implications for the treatment and prognosis of patients, given that therapeutic strategies implemented early can prevent the fast deterioration and severe course of this disease.

Dystonia , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Dystonic Disorders , Deep Brain Stimulation , Intellectual Disability , Movement Disorders
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(3): 131-138, jul.-set. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403019


RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La distonía mioclónica es un trastorno del movimiento con poca prevalencia, pero muy discapacitante, en el cual es frecuente la refractariedad al tratamiento médico. Cómo opción terapéutica se ha planteado la estimulación cerebral profunda, buscando con ello mejorar la función motora, la discapacidad y la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se presentan 3 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de distonía mioclónica sin confirmación genética, que fueron llevados a estimulación cerebral profunda bilateral del globo pálido interno. RESULTADOS: Se evidenció una mejoría significativa en la evaluación de la escala unificada de mioclonías (80-90 %) y en la escala de distonía de Burke-Fahn-Marsden (tanto en movilidad como en discapacidad). La mejoría clínica se evidenció en los tres pacientes, en periodos de seguimiento que estuvieron entre los 6 meses y los 5 años luego de la estimulación cerebral profunda. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos en esta serie de 3 pacientes colombianos son consistentes con lo reportado en la literatura. Sin embargo, aportan información sobre el desenlace de pacientes sin genotipificación sometidos a estimulación cerebral profunda, dado que la eficacia de la intervención en pacientes con distonía sin confirmación genética aún no ha sido determinada, y depende de otros factores como la edad, el tiempo de evolución y el tipo de distonía.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Myoclonic dystonia is a movement disorder with low prevalence, but very disabling, where refractoriness to medical treatment is frequent. Deep brain stimulation has been proposed as a therapeutic option, seeking to improve motor function, disability and quality of life in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present 3 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Myoclonic-Dystonia without genetic confirmation, who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Internus. RESULTS: A significant improvement was evidenced in the evaluation of the unified myoclonus scale (80-90 %) and in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia scale (both in mobility and in disability). The clinical improvement was evidenced in the 3 patients, in follow-up periods that were between 6 months and 5 years after deep brain stimulation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this Colombian case series are consistent with that reported in the literature. However, the current description provides information on the outcome of patients without genotyping undergoing deep brain stimulation, considering that the efficacy of the intervention in these types of patients without genetic confirmation has not been determined and depends on other factors.

Quality of Life , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia , Globus Pallidus
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 3(2): 24-34, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392563


Introducción. La distonía laríngea o disfonía espasmódica se caracteriza por con-tracciones involuntarias de los músculos laríngeos internos que se desencadenan al hablar, siendo la forma aductora la más frecuente. La inyección de toxina botulínica es el manejo de elección. Para evaluar la respuesta a la terapia existen varios instru-mentos validados, uno de ellos es el cuestionario Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10). El objetivo de este estudio es caracterizar a los pacientes con disfonía espasmódica aductora y evaluar el impacto de la toxina en su calidad de vida.Método. Éste se centró en un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo en pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de disfonía espasmódica aductora tratados con toxina botulínica A, en el Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile (HCUC), en el periodo comprendido en-tre 2013 y 2021. El mismo permitió la obtención de los datos epidemiológicos de los pacientes, a quienes se les solicitó responder la encuesta VHI-10 previo y posterior a un mes de cada inyección de la toxina.Resultados. Se incluyeron 55 pacientes (218 procedimientos). La dosis promedio utilizada fue de 9,18 UI con un intervalo promedio de 7,4 meses. El puntaje VHI-10 promedio en la evaluación inicial fue de 29,4 y posinfiltración de 14,96, siendo esta diferencia significativa (p < 0,000001). En nuestra serie casi un tercio tiene asociada alguna patología neurológica, y se reportó un 3,67% de complicaciones leves y transitorias.Conclusión. La disfonía espasmódica aductora tiene un gran impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes, que se reduce significativamente mediante la inyección de toxina botulínica A, procedimiento que ha demostrado ser seguro y eficaz

Introduction. Laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia is characterized by in-voluntary contractions of internal laryngeal muscles that are triggered when speak-ing, being the adductor form the most frequent. Botulinum toxin injection is the management of choice. There are several validated instruments to assess response to therapy, one of them is the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) questionnaire. The objective of this study is to characterize patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and evaluate the impact of the toxin in their quality of life.Method. A descriptive retrospective study was carried out in adult patients with a diagnosis of adductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with botulinum toxin A, between 2013-2021 at the Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile. The epidemiological data of the patients and the VHI-10 survey were obtained before and after one month of each toxin injection was requested.Results. 55 patients (218 procedures) were included. The average dose used was 9.18 IU with an average interval of 7.4 months. The average VHI-10 score in the initial evaluation was 29.4 and post-infiltration was 14.96, being this difference sig-nificant (p <0.000001). In our series, almost a third had an associated neurological pathology, and 3.67% of mild and transitory complications were reported.Conclusion. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia has a great impact on the quality of life of patients, which is significantly reduced by injecting botulinum toxin A, a pro-cedure that has been shown to be safe and effective

Voice/drug effects , Voice Disorders/rehabilitation , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Dysphonia , Quality of Life , Botulinum , Laryngeal Diseases , Dystonia , Dysphonia/prevention & control , Laryngeal Muscles
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 15(4): 229-231, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1354353


Neurological complications of COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are well described. We report an unusual presentation in a 9-year-old girl presenting with status epilepticus, who thereafter developed choreoathetosis and dystonia. She was initially managed with intravenous immunoglobulins and methylprednisolone for presumed autoimmune encephalitis. However, she tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and met the clinical and laboratory criteria for MIS-C. She remained encephalopathic with abnormal movements and dystonia for 8 days from presentation but was discharged home with complete clinical recovery after 2 weeks.

Humans , Female , Child , Dystonia , COVID-19 , Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome , HIV Infections
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 877-886, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922515


Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the leading cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), and infantile convulsions with choreoathetosis (ICCA). Reduced penetrance of PRRT2 has been observed in previous studies, whereas the exact penetrance has not been evaluated well. The objective of this study was to estimate the penetrance of PRRT2 and determine its influencing factors. We screened 222 PKD index patients and their available relatives, identified 39 families with pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) PRRT2 variants via Sanger sequencing, and obtained 184 PKD/BFIE/ICCA families with P/LP PRRT2 variants from the literature. Penetrance was estimated as the proportion of affected variant carriers. PRRT2 penetrance estimate was 77.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 74.5%-80.7%) in relatives and 74.5% (95% CI 70.2%-78.8%) in obligate carriers. In addition, we first observed that penetrance was higher in truncated than in non-truncated variants (75.8% versus 50.0%, P = 0.01), higher in Asian than in Caucasian carriers (81.5% versus 68.5%, P = 0.004), and exhibited no difference in gender or parental transmission. Our results are meaningful for genetic counseling, implying that approximately three-quarters of PRRT2 variant carriers will develop PRRT2-related disorders, with patients from Asia or carrying truncated variants at a higher risk.

Humans , Dystonia , Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pedigree , Penetrance , Seizures/genetics
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(9): 586-592, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131750


ABSTRACT Background: Dystonia is a heterogeneous disorder that, when refractory to medical treatment, may have a favorable response to deep brain stimulation (DBS). A practical way to have an overview of a research domain is through a bibliometric analysis, as it makes it more accessible for researchers and others outside the field to have an idea of its directions and needs. Objective: To analyze the 100 most cited articles in the use of DBS for dystonia treatment in the last 30 years. Methods: The research protocol was performed in June 2019 in Elsevier's Scopus database, by retrieving the most cited articles regarding DBS in dystonia. We analyzed authors, year of publication, country, affiliation, and targets of DBS. Results: Articles are mainly published in Movement Disorders (19%), Journal of Neurosurgery (9%), and Neurology (9%). European countries offer significant contributions (57% of our sample). France (192.5 citations/paper) and Germany (144.1 citations/paper) have the highest citation rates of all countries. The United States contributes with 31% of the articles, with 129.8 citations/paper. The publications are focused on General outcomes (46%), followed by Long-term outcomes (12.5%), and Complications (11%), and the leading type of dystonia researched is idiopathic or inherited, isolated, segmental or generalized dystonia, with 27% of articles and 204.3 citations/paper. Conclusions: DBS in dystonia research is mainly published in a handful of scientific journals and focused on the outcomes of the surgery in idiopathic or inherited, isolated, segmental or generalized dystonia, and with globus pallidus internus as the main DBS target.

RESUMO Introdução: A distonia é uma doença heterogênea que, quando refratária ao tratamento medicamentoso, pode ter uma resposta favorável à estimulação encefálica profunda (EEP). Uma forma prática de ter uma visão desta área de pesquisa é por meio de análise bibliométrica, pois permite aos pesquisadores e terceiros a terem uma ideia das tendências e necessidades da área. Objetivo: Analisar os 100 artigos mais citados no tratamento de distonia pelo uso de EEP nos últimos 30 anos. Métodos: O protocolo de pesquisa foi realizado em junho de 2019 através da base de dados Scopus da Elsevier, em que se obteve os artigos mais citados na área de tratamento de distonia com EEP. Analisaram-se variáveis como autores, ano de publicação, país, afiliação, e alvos de EEP. Resultados: Os artigos foram principalmente publicados principalmente na Movement Disorders (19%), no Journal of Neurosurgery (9%), e na Neurology (9%). Os países europeus oferecem contribuições significativas (57% da amostra). A França (192,5 citações/artigo) e a Alemanha (144,1 citações/artigo) possuem as mais altas taxas de citações dentre todos os países. Os Estados Unidos contribuem com 31% dos artigos da amostra (129,8 citações/artigo). As publicações focaram em Desfechos gerais (46%), seguido de Desfechos a longo prazo (12,5%), e Complicações (11%). O principal tipo de distonia pesquisado foi distonia generalizada ou segmentar, idiopática ou hereditária, isolada, abrangendo 27% dos artigos e 204,3 citações/artigo. Conclusões: A pesquisa de EEP em distonia é publicada em seletos periódicos científicos e foca nos desfechos da cirurgia, nas distonias generalizadas ou segmentares, idiopáticas ou hereditárias, isoladas, sendo o globus pallidus internus o principal alvo da EEP.

Humans , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia/therapy , Bibliometrics , Europe , France , Germany , Globus Pallidus
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 512-522, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131740


ABSTRACT Background: Neurophysiological studies are ancillary tools to better understand the features and nature of movement disorders. Electromyography (EMG), together with electroencephalography (EEG) and accelerometer, can be used to evaluate a hypo and hyperkinetic spectrum of movements. Specific techniques can be applied to better characterize the phenomenology, help distinguish functional from organic origin and assess the most probable site of the movement generator in the nervous system. Objective: We intend to provide an update for clinicians on helpful neurophysiological tools to assess movement disorders in clinical practice. Methods: Non-systematic review of the literature published up to June 2019. Results: A diversity of protocols was found and described. These include EMG analyses to define dystonia, myoclonus, myokymia, myorhythmia, and painful legs moving toes pattern; EMG in combination with accelerometer to study tremor; and EEG-EMG to study myoclonus. Also, indirect measures of cortical and brainstem excitability help to describe and diagnose abnormal physiology in Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, dystonia, and myoclonus. Conclusion: These studies can be helpful for the diagnosis and are usually underutilized in neurological practice.

RESUMO Introdução: Os estudos neurofisiológicos são métodos auxiliares para compreender melhor as características e a natureza dos distúrbios do movimento. A eletromiografia (EMG), em associação com o eletroencefalograma (EEG) e o acelerômetro, podem ser utilizados para avaliar um espectro de movimentos hipo e hipercinéticos. Técnicas específicas podem ser aplicadas para melhor caracterizar a fenomenologia, ajudar a distinguir a origem psicogênica da orgânica e avaliar o local mais provável de geração do movimento no sistema nervoso. Objetivo: Pretendemos fornecer ao clínico uma atualização sobre ferramentas neurofisiológicas úteis para avaliar distúrbios do movimento na prática clínica. Métodos: Revisão não sistemática da literatura publicada até junho de 2019. Resultados: Uma diversidade de protocolos foi encontrada e descrita. Dentre eles, inclui-se o uso de EMG para a definição do padrão de distonia, mioclonia, mioquimia, miorritmia e painfull legs moving toes, além do uso de EMG em associação ao acelerômetro para avaliar tremor e, em associação ao EEG para avaliar mioclonia. Ademais, técnicas para medida indireta de excitabilidade cortical e do tronco encefálico ajudam a descrever e diagnosticar a fisiologia anormal da doença de Parkinson, parkinsonismo atípico, distonia e mioclonia. Conclusão: Esses estudos podem ser úteis para o diagnóstico e geralmente são subutilizados na prática neurológica.

Humans , Dystonia , Movement Disorders/diagnosis , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Tremor/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Electromyography , Neurophysiology
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 20(1): 22-26, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253535


Introdução: A luxação da articulação temporomandibular ocorre quando a cabeça da mandíbula se movimenta para fora da fossa articular, fazendo com que a superfície posterior da cabeça da mandíbula fique à frente da eminência articular. Quando ocorrem episódios frequentes, essa condição é referida como luxação recidivante. Embora existam diferentes tratamentos, a eminectomia apresenta-se como uma opção cirúrgica com resultados satisfatórios e prognóstico favorável. Relato de caso: Este trabalho relata o caso de uma paciente com quadro severo de luxações recidivantes associadas à distonia muscular, tratada cirurgicamente por eminectomia. A paciente apresenta acompanhamento de 36 meses, estável, sem sintomatologia ou novos episódios de luxação. A abordagem multidisciplinar apresenta um alto índice de sucesso, e procedimentos cirúrgicos devem ser considerados quando procedimentos clínicos falham. Considerações finais: A eminectomia mostra bons resultados no tratamento da luxação recidivante de ATM, com chances mínimas de recidiva ou danos articulares. Após a cirurgia, os pacientes mostram uma boa função articular... (AU)

Introduction: Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint occurs when the jaw head moves out of the joint fossa causing the posterior surface of the jaw head to be ahead of the joint eminence. When they occur in frequent episodes, this condition is referred like relapsing dislocation. Although there are different treatments, eminectomy presents as a surgical option with satisfactory results and favorable prognosis. Case report: This paper reports the case of a patient with severe recurrent dislocations associated with muscular dystonia, treated through surgical treatment of eminectomy associated with a clinical treatment protocol. The patient has a 36-month followup, stable, without symptoms or new episodes of dislocation. The multidisciplinary approach has a high success rate and surgical procedures should be considered when clinical procedures fail. Final considerations: Eminectomy shows good results in the treatment of recurrent TMJ dislocation, with minimal chances of recurrence or joint damage. After surgery, patients show good joint function... (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Recurrence , Temporomandibular Joint , Joint Dislocations , Dystonia , Jaw , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Joints , Mandible
Med. UIS ; 33(1): 31-38, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124983


Resumen Introducción: el modafinilo es un fármaco neuroestimulante utilizado principalmente para promover estados de vigilia atención y disminuir la fatiga ante ciertos comportamientos que propician la somnolencia diurna excesiva. Objetivo: identificar en la literatura científica los efectos adversos neurológicos y cardiovasculares causados por el consumo del modafinilo. Materiales y Métodos: revisión bibliográfica de los artículos encontrados entre los meses de abril y julio de 2019 en las bases de datos PUBMED, SCOPUS, DIALNET. 51 artículos superaron la evaluación de calidad metodológica y se incluyeron en la revisión. Resultados: se identificaron que los principales efectos adversos a nivel cardiovascular son la cardiomiopatía Tako-Tsubo y la taquicardia ventricular polimórfica, mientras que a nivel neurológico puede generar insomnio y distonías. Conclusiones: El consumo del modafinilo genera repercusiones en las funciones cognitivas y cardiovasculares por lo cual no es aconsejable su uso a largo plazo en personas sanas. MÉD. UIS.2020;33(1):31-8.

Abstract Introduction: modafinil is a neurostimulant drug used mainly to promote wakefulness, attention and decrease fatigue in certain behaviors that cause excessive daytime sleepiness. Objective: identify in the scientific literature the neurological and cardiovascular adverse effects caused by the consumption of modafinil. Materials and Methods: bibliographic review of the articles found between the months of April and July of 2019 in the PUBMED, SCOPUS, DIALNET databases. 51 articles passed the methodological quality assessment and were included in the review. Results: the main adverse effects at the cardiovascular level were identified as Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, while at the neurological level it can generate insomnia and dystonia. Conclusions: the consumption of modafinil generates repercussions on cognitive and cardiovascular functions, so its long-term use in healthy people is not advisable. MÉD.UIS.2020;33(1):31-8.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Sleep Wake Disorders , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Modafinil , Tachycardia , Blood Pressure , Dystonia , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Headache , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Narcolepsy , Nausea
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 5-7, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781307


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze variants of PRRT2 gene in two children with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA of the two children and their parents was extracted from peripheral venous blood samples. All exons and their flanking regions of the PRRT2 gene were subjected to PCR and Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The two children were found to respectively harbor a c.282dupA and a c.715_716dupCC variant in exon 2 of the PRRT2 gene, which were both inherited from their mothers. Pooling together their frequencies in general population, genetic models, related literature and impact on protein function, the two novel variants were both predicted to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.282dupA and c.715_716dupCC variants probably underlie the disease in the two children.

Child , Female , Humans , Dystonia , Genetics , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics
Clinics ; 74: e776, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989643


OBJECTIVES: To compare signs and symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with cervical dystonia (CD) before and after application of botulinum toxin (BTX). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 20 patients diagnosed with CD with indications for BTX application. We selected 18 patients who met the study inclusion criteria. All individuals were patients from the Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Federal University of São Paulo. BTX was applied in the cervical region at the necessary dose for each individual. To identify signs/complaints of changes in swallowing, we used a specific questionnaire that was completed by patients and/or their companions on the day of BTX injection and repeated 10 to 15 days after BTX injection. RESULTS: Among the 18 study subjects, 15 (83.3%) showed primary and three (16.7%) showed secondary cervical dystonia. The most frequent dystonic movements were rotation (18), tilt (5), forward shift (3), backward shift (7), shoulder elevation (12), shoulder depression (2), and cervical tremor (6). The main complaints reported before BTX application were voice changes in 10 (55.6%), need for adjustment of eating position in 10 (55.6%), coughing and/or choking while eating in nine (50%), and increased eating time in nine (50%) individuals. The main complaints reported after BTX application were coughing and/or choking while eating in 11 (61.1%), voice changes in nine (50%), sensation of food stuck in the throat in eight (44%), and increased eating time in eight (44%) individuals. CONCLUSION: The administration of a swallowing-specific questionnaire to individuals with CD before and after BTX application enabled the identification of possible dysphagia symptoms prior to drug treatment resulting from CD, which are often subsequently interpreted as side effects of the drug treatment. Thus, dysphagia can be managed, and aspiration symptoms can be prevented.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/pharmacology , Deglutition/drug effects , Dystonia/congenital , Neuromuscular Agents/pharmacology , Perception , Deglutition Disorders/psychology , Deglutition Disorders/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Dystonia/psychology , Dystonia/drug therapy , Eating/psychology , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 3-11, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742212


Going back to basics prior to mentioning the use of antipsychotics in patients with pain, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition of pain can be summarized as an unpleasant experience, composed of sensory experience caused by actual tissue damage and/or emotional experience caused by potential tissue damage. Less used than antidepressants, antipsychotics have also been used for treating this unpleasant experience as adjuvant analgesics without sufficient evidence from research. Because recently developed atypical antipsychotics reduce the adverse reactions of extrapyramidal symptoms, such as acute dystonia, pseudo-parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia caused by typical antipsychotics, they are expected to be used more frequently in various painful conditions, while increasing the risk of metabolic syndromes (weight gain, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Various antipsychotics have different neurotransmitter receptor affinities for dopamine (D), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenergic (α), histamine (H), and muscarinic (M) receptors. Atypical antipsychotics antagonize transient, weak D₂ receptor bindings with strong binding to the 5-HT(2A) receptor, while typical antipsychotics block long-lasting, tight D₂ receptor binding. On the contrary, antidepressants in the field of pain management also block the reuptake of similar receptors, mainly on the 5-HT and, next, on the norepinephrine, but rarely on the D receptors. Antipsychotics have been used for treating positive symptoms, such as delusion, hallucination, disorganized thought and behavior, perception disturbance, and inappropriate emotion, rather than the negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms of psychosis. Therefore, an antipsychotic may be prescribed in pain patients with positive symptoms of psychosis during or after controlling all sensory components.

Humans , Affective Symptoms , Analgesics , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Delusions , Dopamine , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dystonia , Hallucinations , Histamine , Movement Disorders , Norepinephrine , Pain Management , Prolactin , Psychomotor Agitation , Psychotic Disorders , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A , Receptors, Neurotransmitter , Serotonin , Weight Gain
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 122-124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719384


No abstract available.

Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 335-340, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762639


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in internal globus pallidus is considered to be a good option for controlling generalized dystonia in patients with this condition. In this relation, it is known that DBS has already been shown to have significant effects on primary dystonia, but is seen as controversial in secondary dystonia including cerebral palsy (CP). On the other hand, intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been known to reduce spasticity and dystonia in patients who did not respond to oral medications or botulinum toxin treatment. Here, we report a patient with dystonic CP, who received the ITB pump implantation long after the DBS and who noted remarkable improvement in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Dystonia Rating Scale, Modified Barthel Index, and visual analog scale scores for pain after an ITB pump implantation was used as compared with DBS. To our knowledge, the present case report is the first to demonstrate the effects of an ITB pump on reducing pain and dystonia and improving quality of life and satisfaction, compared with DBS in a patient with CP.

Humans , Baclofen , Botulinum Toxins , Cerebral Palsy , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia , Dystonic Disorders , Globus Pallidus , Hand , Health Surveys , Muscle Spasticity , Quality of Life , Visual Analog Scale
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1209-1215, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762062


GLUT1 deficiency is a rare neurometabolic disorder that can be effectively treated with ketogenic diet. However, this condition is underdiagnosed due to its nonspecific, overlapping, and evolving symptoms with age. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical course of nine patients diagnosed with GLUT1 deficiency, based on SLC2A1 mutations and/or glucose concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. The patients included eight boys and one girl who initially presented with seizures (44%, 4/9) or delayed development (44%, 4/9) before 2 years of age, except for one patient who presented with apnea as a neonate. Over the clinical course, all of the children developed seizures of the mixed type, including absence seizures and generalized tonic–clonic seizures. About half (56%, 5/9) showed movement disorders such as ataxia, dystonia, or dyskinesia. We observed an evolution of phenotype over time, although this was not uniform across all patients. Only one child had microcephaly. In five patients, ketogenic diet was effective in reducing seizures and movement symptoms, and the patients exhibited subjective improvement in cognitive function. Diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency can be challenging due to the phenotypic variability and evolution. A high index of clinical suspicion in pediatric and even older patients with epilepsy or movement disorders is key to the early diagnosis and treatment, which can improve the patient's quality of life.

Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Apnea , Ataxia , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Clothing , Cognition , Dyskinesias , Dystonia , Early Diagnosis , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Absence , Glucose , Diet, Ketogenic , Microcephaly , Movement Disorders , Phenotype , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 235-238, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764383


Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by dystonia, cognitive deficits, and an asymmetric akinetic-rigid syndrome. Little information is available regarding anesthetic management for CBD patients. Our patient was a 55-year-old man with CBD complicated by central sleep apnea (CSA). Due to the risk of perioperative breathing instability associated with anesthetic use, a laryngeal mask airway was used during anesthesia with propofol. Spontaneous respiration was stable under general anesthesia. However, respiratory depression occurred following surgery, necessitating insertion of a nasopharyngeal airway. Since no respiratory depression had occurred during maintenance of the airway using the laryngeal mask, we suspected an upper airway obstruction caused by displacement of the tongue due to residual propofol. Residual anesthetics may cause postoperative respiratory depression in patients with CBD. Therefore, continuous postoperative monitoring of SpO₂ and preparations to support postoperative ventilation are necessary.

Humans , Middle Aged , Airway Obstruction , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Cognition Disorders , Dystonia , Laryngeal Masks , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Propofol , Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Central , Tongue , Ventilation