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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 166-170, julio-diciembre 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392160

ABSTRACT

La osteoporosis es una enfermedad sistémica esquelética, cuyas manifestaciones más comunes son las fracturas vertebrales y de cadera. En relación con el oído, se han realizado algunos estudios controversiales que sugieren el aumento de riesgo de pérdida auditiva en pacientes con osteoporosis, mientras otros indican que no hay relación alguna con esta enfermedad. Se realizó un reporte de caso donde se describen los hallazgos en el oído medio y oído interno, tras la valoración bajo microscopía de luz, en un espécimen de hueso temporal con antecedente de osteoporosis. Se evidencia desmineralización, porosidad y disminución cualitativa del tejido óseo, así como disminución del espacio incudomaleolar.


Osteoporosis is a skeletal systemic disease, commonly known for its affection on hips and spine. In relation to the ear, several controversial studies have documented an increased risk for hearing loss in patients with osteoporosis, while others do not find any association with these disorders. A case report was carried out which describes the findings in the middle ear and inner ear, after evaluation under light microscopy, in a temporary bone specimen with a history of osteoporosis. Demineralization, porosity and qualitative diminished bone tissue are found, as well as a decrease in the incudomallear joint.


A osteoporose é uma doença esquelética sistêmica, cujas manifestações mais comuns são as fraturas vertebrais e de quadril. Em relação ao ouvido, foram realizados alguns estudos controversos que sugerem um risco aumentado de perda auditiva em pacientes com osteoporose, enquanto outros indicam que não há relação com essa doença. Foi feito um relato de caso descrevendo os achados em ouvido médio e ouvido interno, após avaliação sob microscopia de luz, em espécime de osso temporal com histórico de osteoporose. Há evidências de desmineralização, porosidade e diminuição qualitativa do tecido ósseo, bem como diminuição do espaço incudomaleolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporosis , Bone and Bones , Demineralization , Ear, Middle , Hearing Loss , Incus , Ear, Inner
2.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 229-243, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389844

ABSTRACT

El buceo recreativo es una práctica cada vez más popular en la población mundial, sin embargo, no está exenta de riesgos. A medida que transcurre una inmersión, el buzo es susceptible a una serie de cambios de presión que afectan las distintas cavidades que contienen aire dentro del cuerpo humano, tales como el oído, cavidades paranasales y los pulmones. Existe un gran espectro de patologías asociadas al buceo, explicándose la mayoría de ellas por el barotrauma asociado, cuya gravedad depende de la magnitud del daño asociado, pudiendo presentar desde manifestaciones a nivel local, así como también a nivel sistémico. Las patologías otológicas suelen ser las más frecuentes y el principal motivo de consulta en este tipo de pacientes. Sin embargo, las afecciones otoneurológicas, rinosinusales, de vía aérea y sistémicas pueden ser comunes dependiendo de cada perfil de buceo. Actualmente no existen recomendaciones locales sobre esta práctica, por lo que el conocimiento de la fisiología, fisiopatología y el tratamiento de las patologías otorrinolaringológicas asociadas deben ser conocidas a medida que este deporte se vuelve cada vez más popular. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre las distintas afecciones otorrinolaringológicas con el fin de sistematizarlas y elaborar recomendaciones para establecer una práctica segura.


Recreational diving is an increasingly popular practice in the world; however, it is not without risks. As a dive progresses, the diver is susceptible to a series of pressure changes that affect the air-containing cavities, such as the ear, paranasal cavities, and lungs. There is a large spectrum of pathologies associated with diving, most of them being explained by associated barotrauma, the severity of which depends on the magnitude of the associated damage, could present local manifestations, as well as at systemic level. Otological pathologies are usually the most frequent and the main reason for consultation in this type of patients, however, otoneurological, rhinosinusal, airway and systemic conditions can be common depending on each diving profile. Currently there are no local recommendations on this practice, therefore, knowledge of the physiology, pathophysiology and treatment of associated otorhinolaryngological pathologies should be known as this sport becomes increasingly popular. A review of the literature on the different ear, nose and throat conditions was carried out in order to systematize them and develop recommendations to establish a safe practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology , Barotrauma/etiology , Diving/adverse effects , Diving/physiology , Diving/education , Ear, Middle/injuries , Ear, Inner/injuries
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936233

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube based on Chinese digital visual human dataset, and the deformation and pressure changes of the middle ear-eustachian tube system after eustachian tube opening are simulated by computer numerical simulation. Methods: The first female Chinese Digital Visual Human data was adopted. The images were imported by Amira image processing software, and the images were segmented by Geomagic software to form a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube system, including eustachian tube, tympanum, tympanic membrane, auditory ossicles, and mastoid air cells system. The 3D model was imported into Hypermesh software for meshing and analysis. The structural mechanics calculation was carried out by Abaqus, and gas flow was simulated by Xflow. The tissue deformation and middle ear pressure changes during eustachian tube opening were numerically simulated by fluid-solid coupling algorithm. Several pressure monitoring points including tympanum, mastoid, tympanic isthmus, and external auditory canal were set up in the model, and the pressure changes of each monitoring point were recorded and compared. Results: In this study, a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube and a numerical simulation model of middle ear ventilation were established, including eustachian tube, tympanum, mastoid air cells, tympanic membrane, and auditory ossicles. The dynamic changes of the model after ventilation could be divided into five stages according to the pressure. In addition, the pressure changes of tympanum and tympanic isthmus were basically synchronous, and the pressure changes of mastoid air cells system were later than that of tympanum and tympanic isthmus, which verified the pressure buffering effect of mastoid. The extracted pressure curve of the external auditory canal was basically consistent with that of tympanometry in terms of value and trend, which verified the effectiveness of the model. Conclusions: The numerical simulation model of middle ear-eustachian tube ventilation established in this paper can simulate the tissue deformation and middle ear pressure changes after eustachian tube opening, and its accuracy and effectiveness are also verified. This not only lays a foundation for further research, but also provides a new research method for the study of middle ear ventilation.


Subject(s)
China , Ear, Middle , Eustachian Tube , Female , Human Body , Humans , Middle Ear Ventilation
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379057

ABSTRACT

La audición funcional ­para fines prácticos­ consiste en la posibilidad de despertar sensaciones precisas en regiones específicas del cerebro, a partir del procesamiento y extracción de mensajes ocultos en los cambios en la presión de las moléculas del aire que nos rodea. Medir la funcionalidad de la audición en un ser humano se convierte en un reto titánico que implica que nuestra vida profesional transcurra analizando información tanto subjetiva como objetiva de nuestros pacientes, ambas con un valor diagnóstico innegable. En cuanto a la primera, la historia clínica, las observaciones de la conducta auditiva del paciente, los reportes de la casa, la escuela y la terapia, o de estudios como la audiometría tonal y la logoaudiometría, resultan fundamentales no solo para el diagnóstico, sino para el seguimiento de nuestros pacientes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los pacientes más pequeños, o ante la necesidad de evaluar aspectos como la presión del oído medio, la función de las células ciliadas, o la presencia de microfónica coclear, la utilidad de esas herramientas subjetivas se encuentra limitada y entonces los registros, trazos, curvas y cifras relativas a intensidades, presiones, latencias, frecuencias, amplitudes y demás datos obtenidos a través de estudios objetivos, son los recursos que usamos para diagnosticar e iniciar la habilitación o rehabilitación de nuestros pacientes.


Functional hearing ­ for practical purposes ­ consists of the possibility of awakening precise sensations in specific regions of the brain from the processing and extraction of hidden messages in changes in the pressure of the molecules of the air that surrounds us. Measuring the functionality of hearing in a human being becomes a titanic challenge that implies that our professional life is spent analyzing both subjective and objective information from our patients, both with an undeniable diagnostic value: as for the first, the clinical history, observations of the patient's listening behavior, reports from home, school and therapy, or studies such as pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry, are essential not only for diagnosis but also for the follow-up of our patients. However, in the case of smaller patients, or when faced with the need to evaluate aspects such as middle ear pressure, hair cell function, or the presence of cochlear microphonics; The usefulness of these subjective tools is limited and therefore the records, traces, curves and figures related to intensities, pressures, latencies, frequencies, amplitudes and other data obtained through objective studies are the resources we use to diagnose and start the investigation. rehabilitation or rehabilitation of our patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Audiometry , Audiology , Hearing , Audiometry, Speech , Brain , Audiology/methods , Ear, Middle , Cerebrum
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 283-289, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The prevalence of middle ear disease and its risk factors have been the subject of multiple studies. High prevalence of middle ear disease has been described among North American natives, especially chronic otitis media. Such studies have not been carried out in South America. Objective To describe the prevalence of middle ear pathology and risk factors in native schoolchildren from southern Chile who belong to the Mapuche ethnic group, as well as the impact of socio-economic and demographic changes after 14 years of development. Material and methods Two otologic evaluations with an interval of 14 years were performed in schoolchildren with a percentage of indigenous population above 85%. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from national official statistical data. Results A total of 1067 schoolchildren were examined. Many described risk factors for ear pathology were found. An overall prevalence of 0.19% for tympanic membrane perforation, 5.6% for pars tensa retraction pockets, 1.5% for pars flaccida retraction pockets and 11.1% of otitis media with effusion was found. There were several socioeconomic improvements after 14 years. The difference between the prevalence of symptoms and the presence of otitis media with effusion was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Despite the presence of several risk factors for middle ear disease, this study population showed a low prevalence of middle ear disease. The ethnic-racial factor seems to be a protective factor.


Resumo Introdução A prevalência de doenças da orelha média e seus fatores de risco já foram objeto de múltiplos estudos. A alta prevalência dessas doenças foi descrita entre os nativos da América do Norte, principalmente a otite média crônica. Tais estudos não foram feitos na América do Sul. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência de doenças da orelha média e fatores de risco em crianças de idade escolar, nativos do sul do Chile pertencentes à etnia Mapuche, bem como o impacto de mudanças socioeconômicas e demográficas após 14 anos de desenvolvimento. Método Foram feitas duas avaliações otológicas com intervalo de 14 anos em escolares com percentual da população indígena acima de 85%. Dados socioeconômicos e demográficos foram coletados a partir de dados estatísticos oficiais nacionais. Resultados Foram examinados 1.067 escolares. Foram encontrados diversos fatores de risco descritos para doença otológica. Foi encontrada uma prevalência geral de 0,19% para perfuração da membrana timpânica, 5,6% para retrações da pars tensa, 1,5% para retração da pars flácida e 11,1% de otite média com efusão. Houve várias melhorias socioeconômicas após 14 anos. A diferença entre a prevalência de sintomas e a presença de otite média com efusão foi estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Conclusões Apesar da presença de vários fatores de risco para doença da orelha média, a população estudada apresentou baixa prevalência da doença. O fator étnico parece ser protetor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Otitis Media with Effusion/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Population Groups , Ear, Middle , Membranes
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e167-e170, abril 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152119

ABSTRACT

La fístula perilinfática de causa traumática es una patología poco habitual. En general, es causada por lápices, hisopos, hebillas de pelo y fósforos.Dentro de los síntomas más frecuentes, los pacientes pueden presentar hipoacusia y vértigo. Su diagnóstico requiere un examen físico completo que incluya otomicroscopía, audiometría ytomografía computada de ambos peñascos. El tratamiento depende de la sintomatología del paciente. En general, en un principio, es conservador, pero puede llegar a requerir cirugía. Se presenta un caso clínico de un niño de 6 años con fístula perilinfática secundaria a un traumatismo del oído izquierdo por un hisopo, que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico


Traumatic perilymphatic fistula is an unusual pathology. Generally caused by pencils, swabs, hair buckles, and matches. Among the most frequent symptoms, patients can present hearing loss and vertigo.Diagnosis requires a complete physical examination that includes otomicroscopy, audiometry and computed tomography of both boulders. Treatment depends on the patient's symptoms. In general, it is conservative at first, but may require surgery.We present a clinical case of a 6-year-old boy with perilymphatic fistula secondary to left ear trauma due to swab, which required surgical treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Perilymph , Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Wounds and Injuries , Ear, Middle , Fistula/surgery
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942527

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conclude the clinical features and the postoperative efficacy of congenital middle ear malformation treated with Malleostapedotomy (MS), and to explore the security and effectiveness of MS surgery. Methods: The clinical data of 17 patients (18 ears) with congenital middle ear malformation undergoing MS procedure were analyzed. There were 10 males (11 ears) and 7 females (7 ears), aged from 7 to 48 years. The imaging examination, pure-tone audiometry, intraoperative findings and postoperative hearing improvement of these patients were analyzed and summarized, and software SPSS23.0 was used for statistical analysis. Rusults All the 17 patients (18 ears) presented with hearing loss since childhood on the affected sides. Preoperative high resolution CT (HRCT) of the temporal bone revealed definite malformations in 9 ears (6 ears with incus long process dysplasia and 3 ears with anterior and posterior crus dysplasia). Before surgery, the mean bone conductive hearing threshold at 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 Hz was (15.6±10.2) dB HL, the mean air conductive hearing threshold was (60.6±9.7) dB HL, and the mean air-bone gap was (45.0±8.9) dB. During the surgery, all 18 ears were found to be accompanied by absence or hypoplasia of incus long process. 12 ears had stapes fixation, 6 ears had oval window atresia. All patients were treated with MS procedure by using Piston. The patients were followed up for 3 months to 1 year. The mean bone conductive hearing threshold was (14.7±8.8) dB HL. The mean air conductive hearing threshold was (37.7±11.6) dB HL, and the mean air-bone gap was (23.0±8.0) dB. There were statistically significant differences in the mean air conductive hearing threshold and mean air-bone gap before and after surgery (P<0.05). While there were no statistically significant differences in the mean bone conductive hearing threshold before and after surgery (P=0.550). Conclusions: MS procedure is safe and reliable in patients with congenital middle ear malformation of incus long process dysplasia, stapes fixation or oval window atresia. HRCT is useful in evaluating the major deformity of ossicular chain and facial nerve deformity. However, it is not enough to evaluate the joint of incus-stapes and oval window atresia. MS surgery in middle ear malformation requires advanced surgical experience and skills. The hearing improvement can be significant, even though some air-bone gap after surgery exist.


Subject(s)
Child , Ear Ossicles , Ear, Middle/surgery , Female , Hearing Loss, Conductive/surgery , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stapes , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942486

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of the inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway-γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT on the ultrastructures of middle ear in the ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated allergic OME in vivo. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 250-300 g, were completely and randomly divided into three groups (5 rats, 10 ears in each group):(1)Control group(2)OME group(3)OME+DAPT group. Rats in the OME group underwent systemic and local sensitization by intraperitoneal and intratympanic injection of ovalbumin to make the model of OVA-induced OME. Rats in the control group were sensitized with PBS. On the basis of establishing the OME model, OME+DAPT group were intraperitoneal injected with DAPT (10 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days and were administered before intratympanic injection of ovalbumin. After the model was successfully established, endoscopy,H&E staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the histology and mucous-ciliary ultrastructures of the non-ciliated and ciliated mucosa in the middle ear of each group. One-way ANOVA and Tukey methods were used for statistical analysis. Results: H&E staining showed that the three groups had statistically significant differences in submucosal thickness both in non-ciliated and ciliated regions (non-ciliated area:(6.83±1.47)μm, (38.58±9.57)μm, (32.17±11.89)μm, respectively. F=107.9;cilia area:(26.69±3.22)μm, (30.41±6.75)μm, (26.76±4.06)μm, respectively. F=5.62,both P<0.01). The thickness of the submucosa in the non-ciliated area and the cilia area of the OME group were significantly thicker than that of control group (F=42.08 and 4.40,both P<0.05); the thickness of the non-ciliated area and the ciliated area in OME+DAPT group were reduced compared to OME group(F=1.55 and 2.77,both P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the array of cilia on the middle ear mucosa was disorderly arranged and inversed, this phenomenon was relieved in the OME+DAPT group. The number of goblet cells in the control group, OME group, and OME+DAPT group were 9.87±1.92; 15.67±5.77; 10.33±1.99 respectively and the difference between them was statistically significant (F=11.43, P<0.01). The number of goblet cells in the OME group were significantly higher than those in the control group (F=9.00,P<0.01) and the number of goblet cells in the OME+DAPT group were decreased compared to those of OME group (F=8.41, P<0.01). Conclusions: The study demonstrates the pathological changes of the ultrastructure in middle ear in OVA-induced OME and the effect of the γ-secretase inhibitor on it. In OME group, the cilia are disorderly arranged and inversed, the number of goblet cell is increased and they are swelled which suggest the hypersecretion of the mucus. DAPT can regulate OVA-induced allergic inflammation and relieve pathological changes of ultrastructure in middle ear mucociliary transport system through alleviating submucosal inflammation, reducing the hypersecretion of goblet cell and the morphological damage of cilia through the Notch signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Animals , Ear, Middle , Male , Otitis Media with Effusion/drug therapy , Ovalbumin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942484

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the middle ear function of the patients with cleft palate pre and post palatoplasty. Methods: 76 patients with cleft palate were investigated by clinical history and audiology examinations including electric otoscopy,tympanometry and click-ABR threshold. Results: The risk for middle ear function decreased with advancing age in the first 5 years. It was noticed that the otologic outcomes was related to the CP type. During long time follow-up, the frequency with the middle ear function disorder was always high within the CP patients but the proportion of the patients received tympanostomy tubes was low relatively. The prevalence of middle ear dysfunction did not differ with the time of cleft palate repair. Conclusion: The patients with cleft palate have middle ear function dysfunction in a long period of time,therefore a standard long-time follow-up system is necessary.


Subject(s)
Acoustic Impedance Tests , Child, Preschool , Cleft Palate/surgery , Ear, Middle , Humans , Middle Ear Ventilation , Otitis Media with Effusion/surgery
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942424

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, intervention and treatment of tympanic osteoma at different locations. Methods: The medical history, audiological and imaging examination, operation and follow-up results of two patients with tympanic osteoma at different sites were reviewed and summarized. Furthermore, the clinical characteristics and interventions of 36 patients reported in literatures with tympanic osteomas were also summarized and analyzed. Results: Osteoma of the two patients collected in this study located at promontory and incus respectively;both of them presented with intact tympanum and conductive deafness, without obvious etiology or predisposing factor. Both of them underwent surgeries and the hearing improved significantly. For patient one, the ossicular chain was intact and restored to activity after removed the osteoma. For patient two, an artificial ossicle was implanted after removed the osteoma and incus. In the 36 patients reported in literatures, the average age was 26.5 years, and 39.47% of them located at promontory; in addition, the main symptoms of them were progressive hearing loss, tinnitus and ear stuffy. Conclusions: Patients with tympanic osteoma are characterized by conduction deafness with intact tympanic membrane, and the most common lesion is promontory. Hearing can be restored by excision of the osteoma and maintenance or reconstruction of the ossicle chain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ear Ossicles/surgery , Ear, Middle/surgery , Hearing Loss, Conductive/surgery , Humans , Osteoma/surgery , Tympanic Membrane
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 477-483, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143958

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is the second most common complaint in the postoperative period after pain. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was 60-80% in middle ear surgeries in the absence of antiemetic prophylaxis. Because of this high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, we aimed to assess the effect of palonosetron-dexamethasone and ondansetron-dexamethasone combination for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients of middle ear surgery. Methods: Sixty-four patients, scheduled for middle ear surgery, were randomized into two groups to receive the palonosetron-dexamethasone and ondansetron-dexamethasone combination intravenously before induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia technique was standardized in all patients. Postoperatively, the incidences and severity of nausea and vomiting, the requirement of rescue antiemetic, side effects and patient satisfaction score were recorded. Results: Demographics were similar in the study groups. The incidence difference of nausea was statistically significant between groups O and P at a time interval of 2-6 hours only (p = 0.026). The incidence and severity of vomiting were not statistically significant between groups O and P during the whole study period. The overall incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (0-24 hours postoperatively) was 37.5% in group O and 9.4% in group P (p = 0.016). Absolute risk reduction with palonosetron-dexamethasone was 28%, the relative risk reduction was 75%, and the number-needed-to-treat was 4. The patient's satisfaction score was higher in group P than group O (p = 0.016). The frequency of rescue medication was more common in group O than in group P patients (p = 0.026). Conclusion: The combination of palonosetron-dexamethasone is superior to ondansetron-dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgeries.


Resumo Justificativa: Náusea e vômito no pós-operatório é a segunda queixa pós-operatória mais frequente após a dor. Sem profilaxia antiemética, a incidência de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório foi de 60−80% após cirurgia do ouvido médio. Dada a alta incidência relatada de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório, nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da combinação de palonosetrona-dexametasona e ondansetrona-dexametasona na prevenção de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia do ouvido médio. Método: Sessenta e quatro pacientes programados para cirurgia de ouvido médio foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos. Um recebeu a combinação de palonosetrona-dexametasona (grupo P) e o outro ondansetrona-dexametasona (grupo O) por via intravenosa antes da indução anestésica. A técnica anestésica foi padronizada em todos os pacientes. No pós-operatório, foram registradas incidência e gravidade das náuseas e vômitos, necessidade de antiemético de resgate, efeitos colaterais e índice de satisfação dos pacientes. Resultados: As características demográficas foram semelhantes nos grupos estudados. A diferença na incidência de náusea foi estatisticamente significante entre os grupos O e P apenas no intervalo de tempo entre 2 e 6 horas (p = 0,026). A incidência e gravidade de vômito não foram estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos O e P durante todo o período do estudo. A incidência geral de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório (0−24 horas de pós-operatório) foi de 37,5% no grupo O e de 9,4% no grupo P (p = 0,016). A combinação palonosetrona-dexametasona associou-se com redução do risco absoluto de 28%, redução do risco relativo de 75%, e o número necessário para tratar foi 4. O escore de satisfação do paciente foi maior no grupo P (p = 0,016). A frequência da medicação de resgate foi mais comum no grupo O (p = 0,026). Conclusão: A combinação de palonosetrona-dexametasona é superior à ondansetrona-dexametasona na prevenção da náusea e vômito no pós-operatório após cirurgia de ouvido médio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ondansetron/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Palonosetron/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ear, Middle/surgery , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/administration & dosage
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 38-43, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Adenoidectomy can be performed with many ways, including curettage and microdebrider endoscopic-assisted adenoidectomy. Those two techniques have advantages and disadvantages. Objective The objective of this study is to research the effects of curettage adenoidectomy and endoscopic-assisted microdebrider adenoidectomy on the tympanum pressures in pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy without otitis media with effusion. Methods This prospective descriptive study was performed with 65 patients who had a normal tympanic membrane and normal tympanogram and then underwent adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy for adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: curettage adenoidectomy group and endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy group. They underwent tympanometry, and the preoperative as well as 1st and 7th day postoperative values of the tympanum pressures were compared within and among the groups. Results There were 32 patients in the curettage adenoidectomy group and 33 patients in the microdebrider adenoidectomy group. Statistically significant differences were observed in the median tympanum pressure on the preoperative and 1st and 7th postoperative days for both the left and right ears with curettage adenoidectomy (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). This difference occurred on the 1st postoperative day, and the value returned to normal on the 7th day. There was no significant difference in the median tympanum pressure on the preoperative and 1st and 7th postoperative days for both the left and right ears in the microdebrider adenoidectomy group (p = 0.376, p = 0.128). Conclusion Postoperative Eustachian tube dysfunction is seen less often with the endoscopic-assisted microdebrider adenoidectomy technique than with the conventional adenoidectomy technique.


Resumo Introdução A adenoidectomia pode ser realizada de várias maneiras, inclusive por curetagem e por microdebridador, assistida por endoscopia. Essas duas técnicas têm algumas vantagens e desvantagens. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da técnica de adenoidectomia por curetagem e da adenoidectomia por microdebridador assistida por endoscopia sobre a pressão timpânica em pacientes pediátricos com hipertrofia adenoideana sem otite média com efusão. Método Estudo descritivo prospectivo feito com 65 pacientes que apresentavam membrana timpânica e timpanograma normais, que foram então submetidos à adenoidectomia ou adenotonsilectomia por hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana. Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo adenoidectomia por curetagem e grupo adenoidectomia por microdebridador assistida por endoscópio. Todos os pacientes fizeram timpanometria e os valores das pressões do tímpano pré-operatórios e pós-operatórios no 1º e 7º dias foram comparados intragrupos e entre os grupos. Resultados Foram incluídos 32 pacientes no grupo adenoidectomia por curetagem e 33 pacientes no grupo adenoidectomia com microdebridador. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram observadas na mediana da diferença entre a pressão timpânica no pré-operatório e no 1º e 7º dias de pós-operatório para ambas as orelhas, direita e esquerda, na adenoidectomia por curetagem (p < 0,001, p < 0,001). Essa diferença ocorreu no 1º dia do pós-operatório e o valor retornou ao normal no 7º dia. Não houve diferença significante na mediana entre pressão timpânica no pré-operatório e no 1º e 7º dias de pós-operatório para as orelhas direita e esquerda no grupo de adenoidectomia com microdebridador (p = 0,376, p = 0,128). Conclusão A disfunção tubária no pós-operatório é observada menos frequentemente com a técnica de adenoidectomia por microdebridador assistida por endoscopia quando comparada com a técnica convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adenoidectomy/methods , Curettage/methods , Eustachian Tube/physiopathology , Postoperative Period , Pressure , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Single-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Video-Assisted Surgery/methods , Debridement/methods , Ear, Middle/physiopathology
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 74-82, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Microsurgery of the ear requires complete evaluation of middle ear surgical anatomy, especially the posterior tympanic cavity anatomy. Preoperative assessment of the middle ear cavity is limited by the permeability of eardrum and temporal bone density. Therefore, middle ear exploration is an extremely useful method to identify structural abnormalities and anatomical variations. Objective The aim of this study is to determine anatomic variations of the middle ear in an autopsy series. Methods All evaluations were performed in the Forensic Medicine Institute Morgue Department. The cases over 18 years of age, with no temporal bone trauma and history of otologic surgery included in this study. Results One hundred and two cadavers were included in the study. The mean age was 49.08 ± 17.76 years. Anterior wall prominence of the external auditory canal was present in 27 of all cadavers (26.4%). The tympanic membrane was normal in 192 ears (94%) while several eardrum pathologies were detected in 12 ears (6%). Agenesis of the pyramidal eminence and stapedial tendon was found in 3 ears. While the ponticulus was bony ridge-shaped in 156 of 204 ears (76.4%), it was bridge-shaped in 25 ears (12.3%). The ponticulus was absent in 23 ears (11.3%). While complete subiculum was present in 136 of all ears (66.7%), incomplete subiculum was present in 21 ears (10.3%). Subiculum was absent in 47 ears (23%). Facial dehiscence was found in 32 ears and the round window niche was covered by a pseudomembrane in 85 ears (41.6%). A fixed footplate was present in 7.4% of all ears, and no persistent stapedial artery was seen in any cases. Conclusion The pseudomembrane frequency covering the round window niche was found different from reports in the literature. In addition, the frequency of the external auditory canal wall prominence has been reported for the first time.


Resumo Introdução A otomicrocirurgia requer avaliação completa da anatomia cirúrgica da orelha média, especialmente da anatomia da cavidade timpânica posterior. A avaliação pré-operatória da cavidade timpânica é limitada pela permeabilidade do tímpano e densidade do osso temporal. Portanto, a exploração da orelha média é um método extremamente útil para identificar anormalidades estruturais e variações anatômicas. Objetivo Determinar as variações anatômicas da orelha média em uma série de autópsias. Método Todas as avaliações foram realizadas no necrotério do Instituto Médico-Legal. Os casos com mais de 18 anos, sem trauma do osso temporal e história de cirurgia otológica foram incluídos neste estudo. Resultados Cento e dois cadáveres foram incluídos no estudo. A média de idade foi de 49,08 ± 17,76 anos. A proeminência da parede anterior do conduto auditivo externo estava presente em 27 de todos os cadáveres (26,4%). A membrana timpânica era normal em 192 orelhas (94%), enquanto várias alterações do tímpano foram detectadas em 12 orelhas (6%). Agenesia da eminência piramidal e do tendão do estapédio foi encontrada em 3 orelhas. Enquanto o pontículo tinha formato de crista óssea em 156 das 204 orelhas (76,4%), tinha o formato de ponte em 25 orelhas (12,3%). O pontículo estava ausente em 23 orelhas (11,3%). Enquanto o subículo completo estava presente em 136 de todas as orelhas (66,7%), encontrava-se incompleto em 21 orelhas (10,3%). O subículo estava ausente em 47 orelhas (23%). Deiscência facial foi encontrada em 32 orelhas e o nicho da janela redonda estava coberto por uma pseudomembrana em 85 orelhas (41,6%). A platina fixa foi observada em 7,4% de todas as orelhas e a artéria estapediana persistente não foi vista. Conclusão A frequência da pseudomembrana que cobre o nicho da janela redonda foi diferente daquela encontrada na literatura. Além disso, a frequência da proeminência da parede do canal auditivo externo foi relatada pela primeira vez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Endoscopy/methods , Anatomic Variation/physiology , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , Stapedius/diagnostic imaging , Tympanic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Sex Distribution , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/pathology , Dissection/statistics & numerical data , Ear, External/anatomy & histology
15.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(1): 14-18, jan./mar. 2020. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1379231

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever um caso de pólipo inflamatório em ouvido médio de um felino e sua resolução cirúrgica através da avulsão e tração da massa após abordagem lateral. Um felino, fêmea, de 2 anos de idade, foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário Professor Sylvio Barbosa Cardoso, apresentando prurido intenso, dor e secreção fétida em região auricular. Pelo exame físico foi possível observar um nódulo em região de ouvido médio esquerdo. Associado a isso, o animal apresentava "headtilt" (inclinação da cabeça para o lado afetado). Foram solicitados exames hematológicos, radiografia de crânio e citologia da massa. O animal foi encaminhado para cirurgia de extirpação da massa. Foi feita uma incisão na pele sob o canal auditivo vertical palpável. A cartilagem foi liberada até o nível da junção entre as cartilagens auricular e anular. Com o auxílio de um fórceps, o pólipo foi agarrado e delicadamente girado até ser completamente extirpado de sua origem. A cartilagem e o subcutâneo foram fechados com material de sutura monofilamentar 4-0 e a pele foi fechada em um padrão de sutura subdérmica usando o mesmo material. A peça foi encaminhada para exame histopatológico, pelo qual confirmou-se a suspeita de pólipo inflamatório, através da observação de epitélio colunar ciliado. Utilizando a técnica cirúrgica TALA (avulsão e tração após abordagem lateral) foi possível obter melhora do quadro clínico do animal referido, rápida recuperação pós-cirúrgica e sem nenhuma complicação decorrente da técnica. Essa técnica, portanto, se mostrou satisfatória, melhorando significativamente a qualidade de vida do animal.


The aim of this study was to describe a case of inflammatory polyp in the middle ear of a cat and its surgical resolution through avulsion and mass traction after lateral approach. A female feline, two year old, was admitted at the Hospital Veterinário Professor Sylvio Barbosa Cardoso, presenting intense itching, pain and fetid discharge in the ear region. Physical examination revealed a nodule in the left middle ear region. Associated with this, the animal presented head tilt (inclination of the head to the affected side). Hematological examinations, skull radiography and mass cytology were requested. The animal was referred for polyp removal surgery. A skin incision was made under the palpable vertical ear canal. The cartilage was released to the level of the junction between the auricular and annular cartilages. With the help of a forceps, the polyp was grasped and gently rotated until completely removed from its origin. The cartilage and subcutaneous tissue were closed with 4-0 monofilament suture material and the skin was closed in a subdermal suture pattern using the same material. The piece was referred for histopathological examination, which confirmed the suspicion of inflammatory polyp by observing ciliated columnar epithelium. Using the TALA surgical technique (avulsion and traction after lateral approach) it was possible to obtain improvement of the clinical 3 picture of the referred animal, rapid postoperative recovery and without any complications resulting from the technique. This technique therefore proves satisfying, significantly improving the quality of life of the animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Polyps/veterinary , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/veterinary , Cats/surgery , Ear Canal/surgery , Ear, Middle/surgery , Surgery, Veterinary/methods , Traction/veterinary
16.
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-5, jan. 2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116462

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho é identificar e descrever o trajeto do ligamento discomaleolar (LDM) através de imagem por ressonância magnética (IRM). Materiais e Métodos: As IMR foram adquiridas de dois participantes da pesquisa através de um aparelho SIGNA Explorer, 1,5 T. Conclusão: A partir delas foi possível observar uma estrutura com direcionamento ascendente com origem na zona bilaminar em direção à região do ouvido médio, após análise, as imagens obtidas sugerem que a estrutura observada seja o LDM


Objective: This article aims to identify and describe the path of the discomaleolar ligament (DML) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: MRIs were acquired from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region of two research participants using a 1.5 T SIGNA Explorer device. Conclusion: based on the images, we could observe a structure with an upward direction originating in the bilaminar zone towards the middle ear region. After analysis, the images obtained suggest that the observed structure is the DML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporomandibular Joint , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ear, Middle , Ligaments, Articular
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 447-453, July 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040709

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Merremia macrocalyx in cattle in the Pernambuco state, northeastern Brazil, and to experimentally replicate the poisoning by this plant. To determine the occurrence of poisonings, 30 farms were visited in six municipalities at the Forest Zone of Pernambuco. The plant was found in nine farms, in which history of plant poisoning in cattle, and occasionally in sheep were also reported. Three outbreaks of spontaneous poisonings in cattle were studied. To replicate the disease experimentally, two steers received a single dose of 60g/kg and two steers received 80g/kg of the fresh leaves of M. macrocalyx in the trough for spontaneous ingestion. Two steers were also used as a control group. The main clinical signs observed in spontaneous cases consisted of restlessness, bloat, polyuria, diarrhea, and death within 48 to 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs. Cattle experimentally poisoned presented similar clinical signs to those observed in spontaneous cases. Gross lesions consisted of dryness and impaction of the rumen, omasum and reticulum contents. Abomasal content was fluid, the mucosa was hyperemic, with swollen folds and multiple ulcers. Similar lesions were observed in duodenum mucosae. Histologically, lesions observed in the abomasum and duodenum mucosa consisted of necrosis, hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The wide distribution and palatability of this plant, associated with the high sensitivity of the bovine species verified in this experiment, highlight the importance of this plant in spontaneous cases of poisoning in cattle.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação espontânea por Merremia macrocalyx em bovinos de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil e reproduzir experimentalmente a intoxicação por esta planta. Para determinar a ocorrência das intoxicações, foram visitadas 30 propriedades em seis municípios na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. A planta foi encontrada em nove fazendas onde também haviam históricos de intoxicações em bovinos e ocasionalmente em ovinos. Três surtos de intoxicações espontâneas em bovinos foram estudados e para reproduzir experimentalmente a doença, dois novilhos receberam doses únicas de 60g/kg e dois novilhos receberam 80g/kg de folhas frescas de M. Macrocalyx para consumo espontâneo no cocho. Dois novilhos foram utilizados como grupo controle. Os principais sinais clínicos observados na intoxicação espontânea consistiram em agitação, timpanismo, poliúria, diarreia e morte dentro de 48 a 72 horas após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos. Os bovinos intoxicados experimentalmente apresentaram sinais clínicos semelhantes aos observados nos casos espontâneos. À necropsia as lesões consistiam em compactação e ressecamento dos conteúdos do rúmen, omaso e retículo. O conteúdo do abomaso estava fluido, notava-se hiperemia das mucosas, as pregas estavam edemaciadas e continham múltiplas úlceras. Lesões semelhantes também foram observadas na mucosa do duodeno. Histologicamente, as lesões observadas na mucosa do abomaso e do duodeno consistiam em necrose, hemorragia e infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico e linfocítico. A ampla distribuição de Merremia macrocalyx na região estudada e a boa palatabilidade associada à alta sensibilidade da espécie bovina verificada neste experimento, reforça a importância desta planta em casos espontâneos de intoxicação em bovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Convolvulaceae/toxicity , Ear, Middle/pathology , Plants, Toxic , Brazil/epidemiology
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 193-198, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tympanometry is currently the most frequently used tool for assessing the status of the middle ear, commonly assessed using a single 226 Hz tone. However, the use of the Acoustic Immittance Measures with a wideband stimulus is a promising high-resolution evaluation, especially in individuals known to have middle ear alterations, such as Down syndrome patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the acoustic absorbance measurements in children with Down syndrome. Methods: Cross-sectional study, approved by the institution's ethics committee. Data were collected from 30 children, with a mean age of 8.4 years, 15 with Down syndrome (DS-study group) and 15 children with typical development and no hearing complaints (control group). Energy absorbance was measured at frequencies of 226-8000 Hz at ambient pressure and at peak pressure as a function of frequency using TITAN equipment. Statistical analysis was performed using the established level of statistical significance of 5%. Results: With the 226 Hz probe tone, 30 ears of the control group and 22 of the study group exhibited Type A tympanograms, whereas Type B was observed in eight children in the study group. The mean acoustic absorbance ratio of the study group was lower than that of the control group at frequencies centered at 2520 Hz (p = 0.008) for those with normal tympanometry results, and 226-4000 Hz (p < 0.03) for those with a Type B tympanometry curve. Conclusion: The low energy absorption in the presence of normal tympanograms in children with Down syndrome may suggest middle ear abnormalities.


Resumo Introdução: A timpanometria é a ferramenta mais usada para avaliar o status da orelha média, comumente avaliada por meio de uma única frequência com o tom de 226 Hz. No entanto, o uso da medida de imitância acústica com estímulo de banda larga é uma avaliação de alta resolução promissora, especialmente em pacientes conhecidos por frequentemente apresentar alterações da orelha média, como na síndrome de Down. Objetivo: Analisar as medidas de absorvância acústica em crianças com síndrome de Down. Método: Estudo transversal, aprovado pelo comitê de ética da instituição. Foram coletados dados de 30 crianças, com idade média de 8,4 anos, sendo 15 com síndrome de Down (SD-grupo de estudo) e 15 crianças desenvolvimento típico e sem queixas auditivas (grupo controle). A absorvância de energia foi medida nas frequências de 226-8.000 Hz à pressão ambiente e no pico de pressão em função da frequência, usou-se o equipamento Titan. A análise estatística foi feita com o nível de significância estatística adotado de 5%. Resultados: Com o tom de sonda de 226 Hz foram observadas 30 orelhas do grupo controle e 22 do grupo estudo com timpanometria Tipo A e o Tipo B foi observado apenas em oito crianças do grupo estudo. A razão média de absorvância acústica do grupo estudo foi menor do que a do controle nas frequências centradas em 2.520 Hz (p = 0,008) para aqueles com resultados timpanométricos normais e de 226-4.000 Hz (p < 0,03) para aqueles com curva timpanométrica Tipo B. Conclusão: A baixa absorção de energia na presença de timpanogramas normais nas crianças com síndrome de Down pode sugerir anormalidades na orelha média.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Acoustic Impedance Tests/methods , Down Syndrome/physiopathology , Ear, Middle/physiopathology , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear Diseases/physiopathology
19.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 43-46, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766201

ABSTRACT

Cholesteatoma is common disease entity within the middle ear cavity but is rarely found in the paranasal sinuses, especially the maxillary sinus. We experienced a case of cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus without history of previous trauma or operation. The patient was not improved by functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The mucosa of the maxillary sinus was removed through the Caldwell-Luc approach, and heavy saline irrigation was performed. After reoperation, the postoperative period was uneventful, and there was no sign of recurrence on endoscopic examination.


Subject(s)
Cholesteatoma , Ear, Middle , Humans , Maxillary Sinus , Mucous Membrane , Paranasal Sinuses , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Reoperation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764224

ABSTRACT

For a minimally invasive approach to access the facial nerve, we designed an extended epitympanotomy via a transmastoid approach that has proven useful in cases of traumatic facial nerve palsy and pre-cholesteatoma. To evaluate the surgical exposure through an extended epitympanotomy, six patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were enrolled in this study. The same surgical technique was used in all patients. Patients were assessed and the degree of facial nerve paralysis was determined prior to surgery, 1-week post-operatively, and 6-months post-operatively using the House-Brackmann grading system. In all cases, surgical exposure was adequate. All patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were male and the age range was 13 to 83 years. In all cases, the location of the facial nerve damage was limited to the area between the first and second genu. Symptoms of all the patients improved by 6 months post-operation (p=0.024). There were no complications in any of the patients. Extended epitympanotomy is useful for safe, rapid surgical exposure of the attic area, sparing the patient post-operative dimpling, skin incision complications, and lengthy exposure to anesthesia. We suggest that surgery for patients with facial nerve palsy secondary to trauma be performed using this described technique.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Decompression , Ear, Middle , Facial Nerve , Humans , Male , Mastoid , Middle Ear Ventilation , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Paralysis , Skin
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