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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1083-1088, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514360

ABSTRACT

La Articulación temporomandibular (ATM) cumple funciones importantes para la vida; su adecuado funcionamiento se puede alterar por trastornos temporomandibulares (TTM). La sintomatología de los TTM es variada, entre ellos se encuentra dolor en los músculos masticatorios, ruidos articulares y con menos frecuencia algunos pacientes refieren síntomas auditivos, lo que sugiere la existencia de una relación entre la ATM y el oído medio; sin embargo, esta relación no es clara. En consecuencia, el presente estudio tiene como propósito realizar una revisión de literatura para identificar los aspectos conocidos, desconocidos y controvertidos sobre la relación entre la ATM y el oído medio en niños y fetos. Se efectuó una búsqueda de la literatura en bases de datos utilizando los operadores booleanos (AND/OR) y los términos clave en inglés y en español. Se identificaron inicialmente 1080 artículos, se eliminaron los artículos duplicados y se aplicaron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Finalmente, se seleccionaron un total de 14 artículos que se revisaron a texto completo. Los estudios encontrados se enfocan en el desarrollo histoembriológico de la ATM y cómo ese desarrollo se da en conjunto con los componentes del oído medio. Adicionalmente, se identificaron investigaciones sobre el origen, la morfología y función del ligamento discomaleolar, el ligamento esfenomandibular y la fisura petrotimpánica como estructuras que conectan la ATM y el oído medio, pero los resultados han sido controvertidos. Se concluye que son necesarios más estudios para determinar cualquier relación anatómica y fisiológica que pueda existir entre la ATM y el sistema auditivo en fetos y niños.


SUMMARY: The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has important functions for life; its proper functioning can be altered by temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The symptomatology of TMD is varied, including pain in the masticatory muscles, joint noises and less frequently some patients report auditory symptoms, suggesting the existence of a relationship between the TMJ and the middle ear; however, this relationship is not clear. Consequently, the present study aims to conduct a literature review to identify the known, unknown and controversial aspects of the relationship between TMJ and the middle ear in children and fetuses. A literature search was performed in databases using Boolean operators (AND/ OR) and key terms in English and Spanish. A total of 1080 articles were initially identified; duplicate articles were eliminated and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Finally, a total of 14 articles were selected and reviewed in full text. The studies found focus on the histoembryological development of the TMJ and how that development occurs in conjunction with the middle ear components. Additionally, research on the origin, morphology, and function of the discomalleolar ligament, sphenomandibular ligament, and petrotympanic fissure as structures connecting the TMJ and middle ear was identified, but the results have been controversial. It is concluded that further studies are necessary to determine any anatomical and physiological relationship that may exist between the TMJ and the auditory system in fetuses and children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Temporomandibular Joint/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Fetus/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 937-943, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514295

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Tegmen level and mastoid bone thickness are important parameters of surgical risk in middle ear and mastoid region surgeries. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to provide a risk classification for the mastoid and middle ear regions. The study population comprised of 300 patients who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for various indications. Patients with no pathology that disrupted the structure of the temporal region were included in the study. A risk classification was generated by analyzing the data obtained from mastoid and tympanic tegmen depths and the mastoid bone thickness by MDCT. The mastoid and tympanic tegmen were lower on the right side than on the left. In women, the right-sided mastoid bone thickness and mastoid tegmen were lower, and low-level tympanic and mastoid tegmen on the left and thin right mastoid bones were more common. According to the risk classifications for mastoid and middle ear region surgeries, women demonstrated a higher risk than men. In addition, as the thickness of the mastoid bone increased, the levels of the mastoid and tympanic tegmen increased. The present study provides a proper risk classification that may be helpful for preoperative risk assessment prior to middle ear and mastoid region surgery.


El nivel del tegmen y el grosor del hueso mastoideo son parámetros importantes del riesgo quirúrgico en las cirugías del oído medio y la región mastoidea. Este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo se llevó a cabo para proporcionar una clasificación del riesgo en las regiones mastoidea y del oído medio. La población de estudio estuvo compuesta por 300 pacientes que se sometieron a una tomografía computarizada multidetector (MDCT) por diversas indicaciones. Se incluyeron en el estudio pacientes sin patología que alterase la estructura de la región temporal. Se generó una clasificación de riesgo analizando los datos obtenidos de las profundidades del tegmen mastoideo y timpánico y el grosor del hueso mastoideo por TCMD. El tegmen mastoideo y timpánico estaban más bajos en el lado derecho que en el izquierdo. En las mujeres, el grosor del hueso mastoideo del lado derecho y el tegmen mastoideo eran más bajos, y eran más frecuente la presencia de tegmen timpánico y mastoideo de bajo nivel en los huesos mastoideos izquierdo y delgados en el lado derecho. Según las clasificaciones de riesgo de las cirugías de la región mastoidea y del oído medio, las mujeres presentaban un mayor riesgo que los hombres. Además, a medida que aumentaba el grosor del hueso mastoides, aumentaban los niveles del tegmen mastoideo y timpánico. El presente estudio proporciona una clasificación de adecuada de riesgo que puede ser útil para la evaluación preoperatoria del riesgo antes de la cirugía del oído medio y la región mastoidea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Ear, Middle/diagnostic imaging , Mastoid/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Multidetector Computed Tomography
3.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 15-20, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971401

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment of middle ear myoclonus. Methods: Fifty-six cases of middle ear myoclonus were enrolled in Shandong Provincial ENT Hospital, Shandong University from September 2019 to August 2021, including 23 males and 33 females. The age ranged from 6 to 75 years, with a median age of 35 years; Forty-seven cases were unilateral tinnitus, nine cases were bilateral tinnitus. The time of tinnitus ranged from 20 days to 8 years. The voice characteristics, inducing factors, nature (frequency) of tinnitus, tympanic membrane conditions during tinnitus, audiological related tests, including long-term acoustic tympanogram, stapedius acoustic reflex, pure tone auditory threshold, short increment sensitivity test, alternate binaural loudness balance test, loudness discomfort threshold, vestibular function examination, facial electromyography, and imaging examination were recorded. Oral carbamazepine and/or surgical treatment were used. The patients were followed up for 6-24 months and the tinnitus changes were observed. Results: Tinnitus was diverse, including stepping on snow liking sound, rhythmic drumming, white noise, and so on. The inducing factors included external sound, body position change, touching the skin around the face and ears, speaking, chewing and blinking, etc. Forty-four cases were induced by single factor and 9 cases were induced by two or more factors. There was no definite inducing factor in 1 case. One patient had tinnitus with epilepsy. One case of traumatic facial paralysis after facial nerve decompression could induce tinnitus on the affected side when the auricle moved. Tympanic membrane flutter with the same frequency as tinnitus was found in 12 cases by otoscopy, and the waveform with the same frequency as tinnitus was found by long-term tympanogram examination. There were 7 patients with no tympanic membrane activity by otoscopy, the 7 cases also with the same frequency of tinnitus by long-term tympanogram examination, but the change rate of the waveform was faster than that of the patients with tympanic membrane flutter. All patients with tinnitus had no change in hearing. One case of tinnitus complicated with epilepsy (a 6-year-old child) was treated with antiepileptic drug (topiramate) and tinnitus subsided. One case suffered from tinnitus after facial nerve decompression for traumatic facial paralysis was not given special treatment. Fifty-four cases were treated with oral drug (carbamazepine), of which 10 cases were completely controlled and 23 cases were relieved; 21 cases were invalid. Among the 21 patients with no effect of carbamazepine treatment, 8 patients were treated by surgery, 7 patients had no tinnitus after surgery, 1 patient received three times of operation, and the third operation was followed up for 6 months, no tinnitus occurred again. The other 13 cases refused the surgical treatment due to personal reasons. Conclusions: Middle ear myoclonus tinnitus and the inducing factors manifestate diversity. Oral carbamazepine and other sedative drugs are effective for some patients, and surgical treatment is feasible for those who are ineffective for medication.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ear, Middle/surgery , Hearing Tests , Myoclonus/complications , Tinnitus/etiology , Tympanic Membrane
4.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 452-459, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986913

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the imaging evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea associated with inner ear malformation (IEM) in children. Methods: The clinical data of 28 children with CSF otorrhea associated with IEM confirmed by surgical exploration in Beijing Children's Hospital, from Nov, 2016 to Jan, 2021, were analyzed retrospectively,including 16 boys and 12 girls, aged from 8-month to 15-year and 8-month old, with a median age of 4-year old. The shapes of stapes were observed during the exploration surgery, and the imaging features of temporal bone high resolution CT(HRCT) and inner ear MRI pre- and post-operation were analyzed. Results: In 28 children with CSF otorrhea, 89.3%(25/28) had stapes footplates defect during exploration. Preoperative CT showed indirect signs such as IEM, tympanic membrane bulging, soft tissue in the tympanum and mastoid cavity. IEM included four kinds: incomplete partition type I (IP-Ⅰ), common cavity (CC), incomplete partition type Ⅱ (IP-Ⅱ), and cochlear aplasia (CA); 100%(28/28) presented with vestibule dilation; 85.7%(24/28) with a defect in the lamina cribrosa of the internal auditory canal. The direct diagnostic sign of CSF otorrrhea could be seen in 73.9%(17/23) pre-operative MRI: two T2-weighted hyperintense signals between vestibule and middle ear cavity were connected by slightly lower or mixed intense T2-weighted signals, and obvious in the coronal-plane; 100%(23/23) hyperintense T2-weighted signals in the tympanum connected with those in the Eustachian tube.In post-operative CT, the soft tissues in the tympanum and mastoid cavity decreased or disappeared as early as one week. In post-operative MRI, the hyperintense T2-weighted signals of tympanum and mastoid decreased or disappeared in 3 days to 1 month,soft tissues tamponade with moderate intense T2-weighted signal were seen in the vestibule in 1-4 months. Conclusions: IP-Ⅰ, CC, IP-Ⅱ and CA with dilated vestibule can lead to CSF otorrhea. Combined with special medical history, T2-weighted signal of inner ear MRI can provide diagnostic basie for most children with IEM and CSF otorrhea.HRCT and MRI of inner ear can also be used to evaluate the effect of surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Humans , Aged , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Temporal Bone , Ear, Middle
5.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 494-498, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982775

ABSTRACT

Patients with patulous Eustachian tubes(PET) usually suffer from annoying symptoms, such as tinnitus, autophony and aural fullness, due to the excessive opening of the Eustachian tube. There is no uniform standard of treatment, and conservative therapy combined with"Stepup"surgical intervention strategy is the main treatment. In this article, we reviewed various surgical treatments of patulous Eustachian tube in recent years, including key points of surgical operation, effectiveness, safety and complications. Full communication and evaluation are needed to establish appropriate patients' expectations preoperatively. A "Stepup" treatment strategy will be carried out, including conservative treatment, tympanic membrane surgery, Eustachian tube pharyngeal orifice constriction surgery, Eustachian tube tympanic orifice plug surgery and Eustachian tube muscle surgery, which aims to maintain normal Eustachian tube function and good middle ear ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eustachian Tube/surgery , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear, Middle , Tympanic Membrane/surgery , Tinnitus , Otitis Media
6.
Cambios rev med ; 21(2): 859, 30 Diciembre 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415514

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La patología de oído es una enfermedad frecuente en nuestro medio, asociada a infecciones a repetición del oído, con la presencia de perforación timpánica y colesteatoma, que determinará la presencia de lesiones mucho más acentuadas en cuanto a la evolución auditiva o complicaciones locales o sistémicas. OBJETIVO. Determinar la asociación existente entre la presencia de colesteatoma y perforación timpánica en pacientes con otitis media crónica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio epidemiológico analítico retrospectivo. Población de 4 733 y muestra de 75 pacientes para casos y 75 para controles basados en historias clínicas tomadas del sistema informático AS 400, que acudieron a la consulta externa de torrinolaringología del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el periodo de enero de 2018 a diciembre de 2019; Criterios de inclusión para grupo de casos: Hombres y mujeres de 20 a 65 años de edad, diagnóstico de otitis media crónica, diagnóstico de colesteatoma ótico. Criterios de inclusión para grupo controles: Hombres y mujeres de 20 a 65 años de edad, no presentar diagnóstico de colesteatoma. RESULTADOS. Se observó una relación fuerte entre el poseer perforación timpánica y el desarrollo de colesteatoma con un valor de OR 33,14 con un IC al 95% de 31,94 ­ 34,34, con lo que se comprobó la hipótesis del estudio. Se determinó que la perforación timpánica es un factor de riesgo asociado con el desarrollo de colesteatoma en pacientes con otitis media crónica, la prevalencia de colesteatoma en relación a la edad estuvo en un 72% en pacientes de 41 a 65 años, con mayor predominancia en mujeres en un 57,3%. DISCUSIÓN. La presencia de perforación timpánica de acuerdo a lo observado es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de colesteatoma, ligado en su mayoría a cuadros de Otitis Media Crónica. CONCLUSIONES. Se confirmó que la perforación timpánica, es un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo del colesteatoma en los pacientes que tienen otitis media crónica, lo que demuestra la necesidad de manejo actualizado y continuo en pacientes con esta patología de oído. Se requieren estudios con muestras más amplias para determinar otros factores de riesgo como sexo, nivel de educación y edad que podrían influir en el desarrollo de colesteatoma.


INTRODUCTION. Ear pathology is a frequent disease in our environment, associated with repeated ear infections, with the presence of tympanic perforation and cholesteatoma, which will determine the presence of much more accentuated lesions in terms of auditory evolution or local or systemic complications. OBJECTIVE. To determine the association between the presence of cholesteatoma and tympanic perforation in patients with chronic otitis media. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective analytical epidemiological study. Population of 4 733 and sample of 75 patients for cases and 75 for controls based on clinical histories taken from the AS 400 computer system, who attended the Otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital in the period from January 2018 to December 2019; Inclusion criteria for case group: Men and women aged 20 to 65 years, diagnosis of chronic otitis media, diagnosis of otic cholesteatoma. Inclusion criteria for controls group: men and women aged 20 to 65 years, no diagnosis of cholesteatoma. RESULTS. A strong relationship was observed between having tympanic perforation and the development of cholesteatoma with an OR value of 33,14 with a 95% CI of 31,94 - 34,34, thus proving the study hypothesis. It was determined that tympanic perforation is a risk factor associated with the development of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media, the prevalence of cholesteatoma in relation to age was 72% in patients aged 41 to 65 years, with greater predominance in women in 57,3%. DISCUSSION. The presence of tympanic perforation according to what was observed is a risk factor for the development of cholesteatoma, mostly linked to Chronic Otitis Media. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that tympanic perforation is a risk factor in the development of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media, which demonstrates the need for updated and continuous management in patients with this ear pathology. Studies with larger samples are required to determine other risk factors such as sex, education level and age that could influence the development of cholesteatoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Otolaryngology , Tympanic Membrane , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear , Ear/pathology , Ear Diseases , Ear, Middle , Otitis Media , Tympanic Membrane Perforation , Earache , Ecuador
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402025

ABSTRACT

The middle ear is important from an anatomical and clinical point of view, seeing that it contains and allows the passages of structures, in addition to establishing relations with other regions of the head. However, the middle ear is small and difficult to dissect, making difficult the study in cadavers and understanding. In this context, professors and students from Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná developed an anatomical model of the middle ear, showing its main bones, membranes, muscles and nerves. The model was developed with acrylic plates joined to form a cube, each side representing one of the middle ear's walls. The tympanic membrane and the secondary tympanic membrane were represented by an elastic fabric, which covered openings on the membranous wall and the labyrinthic wall, respectively. The auditory ossicles, the muscles and the nerves were made from polymer clay and positioned inside the cube, according to their characteristics and anatomical position in the middle ear. Furthermore, the auditory tube was represented by a plastic cone projecting from the carotid wall. The use of these low-cost anatomical models is an alternative to enable and improve learning. These initiatives favor the teaching of Human Anatomy, increasing understanding, the establishment of clinical correlations, and improving the academic education of health professionals (AU)


A orelha média é importante do ponto de vista anatômico e clínico, pois contém e permite a passagem de estruturas, além de estabelecer relações com outras regiões da cabeça. Porém, a orelha média é pequena e dissecação, o que dificulta seu estudo em cadáveres e a compreensão por parte dos alunos. Nesse contexto, docentes e discentes da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná desenvolveram um modelo anatômico da cavidade timpânica, apresentando seus principais componentes membranáceos, ósseos, musculares e nervosos. Para a confecção da maquete, placas de acrílico transparente foram unidas formando um cubo, com cada placa representando uma das paredes da cavidade timpânica (exceto a parede tegmental). Tecidos elásticos foram colocados em orifícios feitos nas paredes membranácea e labiríntica para representação da membrana timpânica e da membrana timpânica secundária, respectivamente. Os ossículos da audição, músculos e nervos foram confeccionados em biscuit e posicionados no espaço interno do cubo, observando-se as características e a posição anatômica dessas estruturas na orelha média. A tuba auditiva foi representada pela colocação de um cone plástico projetando-se a partir da parede carótica. A confecção de modelos didáticos é uma alternativa de baixo custo para facilitar o ensino e a compreensão da Anatomia Humana. O aprendizado de conceitos básicos favorece o entendimento das correlações anatomoclínicas, melhorando a formação acadêmica dos profissionais de saúde (AU)


Subject(s)
Teaching , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Education, Medical , Models, Anatomic
8.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 166-170, julio-diciembre 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392160

ABSTRACT

La osteoporosis es una enfermedad sistémica esquelética, cuyas manifestaciones más comunes son las fracturas vertebrales y de cadera. En relación con el oído, se han realizado algunos estudios controversiales que sugieren el aumento de riesgo de pérdida auditiva en pacientes con osteoporosis, mientras otros indican que no hay relación alguna con esta enfermedad. Se realizó un reporte de caso donde se describen los hallazgos en el oído medio y oído interno, tras la valoración bajo microscopía de luz, en un espécimen de hueso temporal con antecedente de osteoporosis. Se evidencia desmineralización, porosidad y disminución cualitativa del tejido óseo, así como disminución del espacio incudomaleolar.


Osteoporosis is a skeletal systemic disease, commonly known for its affection on hips and spine. In relation to the ear, several controversial studies have documented an increased risk for hearing loss in patients with osteoporosis, while others do not find any association with these disorders. A case report was carried out which describes the findings in the middle ear and inner ear, after evaluation under light microscopy, in a temporary bone specimen with a history of osteoporosis. Demineralization, porosity and qualitative diminished bone tissue are found, as well as a decrease in the incudomallear joint.


A osteoporose é uma doença esquelética sistêmica, cujas manifestações mais comuns são as fraturas vertebrais e de quadril. Em relação ao ouvido, foram realizados alguns estudos controversos que sugerem um risco aumentado de perda auditiva em pacientes com osteoporose, enquanto outros indicam que não há relação com essa doença. Foi feito um relato de caso descrevendo os achados em ouvido médio e ouvido interno, após avaliação sob microscopia de luz, em espécime de osso temporal com histórico de osteoporose. Há evidências de desmineralização, porosidade e diminuição qualitativa do tecido ósseo, bem como diminuição do espaço incudomaleolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporosis , Bone and Bones , Demineralization , Ear, Middle , Hearing Loss , Incus , Ear, Inner
9.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 229-243, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389844

ABSTRACT

El buceo recreativo es una práctica cada vez más popular en la población mundial, sin embargo, no está exenta de riesgos. A medida que transcurre una inmersión, el buzo es susceptible a una serie de cambios de presión que afectan las distintas cavidades que contienen aire dentro del cuerpo humano, tales como el oído, cavidades paranasales y los pulmones. Existe un gran espectro de patologías asociadas al buceo, explicándose la mayoría de ellas por el barotrauma asociado, cuya gravedad depende de la magnitud del daño asociado, pudiendo presentar desde manifestaciones a nivel local, así como también a nivel sistémico. Las patologías otológicas suelen ser las más frecuentes y el principal motivo de consulta en este tipo de pacientes. Sin embargo, las afecciones otoneurológicas, rinosinusales, de vía aérea y sistémicas pueden ser comunes dependiendo de cada perfil de buceo. Actualmente no existen recomendaciones locales sobre esta práctica, por lo que el conocimiento de la fisiología, fisiopatología y el tratamiento de las patologías otorrinolaringológicas asociadas deben ser conocidas a medida que este deporte se vuelve cada vez más popular. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre las distintas afecciones otorrinolaringológicas con el fin de sistematizarlas y elaborar recomendaciones para establecer una práctica segura.


Recreational diving is an increasingly popular practice in the world; however, it is not without risks. As a dive progresses, the diver is susceptible to a series of pressure changes that affect the air-containing cavities, such as the ear, paranasal cavities, and lungs. There is a large spectrum of pathologies associated with diving, most of them being explained by associated barotrauma, the severity of which depends on the magnitude of the associated damage, could present local manifestations, as well as at systemic level. Otological pathologies are usually the most frequent and the main reason for consultation in this type of patients, however, otoneurological, rhinosinusal, airway and systemic conditions can be common depending on each diving profile. Currently there are no local recommendations on this practice, therefore, knowledge of the physiology, pathophysiology and treatment of associated otorhinolaryngological pathologies should be known as this sport becomes increasingly popular. A review of the literature on the different ear, nose and throat conditions was carried out in order to systematize them and develop recommendations to establish a safe practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology , Barotrauma/etiology , Diving/adverse effects , Diving/physiology , Diving/education , Ear, Middle/injuries , Ear, Inner/injuries
10.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 452-457, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936233

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube based on Chinese digital visual human dataset, and the deformation and pressure changes of the middle ear-eustachian tube system after eustachian tube opening are simulated by computer numerical simulation. Methods: The first female Chinese Digital Visual Human data was adopted. The images were imported by Amira image processing software, and the images were segmented by Geomagic software to form a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube system, including eustachian tube, tympanum, tympanic membrane, auditory ossicles, and mastoid air cells system. The 3D model was imported into Hypermesh software for meshing and analysis. The structural mechanics calculation was carried out by Abaqus, and gas flow was simulated by Xflow. The tissue deformation and middle ear pressure changes during eustachian tube opening were numerically simulated by fluid-solid coupling algorithm. Several pressure monitoring points including tympanum, mastoid, tympanic isthmus, and external auditory canal were set up in the model, and the pressure changes of each monitoring point were recorded and compared. Results: In this study, a three-dimensional model of middle ear-eustachian tube and a numerical simulation model of middle ear ventilation were established, including eustachian tube, tympanum, mastoid air cells, tympanic membrane, and auditory ossicles. The dynamic changes of the model after ventilation could be divided into five stages according to the pressure. In addition, the pressure changes of tympanum and tympanic isthmus were basically synchronous, and the pressure changes of mastoid air cells system were later than that of tympanum and tympanic isthmus, which verified the pressure buffering effect of mastoid. The extracted pressure curve of the external auditory canal was basically consistent with that of tympanometry in terms of value and trend, which verified the effectiveness of the model. Conclusions: The numerical simulation model of middle ear-eustachian tube ventilation established in this paper can simulate the tissue deformation and middle ear pressure changes after eustachian tube opening, and its accuracy and effectiveness are also verified. This not only lays a foundation for further research, but also provides a new research method for the study of middle ear ventilation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , China , Ear, Middle , Eustachian Tube , Human Body , Middle Ear Ventilation
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379057

ABSTRACT

La audición funcional ­para fines prácticos­ consiste en la posibilidad de despertar sensaciones precisas en regiones específicas del cerebro, a partir del procesamiento y extracción de mensajes ocultos en los cambios en la presión de las moléculas del aire que nos rodea. Medir la funcionalidad de la audición en un ser humano se convierte en un reto titánico que implica que nuestra vida profesional transcurra analizando información tanto subjetiva como objetiva de nuestros pacientes, ambas con un valor diagnóstico innegable. En cuanto a la primera, la historia clínica, las observaciones de la conducta auditiva del paciente, los reportes de la casa, la escuela y la terapia, o de estudios como la audiometría tonal y la logoaudiometría, resultan fundamentales no solo para el diagnóstico, sino para el seguimiento de nuestros pacientes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los pacientes más pequeños, o ante la necesidad de evaluar aspectos como la presión del oído medio, la función de las células ciliadas, o la presencia de microfónica coclear, la utilidad de esas herramientas subjetivas se encuentra limitada y entonces los registros, trazos, curvas y cifras relativas a intensidades, presiones, latencias, frecuencias, amplitudes y demás datos obtenidos a través de estudios objetivos, son los recursos que usamos para diagnosticar e iniciar la habilitación o rehabilitación de nuestros pacientes.


Functional hearing ­ for practical purposes ­ consists of the possibility of awakening precise sensations in specific regions of the brain from the processing and extraction of hidden messages in changes in the pressure of the molecules of the air that surrounds us. Measuring the functionality of hearing in a human being becomes a titanic challenge that implies that our professional life is spent analyzing both subjective and objective information from our patients, both with an undeniable diagnostic value: as for the first, the clinical history, observations of the patient's listening behavior, reports from home, school and therapy, or studies such as pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry, are essential not only for diagnosis but also for the follow-up of our patients. However, in the case of smaller patients, or when faced with the need to evaluate aspects such as middle ear pressure, hair cell function, or the presence of cochlear microphonics; The usefulness of these subjective tools is limited and therefore the records, traces, curves and figures related to intensities, pressures, latencies, frequencies, amplitudes and other data obtained through objective studies are the resources we use to diagnose and start the investigation. rehabilitation or rehabilitation of our patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Audiometry , Audiology , Hearing , Audiometry, Speech , Brain , Audiology/methods , Ear, Middle , Cerebrum
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 283-289, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The prevalence of middle ear disease and its risk factors have been the subject of multiple studies. High prevalence of middle ear disease has been described among North American natives, especially chronic otitis media. Such studies have not been carried out in South America. Objective To describe the prevalence of middle ear pathology and risk factors in native schoolchildren from southern Chile who belong to the Mapuche ethnic group, as well as the impact of socio-economic and demographic changes after 14 years of development. Material and methods Two otologic evaluations with an interval of 14 years were performed in schoolchildren with a percentage of indigenous population above 85%. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from national official statistical data. Results A total of 1067 schoolchildren were examined. Many described risk factors for ear pathology were found. An overall prevalence of 0.19% for tympanic membrane perforation, 5.6% for pars tensa retraction pockets, 1.5% for pars flaccida retraction pockets and 11.1% of otitis media with effusion was found. There were several socioeconomic improvements after 14 years. The difference between the prevalence of symptoms and the presence of otitis media with effusion was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Despite the presence of several risk factors for middle ear disease, this study population showed a low prevalence of middle ear disease. The ethnic-racial factor seems to be a protective factor.


Resumo Introdução A prevalência de doenças da orelha média e seus fatores de risco já foram objeto de múltiplos estudos. A alta prevalência dessas doenças foi descrita entre os nativos da América do Norte, principalmente a otite média crônica. Tais estudos não foram feitos na América do Sul. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência de doenças da orelha média e fatores de risco em crianças de idade escolar, nativos do sul do Chile pertencentes à etnia Mapuche, bem como o impacto de mudanças socioeconômicas e demográficas após 14 anos de desenvolvimento. Método Foram feitas duas avaliações otológicas com intervalo de 14 anos em escolares com percentual da população indígena acima de 85%. Dados socioeconômicos e demográficos foram coletados a partir de dados estatísticos oficiais nacionais. Resultados Foram examinados 1.067 escolares. Foram encontrados diversos fatores de risco descritos para doença otológica. Foi encontrada uma prevalência geral de 0,19% para perfuração da membrana timpânica, 5,6% para retrações da pars tensa, 1,5% para retração da pars flácida e 11,1% de otite média com efusão. Houve várias melhorias socioeconômicas após 14 anos. A diferença entre a prevalência de sintomas e a presença de otite média com efusão foi estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Conclusões Apesar da presença de vários fatores de risco para doença da orelha média, a população estudada apresentou baixa prevalência da doença. O fator étnico parece ser protetor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Otitis Media with Effusion/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Population Groups , Ear, Middle , Membranes
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 527-532, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385347

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en la placa timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura es escasa, generando controversias entre de los anatomistas que la han descrito. El epónimo Huschke, anatomista alemán, quien ha sido mencionado como el primero en observarla en 1844. Sin embargo, existen antecedentes de que dicha característica ósea fue previamente descrita por otros autores casi 200 años antes. La actual denominación, dehiscencia timpánica, fue dada en 1878 por Bürkner, siendo aceptada hasta el día de hoy. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar un análisis histórico de la descripción morfológica de la dehiscencia timpánica en la literatura anatómica especializada.


SUMMARY: Tympanic dehiscence or Huschke's Foramen is considered a minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic, transitory morphological cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone, whose expression is considered physiological up to 5 years of age. The mention of this feature in the literature is scarce, generating controversy among the anatomists who have described it. The eponymous Huschke, a German anatomist, who has been mentioned as the first to observe it in 1844. However, there is a history that this bone characteristic was previously described by other authors almost 200 years earlier. The current name, tympanic dehiscence, was given in 1878 by Bürkner, being accepted until today. The objective of this article is to carry out a historical analysis of the morphological description of tympanic dehiscence in specialized anatomical literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Anatomy/history
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e167-e170, abril 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152119

ABSTRACT

La fístula perilinfática de causa traumática es una patología poco habitual. En general, es causada por lápices, hisopos, hebillas de pelo y fósforos.Dentro de los síntomas más frecuentes, los pacientes pueden presentar hipoacusia y vértigo. Su diagnóstico requiere un examen físico completo que incluya otomicroscopía, audiometría ytomografía computada de ambos peñascos. El tratamiento depende de la sintomatología del paciente. En general, en un principio, es conservador, pero puede llegar a requerir cirugía. Se presenta un caso clínico de un niño de 6 años con fístula perilinfática secundaria a un traumatismo del oído izquierdo por un hisopo, que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico


Traumatic perilymphatic fistula is an unusual pathology. Generally caused by pencils, swabs, hair buckles, and matches. Among the most frequent symptoms, patients can present hearing loss and vertigo.Diagnosis requires a complete physical examination that includes otomicroscopy, audiometry and computed tomography of both boulders. Treatment depends on the patient's symptoms. In general, it is conservative at first, but may require surgery.We present a clinical case of a 6-year-old boy with perilymphatic fistula secondary to left ear trauma due to swab, which required surgical treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Perilymph , Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Wounds and Injuries , Ear, Middle , Fistula/surgery
16.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 24-27, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973943

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the stage of middle ear cholesteatoma of patients who underwent middle ear surgery at the Southern Philippines Medical Center from January to December 2019, based on European Academy of Otology and Neurotology / Japan Otological Society (EAONO/JOS) system.@*Methods@#Design: Case Series. Setting: Tertiary Government Hospital. Participants: A total of 42 charts were included in the study.@*Results@#Of the 42 cases evaluated, congenital cholesteatoma was seen in 4 while acquired cholesteatoma was noted in 38, (further subdivided into 34 retraction pocket cholesteatoma and 4 non-retraction pocket/traumatic cholesteatoma). A majority (57%) had Stage II cholesteatoma (mass occupying at least two sub-sites in the middle ear) at the time of surgery. Eight (19%) had stage I cholesteatoma (confined to one sub-site), five (12%) had stage III cholesteatoma evidenced by extracranial complications such as subperiosteal abscess and erosion of the semi[1]circular canals. Stage IV cholesteatoma was seen in 5 (12%) presenting with intracranial abscess. Canal wall down mastoidectomy was the most common surgical approach performed. The sinus tympani (S2 ) was the most commonly involved difficult to access site across all classifications of middle ear cholesteatoma (60%). @*Conclusion@#Our study provided an initial profile of the stages and severity of middle ear cholesteatoma in our institution based on actual surgical approaches. Such a profile can be the nidus for a database that can help us to understand disease prevalence and compare local surgical practices with those in the international community.


Subject(s)
Cholesteatoma , Cholesteatoma , Ear, Middle , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear
17.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 806-811, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942527

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conclude the clinical features and the postoperative efficacy of congenital middle ear malformation treated with Malleostapedotomy (MS), and to explore the security and effectiveness of MS surgery. Methods: The clinical data of 17 patients (18 ears) with congenital middle ear malformation undergoing MS procedure were analyzed. There were 10 males (11 ears) and 7 females (7 ears), aged from 7 to 48 years. The imaging examination, pure-tone audiometry, intraoperative findings and postoperative hearing improvement of these patients were analyzed and summarized, and software SPSS23.0 was used for statistical analysis. Rusults All the 17 patients (18 ears) presented with hearing loss since childhood on the affected sides. Preoperative high resolution CT (HRCT) of the temporal bone revealed definite malformations in 9 ears (6 ears with incus long process dysplasia and 3 ears with anterior and posterior crus dysplasia). Before surgery, the mean bone conductive hearing threshold at 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 Hz was (15.6±10.2) dB HL, the mean air conductive hearing threshold was (60.6±9.7) dB HL, and the mean air-bone gap was (45.0±8.9) dB. During the surgery, all 18 ears were found to be accompanied by absence or hypoplasia of incus long process. 12 ears had stapes fixation, 6 ears had oval window atresia. All patients were treated with MS procedure by using Piston. The patients were followed up for 3 months to 1 year. The mean bone conductive hearing threshold was (14.7±8.8) dB HL. The mean air conductive hearing threshold was (37.7±11.6) dB HL, and the mean air-bone gap was (23.0±8.0) dB. There were statistically significant differences in the mean air conductive hearing threshold and mean air-bone gap before and after surgery (P<0.05). While there were no statistically significant differences in the mean bone conductive hearing threshold before and after surgery (P=0.550). Conclusions: MS procedure is safe and reliable in patients with congenital middle ear malformation of incus long process dysplasia, stapes fixation or oval window atresia. HRCT is useful in evaluating the major deformity of ossicular chain and facial nerve deformity. However, it is not enough to evaluate the joint of incus-stapes and oval window atresia. MS surgery in middle ear malformation requires advanced surgical experience and skills. The hearing improvement can be significant, even though some air-bone gap after surgery exist.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Ear Ossicles , Ear, Middle/surgery , Hearing Loss, Conductive/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stapes , Treatment Outcome
18.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 596-602, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942486

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of the inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway-γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT on the ultrastructures of middle ear in the ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated allergic OME in vivo. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 250-300 g, were completely and randomly divided into three groups (5 rats, 10 ears in each group):(1)Control group(2)OME group(3)OME+DAPT group. Rats in the OME group underwent systemic and local sensitization by intraperitoneal and intratympanic injection of ovalbumin to make the model of OVA-induced OME. Rats in the control group were sensitized with PBS. On the basis of establishing the OME model, OME+DAPT group were intraperitoneal injected with DAPT (10 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days and were administered before intratympanic injection of ovalbumin. After the model was successfully established, endoscopy,H&E staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the histology and mucous-ciliary ultrastructures of the non-ciliated and ciliated mucosa in the middle ear of each group. One-way ANOVA and Tukey methods were used for statistical analysis. Results: H&E staining showed that the three groups had statistically significant differences in submucosal thickness both in non-ciliated and ciliated regions (non-ciliated area:(6.83±1.47)μm, (38.58±9.57)μm, (32.17±11.89)μm, respectively. F=107.9;cilia area:(26.69±3.22)μm, (30.41±6.75)μm, (26.76±4.06)μm, respectively. F=5.62,both P<0.01). The thickness of the submucosa in the non-ciliated area and the cilia area of the OME group were significantly thicker than that of control group (F=42.08 and 4.40,both P<0.05); the thickness of the non-ciliated area and the ciliated area in OME+DAPT group were reduced compared to OME group(F=1.55 and 2.77,both P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the array of cilia on the middle ear mucosa was disorderly arranged and inversed, this phenomenon was relieved in the OME+DAPT group. The number of goblet cells in the control group, OME group, and OME+DAPT group were 9.87±1.92; 15.67±5.77; 10.33±1.99 respectively and the difference between them was statistically significant (F=11.43, P<0.01). The number of goblet cells in the OME group were significantly higher than those in the control group (F=9.00,P<0.01) and the number of goblet cells in the OME+DAPT group were decreased compared to those of OME group (F=8.41, P<0.01). Conclusions: The study demonstrates the pathological changes of the ultrastructure in middle ear in OVA-induced OME and the effect of the γ-secretase inhibitor on it. In OME group, the cilia are disorderly arranged and inversed, the number of goblet cell is increased and they are swelled which suggest the hypersecretion of the mucus. DAPT can regulate OVA-induced allergic inflammation and relieve pathological changes of ultrastructure in middle ear mucociliary transport system through alleviating submucosal inflammation, reducing the hypersecretion of goblet cell and the morphological damage of cilia through the Notch signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Ear, Middle , Otitis Media with Effusion/drug therapy , Ovalbumin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 586-589, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942484

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the middle ear function of the patients with cleft palate pre and post palatoplasty. Methods: 76 patients with cleft palate were investigated by clinical history and audiology examinations including electric otoscopy,tympanometry and click-ABR threshold. Results: The risk for middle ear function decreased with advancing age in the first 5 years. It was noticed that the otologic outcomes was related to the CP type. During long time follow-up, the frequency with the middle ear function disorder was always high within the CP patients but the proportion of the patients received tympanostomy tubes was low relatively. The prevalence of middle ear dysfunction did not differ with the time of cleft palate repair. Conclusion: The patients with cleft palate have middle ear function dysfunction in a long period of time,therefore a standard long-time follow-up system is necessary.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Cleft Palate/surgery , Ear, Middle , Middle Ear Ventilation , Otitis Media with Effusion/surgery
20.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 273-279, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942424

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, intervention and treatment of tympanic osteoma at different locations. Methods: The medical history, audiological and imaging examination, operation and follow-up results of two patients with tympanic osteoma at different sites were reviewed and summarized. Furthermore, the clinical characteristics and interventions of 36 patients reported in literatures with tympanic osteomas were also summarized and analyzed. Results: Osteoma of the two patients collected in this study located at promontory and incus respectively;both of them presented with intact tympanum and conductive deafness, without obvious etiology or predisposing factor. Both of them underwent surgeries and the hearing improved significantly. For patient one, the ossicular chain was intact and restored to activity after removed the osteoma. For patient two, an artificial ossicle was implanted after removed the osteoma and incus. In the 36 patients reported in literatures, the average age was 26.5 years, and 39.47% of them located at promontory; in addition, the main symptoms of them were progressive hearing loss, tinnitus and ear stuffy. Conclusions: Patients with tympanic osteoma are characterized by conduction deafness with intact tympanic membrane, and the most common lesion is promontory. Hearing can be restored by excision of the osteoma and maintenance or reconstruction of the ossicle chain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ear Ossicles/surgery , Ear, Middle/surgery , Hearing Loss, Conductive/surgery , Osteoma/surgery , Tympanic Membrane
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