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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 23-32, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365752

ABSTRACT

Abstract Supracondylar humeral fracture represents ~ 3 to 15% of all fractures in children. It is the fracture that most requires surgical treatment in the pediatric population. Advances in treatment and care have contributed to a reduction in the most dramatic complication: Volkmann ischemic contracture. Nevertheless, the risks inherent to the fracture remain. Absence of palpable pulse in type-III fractures is reported in up to 20% of the cases. Careful sensory, motor, and vascular evaluation of the affected limb is crucial in determining the urgency of treatment. Older children, male patients, floating elbow, and neurovascular injury are risk factors for compartment syndrome. Medial comminution can lead to varus malunion, even in apparently innocent cases. The recommended treatment of displaced fractures is closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Technical errors in pin placement are the main cause of loss of reduction. There is enough evidence for the addition of a third lateral or medial Kirschner wire in unstable fractures (types III and IV). Medial comminution may lead to cubitus varus even in mild displaced fractures. Based on current concepts, a flowchart for the treatment of supracondylar humeral fracture in children is suggested by the authors.


Resumo A fratura supracondiliana do úmero representa cerca de 3 a 15% de todas as fraturas na criança, sendo a que mais requer tratamento cirúrgico na população pediátrica. Apesar de os avanços no tratamento e na assistência terem contribuído para uma redução drástica da complicação mais temida, a contratura isquêmica de Volkmann, os riscos inerentes à fratura permanecem. Ausência de pulso palpável em fraturas tipo III é reportada em até 20% dos casos. Uma cuidadosa avaliação sensitiva, motora e vascular do membro acometido é fundamental na determinação da urgência do tratamento. Crianças mais velhas, sexo masculino, cotovelo flutuante, e lesão neurovascular são fatores de risco para a síndrome de compartimento. A cominuição medial pode levar à consolidação em varo, mesmo nos casos aparentemente inocentes. O método de escolha para o tratamento da fratura desviada é a redução fechada e fixação percutânea. Os erros na fixação e posicionamento inadequado dos implantes são as principais causas de perda de redução. Já existem evidências suficientes para a utilização de um terceiro fio de Kirschner, lateral ou medial, nas fraturas instáveis (tipo III e IV). Baseado nos conceitos atuais, um fluxograma para o tratamento da fratura supracondiliana do úmero na criança é sugerido pelos autores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Elbow/injuries , Fracture Fixation , Humeral Fractures/classification , Humeral Fractures/complications , Humeral Fractures/therapy
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 518-522, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: There were many constraints produced by training time and joint injury to analyze the influence of the training intensity on the elbow and knee joints of athletes during the training process. Methods: An improved algorithm-based master component analysis (PCA) modeling method is proposed .1 4 4 athletes were selected in xxx and compared in three groups. Results: The improved PCA models for injury prediction were applied to athletes from group A, the traditional injury models for prediction were adopted for athletes from group B, and athletes from group C received the hospital physical examinations. The results showed that the accuracy of elbow injury in group A due to excessive exercise was 66.86%, the accuracy of hospital physical examination in group C was 67%, and the accuracy of the traditional algorithm in group B was 50%, finding that the accuracy of group A was obviously different from group B (P < 0.05). Compared with other injuries caused by excessive friction, the detection accuracy of knee injuries caused by excessive friction in group A was 62%, that in group B was 44%, and that in group C was 63%. There was a statistically marked difference between groups A and B (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A PCA - based model of athletes' overtraining injury has high accuracy and adaptability, predicting elbow injury. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Objetivo: Houve uma grande quantidade de restrições produzidas pelo tempo de treinamento e lesão articular a fim de analisar a influência da intensidade do treinamento nas articulações do cotovelo e joelho dos atletas durante o processo de treinamento. Métodos: É proposto um método de modelagem aprimorado de análise de componentes mestre (PCA) baseado em algoritmo .1 4 4 atletas foram selecionados em xxx e comparados em três grupos. Resultados: Os modelos aprimorados de PCA para previsão de lesões foram aplicados a atletas do grupo A, os modelos tradicionais de lesões para previsão foram adotados para atletas do grupo B e os atletas do grupo C receberam os exames físicos hospitalares. Os resultados mostraram que a acurácia da lesão de cotovelo no grupo A devido ao exercício excessivo foi de 66,86%, a acurácia do exame físico hospitalar no grupo C foi de 67% e a acurácia do algoritmo tradicional no grupo B foi de 50%, achando que a acurácia do grupo A era obviamente diferente do grupo B (P <0,05). Em comparação com outras lesões causadas por atrito excessivo, a precisão de detecção de lesões no joelho causadas por atrito excessivo no grupo A foi de 62%, no grupo B foi de 44% e no grupo C foi de 63%. Houve uma diferença estatisticamente marcada entre os grupos A e B (P <0,05). Conclusões: Um modelo baseado na PCA de lesão por overtraining em atletas tem alta precisão e adaptabilidade, o que pode prever lesões de cotovelo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Hubo una gran cantidad de restricciones producidas por el tiempo de entrenamiento y la lesión articular para analizar la influencia de la intensidad del entrenamiento en las articulaciones del codo y la rodilla de los atletas durante el proceso de entrenamiento. Métodos: Se propone un método mejorado de modelado de análisis de componentes maestros (PCA) basado en algoritmos .1 4 Se seleccionaron 4 atletas en xxx y se compararon en tres grupos. Resultados: Los modelos mejorados de PCA para la predicción de lesiones se aplicaron a los atletas del grupo A, los modelos tradicionales de predicción de lesiones se adoptaron para los atletas del grupo B y los atletas del grupo C recibieron los exámenes físicos hospitalarios. Los resultados mostraron que la precisión de la lesión del codo en el grupo A por ejercicio excesivo fue del 66,86%, la precisión del examen físico hospitalario en el grupo C fue del 67% y la precisión del algoritmo tradicional en el grupo B fue del 50%, encontrando que la precisión del grupo A fue obviamente diferente del grupo B (P <0.05). En comparación con otras lesiones causadas por fricción excesiva, la precisión de detección de las lesiones de rodilla causadas por fricción excesiva en el grupo A fue del 62%, en el grupo B del 44% y en el grupo C del 63%. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente marcada entre el grupo A y B (P <0.05). Conclusiones: Un modelo basado en PCA de la lesión por sobreentrenamiento de los atletas tiene una alta precisión y adaptabilidad, lo que puede predecir la lesión del codo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Exercise , Elbow/injuries , Knee Injuries/diagnosis , Algorithms , Principal Component Analysis , Forecasting
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 142-145, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363958

ABSTRACT

Os retalhos cutâneos são técnicas de escolha para reconstrução de grandes defeitos. Objetivou-se relatar o emprego do retalho de padrão axial da artéria torácica lateral em paciente com ferida cirúrgica ocasionada imediatamente após exérese de neoformação na região da articulação do cotovelo. Foi atendido paciente canino macho, 10 anos, pesando 12 kg, apresentando neoformação em tecidos moles, de grande volume, localizada na região medial do cotovelo. Como tratamento definitivo, implementou-se a exérese marginal da neoplasma seguida de reconstrução com a técnica de retalho de padrão axial da artéria torácica lateral. A técnica possibilitou completa síntese e oclusão do defeito, obtendo-se ótima recuperação pós operatória, não sendo observada deiscência de sutura ou necrose do retalho. Conclui-se que a implementação do retalho da artéria torácica lateral foi uma técnica viável na reconstrução em cotovelo após a exérese do neoplasma no paciente relatado, observando resultados satisfatórios quanto aos aspectos funcionais e cosméticos, após o período cicatricial.


Skin flaps are suitable methods of wound closure in large cutaneous defects. I The present study aims to report the use of lateral thoracic axial pattern flap to repair an elbow wound secondary to a neoplasm resection. A 10-year-old male dog weighing 12 kg was presented with a large soft tissue neoplasm in the medial aspect of the elbow. The patient underwent surgical resection of the neoplasm using the lateral thoracic cutaneous flap to achieve a complete defect closure, resulting in an excellent postoperative wound healing without suture failure or skin flap necrosis. It is concluded that the implementation of the lateral thoracic artery flap was a viable technique in elbow reconstruction after neoplasm excision in the reported patient, with satisfactory results regarding functional and cosmetic aspects after the healing period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/veterinary , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/veterinary , Dogs/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps/veterinary , Surgery, Veterinary , Thoracic Arteries/surgery , Elbow , Surgical Wound/veterinary
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e133-e137, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152033

ABSTRACT

Si bien el codo es la articulación más frecuentemente luxada en niños, representa el 3-6 % de las lesiones en ese sitio. Las luxaciones sin fracturas asociadas son muy raras y son producto de una caída con el codo en extensión. El paciente consulta por dolor, impotencia funcional y deformidad evidente. La finalidad del tratamiento es restaurar la congruencia articular, lograr estabilidad y minimizar los riesgos de posibles lesiones neurovasculares.Se presentan 4 pacientes tratados con manejo conservador con excelentes resultados funcionales, incluso aquel que presentó una neuropraxia del mediano con restitución ad integrum.Según nuestra experiencia, suelen ser lesiones con buena evolución. Se destaca la importancia de un rápido y preciso examen neurovascular, optando, de ser posible, por una conducta expectante ante las lesiones nerviosas. Se resalta la indicación de una inmovilización acotada con movilización temprana que evite rigidez del codo.


Even though the elbow is the most often dislocated joint in children, this injury accounts for 3-6 % of elbow pathology. Dislocations without associated fractures are extremely rare. They result from a fall onto an outstretched hand. The patient is always referred with a painful joint, movement impairment and even clinical deformity. Acute treatment aims to achieve quick reduction and adequate joint stability, avoiding neurovascular injuries.We sought to analyze the functional outcomes and the complications after non-operative treatment. Our 4 patien had excellent functional results at the latest follow-up, and one of them suffered from a median nerve palsy without further consequences.In our experience, these injuries presented excellent outcomes and we would like to highlight the importance of a quick and precise neurovascular examination with the possibility of non-surgical management of nerve injuries. A short period of immobilization with early rehabilitation should be indicated to avoid joint stiffness


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Joint Dislocations/therapy , Joint Dislocations/diagnostic imaging , Aftercare , Joint Dislocations/complications , Elbow
5.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(1): e150, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251675

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia renal crónica es una enfermedad frecuente que requiere del uso vital de la hemodiálisis, procedimiento común en los pacientes que la padecen, por lo cual resulta necesario disponer de un acceso vascular adecuado. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con fístulas arterio-venosas para hemodiálisis en el Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico "General Freyre de Andrade". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo en 88 pacientes con fístulas arterio-venosas. Se recogieron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, tipo de acceso vascular, localización, complicaciones inmediatas y tardías, y procedimiento corrector. El período de estudio abarcó desde enero de 2018 hasta enero de 2019. Resultados: Se les realizaron a los pacientes un total de 88 fístulas arterio-venosas. Predominó el sexo masculino (67 por ciento). Prevaleció el grupo de edades de 50 a 59 años (36,4 por ciento). La fístula arterio-venosa humero-cefálica (48,9 por ciento) resultó el procedimiento más realizado. El hematoma, la trombosis y la infección fueron las complicaciones inmediatas con mayor frecuencia (3,4 por ciento). De las complicaciones tardías, predominó la trombosis (3,4 por ciento), mientras que la trombectomía prevaleció como procedimiento corrector (37,5 por ciento). Conclusiones: Como parte del acceso vascular, la fístula humero-cefálica presentó los mejores resultados en cuanto a permeabilidad y durabilidad. Por otra parte, la fístula humero-humeral constituyó una alternativa cuando no se pudieron usar las venas cefálica y basílica a nivel del pliegue del codo(AU)


Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is a frequent condition that demands the vital use of hemodialysis, a common procedure in patients who suffer from it; therefore, it is necessary to have adequate vascular access. Objective: To characterize patients with arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis at General Freyre de Andrade Clinical-Surgical Hospital. Methods: A descriptive-retrospective study was carried out in 88 patients with arteriovenous fistulas. The following variables were selected: age, sex, type of vascular access, location, immediate and late complications, and corrective procedure. The study period covered from January 2018 to January 2019. Results: A total of 88 arteriovenous fistulas were approached among all the patients. The male sex predominated (67 percent). The age group 50-59 years (36.4 percent) prevailed. The procedure for creating a humeral cephalic arteriovenous fistula (48.9 percent) was the most performed. Hematoma, thrombosis and infection were the immediate complications with the highest frequency (3.4 percent). Among late complications, thrombosis prevailed (3.4 percent); while thrombectomy prevailed as a corrective procedure (37.5 percent). Conclusions: As part of vascular access, the procedure for creating humeral cephalic fistula presented the best outcome in terms of patency and durability. On the other hand, the procedure for creating the humeral fistula was an alternative when the cephalic and basilic veins could not be used at the level of the elbow crease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thrombosis , Veins , Renal Dialysis , Thrombectomy , Elbow , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Vascular Access Devices , Fistula
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 195-200, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285346

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy. There is little information about the application of F-wave studies for evaluation of UNE. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of minimum F-wave (F-min) latency alterations by comparing this with nerve conduction analyses in UNE-suspected patients. Methods: Ninety-four UNE-suspected patients were admitted to this study. Sensory and motor nerve conduction and F-wave analyses on the median and ulnar nerves were performed on both upper extremities. Results: A total of 188 upper extremities of 94 patients were examined. Their mean age was 41.4±12.9 years, and 69 patients were female (73.4%). The mean ulnar-nerve across-elbow motor conduction velocity (MCV) in the affected arms was significantly slower than the velocity in healthy arms. The mean ulnar-nerve F-min latencies were significantly longer in the affected arms. Fifty-one patients were electrophysiologically diagnosed as presenting UNE (54.2%). Significantly slower mean ulnar-nerve across-elbow MCV, longer mean ulnar-nerve F-min latency and longer distal onset latency were detected in UNE-positive arms. Lastly, patients who were symptomatic but had normal nerve conduction were evaluated separately. Only the mean ulnar F-min latency was significantly longer in this group, compared with the healthy arms. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of F-min latency measurements in the electrodiagnosis of UNE. F-wave latency differences can help in making an early diagnosis to provide better treatment options.


RESUMO Introdução: A neuropatia ulnar do cotovelo (NUC) é a segunda neuropatia por encarceramento mais comum. Existem poucas informações sobre a aplicação dos estudos da onda F para avaliação da NUC. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o valor diagnóstico das alterações mínimas de latência da onda F (F-min), comparando-as com análises de condução nervosa em pacientes com suspeita de NUC. Métodos: Noventa e quatro pacientes com suspeita de NUC foram admitidos neste estudo. A condução nervosa sensitiva e motora e as análises da onda F nos nervos mediano e ulnar foram realizadas em ambas as extremidades superiores. Resultados: Um total de 188 membros superiores de 94 pacientes foi examinado. A média de idade foi 41,4±12,9 anos e 69 pacientes eram do sexo feminino (73,4%). A velocidade de condução motora média do nervo ulnar através do cotovelo (VCM) nos braços afetados foi significativamente mais lenta do que a velocidade em braços saudáveis. As latências médias F-min do nervo ulnar foram significativamente mais longas nos braços afetados. Cinquenta e um pacientes foram diagnosticados eletrofisiologicamente como apresentando NUC (54,2%). Pacientes com presença de NUC tiveram, de forma significativa, detecção de VCM mais lenta no nervo ulnar ao nível do cotovelo, presença de latência mais longa da onda F-mínima no nervo ulnar, bem como latência de início distal mais longa. Por fim, os pacientes sintomáticos, e com condução nervosa normal, foram avaliados separadamente. Apenas a latência da onda F mínima média do nervo ulnar foi significativamente maior neste grupo, em comparação com os braços saudáveis. Conclusão: Nosso estudo confirmou a utilidade das medidas de latência da onda F-mínima no eletrodiagnóstico da NUC. As diferenças de latência da onda F podem ajudar a fazer um diagnóstico precoce para fornecer melhores opções de tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ulnar Neuropathies/diagnosis , Elbow , Ulnar Nerve , Electrodiagnosis , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 14-19, jan./mar. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1368321

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to report a long term follow up of a congenital luxation of the radial head (CLRH) case of a young Bulldog treated by radio head ostectomy (RHO). CLRH is an uncommon condition in dogs, but it is the most commom form of elbow dislocation (grade I). An English Bulldog, male, 6 months, 14 kilograms, was suspected of elbow dislocation. Physical examination revealed a lateral proeminence on the lateral surface of the right elbow, as well as grade I lameness and mild pain. Range of motion was normal. Previous radiographs and tomography confirmed CLHR. RHO was chosen instead of corrective techniques, due to the age of the animal at the time of the procedure and the difficulty in repositioning the radial head in the joint. Three and a half years after surgery, new clinical and radiographic examaminations were performed. The patient had no pain, good limb support and good range of motion, allowing good elbow movement. There was a partial regrowth of the proximal segment of the radial head causing better readjustment of it in the joint. Mild signs of joint degeneration were present. RHO proved to be effective in this case, proving to be a good technique to be used in cases of CLRH when conservative treatment or reduction techniques can no longer be used.


O objetivo deste relato foi o de apresentar o acompanhamento tardio de um caso de luxação congênita de cabeça de rádio (LCCR) em um Buldog Inglês jovem, tratada por ostectomia da cabeça radial (OCR). A LCCR é uma condição incomum nos cães, mas é a forma mais comum de luxação de cotovelo nos mesmos (grau I). Um Bulldog Inglês, macho, 6 meses, 14 quilos, foi atendido com suspeita de luxação do cotovelo. Exame físico revelou uma proeminência na superfície lateral do cotovelo direito, além de claudicação grau I e dor leve. Amplitude de movimento apresentava-se normal. Radiografias e tomografia prévias confirmaram LCCR. Optou-se pela OCR ao invés de técnicas corretivas, devido à idade do animal à época do procedimento e à dificuldade no reposicionamento do rádio na articulação. Após 3 anos e meio de pós-operatório, foram realizados novos exames clínicos e radiográficos. O paciente não apresentava dor, apresentava bom apoio do membro e boa amplitude de movimento, permitindo bom movimento do cotovelo. Houve um novo crescimento parcial do segmento proximal da cabeça do rádio ocasionando melhor readequamento do mesmo na articulação. Sinais leves de degeneração articular estavam presentes. A OCR se mostrou efetiva neste caso, provando ser uma boa técnica a ser utilizada nos casos de LCCR quando tratamento conservativo ou técnicas de redução já não podem ser mais utilizados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Joint Dislocations/veterinary , Dogs/injuries , Elbow/surgery , Radius Fractures/veterinary , Surgery, Veterinary/methods , Continuity of Patient Care , Upper Extremity/surgery
8.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 279-284, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886354

ABSTRACT

@#INTRODUCTION: In patients with delayed presentation between 6 to 12 months, surgical treatment guidelines are not well defined in brachial plexus injury. Still, several authors have agreed that functional outcomes in patients treated within six months from the date of injury have the best results. Nerve transfers are still considered one of the treatment options in the said subset of patients even after six months. In contrast, a primary Steindler flexorplasty, or proximal advancement of the flexor-pronator group, is an ideal technique for elbow flexion with an elapsed time from injury >6 to 9 months. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to compare the clinical outcome s of nerve transfers versus modified Steindler flexorplasty for the restoration of elbow flexion in upper type brachial plexus injuries (BPI). METHODS: A retrospective review of 28 patients who underwent nerve transfers (NT) and 12 patients who underwent modified Steindler flexorplasty (MSF) was done to determine the outcome of treatments. The manual muscle testing using the Medical Research Council scaling system, Visual Analog Scale for pain, active range of motion, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand form scores were taken as dependent variables. RESULTS: The NT group had a median age of 27.5 years, with 26 men, a median surgical delay of 5.6 months, and a median follow-up of 33 months. Twenty out of 28 patients (71%) had ≥M3 with a median range of 117.6° elbow flexion motion. Median postoperative DASH (n=16) and VAS scores were 29.2 and 3, respectively. For the MSF patients, the median age was 27 years, including ten men, the median surgical delay was 12 months, and the median follow-up was 18.4 months. All the 12 patients had ≥M3, with a median range of motion of 106°. The median postoperative DASH score (n=5) and VAS score were 28.3 and 0, respectively. In the NT group, 73.3% (11/15) achieved ≥M3 elbow flexion if the operation was done in <6 months. CONCLUSION: Nerve transfers and the modified Steindler procedure are still excellent options for successful elbow flexion reanimation in patients with brachial plexus injuries. Our results also showed that those with surgical delays of less than six months had the highest rate of achieving ≥M3 elbow flexion strength in the nerve transfer group.


Subject(s)
Nerve Transfer , Elbow , Brachial Plexus , Elbow Joint , Range of Motion, Articular
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To quantitatively study the biomechanical parameters of Bachuorounian manipulation in the treatment of humeral epicondylitis, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics on the biomechanical parameters were discussed.@*METHODS@#From July 2019 to February 2020, 40 patients with external humeral epicondylitis were selected, including 18 males and 22 females, ranging in age from 20 to 50 years old, with an average of (34.37±8.41) years old;and the course of disease ranged from 1 to 11 months, with a mean of (6.05±2.71) months. The biomechanical parameters of the elbow joint of the affected side were measured by using the biomechanical sensor. At thesame time, the individual characteristic parameters of patients were collected to analyze the influence of different individual characteristics of patients on biomechanical parameters.@*RESULTS@#The results of mechanical analysis in each stage of the bachuorounian manipulation were as follows:the rolling back rotation force was (31.17±2.99) N;the buckling bending drawing force was (44.99±2.38) N;the rolling pre rotation force was (31.03±2.75) N;and stretching drawing force was (48.75±2.09) N. The correlation analysis between the parameters showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the buckling bending drawing force and the stretching drawing force parameters, and a significant positive correlation between the rolling force back-rotation force and the rolling pre-rotation force parameters. The multivariate linear regression analysis on the parameters of influencing factors and manipulative biomechanics showed that there was a significant correlation between body weight and rolling back-rotation force, significant correlation between elbow tenderness and the buckling bending drawing force, and significant correlation between disease duration and the stretching drawing force.@*CONCLUSION@#The bachuorounian manipulation of humeral epicondylitis has a certain range of operating force. Manipulation of each stage has a correlation and systematic. The patient's weight, elbow tenderness and disease course are important factors affecting the bachuorounian manipulation.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Elbow , Elbow Joint , Female , Humans , Humerus , Infant , Male , Tennis Elbow
10.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
11.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 34-43, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344612

ABSTRACT

Pain located in the lateral aspect of the elbow is a common cause of consultation in the trauma consultation. The most common cause is "lateral epicondylitis," however there are several differential diagnoses that may require different management. There is a case of radial tunnel syndrome secondary to extrinsic compression, with an emphasis on its diagnosis and surgical technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/diagnosis , Radial Neuropathy/surgery , Radial Neuropathy/diagnosis , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Radial Nerve , Synovial Cyst/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Combined Modality Therapy , Elbow , Elbow Joint , Pain Management , Injections, Intra-Articular , Neurologic Examination/methods
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 564-569, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144201

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To verify if the subjective elbow value (SEV) scale presents similar results to those of the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scale in the evaluation of patients with lateral elbow epicondylitis (LEE). Methods Thirty-seven patients were diagnosed with LEE in the outpatient service of our hospital through clinical history, physical examination, X-ray, and ultrasonography. The SEV and PRTEE scales were used and their results were compared using a significance level ≥ 5% (p ≥0.05). Results A statistically significant relationship was found between the values of SEV and PRTEE in the group of patients studied (p= 0.017). Conclusion Subjective elbow value presented similar results to PRTEE in the evaluation of patients with diagnosis of LEE.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar se a aplicação das escalas subjective elbow value (SEV) e Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) apresentam resultados similares na avaliação de pacientes com epicondilite lateral do cotovelo. Métodos Trinta e sete indivíduos com diagnostic de epicondilite lateral do cotovelo foram avaliados no ambulatório de cirurgia do ombro e cotovelo do nosso hospital. O diagnóstico foi realizado com a história clínica da patologia, exame físico, raio-x, e ultrassonográfia. Foram utilizadas as escalas SEV e PRTEE, e os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente, usando-se como nível de significância 5% (p ≥ 0,05). Resultados Encontramos uma relação estatisticamente significante entre os valores obtidos pelas escalas SEV e PRTEE quando aplicadas no grupo de pacientes portadores de epicondilite lateral (p= 0,017). Conclusão Subjective elbow value apresentou resultados similares ao PRTEE na avaliação de pacientes com diagnóstico de epicondilite lateral do cotovelo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Physical Examination , Shoulder , Tendons , Tennis Elbow , Ultrasonography , Elbow , Ambulatory Care
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 853-856, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124865

ABSTRACT

La arteria recurrente radial nace en el extremo proximal de la arteria radial y desde ahí asciende oblicuamente para anastomosarse con la arteria colateral radial, entregando en ese trayecto una serie de ramas para los músculos cercanos. Dicha arteria junto con sus ramas fueron descritas (por su importancia en abordajes quirúrgicos) por Arnold K. Henry como "the radial leash". Actualmente en clínica se utiliza el nombre "leash of Henry" para referirse a una o más ramas musculares de la arteria recurrente radial, sobretodo cuando cuando se encuentran en relación con el ramo profundo del nervio radial, pudiendo llegar a causar compresiones de dicho nervio en algunos casos. Se realizó una descripción de caso de una leash of Henry atípica, encontrada en una muestra cadavérica del laboratorio de anatomía de la Universidad Católica del Maule, de sexo masculino y nacionalidad chilena. La arteria encontrada corresponde a la rama de mayor calibre de la arteria recurrente radial, que se dirige directamente al músculo extensor de los dedos, dibujando un trayecto horizontal y cruzando por anterior al ramo profundo del nervio radial. Esta hallazgo difere a lo descrito por Henry y otros autores más recientes, y por lo tanto aporta información potencialmente útil a la hora de realizar procedimientos quirúrgicos que requieran un abordaje posterior o lateral de la cabeza del radio, como también descompresiones del nervio radial en esta zona.


The radial recurrent artery originates at the proximal end of the radial artery and from there ascends obliquely to anastomosing with the radial collateral artery. It gives off several branches for nearby muscles on its path. This artery along with its branches were described (due to its importance in surgical approaches) by Arnold K. Henry as "the radial leash". Currently, in clinical terms, the name "Leash of Henry" is used to refer to one or more muscular branches of the radial recurrent artery, especially when they are in relation to the deep branch of the radial nerve, and may cause compression of the nerve in some cases. A case description of an atypical Leash of Henry was found, found in a Chilean, male cadaveric sample of the anatomy laboratory, Universidad Católica del Maule. The artery corresponds to the branch of greater caliber of the recurrent radial artery, which goes directly to the extensor digitorum muscle. It draws a horizontal path and crosses the deep branch of the radial nerve anteriorly. This finding differs from what was described by Henry and other more recent authors. Therefore, this is potentially useful information when performing surgical procedures that require a posterior or lateral approach to the radius head, as well as radial nerve decompressions in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Radial Artery/anatomy & histology , Elbow/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Elbow/innervation , Elbow/blood supply , Anatomic Variation
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 429-433, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137200

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In patients with elbow fractures, when there is suspected injury to underlying nerves, it is imperative for surgeons to elicit the function in the immediate postoperative period. Brachial plexus blocks like interscalene, supraclavicular and infraclavicular approaches can be a hurdle in such situations. The block planned should allow assessment of integrity of the nerves immediately in the postoperative period. Case report: We describe two cases in which we administered a block not yet described in literature. We blocked the cutaneous and articular branches innervating the elbow under ultrasound guidance. General anesthesia was administered in both cases. The block provided stable intraoperative hemodynamics, good postoperative analgesia and also allowed surgeons to test the viability of the nerve. Conclusion: In situations where nerves are injured during elbow fractures, selective articular cutaneous block at elbow can be used as it provides good perioperative analgesia, besides allowing evaluation of motor and sensory components in the postoperative period.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Quando há suspeita de lesão nos nervos subjacentes em pacientes com fratura de cotovelo, é imperativo que o cirurgião estimule a função dos nervos no pós-operatório imediato. Bloqueios do plexo braquial com as técnicas interescalênica, supraclavicular e infraclavicular pode ser um obstáculo nessas situações. O bloqueio deve ser planejado de modo a permitir a avaliação da integridade dos nervos no pós-operatório imediato. Relato de caso: Descrevemos dois casos em que realizamos uma técnica de bloqueio ainda não descrito na literatura. Realizamos o bloqueio dos ramos cutâneo e articular de nervos que inervam o cotovelo com auxílio de ultrassonografia. Anestesia geral foi realizada nos dois casos. O bloqueio proporcionou estabilidade hemodinâmica intraoperatória, boa analgesia pós-operatória e também permitiu que os cirurgiões testassem a viabilidade do nervo. Conclusão: Em fraturas do cotovelo associadas à lesão de nervos, o bloqueio seletivo articular cutâneo do cotovelo pode ser utilizado, pois proporciona boa analgesia perioperatória, além de permitir a avaliação dos componentes motores e sensoriais no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Elbow/surgery , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Nerve Block/methods , Elbow/injuries , Anesthesia, General/methods
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 383-385, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138022

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fractures of the radial head account for over 50% of all fractures of the forearm. Broberg and Morrey (modification of the Mason classification) classify them in four types. Type 1 fractures are non-displaced or minimally displaced, considered stable and without mechanical joint blockage. In this type of fracture, a non-operative management with a short period of immobilization leads to a good clinical result without adverse outcomes. Clinically relevant associated lesions are not common. Because of this, arthritis of the radiocapitellar and ulnohumeral joint after the non-displaced radial head fracture is uncommon. This case report presents a young patient diagnosed with isolated non-displaced radial head fracture, that evolved 8 months later, to global arthritis of the elbow.


Resumo As fraturas da cabeça radial representam mais de 50% de todas as fraturas do antebraço. Broberg e Morrey (modificação da classificação de Mason) as classificam em quatro tipos. As fraturas do tipo 1 são aquelas não deslocadas ou minimamente deslocadas, consideradas estáveis e sem bloqueio mecânico das articulações. Nesse tipo de fratura, um manejo não operatório com um curto período de imobilização permite bom resultado clínico sem desfechos adversos. Lesões associadas clinicamente relevantes não são comuns. Por esse motivo, a artrite da articulação radiocapitelar e ulnoumeral após a fratura da cabeça do rádio não deslocada é incomum. Este relato de caso apresenta um paciente jovem com diagnóstico de fratura isolada da cabeça radial não deslocada que evoluiu, 8 meses depois, para artrite global do cotovelo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteoarthritis , Arthritis , Radius Fractures , Wounds and Injuries , Elbow , Fractures, Bone , Forearm , Immobilization
16.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 329-338, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138020

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To identify the clinical, radiological, and arthroscopic correlation of long head of the biceps tendon injuries and their influence on pain when associated with rotator cuff injuries. Methods Between April and December 2013, 50 patients were evaluated, including 38 (76%) women and 12 (24%) men, with a mean age of 65.1 years old. The patients were operated by the Shoulder and Elbow Group, Discipline of Sports Medicine, Orthopedics and Traumatology Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The subjects underwent repair of the rotator cuff lesion with clinical, radiological and/or arthroscopic evidence of involvement of the long head of the biceps tendon. Results An association between pain at palpation of the intertubercular groove of the humerus and high-grade partial lesions (partial rupture of the tendon affecting more than 50% of its structure) was observed at the arthroscopy (p = 0.003). There was also an association between the high-grade lesion of the long head of the biceps and injury to the supraspinatus muscle tendon (p < 0.05). For each centimeter of the supraspinatus muscle tendon injury, the patient presented a 1.7 higher probability of having a high-grade lesion at the long head of the biceps. Conclusion Pain at the anterior shoulder region during palpation of the intertubercular groove of the humerus may be related to high-grade lesions to the long head of the biceps. Rotator cuff injury and its size are risk factors for high-grade injuries to the long head of the biceps tendon.


Resumo Objetivo Identificar a correlação clínica, radiológica, e artroscópica das lesões do tendão da cabeça longa do bíceps e sua influência na dor do paciente quando associada às lesões do manguito rotador. Métodos Entre abril e dezembro de 2013, foram avaliados 50 pacientes, sendo 38 (76%) do sexo feminino e 12 (24%) do sexo masculino, com idade média de 65,1 anos. Os pacientes foram operados pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Disciplina de Medicina Esportiva do Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a reparo da lesão do manguito rotador com evidência clínica, radiológica e/ou artroscópica de acometimento do tendão da cabeça longa do bíceps. Resultados Observou-se associação entre dor à palpação do sulco intertubercular do úmero com lesão parcial de alto grau (ruptura parcial acometendo mais de 50% do tendão) na artroscopia (p = 0,003). Encontramos ainda uma associação entre a lesão de alto grau da cabeça longa do bíceps e a lesão do tendão do músculo supraespinal (p < 0,05), sendo que, para cada centímetro de lesão do tendão do músculo supraespinal, o paciente apresenta probabilidade 1,7 maior de ter uma lesão de alto grau da cabeça longa do bíceps. Conclusão A dor na região anterior do ombro à palpação do sulco intertubercular do úmero pode estar relacionada às lesões de alto grau da cabeça longa do bíceps. A lesão do manguito rotador e o seu tamanho são fatores de risco para lesão de alto grau do tendão da cabeça longa do bíceps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain , Arthroscopy , Rupture , Tendon Injuries , Wounds and Injuries , Rotator Cuff , Elbow , Tendinopathy , Rotator Cuff Injuries
17.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(2): 191-197, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138007

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate 15 patients with ruptured distal biceps tendon submitted to reinsertion via a single, anterior and transverse approach using two anchors. They were submitted to a rehabilitation protocol and, within six months, to an evaluation of the range of motion and strength intensity during flexion and supination of the operated elbow. Methods The data were collected prospectively, and were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney test and the mixed-model test to evaluate the force between the operated and non-operated elbows. Results A total of 80% of the patients were men, 60% were injured on the dominant side, 46% were manual workers, and 73% led sedentary lifestyles. The use of anabolic steroids was reported by two patients. After the treatment, the patients recovered supination strength by 98% and flexion by 94%. According to the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, 73% of the patients presented the score expected of a normal population. Conclusion The single, anterior and transverse approach associated with tendon repair using anchors was esthetically satisfactory, with good strength recovery during flexion and supination, and no occurrence of heterotopic ossification.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar 15 pacientes com ruptura do tendão distal do bíceps submetidos a reinserção por meio de via única, anterior e transversa no antebraço com o uso de duas âncoras. Os pacientes foram submetidos a um protocolo de reabilitação e, ao término de seis meses, efetuou-se avaliação do arco de movimento do cotovelo operado e da intensidade de força durante a flexão e a supinação. Métodos Os dados foram coletados de maneira prospectiva, e foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e pelo teste de modelos mistos para avaliar a força entre os cotovelos operado e não operado. Resultados Um total de 80% dos pacientes eram homens, 60% sofreram lesão do lado dominante, 46% eram trabalhadores braçais, e 73% não praticavam atividades físicas regularmente. O uso de anabolizante foi relatado por dois pacientes. Após o tratamento, os pacientes recuperaram 98% da força de supinação, e 94% da de flexão. De acordo com questionário de Disfunções do Braço, Ombro e Mão (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, DASH), 73% dos pacientes encontram-se dentro do esperado para uma população normal. Conclusão A via única, anterior e transversa associada ao reparo do tendão com o uso de âncoras apresentou-se esteticamente satisfatória, com boa recuperação da força durante a flexão e a supinação, não ocorrendo casos de ossificação heterotópica ou complicações graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rehabilitation , Rupture , Surveys and Questionnaires , Range of Motion, Articular , Elbow , Forearm , Life Style , Occupational Groups , Hamstring Muscles
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 513-517, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056470

ABSTRACT

El nervio para el músculo braquiorradial (BR) ha sido utilizado en transferencias nerviosas para recuperaciones en funciones de la mano como consecuencias de lesiones que afectan el plexo braquial. Con el propósito de investigar el número y localización biométrica de los ramos primarios provenientes del nervio radial y puntos motores respecto un punto de referencia ubicado en la región del codo, se estudiaron 30 miembros superiores de individuos adultos brasileños, de la Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. Las muestras se encontraban fijadas en solución de formaldehído al 10 %, de los cuales 15 miembros eran derechos y 15 izquierdos. Como punto de referencia se utilizó una línea que pasó a través de las partes más prominentes de los epicóndilos humerales, línea bi-epicondilea (LBE). Con respecto al origen nervioso para el músculo BR, todos los ramos se originaron a partir del nervio radial (NR). El promedio de la cantidad de Ramos Primarios (RP) fue de 1,53 (DS 0,73). En 18 muestras (60 %) se observó sólo un RP; en 8 casos (26,7 %) se encontraron 2 RP, mientras que en 4 casos (13,3 %) de la muestra se observaron 3 RP. Sobre la localización biométrica de los orígenes de los RP, es importante mencionar que todos se ubicaron proximal a la LBE. En promedio, estos se ubicaron a 38 mm (DS 0,9); 29 mm (DS 1,2) y 22 mm (DS 1,0) para el primer, segundo y tercer RP, respectivamente. En relación a los puntos motores (PM), en 4 casos (13 %) se observó 1 PM dado por la penetración directa de un ramo primario, en 13 casos (43 %) existieron 2 PM, en 8 casos (27 %) se encontraron 3 PM y en 5 casos (17 %) se observaron 4 PM. En tres casos (10 %) la inervación hacia el músculo BR emitió filetes nerviosos hacia el músculo extensor radial largo del carpo. Los resultados expuestos en esta investigación son un importante aporte para bloqueos nerviosos, estimulaciones eléctricas y transferencias nerviosas.


The nerve for the brachioradialis muscle (BR) has been used in nerve transfers for recoveries in functions of the hand as a consequence of lesions affecting the brachial plexus. With the purpose of investigating the number and biometric location of the primary branches coming from the radial nerve and motor points with respect to a reference point located in the elbow region, thirty upper limbs of Brazilian adult individuals from the State University of Sciences of Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil were used. The samples were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde solution, of which 15 were right and 15 left. As a reference point, a line was used that passed through the most prominent parts of the humeral epicondyls, bi-epicondilar line (BEL). With respect to the nervous origin for the BR muscle, all the branches originated from the radial nerve (RN). The average number of primary branches (PB) was 1.53 (SD 0.73). In 18 samples (60 %) only one PB was observed; in 8 cases (26.7 %) 2 PB were found, while in 4 cases (13.3 %) of the sample 3 PB were observed. Regarding the biometric location of the origins of PB, it is important to mention that all were located proximal to the BEL. On average, these were located at 38 mm (SD 0.9); 29 mm (DS 1.2) and 22 mm (DS 1.0) for the first, second and third PB, respectively. In relation to the motor points (MP), in 4 cases (13 %) 1 MP was observed as direct penetration of the PB, in 13 cases (43 %) there were 2 MP, in 8 cases (27 %) they found 3 MP and in 5 cases (17 %) 4 MP were observed. In three cases (10 %) the innervation towards the BR muscle emitted nerve fillets towards the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle. The results presented in this investigation are an important contribution to nerve blocks, electrical stimulations and nerve transfers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Elbow/innervation , Brazil , Cadaver
19.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(1): 57-70, 24 de febrero de 2020. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1052281

ABSTRACT

Las supracondíleas son el tipo más común de fracturas en la articulación del codo durante la infancia, con un pico de presentación entre los cinco y siete años. Además constituyen el segundo tipo de fracturas más frecuente en la población pediátrica en general. El mecanismo típico de la lesión es una caída desde la altura del paciente sobre la palma de la mano con el codo en hiperextensión. El diagnóstico se basa en la sospecha clínica, según el mecanismo de la lesión y la edad del paciente, además de la radiografía simple del codo en dos proyecciones. La clasificación de Gartland es la más usada para establecer la gravedad de la fractura y guiar el tratamiento, que puede ser ortopédico en fracturas no desplazadas. El método de elección para corrección de las desplazadas es la reducción cerrada y fijación con pines percutáneos. La complicación más común es la neuropraxia del nervio mediano. Otras complicaciones son la lesión de la arteria braquial, el síndrome compartimental, la isquemia de Volkmann, el deslizamiento de los pines y el cúbito varo.


Supracondylar are the most common fractures in the elbow joint during childhood with a peak between the ages five to seven. Besides, they are the second most common type of fracture in the pediatric population in general. The typical cause of the injury is the patient falling from their own height on the palm of the hand with the elbow in hyperextension. The diagnosis is based on the clinical suspicion according to the injury mechanism and the age of the patient, in addition to a standard elbow X-ray from two views. The Gartland classification is the most used instrument to establish the severity of the fracture and to guide the treatment, which can be orthopedic in non-displaced fracture, whereas the method of choice for correction of displaced fractures is closed reduction and percutaneous fixation. The most common complication is the neuropraxia of the median nerve. Others are the brachial artery injury, compartment syndrome, Volkamm ischemic contracture, sliding of the pins and ulna varus.


As supracondilares são o tipo mais comum de fraturas na articulação do cotovelo durante a infância, com um pico de apresentação entre os cinco e sete anos. Ademais constituem o segundo tipo de fraturas mais frequente na população pediátrica em geral. O mecanismo típico da lesão é uma queda desde a altura do paciente sobre a palma da mão com o cotovelo em hiperextensão. O diagnóstico se baseia na suspeita clínica, segundo o mecanismo da lesão e a idade do paciente, ademais da radiografia simples do cotovelo em duas projeções. A classificação de Gartland é a mais usada para estabelecer a gravidade da fratura e guiar o tratamento, que pode ser ortopédico em fraturas não deslocadas. O método de eleição para correção das deslocadas é a redução fechada e fixação com pinos percutâneos. A complicação mais comum é a neuropraxia do nervo mediano. Outras complicações são a lesão da artéria braquial, a síndrome compartimental, a isquemia de Volkmann, o deslizamento dos pinos e o cúbito varo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fractures, Bone , Ulna , Accidental Falls , Brachial Artery , Compartment Syndromes , Elbow , Closed Fracture Reduction
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1817, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133459

ABSTRACT

Rotator cuff tears are common among the elderly, and studies on the outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly are limited. We carried out this meta-analysis with systematic literature search, aiming to clarify the outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly as assessed by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score. We conducted a literature search through October 2019 in PubMed and EMBASE databases and performed meta-analysis to calculate the summary mean difference comparing the post- and pre-operation ASES scores under both fixed-effect and random-effect models. Among 4978 studies identified through literature search, four studies (two in the United States, one in France, and one in Republic of Korea) were eligible for the meta-analysis, including 282 patients who were aged over 70 years. These studies had low heterogeneity as measured by Cochran's Q test (p=0.88) and I2 statistic (0%). The ASES scores on average increased by 39.7 (95% confidence interval 28.3-51.1, p<0.001) after rotator cuff repair, in both fixed-effect and random-effect models. No substantial publication bias was indicated. Our findings suggest improved outcomes after rotator cuff repair in the elderly population as measured by the ASES score, and such improvements have been consistent in previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Surgeons , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Arthroscopy , Shoulder , United States , Treatment Outcome , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Elbow
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