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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1314-1322, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826845

ABSTRACT

To screen the best genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus subunit vaccine candidate antigens, the prMEIII gene, the polytope gene and the prMEIII-polytope fusion gene of the GenotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus GS strain were cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a. The recombinant proteins were obtained after the induction and purification. The prepared recombinant proteins were immunized to mice, and the immunogenicity of the subunit vaccine candidate antigens was evaluated through monitoring the humoral immune response by ELISA, detecting the neutralizing antibody titer by plaque reduction neutralization test, and testing the cell-mediated immune response by lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine profiling. The recombinant proteins with the molecular weights of 35 (prMEIII), 28 (polytope antigen) and 57 kDa (prMEIII-polytope) induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Compared with prMEIII-polytope and polytope proteins, the prMEIII protein induced a significant expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ (P0.05). The study suggests that the prMEIII protein can be used for the development of the Japanese encephalitis virus subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Antigens, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Subunit , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758956

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old male spotted seal presented with loss of appetite and decreased activity. Grossly, the internal organs revealed several filarial nematodes in the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary vessels. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed moderate nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with glial nodules and neuronophagia. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) of genotype I was isolated from the brain. All nematodes were identified as Dirofilaria immitis. This is the first clinical case of co-infection with D. immitis and JEV in a seal, suggesting that the seal, may be a dead-end host, like the human and horse, for JEV.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Asians , Brain , Child , Coinfection , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Heart , Heart Ventricles , Horses , Humans , Male , Meningoencephalitis , Republic of Korea
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170499, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A severe outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high case fatality was reported from Malkangiri district of Odisha state, India during September to November 2016 affecting 336 children with 103 deaths. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the outbreak in the light of entomological determinants. METHODS Entomological investigation was carried out in 48 villages from four mostly affected Community Health Centres (CHCs) of Malkangiri district. Dusk collections of resting adults was done in villages from indoor and outdoor sites to record the density of mosquito species, including the known JE vectors, feeding behaviour, parity, dusk index and infection status with JE virus (JEV). FINDINGS The per man hour density and dusk index of JE vector species varied from 2.5 to 24.0 and 0.81 to 7.62, respectively in study villages. A total of 1136 mosquitoes belonging to six vector species were subjected to PCR and one pool of Culex vishnui was found to be positive for JEV. CONCLUSION The JE transmission in Malkangiri district was confirmed. Thorough screening of human blood samples of JE/AES suspected cases and JE vector mosquitoes for the presence of JEV during rainy season every year is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Encephalitis, Japanese , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/classification
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690669

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) rapidly and distinguish its genotypes, a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection system was developed.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>By aligning the full-length sequences of JEV (G1-G5), six sets of highly specific TaqMan real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved NS1, NS2, and M genes of JEV, which included one set for non-specific JEV detection and five sets for the detection of specific JEV genotypes. Twenty batches of mosquito samples were used to evaluate our quantitative PCR assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>With the specific assay, no other flavivirus were detected. The lower limits of detection of the system were 1 pfu/mL for JEV titers and 100 RNA copies/µL. The coefficients of variation of this real-time RT-PCR were all < 2.8%. The amplification efficiency of this method was between 90% and 103%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR detection system was successfully established to detect and differentiate all five JEV genotypes.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Virology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758768

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China.


Subject(s)
Asians , China , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Encephalitis, Viral , Flavivirus , Genotype , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Prevalence , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Swine
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741864

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The number of dengue fever cases is rising due to increasing overseas travel. Vaccination makes severe dengue fever in seronegative individuals after vaccination when they exposure to wild-type dengue virus. We investigated the seroepidemiology of the dengue virus for monitoring of Korean dengue virus immunity and establishing the prevention of dengue infection. METHODS: The study was based on 446 residual sera collected from 98 infants (2 months to 1 year old), 152 adolescents (13 to 19 years old), 90 adults (20 to 50 years old), and 106 elderly participants (more than 65 years old) for other studies. Antibody levels for dengue virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in each age group were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For each dengue virus IgG positive or equivocal result, an IgG ELISA was performed for Japanese encephalitis virus. RESULTS: Of the 446 serum samples, only 1 (0.2%) adolescent had a positive result from the dengue IgG antibody test. In the dengue virus IgG antibody test, 14 (3.1%) samples showed equivocal results (10 adolescents and 4 elderly). In the 1 positive case of dengue virus IgG, the Japanese encephalitis IgG test was also positive. In the 14 equivocal cases of dengue virus IgG, there were 6 positive, 3 equivocal, and 5 negative of Japanese encephalitis IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence rate of dengue virus was very low in Koreans. This study provides important data for establishing the policy for preventive measures of dengue fever. It will be necessary to continuously monitor for dengue virus immunity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Korea , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Dengue , Vaccination
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91210

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important zoonosis caused by the mosquito-transmitted JE virus (JEV), which is a causative agent of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Detection of JEV antibodies in swine is performed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN), and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The most stringent PRNT is the 90% endpoint PRNT (PRNT₉₀). These conventional assays are difficult to carry out in diagnostic laboratories with insufficient instruments or cell culture systems. An alternative assay that is easily conducted and time efficient is required. In this study, we improved the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) with clarified antigen for the detection of JEV antibodies. The I-ELISA results obtained from 175 swine serum samples were compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results. The sensitivity of I-ELISA was 91.8%, 95.0%, and 94.7% compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results, respectively. The specificity of I-ELISA was 92.2%, 94.7%, and 94.7% compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results, respectively. Moreover, the I-ELISA results were significantly correlated with the HI (r = 0.93), VN (r = 0.95), and PRNT₉₀ (r = 0.92) results. These results suggest that the improved I-ELISA is useful for serosurveillance of JEV in swine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Asians , Cell Culture Techniques , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296524

ABSTRACT

Fifteen pediatric cases of suspected Japanese encephalitis (JE) were reported in Beijing Children's Hospital during the late summer of 2013. The clinical manifestations in most cases included high fever, seizures, and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings. Twelve of 15 cases were laboratory-confirmed as JE cases by pathogen identification. Epidemiological investigations showed that five of the 12 laboratory-confirmed patients had an incomplete JE vaccination history. Follow-up investigations after discharge indicated that seven laboratory-confirmed JE patients without JE vaccinations had relatively poor prognoses, with an average Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score of 2.6 when compared with the other five laboratory-confirmed, JE-vaccinated patients with an average MRS score of 0.5. The observation of pediatric JE cases among those with a history of JE vaccination warrants further attention.


Subject(s)
Beijing , Epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Physiology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Virology , Female , Humans , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Male , Prognosis
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45959

ABSTRACT

Zika virus was first isolated in from nonhuman primate in 1947. It is in the genus Flavivirus, closely related to other flavivirus like Dengue, West Nile, Yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis virus. Since 2007 epidemic in Yap island, zika virus infections had spread to the countries in Micronesia and South Pacific. In 2015, Zika virus outbreak occurred in Brazil and now more than 40 countries in American continents reported autochthonous infection. The virus is transmitted mainly by Ae. aegypti mosquito with many other Aedes mosquito species known as vector. Recently, Zika virus infection is known to cause severe neurological complications and congenital malformation. In this paper, we will review current knowledge on Zika virus history, biology, clinical characteristics and preventive method.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Biology , Brazil , Culicidae , Dengue , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Flavivirus , Methods , Microcephaly , Micronesia , Primates , Yellow Fever , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus
10.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 150-155, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296204

ABSTRACT

The cDNA fragment of JEV prME gene was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) to construct a recombinant baculovirus vector, defined as AcBac-prME. Then the recombinant baculovirus Ac-prME was obtained by transfecting Sf9 cells with AcBac-prME. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence results indicated that both prM and E proteins were efficiently expressed in Sf9 cells. Electron microscopy suggested that prME was assembled into JEV-VLPs. To further evaluate the potential of JEV-VLPs as vaccine, the mice were immunized with JEV-VLPs and then challenged with lethal JEV. The results of mice survival and pathological changes demonstrated that the JEV-VLPs performed complete protection against JEV-P3 strain and relieved pathological changes in the mice brain significant. This study suggest that JEV-VLPs would be a potential vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Sf9 Cells , Vaccination , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228229

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis that affects the nervous system of humans and other animals. The genotype of JE virus (JEV) has shifted recently from genotype 3 (G3) to genotype 1 (G1) in Asia, including Korea. Thus, a rapid differential assay is required to make an accurate diagnosis of JEV genotype. In this study, we designed common and differential primer sets for JEV G1 and G3 to detect the JEV envelope (E) gene. The specific primer sets for JEV G1 and G3 specifically amplified the target gene. The detection limits of the three primer sets were 10(1.0), 10(2.0), and 10(2.0) TCID₅₀/reaction, respectively. No cross-reactivity was detected with non-JEV reference viruses. The multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specifically differentiated JEV G1 from G3. Thus, a one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay was established to rapidly and differentially detect JEV. This assay will be useful for confirming JEV infections in animals and checking the JEV genotype in veterinary biological products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asia , Asians , Biological Products , Diagnosis , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Limit of Detection , Nervous System
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8376

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype circulating in Korea has changed from G3 to G1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the antigenic relationship between the two genotypes by using antibody tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples from 42 sows and 216 horses were collected, and their seroprevalence was monitored using the hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests. Antisera against JEV G1 and G3 were isolated and prepared from guinea pigs. The cross-reactivity of these two viruses was then compared using the neutralizing antibody test. RESULTS: We found that there was a difference in the seropositive ratios of JEV G1 and G3. However, the difference was dependent on the antibody test used. There was also an observed difference in the antigenicity between the two genotypes, as ascertained using the neutralizing antibody test. CONCLUSION: There is an evident difference in JEV antigenicity between the genotypes G1 and G3. Therefore, we propose monitoring of the seroprevalence of JEV, and reevaluating the antigenicity of the current vaccine by using the relevant tests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Asians , Cross Reactions , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Horses , Humans , Immune Sera , Korea , Neutralization Tests , Seroepidemiologic Studies
13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 278-283, Mar-Apr/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752521

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos graduandos de enfermagem sobre o próprio envelhecimento. Método: pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em agosto e setembro de 2011, com 18 graduandos de enfermagem de uma Universidade pública de Salvador (Bahia). Os depoimentos foram analisados por meio da Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: apreendeu-se o núcleo temático: Percepção do graduando de enfermagem sobre o próprio envelhecimento e, a partir deste, emergiram duas subcategorias: A) O Não Pensar; B) O contexto influenciando no processo. Conclusão: os graduandos revelam que o envelhecimento está intrínseco ao desenvolvimento humano, e possui o vínculo familiar, a espiritualidade e atividade física como ferramentas fundamentais para um envelhecimento ativo. Entretanto, os mesmos relatam que, o modo de vida acelerado e estressante vivido na sociedade possibilita inserir hábitos considerados inadequados, como o consumo de “fast food” e álcool, que trazem influências negativas para o próprio processo de envelhecimento. .


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la percepción de los estudiantes de enfermería sobre su proprio envejecimiento. Método: estudio cualitativo, realizado en agosto y septiembre de 2011, con 18 estudiantes de enfermería de una universidad pública en Salvador/Bahia. Los datos fueron analizados através de análisis de contenido. Resultado: incautados el tema central: Percepción de alumnos de enfermería sobre su propio envejecimiento y de esto surgieron dos subcategorías: A) No creo; B) El contexto influye en el proceso. Conclusión: los estudiantes revelan que el envejecimiento es intrínseco al desarrollo humano, y tiene los vínculos familiares, la espiritualidad y la actividad física como herramienta clave para el envejecimiento activo. Sin embargo, el mismo informe que, debido a la forma de vida que se vive en la sociedad de ritmo rápido y estresante permite insertar hábitos considerados inadecuados, como el consumo de “comida rápida” y el alcohol y convertirse en influencias negativas para su propio proceso tuvo como objetivo analizar de los estudiantes de enfermería su propio envejecimiento. .


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the perceptions of nursing undergraduate students on their self-aging process. Method: qualitative study carried out between August and September, 2011 with 18 nursing undergraduate students of a public university in Salvador, Bahia. The interviews were analyzed by means of the Content Analysis method. Results: the following thematic concept was apprehended: Perceptions of nursing undergraduates on their self-aging, which generated two subcategories: A) The “don’t think about it” process; B) The context infl uencing the process. Conclusion: undergraduates reveal that the aging process is an intrinsic factor to human development. Family ties, spirituality and physical activity would be key mechanisms toward active aging. However, students also reported that their accelerated and stressed social lifestyles led to inadequate habits, such as the consumption of fast food and alcohol, which become negative infl uences in their aging process. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Brain/immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/pathogenicity , Encephalitis, Japanese/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Signal Transduction , /physiology , /physiology , Blotting, Western , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , /immunology , /metabolism , /virology , /immunology , /metabolism , /virology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Encephalitis, Japanese/virology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Knockout , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355296

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the prevalence of serum antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in bats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Blood samples from the heart were obtained from bats captured in Guangdong and Hainan Provinces in 2013. The anti-JEV antibodies in bat sera were tested using indirect ELISA and virus neutralization test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 201 bat serum samples were tested, in which the total positivity rate of anti-JEV antibodies was 46.27% (93/201). The positive rate of anti-JEV antibodies in bats from Hainan and Guangdong Provinces was 88.89% (48/54) and 30.61% (45/147), respectively. All the samples from Rousettus leschenaultia, Miniopterus schreibersii, Pipistrellus abramus, and Rhinolophus macrotis were positive for anti-JEV antibodies, and up to 95.56% (43/45) of the samples from Miniopterus schreibersii (from Hainan Province) yielded positive results. Of the 28 samples with positive results by indirect ELISA, 15 showed positive results in virus neutralization test (53.57%) with neutralization antibody titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:28.22.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Bats from different regions and of different species can be naturally infected with JEV and have a high prevalence of anti-JEV antibodies in their sera. The role of bats in the natural cycle of JEV awaits further study.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , China , Chiroptera , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Neutralization Tests
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 280-284, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240111

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate pathogens and molecular-epidemiology characteristics of viral meningoencephalitis in the monitoring sites of Zhejiang province, 2013.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cerebrospinal fluid and/or stool specimens were collected from suspected patients admitted to the monitoring hospitals in southern and northern Zhejiang province. Such specimen were subject to real-time qPCR for the detection of Human enterovirus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Mumps virus (MuV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). HEVs were isolated using the RD and Hep-2 cell lines, while VP1 genes from all HEV-positive isolates or RNA-positive specimen were amplified, sequenced, for homology and evolution analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>92 (38.5%) of the 239 samples collected from 229 patients were detected as virus nucleic acid positive, including 87 HEV positive samples, 1 MuV positive, 2 HSV positive, and 2 CMV positive; of the 87 HEV positive samples, 38 were further determined to be Coxsackievirus (CV) and 49 as Echovirus (E). 56 HEV strains were isolated from 239 (23.4%) samples. From the 31 cerebral fluid specimen of nucleic acid positive yet virus isolation negative, the most specimen were identified with E9 (9 specimen), followed by CVA9 (8 specimen); the viral serotype of Zhejiang province HEV were CVA9, CVB4, CVB5, E6, E7, E9, E11, E14, E16, E25 and E30, respectively. Predominant epidemic strains identified at southern and northern Zhejiang province were CVB5 and E6 respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene showed that all the HEV isolates in Zhejiang province were HEV-B.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The HEV-B was the main pathogen for viral meningoencephalitis in Zhejiang province in 2013, including 11 serotypes, while E7 was the first time to be isolated in Zhejiang province. The predominant isolates were CVB5 and E6 in southern and northern Zhejiang province respectively. The positive rate of viral nucleic acid detection was significantly higher than that of viral isolation. Regular EV isolation method was exposed to the risk of missing-detection of E9 and CVA9.</p>


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , China , Epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Viral , Enterovirus , Enterovirus B, Human , Hepatitis E virus , Humans , Meningitis, Viral , Epidemiology , Genetics , Meningoencephalitis , Molecular Epidemiology , Mumps virus , Phylogeny
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 368-373, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240092

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the species and distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yuncheng city of Shanxi province, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mosquito samples were collected in 19 collection sites from Linyi county and Yongji city in Yuncheng city, in August, 2012. After identification and classification, all the specimens were homogenized and centrifuged to acquire supernatant before being inoculated to both C6/36 and BHK21 cells for viral isolation. Positive isolates were identified with arbovirus species-specific primers under RT-PCR, for further sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 10 455 mosquitoes of 7 species in 4 genuese were collected. The predominant mosquito species in Linyi county was Culex pipens pallens (91.96%, 3 911/4 253), but the one in Yongji city was Culex tritaeniorhynchus (72.85%, 4 518/6 202). A total of 23 strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. 15 strains from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipens pallens were identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Four strains from Culex pipens pallens were identified as Culex flavivirus (CxFV). Three strains from Culex pipens pallens were identified as Culex pipiens pallens densovirus (CppDNV). One strain from Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes albopictus was identified as Getah virus (GETV).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Four kinds of arboviruses were isolated from the mosquito pools, including GETV and CxFV, which were isolated and documented in Shanxi province for the first time. In the city of Yuncheng, Culex tritaeniorhynchus had been the predominant species and major vector for transmitting JEV. Genotype I JEV remained the major JEV circulating in the local natural environment.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arboviruses , Genetics , China , Cities , Culicidae , Virology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Genetics , Phylogeny , Species Specificity
17.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 264-268, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280263

ABSTRACT

To explore the spatial distribution mechanism of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), PhyML v3.0 was used to build phylogenetic tree using JEV sequences in the dataset. PAUP v4.0 and Migrapyhla softz ware were then used to analyze the migration events. The results showed that a total of 95 migration events were observed during the dispersal of JEV throughout Asia. Further analysis revealed that Thailand, and several Chinese provinces (including Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan and Yunnan), were the main migration sources of JEV. JEV spread from these migration sources as follows: from Thailand to Australia, Cambodia, Tibet and India; from Shanghai to eastern coastal Asian regions and Yunnan; from Shandong to Korea, Zhejiang, Hubei, Shanxi and Liaoning; from Sichuan mainly to inland regions of China, as well as Vietnam and Japan; and from Yunnan to Zhejiang. This study indicated that frequent migration events occurred during the dispersal of JEV in the Asia and Pacific regions, and that Thailand, Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan and Yunnan were the sources of JEV dispersal.


Subject(s)
Asia , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Epidemiology , Virology , Phylogeny
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348630

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July, 2007 and 2010. Mosquito were cell cultured for viral isolation, and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 43 634 mosquito comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus (CppDNV).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had been the major species of mosquito and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. Genotype I JEV, GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.</p>


Subject(s)
Alphavirus , Animals , Arboviruses , Classification , China , Culicidae , Virology , Disease Vectors , Classification , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
19.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 188-192, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356617

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus which is responsible for outbreaks of severe viral encephalitis. The cellular entry of JEV is a prerequisite for Japanese encephalitis, so the understanding of its underlying mechanisms will provide more approaches for treating such disease. In recent years, increasing research has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of cellular entry of JEV, and the results of research on other flavivirus have expanded the research directions for JEV. More methods will be used to suppress JEV infection because of the development of E protein antibodies and the discovery of several inhibitors of the cellular entry process. This review will summarize the recent advances in the mechanisms of JEV cellular entry and membrane fusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomedical Research , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Genetics , Physiology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Virology , Humans , Virus Internalization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Japanese encephalitis is a reproductive disorder caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in swine. Recent genotype (G) shift phenomenon (G3 to G1) in the Asia-wide has posed a challenge for proper prevention by the current vaccine strain. Thus, new kinds of JEV G1 vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity have been required for pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant porcine granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (reporGM-CSF) protein was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells using baculovirus expression system. Two kinds of trials with inactivated JEV vaccines containing IMS1313 adjuvant (Seppic, France) were prepared with or without reporGM-CSF protein. Safety and immunogenicity of the pigs inoculated with the JEV vaccines via intramuscular route was evaluated for 28 days after inoculation. RESULTS: Mice, guinea pigs, and fattening pigs inoculated with the inactivated vaccine showed no signs for 14 and 21 days. Both hemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher in pigs immunized with the vaccine containing reporGM-CSF protein after boosting. However, on the side of vaccine efficacy, most mice (87%) immunized with the inactivated JEV vaccine survived after virulent JEV challenge. Whereas the group with the vaccine containing reporGM-CSF protein showed lower protective effects than the vaccine alone for the biological activity of the GM-CSF depending on species specific. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that animals inoculated with the JEV vaccines was safe and pigs inoculated with inactivated JEV vaccine containing reporGM-CSF protein showed higher humoral immune responses than that of inactivated JEV vaccine without reporGM-CSF protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Baculoviridae , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Spodoptera , Swine , Vaccines
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