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Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 10-17, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010283


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of manual acupuncture on endometrial blood flow parameters by three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound in women undergoing in vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET).@*METHODS@#Seventy patients undergoing IVF-ET were equally randomized into traditional or sham acupuncture treatment group for totally 4 days (from the day of oocyte aspiration to the day of embryo transfer) of treatment by random envelope method at the Reproductive Medicine Center and Outpatient Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medicine College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 2013 to December 2015. Patients in the traditional acupuncture group accepted traditional acupuncture methods with manual acupuncture, and Zhongji (CV3), Qihai (CV 6), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Taichong (LR 3), Tianshu (ST 25), Guilai (ST 29) and Zusanli (ST 36) were chosen. Patients at the sham acupuncture group accepted shallow acupuncture methods at 4 non-meridian points at each shoulder and upper arm. Outcome measures included endometrial ultrasonic indices such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI), endometrial thickness and volume, subendometrial VI (sVI), subendometrial FI (sFI), subendometrial VFI (sVFI), implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, live birth rate and number of live births.@*RESULTS@#Finally, 34 patients in the traditional acupuncture group and 35 in the sham acupuncture group completed this trial. VI, FI and VFI of the traditional acupuncture group were significantly higher than those in the sham acupuncture group (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, sVI, sFI, sVFI, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, live birth rate and number of live births (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Manual acupuncture performed after oocyte aspiration and before transplantation improved the endometrial blood flow parameters VI, RI and VFI in women who underwent IVF-ET, instead of sVI, sFI and sVFI. Therefore, acupuncture might be beneficial in women undergoing IVF-ET by increasing endometrial blood flow and endometrial receptivity. (Registration No. ChiCTR2100053354).

Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Single-Blind Method , Embryo Transfer , Pregnancy Rate , Acupuncture Therapy , Endometrium/blood supply
Biol. Res ; 57: 6-6, 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550061


BACKGROUND: The monthly regeneration of human endometrial tissue is maintained by the presence of human endometrial mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (eMSC), a cell population co-expressing the perivascular markers CD140b and CD146. Endometrial regeneration is impaired in the presence of intrauterine adhesions, leading to infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss and placental abnormalities. Several types of somatic stem cells have been used to repair the damaged endometrium in animal models, reporting successful pregnancy. However, the ability of endometrial stem cells to repair the damaged endometrium remains unknown. METHODS: Electrocoagulation was applied to the left uterine horn of NOD/SCID mice causing endometrial injury. Human eMSC or PBS was then injected into the left injured horn while the right normal horn served as controls. Mice were sacrificed at different timepoints (Day 3, 7 and 14) and the endometrial morphological changes as well as the degree of endometrial injury and repair were observed by histological staining. Gene expression of various inflammatory markers was assessed using qPCR. The functionality of the repaired endometrium was evaluated by fertility test. RESULTS: Human eMSC successfully incorporated into the injured uterine horn, which displayed significant morphological restoration. Also, endometrium in the eMSC group showed better cell proliferation and glands formation than the PBS group. Although the number of blood vessels were similar between the two groups, gene expression of VEGF-α significantly increased in the eMSC group. Moreover, eMSC had a positive impact on the regeneration of both stromal and epithelial components of the mouse endometrium, indicated by significantly higher vimentin and CK19 protein expression. Reduced endometrial fibrosis and down-regulation of fibrosis markers were also observed in the eMSC group. The eMSC group had a significantly higher gene expression of anti-inflammatory factor Il-10 and lower mRNA level of pro-inflammatory factors Ifng and Il-2, indicating the role of eMSC in regulation of inflammatory reactions. The eMSC group showed higher implantation sites than the PBS group, suggesting better endometrial receptivity with the presence of newly emerged endometrial lining. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest eMSC improves regeneration of injured endometrium in mice.

Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Uterine Diseases/metabolism , Uterine Diseases/pathology , Uterine Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Placenta/pathology , Fibrosis , Mice, SCID , Mice, Inbred NOD , Endometrium/metabolism , Endometrium/pathology
Femina ; 51(8): 454-461, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512456


O sangramento uterino anormal é diagnóstico sindrômico comum no consultório do ginecologista e pode comprometer substancialmente a qualidade de vida. O objetivo no diagnóstico de sangramento uterino anormal é distinguir pacientes com causas estruturais (anatômicas), como pólipo, adenomiose, leiomioma, malignidade e hiperplasia, de pacientes que apresentam anatomia normal, nas quais o sangramento pode ser devido a alteração dos mecanismos de coagulação, distúrbios ovulatórios, distúrbios primários do endométrio, iatrogenia, ou ter outra causa não classificada. O diagnóstico se inicia a partir de anamnese detalhada e exame físico geral e ginecológico completos, seguidos da solicitação de exames complementares (laboratoriais e de imagem), conforme indicado. O exame de imagem de primeira linha para identificação das causas estruturais inclui a ultrassonografia pélvica. Histerossonografia, histeroscopia, ressonância magnética e amostragem endometrial para exame de anatomia patológica são opções que podem ser incluídas no diagnóstico a depender da necessidade. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a relevância dos exames de imagem na investigação das causas de sangramento uterino anormal.

Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office and may substantially affect quality of life. The aim in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding is to distinguish women with anatomic causes such as polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia from women with normal anatomy where the cause may be coagulopathy, ovulatory disorders, endometrial, iatrogenic and not otherwise classified. Diagnosis begins with a thorough history and physical examination followed by appropriate laboratory and imaging tests as indicated. The primary imaging test for the identification of anatomic causes include ultrasonography. Saline infusion sonohysterography, magnetic resonance, hysteroscopy, endometrial sampling are options that can be included in the diagnosis depending on the need. The aim of this article is to present the relevance of imaging exams in the investigation of the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.

Humans , Female , Uterine Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Physical Examination/methods , Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Uterus/pathology , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Endometrium/physiopathology , Adenomyosis/complications , Gynecology/methods , Hyperplasia/complications , Leiomyoma/complications , Medical History Taking/methods
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 826-832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012291


Objective: To investigate the value of uterine morphological parameters and endometrial T2 signal intensity (T2-SI) in evaluating the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury. Methods: From Sep. 2018 to Feb. 2023, this study prospectively enrolled 29 patients with fibrotic repair secondary to severe endometrial injury (severe group), 17 patients with fibrotic repair secondary to mild to moderate endometrial injury (mild to moderate group), and 40 healthy women of reproductive age (control group) in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital. The length of uterine cavity (LUC), length of cervix and isthmus (LCI), width of upper uterine cavity (WUUC) and width of lower uterine cavity (WLUC) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. T2-SI of endometrium and subcutaneous fat of buttocks were measured, and endometrial normalized T2-SI (nT2-SI; T2-SI of endometrium/T2-SI of subcutaneous fat of buttocks) was calculated. Statistical analyses of data were performed using one-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test, intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rho test, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: LUC, WUUC, WLUC and endometrial nT2-SI of severe group [(19.7±3.5) mm, (26.9±6.4) mm, (7.9±1.4) mm, 0.73±0.11, respectively] were significantly lower than those of the control group (all P<0.01), while LCI and WUUC/LUC [(51.3±7.3) mm and 1.38±0.34] were significantly higher than those of the control group (all P<0.001). LUC and WLUC of severe group were significantly lower than those of mild to moderate group [(32.4±5.1) mm and (8.8±1.2) mm; all P<0.05], while LCI and WUUC/LUC were significantly higher than those of mild to moderate group [(41.8±8.6) mm and 0.94±0.16; all P<0.001]. LUC and endometrial nT2-SI of mild to moderate group were significantly lower than those of the control group [ (32.4±5.1) vs (35.3±3.5) mm, 0.68±0.13 vs 0.80±0.12; all P<0.01]. LUC, WUUC, WLUC and endometrial nT2-SI were significantly negatively correlated to the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury (Spearman rho:-0.794, -0.441, -0.471 and -0.316, respectively; all P<0.05), while LCI and WUUC/LUC were significantly positively correlated to the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury (Spearman rho: 0.481 and 0.674, respectively; all P<0.05). LUC and WUUC/LUC showed high value in distinguishing severe group from the control group or mild to moderate group (all AUC>0.9, all P<0.001). Conclusion: As noninvasive and quantitative biomarkers, uterine morphological parameters and endometrial nT2-SI could evaluate the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury.

Humans , Female , Uterus , Endometrium , Health Status , Hospitals , ROC Curve
Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 260-270, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003741


Background@#The International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) group developed a catalog of standardized terms to describe findings that may be associated with uterine pathology. However, there is a lack of reliability studies for these descriptors in the literature.@*Objective@#The objective of this study was to estimate interobserver and intraobserver reliability with regard to the IETA group descriptors for endometrial vascular characteristics in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.@*Materials and Methods@#Five nonexpert and five expert raters assessed stored still images of transvaginal ultrasound examinations obtained from 68 women with abnormal uterine bleeding and endometrial thickening. Endometrial vascularity was evaluated using the IETA group descriptors for color flow and vascular pattern. Interobserver agreement was estimated by comparing the assessments of the nonexpert and expert raters. Intraobserver agreement was estimated by repeating the raters’ assessment after 4 weeks. Interrater agreement to the subjective assessment of an expert investigator was also computed.@*Results and Conclusion@#The reproducibility of assigning IETA color score is good regardless of the degree of expertise of the rater, although the experts displayed better interobserver reliability (κ = 0.74 vs. 0.57) and intraobserver reliability (κ = 0.84 vs. 0.63). However, the reproducibility of describing IETA vascular patterns is significantly worse for both expert and nonexpert raters in both interobserver reliability (experts κ = 0.49 vs. 0.34) and intraobserver reliability (experts κ = 0.65 vs. 0.42). Both expert and nonexpert raters exhibited acceptable agreement with the reference standard, with experts performing better for both color score (κ = 0.79 vs. 0.70) and vascular pattern (κ = 0.63 vs. 0.44).

Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 289-293, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969986


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between staged acupuncture based on "thoroughfare vessel is the sea of blood" theory combined with routine hormone replacement cycle treatment and routine hormone replacement cycle treatment for patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) of thin endometrium.@*METHODS@#A total of 72 RIF patients with thin endometrium were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 36 cases in each group. The patients in the control group were treated with routine hormone replacement cycle treatment. Based on the treatment of the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with staged acupuncture based on "thoroughfare vessel is the sea of blood" theory. The main acupoints were Neiguan (PC 6) and Gongsun (SP 4), and the supplementary acupoints were selected according to the menstrual cycle and syndrome differentiation; the acupuncture was given once every other day, 3 times a week, for 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. The thickness and shape of endometrium, and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score were observed at implantation window before and after treatment; the clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and cycle cancellation rate were compared between the two groups; the correlation between endometrial thickness and HAMA score was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the endometrial thickness in the two groups and the proportion of type A+B endometrium in the observation group were increased (P<0.05), and the HAMA scores in the two groups were decreased (P<0.05) after treatment. The above indexes in the observation group were superior to those in the control group (P<0.05). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the cycle cancellation rate was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between endometrial thickness and HAMA score (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Based on the routine hormone replacement cycle treatment, the addition use of staged acupuncture based on "thoroughfare vessel is the sea of blood" theory could improve the thickness and shape of endometrium, relieve anxiety, increase the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, and reduce the cycle cancellation rate in RIF patients with thin endometrium. The curative effect is superior to the routine hormone replacement cycle treatment alone.

Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Acupuncture Therapy , Endometrium , Hormones
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1897-1909, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980976


Endometriosis, a heterogeneous, inflammatory, and estrogen-dependent gynecological disease defined by the presence and growth of endometrial tissues outside the lining of the uterus, affects approximately 5-10% of reproductive-age women, causing chronic pelvic pain and reduced fertility. Although the etiology of endometriosis is still elusive, emerging evidence supports the idea that immune dysregulation can promote the survival and growth of retrograde endometrial debris. Peritoneal macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells exhibit deficient cytotoxicity in the endometriotic microenvironment, leading to inefficient eradication of refluxed endometrial fragments. In addition, the imbalance of T-cell subtypes results in aberrant cytokine production and chronic inflammation, which contribute to endometriosis development. Although it remains uncertain whether immune dysregulation represents an initial cause or merely a secondary enhancer of endometriosis, therapies targeting altered immune pathways exhibit satisfactory effects in preventing disease onset and progression. Here, we summarize the phenotypic and functional alterations of immune cells in the endometriotic microenvironment, focusing on their interactions with microbiota and endocrine and nervous systems, and how these interactions contribute to the etiology and symptomology of endometriosis.

Female , Humans , Endometriosis/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Estrogens , Endometrium/metabolism
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 76-83, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971372


OBJECTIVES@#Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has important clinical value in diagnosis and curative effect evaluation on endometrial carcinoma. How to improve the detection rate of endometrial small lesions by DWI is the research focus of MRI technology. This study aims to analyze the image quality of small field MRI ZOOMit-DWI sequence and conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging (SS-EPI) DWI sequence in the scanning of endometrial carcinoma, and to explore the clinical value of ZOOMit-DWI sequence.@*METHODS@#A total of 37 patients with endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by operation and pathology in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from July 2019 to May 2021 were collected. All patients were scanned with MRI ZOOMit-DWI sequence and SS-EPI DWI sequence before operation. Two radiologists subjectively evaluated the anatomical details, artifacts, geometric deformation and focus definition of the 2 groups of DWI images. At the same time, the signal intensity were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the 2 DWI sequences were calculated for objective evaluation. The differences of subjective score, objective score and ADC value of the 2 DWI sequences were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The SNR of the ZOOMit-DWI group was significantly higher than that of the SS-EPI DWI group (301.96±141.85 vs 94.66±41.26), and the CNR of the ZOOMit-DWI group was significantly higher than that of the SS-EPI DWI group (185.05±105.45 vs 57.91±31.54, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in noise standard deviation between the ZOOMit-DWI group and the SS-EPI DWI group (P>0.05). The subjective score of anatomical detail and focus definition in the ZOOMit-DWI group was significantly higher than that of the SS-EPI DWI group (both P<0.05). The subjective score of artifacts and geometric deformation of ZOOMit-DWI group was significantly lower than that of the SS-EPI DWI group (both P<0.05). ADC had no significant difference between the ZOOMit-DWI group and the SS-EPI DWI group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The image quality of ZOOMit-DWI is significantly higher than that of conventional SS-EPI DWI. In the MRI DWI examination of endometrial carcinoma, ZOOMit-DWI can effectively reduce the geometric deformation and artifacts of the image, which is more conducive to clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Female , Humans , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Endometrium , Echo-Planar Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 366-369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986863


Corded and hyalinized endometrioid carcinoma (CHEC) is a morphologic variant of endo-metrioid adenocarcinoma. The tumor exhibits a biphasic appearance with areas of traditional low-grade adenocarcinoma merging directly with areas of diffuse growth composed of epithelioid or spindled tumor cells forming cords, small clusters, or dispersed single cells. It is crucial to distinguish CHEC from its morphological mimics, such as malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT), because CHECs are usually low stage, and are associated with a good post-hysterectomy prognosis in most cases while the latter portends a poor prognosis. The patient reported in this article was a 54-year-old woman who presented with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding for 2 months. The ultrasound image showed a thickened uneven echo endometrium of approximately 12.2 mm and a detectable blood flow signal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an abnormal endometrial signal, considered endometrial carcinoma (Stage Ⅰ B). On hysterectomy specimen, there was an exophytic mass in the uterine cavity with myometrium infiltrating. Microscopically, most component of the tumor was well to moderately differentiated endometrioid carcinoma. Some oval and spindle stromal cells proliferated on the superficial surface of the tumor with a bundle or sheet like growth pattern. In the endometrial curettage specimen, the proliferation of these stromal cells was more obvious, and some of the surrounding stroma was hyalinized and chondromyxoid, which made the stromal cells form a cord-like arrangement. Immunostains were done and both the endometrioid carcinoma and the proliferating stroma cells showed loss of expression of DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1/PMS2 and wild-type p53 protein. Molecular testing demonstrated that this patient had a microsatellite unstable (MSI) endometrial carcinoma. The patient was followed up for 6 months, and there was no recurrence. We diagnosed this case as CHEC, a variant of endometrioid carcinoma, although this case did not show specific β-catenin nuclear expression that was reported in previous researches. The striking low-grade biphasic appearance without TP53 mutation confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular testing supported the diagnosis of CHEC. This special morphology, which is usually distributed in the superficial part of the tumor, may result in differences between curettage and surgical specimens. Recent studies have documented an aggressive clinical course in a significant proportion of cases. More cases are needed to establish the clinical behaviors, pathologic features, and molecular profiles of CHECs. Recognition of the relevant characteristics is the prerequisite for pathologists to make correct diagnoses and acquire comprehensive interpretation.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrium/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Stromal Cells/pathology
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 586-591, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985737


Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of primary gastric (gastrointestinal)-type mucoglandular lesions of the endometrium. Methods: Eight cases of primary gastric (gastrointestinal)-type mucoglandular lesions of endometrium diagnosed between 2014 to 2022 were retrieved from pathology archives of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The clinical history, pathological sections and follow-ups were analyzed. Results: The eight patients ranged in age from 35 to 67 years, with an average age of 55.5 years. Seven patients were examined for high-risk human papillary virus (HPV) before operation. Only one of them was positive for high-risk HPV52. No cervical mucinous lesions were found in any of the patients. Two cases were invasive gastric (gastrointestinal)-type adenocarcinoma, 2 cases were benign gastric (gastrointestinal)-type mucinous metaplasia, and the other 4 cases were atypical gastric (gastrointestinal)-type mucinous gland hyperplasia. Microscopically, tumor cells showed mucous epithelium with gastrointestinal differentiation. Immunophenotyping showed that MUC6 was diffusely or focally positive in 5 cases, CK20 and CDX2 were positive in 3 cases. And p16 was negative or focally positive in 5 cases and strongly positive in 1 case. ER was expressed in both benign and atypical lesions, and weakly positive or negative in the invasive adenocarcinoma. p53 showed mutant expression in one case and wild-type expression in the rest. HPV in situ hybridization was negative. Conclusions: Primary gastric (gastrointestinal)-type mucoglandular lesions of the endometrium show various forms of gastrointestinal differentiation, which are high-risk HPV independent. Morphology combined with immunohistochemistry is helpful for the diagnosis, which can only be made on exclusion of cervical gastrointestinal glandular lesion, gastrointestinal metastatic carcinoma and the mucinous subtype of endometrioid carcinoma.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Papillomavirus Infections , China , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1496-1503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009328


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the difference in the gene expression, amino acid and carnitine levels in the cervical secretions between the endometria of pre-receptive and receptive stages, with an aim to provide clues for identifying new molecular markers for endometrial receptivity.@*METHODS@#Fifty nine infertile women treated at the Department of Reproductive Medicine of Linyi People's Hospital from January 6, 2020 to January 31, 2022 were selected as as the study subjects, which were matched with 3 pairs (6 cases) of infertile women preparing for embryo transfer based on factors such as age, body mass index, and length of infertility. Endometrial tissue samples were collected for gene transcription and expression analysis. Twenty five women who had become pregnant through assisted reproductive technology were selected as the control group, and 28 non-pregnant women receiving ovulation monitoring at the Outpatient Department were enrolled as the case group. Status of endometrial receptivity was determined by ultrasonography. In the former group, endometrial tissues were sampled for sequencing, and GO and KEGG database enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes was carried out. In the latter group, cervical secretions were collected, and amino acid and carnitine levels were measured by mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was carried out using rank sum test, t test and chi-square test with SPSS v25.0 software.@*RESULTS@#No difference was found in the clinical data of the patients with regard to age, body mass index, infertility years, AMH, FSH, LH, E2, and type of infertility. Compared with the receptive endometrial tissues, there were 100 significantly up-regulated genes and 191 significantly down-regulated genes in the pre-receptive endometrial tissue, with the most significantly altered ones being HLA-DRB5 and MMP10. The biological processes, molecular functions and pathways enriched by more differentially expressed genes in GO and KEGG were mainly immune regulation, cell adhesion and tryptophan metabolism. Analysis of secretion metabolism also revealed a significant difference in the levels of amino acids and carnitine metabolites between the two groups (P < 0.05), in particular those of Alanine, Valine, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C4OH) + malonylcarnitine (C3DC)/captoylcarnitine (C10).@*CONCLUSION@#A significant difference has been discovered in the levels of gene transcription and protein expression in the endometrial tissues from the pre-receptive and receptive stages. The levels of amino acids and carnitine, such as Alanine, Valine, 3-hydroxybutyryl carnitine (C4OH)+malonyl carnitine (C3DC)/caproyl carnitine (C10), may be associated with the receptive status of the endometrium, though this need to be verified with larger samples.

Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Infertility, Female/genetics , Endometrium/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression , Carnitine , Alanine/metabolism , Valine/metabolism
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1417210


Introduction: L'objectif général de notre travail était d'apporter une description épidémiologique et clinicopathologique du cancer de l'endomètre au Gabon. Patients et méthode: Cette étude descriptive et rétrospective a été réalisée à l'Institut de Cancérologie de Libreville chez les patientes atteintes du cancer de l'endomètre sur une période de 7 années (de janvier 2012 à octobre 2018). Résultats: Cette étude a inclus 32 patientes et les résultats obtenus ontmontré que ce cancer au Gabon est plus fréquent chez la femme multipare, que histologiquement le type 1 est le plus souvent rencontré et que ce cancer est de haut grade de malignité. De ce travail ressort également la difficulté du suivi des patientes. Conclusion: Le cancer de l'endomètre étant un cancer souvent d'emblée de mauvais pronostic, il est d'intérêt de mettre en place une stratégie de prévention et de management adapté.Mots clés: cancer, endomètre, étude clinicopathologique, suivi, Gabon Abstract:Introduction:The general objective of our work was to provide an epidemiological and clinicopathological description of endometrial cancer in Gabon.

Introduction: The general objective of our work was to provide an epidemiological and clinicopathological description of endometrial cancer in Gabon. Epidemiological and clinicopathological profile of... Patients and method: This descriptive and retrospective study was carried out at Cancer Institute of Libreville in patients with endometrial cancer over a period of 7 years (from January 2012 to October 2018) . Results: This study included 32 patients and the results obtained showed that this cancer in Gabon is more frequent in multiparous women, that histologically type 1 is most often encountered and that this cancer is of high grade malignancy. This work also shows the difficulty of following up patients. Conclusion: As endometrial cancer is often a cancer with a poor prognosis , it is interest to put in place an appropriate prevention and management strategy.

Humans , Female , Methods , Prognosis , Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Endometrial Neoplasms , Aftercare , Disease Management , Endometrium , Hysterectomy, Vaginal
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(3): 282-290, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411148


Introducción: El cáncer de endometrio es la patología oncológica más frecuente en la posmeno-pausia, asociada a hemorragia uterina anormal. Diferentes estudios han encontrado relación significativa entre el grosor endometrial aumentado y el riesgo de cáncer de endometrio. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la asociación entre estas variables y realizar pruebas diagnósticas en un centro de referencia regional en Guayaquil-Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio analítico, se realizó en el Hospital Ginecológico ­ Obstétrico ­ Pediátrico Universitario de la ciudad de Guayaquil-Ecuador de enero a diciembre del 2018, con una muestra no probabilística, se incluyeron mujeres posmenopáusicas con sangrado uterino y engrosamiento endometrial igual o mayor a 3 milímetros al estudio ecográfico transvaginal y fueron sometidas a legrado con reporte histopatológico. La variable dependiente fue presencia histológica de neoplasia endometrial, la variable independiente fue el grosor endometrial ecográfico. Resultados: El análisis incluyó 148 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 57.9 ± 5.4 años. Obesidad en 22 casos (10.9%), diabetes tipo 2 en 20 casos (9.95%) e hipertensión en 11 casos (5.47%). Fueron 19 casos con cáncer de endometrio y 129 casos con hiperplasia endometrial. El promedio del grosor endometrial fue de 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. El grosor >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (IC 95% 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. La sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad 58.1%, valor predictivo positivo de 26.0%, exactitud de 63.5%. Conclusión: La sensibilidad de la medición del grosor endometrial >3.5 mm como predictor de cáncer endometrial en mujeres postmenopáusicas sintomáticas es alta, sin embargo no tiene una buena especificidad y valor predictivo positivo lo que limitan su uso clínico.

Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most frequent oncological pathology in postmenopause and is associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Different studies have found a significant relationship between increased endometrial thickness and the risk of endometrial cancer. This study aimed to measure the association between these variables and perform diagnostic tests in a regional reference center in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Methodology: This analytical study was carried out at the University Pediatric-Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital of the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador from January to December 2018, with a nonprobabilistic sample, including postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding and endometrial thickening equal to or greater than 3 millimeters to the transvaginal ultrasound study who were subjected to curettage with a histopathological report. The dependent variable was the histologicalence of endometrial neoplasia; the independent variable was the ultrasound endometrial thickness. Results: The analysis included 148 patients, with a mean age of 57.9 ± 5.4 years. Obesity was observed in 22 cases (10.9%), type 2 diabetes in 20 cases (9.95%), and hypertension in 11 cases (5.47%). There were 19 cases of endometrial cancer and 129 cases of endometrial hyperplasia. The mean endometrial thickness was 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. Thickness >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (95% CI 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. The sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 58.1%, the positive predictive value was 26.0%, and the accuracy was 63.5%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of measuring endometrial thickness >3.5 mm as a predictor of endo-metrial cancer in symptomatic postmenopausal women is high; however, it does not have reasonable specificity or positive predictive value, which limits its clinical use.

Humans , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Uterine Hemorrhage , Odds Ratio , Ultrasonography
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 158-163, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929047


At present, endometriosis remains a worldwide health burden, with the main symptoms of dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility, markedly reducing the quality of life (de Ziegler et al., 2010). Although there is no proof that the disease is associated with high mortality, this disorder can significantly contribute to the deterioration of women's general well-being (McPeak et al., 2018). The main current treatment for endometriosis is surgery to remove endometriotic lesions; however, the recurrence rate following surgical treatment is as high as 21.5% at two years and 40.0%‍-‍50.0% at five years post-surgery (Koga et al., 2015). To prevent recurrence, adjuvant treatment with drugs after surgery is recommended to prolong relapse-free intervals. However, it is inconvenient for patients to continuously use such medications in terms of adverse effects and cost (Turk, 2002).

Female , Humans , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Telomerase/metabolism , Up-Regulation
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 255-264, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927601


The synthesis and decomposition of glycogen adjust the blood glucose dynamically to maintain the energy supply required by the cells. As the only hormone that lowers blood sugar in the body, insulin can promote glycogen synthesis by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and increasing glucose transporter translocation, and inhibit gluconeogenesis to lower blood glucose. In the endometrium, glycogen metabolism is active, but gluconeogenesis does not occur. The glycogen metabolism in the endometrium is controlled not only by the classical glucose regulating hormones, but also by the ovarian hormones. The functional activities related to implantation of the endometrium during the implantation window require glucose as energy source. A large amount of glucose is used to synthesize glycogen in the endometrium before implantation, which could meet the increased energy demand for embryo implantation. In diabetes, glycogen metabolism in the endometrium is impaired, which frequently leads to implantation failure and early abortion. This article reviews the glycogen metabolism in the endometrium and discusses its role in embryo implantation, which provide new ideas for embryo implantation research and infertility treatment.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Embryo Implantation , Endometrium , Glucose/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 86-92, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936288


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of CCN5 in endometriotic tissues and its impact on proliferation, migration and invasion of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs).@*METHODS@#We collected ovarian endometriosis samples from 20 women receiving laparoscopic surgery and eutopic endometrium samples from 15 women undergoing IVF-ET for comparison of CCN5 expression. Cultured HESCs were transfected with a recombinant adenovirus Ad-CCN5 for CCN5 overexpression or with a CCN5-specific siRNA for knocking down CCN5 expression, and the changes of cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated using CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell chamber assay. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to examine the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin in HESCs with CCN5 overexpression or knockdown.@*RESULTS@#CCN5 expression was significantly decreased in ovarian endometriosis tissues as compared with eutopic endometrium samples (P < 0.01). CCN5 overexpression obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs, significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin (P < 0.01). CCN5 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs and produced opposite effects on the expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#CCN5 can regulate the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs and thus plays an important role in EMT of HESCs, suggesting the potential of CCN5 as a therapeutic target for endometriosis.

Female , Humans , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Stromal Cells
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20151, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403754


Abstract This was a forthcoming study of those patients, who undergo in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and freeze-all embryo, who acquiesce for the study. The number of participated patients (n=350) in this study, underwent for IVF. The blood sample was collected from patients to evaluate the level of serum progesterone in vacuum vials on the day of ovulation trigger. After 36 hrs of ovulation trigger, ovum picked up was done. Quantitative methods were used to estimate the level of serum progesterone through the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and correlation of serum progesterone with embryo transfer (ET) outcomes. Main outcome of this current study was to evaluate the value of mean serum progesterone level i.e.0.868± 0.712 ng/ml and 0.88±0.723 ng/ml was found in case of pregnancy positive and negative respectively, at p=0.216 value. In antagonist (n=40) and agonist (n=310) cases, it was 8(20%) and 37(11.94%) PL occurrence was noted at p=0.143 respectively. An overall value of the premature lutenization (PL) occurrences was 13.63% and 15.25% observed in both positive and negative cases of pregnancy at p=0.216 respectively. This study concluded that 12.66% of PL occurrences were recorded in the case of IVF. Study results proved, there were no significant effect of PL on pregnancy outcomes.

Humans , Female , Adult , Progesterone/agonists , Endometrium , Histology/classification , Methods , Ovulation/genetics , Ovum , Patients/classification , Immunoassay , Fertilization in Vitro/classification , Embryo Transfer/instrumentation , Embryonic Structures
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 365-374, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353572


Introducción. El carcinoma de endometrio es una patología heterogénea a nivel patogénico, histopatológico y molecular. En los últimos años se han sumado esfuerzos para esclarecer y aumentar el conocimiento de las bases moleculares, logrando así dividir las pacientes en cuatro subgrupos descritos por el Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer (TCGA, por sus siglas en inglés), obteniéndose valiosa información que afecta el diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de las pacientes con esta enfermedad. El objetivo de la siguiente revisión es exponer la nueva clasificación molecular del carcinoma de endometrio, así como discutir las ventajas que esta trae a la hora de estratificar a las pacientes y tomar decisiones terapéuticas. División de los temas tratados. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica no sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane y Medline desde el año 2014 hasta el 2020 sobre el carcinoma de endometrio y su clasificación molecular. Se expone de manera concreta y actualizada el contexto histórico, los diferentes subgrupos moleculares y cómo estos impactan en el manejo de las pacientes. Conclusiones. El carcinoma de endometrio es una enfermedad heterogénea a nivel histopatológico, clínico y molecular. Con la nueva clasificación y los estudios prospectivos se podrán crear nuevas estrategias que permitan brindar mejores protocolos diagnósticos y terapéuticos.

Introduction. Endometrial carcinoma is a heterogeneous pathology in pathologenic, histopathological, and molecular terms. Over the last years, efforts have been made to clarify and increase knowledge of molecular bases, as such dividing patients into four subgroups described by the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), obtaining valuable information that affects the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with this disease. The objective of this review is to exhibit the new molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma, and to discuss its advantages when stratifying patients and making therapeutic decisions. Division of Covered Topics. A non-systematic bibliographical search was carried out in the PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline databases from 2014 to 2020, on endometrial carcinoma and its molecular classification. The historical context, different molecular subgroups and how these impact patient handling are shown in a concrete and updated way. Conclusions. Endometrial carcinoma is a heterogeneous disease in histopathological, clinical, and molecular terms. With the new classification and the prospective studies, new strategies can be created to provide better diagnostic and therapeutic protocols.

Introdução. O carcinoma de endométrio é uma patologia heterogênea no nível patogênico, histopatológico e molecular. Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços para esclarecer e aumentar o conhecimento das bases moleculares, conseguindo dividir as pacientes em quatro subgrupos descritos pelo Atlas do Genoma do Câncer (TCGA, por suas siglas em inglês), obtendo informações valiosas que afetam o diagnóstico, o tratamento e o prognóstico das pacientes com esta doença. O objetivo da seguinte revisão é apresentar a nova classificação molecular do carcinoma de endométrio, bem como discutir as vantagens que ela traz no momento de estratificar as pacientes e tomar decisões terapêuticas. Divisão dos tópicos abordados. Uma pesquisa bibliográfica não sistemática foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, Cochrane e Medline de 2014 a 2020 sobre o carcinoma de endométrio e sua classificação molecular. São apresentados de forma concreta e atualizada o contexto histórico, os diferentes subgrupos moleculares e como esses têm impacto no tratamento das pacientes. Conclusões. O carcinoma de endométrio é uma doença heterogênea no nível histopatológico, clínico e molecular. Com a nova classificação e estudos prospectivos, novas estratégias podem ser desenvolvidas para fornecer melhores protocolos diagnósticos e terapêuticos.

Endometrial Neoplasms , Prognosis , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma , Genome , Endometrium
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1278-1282, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385505


SUMMARY: Progesterone receptors are expressed in the reproductive organs of adult sheep, where they regulate morphofunctional and reproductive development. However, various studies have shown the presence of these receptors in the uterus of prepubertal females. It is not clear what role these receptors have at this level of development in uterine tissue. Therefore, it is relevant as a first step in the investigation, to determine the expression and histological distribution of the progesterone receptor in prepubertal sheep in order to determine possible functions at this level of reproductive development. Immunohistochemical analysis allows visualizing the specific presence of a protein in the cellular and histological context, however, the results displayed through digital images are qualitative data and subject to the observer's criteria. In this work, a quantitative analysis method of immunohistochemical expression of the progesterone receptor in ovine endometrium is presented, using digital analysis of images, by means of integrated optical density of digital photographs of histological sections processed with immunohistochemical methods. The results show the possibility of quantitatively evaluating the expression of progesterone receptors in the endometrial stroma and prepubertal endometrial glands by applying the integrated optical density analysis of digital images.

RESUMEN: Los receptores de progesterona se expresan en los órganos reproductores de ovejas adultas, donde regulan el desarrollo morfofuncional y reproductivo. Sin embargo, diversos estudios han demostrado la presencia de estos receptores en útero de hembras prepúberes. No está claro, el papel que estos receptores tienen en este nivel de desarrollo en tejido uterino. Por lo que, es relevante como primer paso en la investigación, determinar la expresión y distribución histológica del receptor de progesterona en ovejas prepúberes con el fin determinar posibles funciones en este nivel de desarrollo reproductivo. El análisis inmuno- histoquímico permite visualizar la presencia específica de una proteína en el contexto celular e histológico, sin embargo, los resultados visualizados a través de imágenes digitales, son datos cualitativos y sujeto al criterio del observador. En este trabajo se presenta un método de análisis cuantitativo de expresión inmunohistoquímica del receptor de progesterona en endometrio ovino, utilizando análisis digital de imágenes, mediante densidad óptica integrada de fotografías digitales de cortes histológicos procesados con métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Los resultados muestran la posibilidad de evaluar cuantitativamente la expresión de los receptores de progesterona en el estroma endometrial y las glándulas endometriales prepúberes aplicando el análisis de densidad óptica integrado de imágenes digitales.

Animals , Sheep , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Densitometry , Optical Imaging/methods
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 530-534, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347245


Abstract Objective To evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine lesions, using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Methods This was a prospective observational study with 307 patients. All patients underwent hysteroscopy after a previous transvaginal ultrasound to compare the results. The hysteroscopy was performed by experienced examiners, and transvaginal ultrasounds were performed in various public and private services, which is reflective of routine healthcare practices in obstetrics and gynecology. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the transvaginal ultrasound were calculated using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. The level of agreement between the two exams was calculated using the Kappa test. Results Themean age was 56.55±12.3 years. For endometrial polyps, we observed a sensitivity of 39.8%, specificity of 72.7%, accuracy of 52.8%, and Kappa index of 0.11 (p=0.025). For fibroids, the sensitivity was 46.7%, specificity was 95.0%, accuracy was 87.9%, and Kappa index was 0.46 (p<0.001). For endometrial thickening, the sensitivity was 68.7%, specificity was 41.7%, accuracy was 47.6%, and Kappa index was 0.06 (p=0.126). For endometrial atrophy, we found a sensitivity of 6.7%, specificity of 99.3%, accuracy of 90.2%, and Kappa index of 0.10 (p=0.006). For the other findings, the sensitivity was 15.6%, specificity was 99.6%, accuracy was 87.3%, and Kappa index was 0.23 (P<0.001). Conclusion Our study demonstrated a low level of accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for the diagnosis of endometrial lesions, when performed by a non-experienced professional. Thus, it is important to consider the use of hysteroscopy to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate treatments.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia do ultrassom transvaginal para o diagnóstico de lesões intrauterinas, tendo a histeroscopia como padrão de referência. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo observacional prospectivo em 307 pacientes, submetidas à histeroscopia após ultrassonografia prévia para comparação dos resultados. A histeroscopia foi realizada por duas médicas com experiência, e os exames de ultrassom foram realizados em diversas fontes, públicas ou privadas, como ocorre no cotidiano da assistência à saúde em nosso meio. Foram avaliados sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, tendo a histeroscopia como padrão-ouro. O nível de concordância foi avaliado pelo teste de Kappa. Resultados A idade média foi de 56,55±12,3 anos. Os resultados para pólipo endometrial foram: sensibilidade 39.8%, especificidade 72,7%, acurácia de 52,8%, e índice Kappa 0,11 (p=0,025). Para mioma, sensibilidade 46,7%, especificidade 95,0%, acurácia 87,9%, e índice Kappa 0,46 (p<0,001). Para espessamento endometrial, sensibilidade 68,7%, especificidade 41,7%, acurácia 47,6%, e índice Kappa de 0,06 (p=0,126). Para atrofia, sensibilidade 6,7%, especificidade 99,3%, acurácia 90,2%, e índice Kappa 0,10 (p=0,006). Para outros achados, sensibilidade 15,6%, especificidade 99,6%, acurácia 87,3%, e índice Kappa 0,23 (p<0,001). Conclusão Nosso estudo demonstrou baixo nível de acurácia da ultrassonografia transvaginal para o diagnóstico de lesões endometriais, quando realizada por profissional não experiente. Assim, é importante considerar o uso da histeroscopia para evitar tratamentos desnecessários e inadequados.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Aged , Polyps , Uterine Diseases/pathology , Uterine Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Uterine Neoplasms/pathology , Leiomyoma/pathology , Hysteroscopy , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endometrium/pathology , Middle Aged