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Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(3): 282-290, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411148


Introducción: El cáncer de endometrio es la patología oncológica más frecuente en la posmeno-pausia, asociada a hemorragia uterina anormal. Diferentes estudios han encontrado relación significativa entre el grosor endometrial aumentado y el riesgo de cáncer de endometrio. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la asociación entre estas variables y realizar pruebas diagnósticas en un centro de referencia regional en Guayaquil-Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio analítico, se realizó en el Hospital Ginecológico ­ Obstétrico ­ Pediátrico Universitario de la ciudad de Guayaquil-Ecuador de enero a diciembre del 2018, con una muestra no probabilística, se incluyeron mujeres posmenopáusicas con sangrado uterino y engrosamiento endometrial igual o mayor a 3 milímetros al estudio ecográfico transvaginal y fueron sometidas a legrado con reporte histopatológico. La variable dependiente fue presencia histológica de neoplasia endometrial, la variable independiente fue el grosor endometrial ecográfico. Resultados: El análisis incluyó 148 pacientes, con una edad promedio de 57.9 ± 5.4 años. Obesidad en 22 casos (10.9%), diabetes tipo 2 en 20 casos (9.95%) e hipertensión en 11 casos (5.47%). Fueron 19 casos con cáncer de endometrio y 129 casos con hiperplasia endometrial. El promedio del grosor endometrial fue de 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. El grosor >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (IC 95% 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. La sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad 58.1%, valor predictivo positivo de 26.0%, exactitud de 63.5%. Conclusión: La sensibilidad de la medición del grosor endometrial >3.5 mm como predictor de cáncer endometrial en mujeres postmenopáusicas sintomáticas es alta, sin embargo no tiene una buena especificidad y valor predictivo positivo lo que limitan su uso clínico.

Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most frequent oncological pathology in postmenopause and is associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Different studies have found a significant relationship between increased endometrial thickness and the risk of endometrial cancer. This study aimed to measure the association between these variables and perform diagnostic tests in a regional reference center in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Methodology: This analytical study was carried out at the University Pediatric-Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital of the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador from January to December 2018, with a nonprobabilistic sample, including postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding and endometrial thickening equal to or greater than 3 millimeters to the transvaginal ultrasound study who were subjected to curettage with a histopathological report. The dependent variable was the histologicalence of endometrial neoplasia; the independent variable was the ultrasound endometrial thickness. Results: The analysis included 148 patients, with a mean age of 57.9 ± 5.4 years. Obesity was observed in 22 cases (10.9%), type 2 diabetes in 20 cases (9.95%), and hypertension in 11 cases (5.47%). There were 19 cases of endometrial cancer and 129 cases of endometrial hyperplasia. The mean endometrial thickness was 3.560 ± 0.49969 mm. Thickness >3.5 mm OR 54.03 (95% CI 3.19-914.34) P=0.0057. The sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 58.1%, the positive predictive value was 26.0%, and the accuracy was 63.5%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of measuring endometrial thickness >3.5 mm as a predictor of endo-metrial cancer in symptomatic postmenopausal women is high; however, it does not have reasonable specificity or positive predictive value, which limits its clinical use.

Humans , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Uterine Hemorrhage , Odds Ratio , Ultrasonography
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953234


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects and mechanisms of Kindlin-2 on uterus development and reproductive capacity in female mice.@*METHODS@#Cdh16-Cre tool mice and Kindlin-2flox/flox mice were used to construct the mouse model of uterus specific knockout of Kindlin-2, and the effects of Kindlin-2 deletion on uterine development and reproduction capacity of female mice were observed. High expression and knockdown of Kindlin-2 in endometrial cancer cell lines HEC-1 and Ish were used to detect the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In addition, uterine proteins of the female mice with specific knockout of Kindlin-2 and female mice in the control group were extracted to detect the protein levels of key molecules of mTOR signaling pathway and Hippo signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#The mouse model of uterine specific knockout of Kindlin-2 was successfully constructed. The knockout efficiency of Kindlin-2 in mouse uterus was identified and verified by mouse tail polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot protein identification, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and other methods. Compared with the control group, the female mice with uterus specific deletion of Kindlin-2 lost weight, seriously impaired reproductive ability, and the number of newborn mice decreased, but the proportion of the female mice and male mice in the newborn mice did not change. Hematoxylin eosin staining (HE) experiment showed that the endometrium of Kindlin-2 knockout group was incomplete and the thickness of uterine wall became thinner. In terms of mechanism, the deletion of Kindlin-2 in endo-metrial cancer cell lines HEC-1 and Ish could downregulate the protein levels of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (S6), and the mTOR signal pathway was inhibited. It was found that the specific deletion of Kindlin-2 could upregulate the protein levels of Mps one binding 1 (MOB1) and phosphorylated Yes-associated protein (YAP) in the uterus of the female mice, and the Hippo signal pathway was activated.@*CONCLUSION@#Kindlin-2 inhibits the development of uterus by inhibiting mTOR signal pathway and activating Hippo signal pathway, thereby inhibiting the fertility of female mice.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Animals , Cadherins/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Eosine Yellowish-(YS)/metabolism , Female , Hematoxylin/metabolism , Hippo Signaling Pathway , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Muscle Proteins , Ribosomal Protein S6/metabolism , Sirolimus/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , YAP-Signaling Proteins
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949839


OBJECTIVES@#The main treatment for intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is hysteroscopic adhesiolysis (HA), which most of treatment frequently employs estrogen and progesterone cycle therapy. The growth and coverage of endometrium after operation is a difficult problem, and several hospitals in China have performed growth hormone (GH) in empirically treating IUA, which has achieved excellent curative effects. Unfortunately, the mechanism of action has not yet been clearly elucidated. In previous study, an IUA animal model after surgical abortion and curettage in pregnant rats has been successfully established. In this experiment, the IUA animal model after surgical abortion and curettage in pregnant rats, which is more in line with the mechanism of human intrauterine adhesion, was used for the first time to investigate the therapeutic effect of GH on IUA in the pregnant rat curettage model. The expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3(STAT3), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), STAT5 and p-STAT5 content were detected by immunohistochemistry to preliminarily explore the possible mechanism of GH involving in promoting endometrial growth of IUA, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical medication and treatment.@*METHODS@#Pregnant rats were anesthetized, and the bilateral embryos were removed completely. Then the rat endometrium was scraped with a curette in 4 different directions (front, back, left, and right). After the IUA animal model was established, the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=5): a control group, a GH group, and a GH + AG490 group. Normal saline (0.4 mL/100 g) was injected subcutaneously at the 7th day after curettage in the control group;0.15 U/100 g of GH was injected subcutaneously at the 7th day after curettage in the GH group; 0.15 U/100 g of GH was injected subcutaneously and 1 mg/100 g AG490 was injected intraperitoneally at the 7th day after curettage in the GH+ AG490 group. All the rats were injected continuously for 5 days. The rats in each group were sacrificed at the 14th day. The uterus of rats in each group was stained with HE staining to explore the endometrial morphology and the number of endometrial glands in each group, and Masson staining was utilized to observe the degree of endometrial fibrosis. The levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, STAT5 and p-STAT5 were detected by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#1) The number of glands in the GH group was more than that in the control group on the 14th day, with statistical difference (P<0.05). However, the number of endometrial glands in the AG490+GH group was decreased compared with the GH group on the 14th day (P<0.05). 2) The fibrosis ratio in the GH group was less than that in the control group at the 14th day after operation (P<0.05). However, the area of endometrial interstitial fibrosis in the AG490+GH group was much higher than that in the GH group 14 days after operation (P<0.05). 3) Compared with the control group, there was not significant difference in the levels of STAT3 and STAT5 in GH group (both P>0.05), while the levels of protein p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 were increased in the GH group (both P<0.05). Compared with the GH group, there was not significant difference in the levels of STAT3 and STAT5 in the AG490+GH group (both P>0.05), while the levels of p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 were decreased in the AG490+GH group (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#GH can not only promote the growth of endometrial glands in the IUA model, but also reduce the degree of fibrosis and play a role in the treatment of IUA, which may be related to the activation of the Janus kinase (JAK), JAK/STAT3 and STAT5 signaling pathways.

Animals , Rats , China , Growth Hormone , Endometrium/pathology , Tissue Adhesions/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949760


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture on endometrium and pregnancy outcomes in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) infertility undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).@*METHODS@#Eighty-three patients were randomly assigned to observation group (40 cases) and control group (43 cases) according to the random numbers generated by SPSS software. The patients of the two groups received GnRH agonist long protocol as a routine treatment. In the observation group, acupuncture was given at two acupoint groups for 30 min once every other day. Group 1 included Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Zhongji (CV 3), bilateral acupoints Zigong (EX-CA1). Group 2 included Mingmen (GV 4), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) and Ciliao (BL 32). The two groups of acupoints were used alternately. The whole needling process was performed at the time of ovulation induction until the transplantation day and consisted of 3 courses, while the control group did not receive acupuncture interventions. The Gn dosage and Gn stimulation time, endometrial thickness and type (A, B, and C), serum oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels on the day of injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), clinical pregnancy rate, as well as live birth rate were observed. Adverse reactions were also be recorded. All patients were followed up for the pregnant rate 14 days after IVF-ET and live birth rate after pregnancy. All adverse reactions (AEs) of acupuncture were recorded during the trial.@*RESULTS@#The Gn dosage and Gn stimulation time in the observation group were lower in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.01). The proportion of type A endometrium in the observation group were higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The serum E2 and P levels on the day of hCG injection was lower and the clinical pregnancy rate was higher in the observation group compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). There was no serious AEs during this trial.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture can improve the proportion of type A endometrium, regulate the levels of serum E2 and P on the day of hCG injection, and improve the pregnancy rate in patients with PCOS infertility undergoing IVF-ET.

Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Embryo Transfer , Endometrium , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Humans , Infertility , Ovulation Induction , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936288


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of CCN5 in endometriotic tissues and its impact on proliferation, migration and invasion of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs).@*METHODS@#We collected ovarian endometriosis samples from 20 women receiving laparoscopic surgery and eutopic endometrium samples from 15 women undergoing IVF-ET for comparison of CCN5 expression. Cultured HESCs were transfected with a recombinant adenovirus Ad-CCN5 for CCN5 overexpression or with a CCN5-specific siRNA for knocking down CCN5 expression, and the changes of cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated using CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell chamber assay. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to examine the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin in HESCs with CCN5 overexpression or knockdown.@*RESULTS@#CCN5 expression was significantly decreased in ovarian endometriosis tissues as compared with eutopic endometrium samples (P < 0.01). CCN5 overexpression obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs, significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin (P < 0.01). CCN5 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs and produced opposite effects on the expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#CCN5 can regulate the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs and thus plays an important role in EMT of HESCs, suggesting the potential of CCN5 as a therapeutic target for endometriosis.

Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Female , Humans , Stromal Cells
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948333


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of electroacupuncture on endometrial receptivity and the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in the patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).@*METHODS@#Sixty-eight patients of DOR undertaken IVF-ET were randomized into an observation group (34 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (34 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, endometrial preparation was performed according to the routine protocol. In the observation group, on the base of the treatment as the control group, acupuncture was applied to Geshu (BL 17), Shenshu (BL 23), Mingmen (GV 4), Shiqizhui (EX-B 8), Ciliao (BL 32), Zhongliao (BL 33), Tianshu (ST 25), Qihai (CV 6) and Guanyuan (CV 4), etc. Electric stimulation was given at Ciliao (BL 32)-Zhongliao(BL 33), Tianshu (ST 25)-Zigong (EX-CA 1), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and tolerable current in intensity. Electroacupuncture was given once every two days, 3 times weekly, lasing 3 menstrual cycles till 1 day before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness and morphology were observed on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) of egg retrieval cycle, the day of endometrial transformation in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycle and the day of embryo transfer in both groups successively; as well as HCG positive rate, clinical pregnancy rate, embryo implantation rate and live birth rate.@*RESULTS@#In the observation group, the proportion of type A endometrium on the embryo transfer day was higher than those on HCG day of the egg retrieval cycle and the endometrial transformation day of FET cycle (P<0.05), and also higher than that of the control group (P<0.01). In the observation group, HCG positive rate, clinical pregnancy rate, embryo implantation rate and live birth rate were 75.0% (24/32), 71.9% (23/32), 47.4% (27/57) and 56.3% (18/32) respectively, and all higher than 36.4% (12/33), 30.3% (10/33), 18.0% (11/61) and 15.2% (5/33) in the control group separately (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture improves the endometrial receptivity and IVF-ET pregnancy outcomes in the patients of diminished ovarian reserve.

Chorionic Gonadotropin , Electroacupuncture , Endometrium , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Humans , Ovarian Diseases , Ovarian Reserve , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Rate
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 255-264, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927601


The synthesis and decomposition of glycogen adjust the blood glucose dynamically to maintain the energy supply required by the cells. As the only hormone that lowers blood sugar in the body, insulin can promote glycogen synthesis by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and increasing glucose transporter translocation, and inhibit gluconeogenesis to lower blood glucose. In the endometrium, glycogen metabolism is active, but gluconeogenesis does not occur. The glycogen metabolism in the endometrium is controlled not only by the classical glucose regulating hormones, but also by the ovarian hormones. The functional activities related to implantation of the endometrium during the implantation window require glucose as energy source. A large amount of glucose is used to synthesize glycogen in the endometrium before implantation, which could meet the increased energy demand for embryo implantation. In diabetes, glycogen metabolism in the endometrium is impaired, which frequently leads to implantation failure and early abortion. This article reviews the glycogen metabolism in the endometrium and discusses its role in embryo implantation, which provide new ideas for embryo implantation research and infertility treatment.

Blood Glucose/metabolism , Embryo Implantation , Endometrium , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pregnancy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929047


At present, endometriosis remains a worldwide health burden, with the main symptoms of dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility, markedly reducing the quality of life (de Ziegler et al., 2010). Although there is no proof that the disease is associated with high mortality, this disorder can significantly contribute to the deterioration of women's general well-being (McPeak et al., 2018). The main current treatment for endometriosis is surgery to remove endometriotic lesions; however, the recurrence rate following surgical treatment is as high as 21.5% at two years and 40.0%‍-‍50.0% at five years post-surgery (Koga et al., 2015). To prevent recurrence, adjuvant treatment with drugs after surgery is recommended to prolong relapse-free intervals. However, it is inconvenient for patients to continuously use such medications in terms of adverse effects and cost (Turk, 2002).

Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Female , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Telomerase/metabolism , Up-Regulation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20151, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403754


Abstract This was a forthcoming study of those patients, who undergo in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and freeze-all embryo, who acquiesce for the study. The number of participated patients (n=350) in this study, underwent for IVF. The blood sample was collected from patients to evaluate the level of serum progesterone in vacuum vials on the day of ovulation trigger. After 36 hrs of ovulation trigger, ovum picked up was done. Quantitative methods were used to estimate the level of serum progesterone through the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and correlation of serum progesterone with embryo transfer (ET) outcomes. Main outcome of this current study was to evaluate the value of mean serum progesterone level i.e.0.868± 0.712 ng/ml and 0.88±0.723 ng/ml was found in case of pregnancy positive and negative respectively, at p=0.216 value. In antagonist (n=40) and agonist (n=310) cases, it was 8(20%) and 37(11.94%) PL occurrence was noted at p=0.143 respectively. An overall value of the premature lutenization (PL) occurrences was 13.63% and 15.25% observed in both positive and negative cases of pregnancy at p=0.216 respectively. This study concluded that 12.66% of PL occurrences were recorded in the case of IVF. Study results proved, there were no significant effect of PL on pregnancy outcomes.

Humans , Female , Adult , Progesterone/agonists , Endometrium , Histology/classification , Methods , Ovulation/genetics , Ovum , Patients/classification , Immunoassay , Fertilization in Vitro/classification , Embryo Transfer/instrumentation , Embryonic Structures
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 365-374, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353572


Introducción. El carcinoma de endometrio es una patología heterogénea a nivel patogénico, histopatológico y molecular. En los últimos años se han sumado esfuerzos para esclarecer y aumentar el conocimiento de las bases moleculares, logrando así dividir las pacientes en cuatro subgrupos descritos por el Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer (TCGA, por sus siglas en inglés), obteniéndose valiosa información que afecta el diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de las pacientes con esta enfermedad. El objetivo de la siguiente revisión es exponer la nueva clasificación molecular del carcinoma de endometrio, así como discutir las ventajas que esta trae a la hora de estratificar a las pacientes y tomar decisiones terapéuticas. División de los temas tratados. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica no sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane y Medline desde el año 2014 hasta el 2020 sobre el carcinoma de endometrio y su clasificación molecular. Se expone de manera concreta y actualizada el contexto histórico, los diferentes subgrupos moleculares y cómo estos impactan en el manejo de las pacientes. Conclusiones. El carcinoma de endometrio es una enfermedad heterogénea a nivel histopatológico, clínico y molecular. Con la nueva clasificación y los estudios prospectivos se podrán crear nuevas estrategias que permitan brindar mejores protocolos diagnósticos y terapéuticos.

Introduction. Endometrial carcinoma is a heterogeneous pathology in pathologenic, histopathological, and molecular terms. Over the last years, efforts have been made to clarify and increase knowledge of molecular bases, as such dividing patients into four subgroups described by the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), obtaining valuable information that affects the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with this disease. The objective of this review is to exhibit the new molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma, and to discuss its advantages when stratifying patients and making therapeutic decisions. Division of Covered Topics. A non-systematic bibliographical search was carried out in the PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline databases from 2014 to 2020, on endometrial carcinoma and its molecular classification. The historical context, different molecular subgroups and how these impact patient handling are shown in a concrete and updated way. Conclusions. Endometrial carcinoma is a heterogeneous disease in histopathological, clinical, and molecular terms. With the new classification and the prospective studies, new strategies can be created to provide better diagnostic and therapeutic protocols.

Introdução. O carcinoma de endométrio é uma patologia heterogênea no nível patogênico, histopatológico e molecular. Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços para esclarecer e aumentar o conhecimento das bases moleculares, conseguindo dividir as pacientes em quatro subgrupos descritos pelo Atlas do Genoma do Câncer (TCGA, por suas siglas em inglês), obtendo informações valiosas que afetam o diagnóstico, o tratamento e o prognóstico das pacientes com esta doença. O objetivo da seguinte revisão é apresentar a nova classificação molecular do carcinoma de endométrio, bem como discutir as vantagens que ela traz no momento de estratificar as pacientes e tomar decisões terapêuticas. Divisão dos tópicos abordados. Uma pesquisa bibliográfica não sistemática foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, Cochrane e Medline de 2014 a 2020 sobre o carcinoma de endométrio e sua classificação molecular. São apresentados de forma concreta e atualizada o contexto histórico, os diferentes subgrupos moleculares e como esses têm impacto no tratamento das pacientes. Conclusões. O carcinoma de endométrio é uma doença heterogênea no nível histopatológico, clínico e molecular. Com a nova classificação e estudos prospectivos, novas estratégias podem ser desenvolvidas para fornecer melhores protocolos diagnósticos e terapêuticos.

Endometrial Neoplasms , Prognosis , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma , Genome , Endometrium
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 530-534, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347245


Abstract Objective To evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine lesions, using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Methods This was a prospective observational study with 307 patients. All patients underwent hysteroscopy after a previous transvaginal ultrasound to compare the results. The hysteroscopy was performed by experienced examiners, and transvaginal ultrasounds were performed in various public and private services, which is reflective of routine healthcare practices in obstetrics and gynecology. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the transvaginal ultrasound were calculated using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. The level of agreement between the two exams was calculated using the Kappa test. Results Themean age was 56.55±12.3 years. For endometrial polyps, we observed a sensitivity of 39.8%, specificity of 72.7%, accuracy of 52.8%, and Kappa index of 0.11 (p=0.025). For fibroids, the sensitivity was 46.7%, specificity was 95.0%, accuracy was 87.9%, and Kappa index was 0.46 (p<0.001). For endometrial thickening, the sensitivity was 68.7%, specificity was 41.7%, accuracy was 47.6%, and Kappa index was 0.06 (p=0.126). For endometrial atrophy, we found a sensitivity of 6.7%, specificity of 99.3%, accuracy of 90.2%, and Kappa index of 0.10 (p=0.006). For the other findings, the sensitivity was 15.6%, specificity was 99.6%, accuracy was 87.3%, and Kappa index was 0.23 (P<0.001). Conclusion Our study demonstrated a low level of accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for the diagnosis of endometrial lesions, when performed by a non-experienced professional. Thus, it is important to consider the use of hysteroscopy to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate treatments.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia do ultrassom transvaginal para o diagnóstico de lesões intrauterinas, tendo a histeroscopia como padrão de referência. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo observacional prospectivo em 307 pacientes, submetidas à histeroscopia após ultrassonografia prévia para comparação dos resultados. A histeroscopia foi realizada por duas médicas com experiência, e os exames de ultrassom foram realizados em diversas fontes, públicas ou privadas, como ocorre no cotidiano da assistência à saúde em nosso meio. Foram avaliados sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, tendo a histeroscopia como padrão-ouro. O nível de concordância foi avaliado pelo teste de Kappa. Resultados A idade média foi de 56,55±12,3 anos. Os resultados para pólipo endometrial foram: sensibilidade 39.8%, especificidade 72,7%, acurácia de 52,8%, e índice Kappa 0,11 (p=0,025). Para mioma, sensibilidade 46,7%, especificidade 95,0%, acurácia 87,9%, e índice Kappa 0,46 (p<0,001). Para espessamento endometrial, sensibilidade 68,7%, especificidade 41,7%, acurácia 47,6%, e índice Kappa de 0,06 (p=0,126). Para atrofia, sensibilidade 6,7%, especificidade 99,3%, acurácia 90,2%, e índice Kappa 0,10 (p=0,006). Para outros achados, sensibilidade 15,6%, especificidade 99,6%, acurácia 87,3%, e índice Kappa 0,23 (p<0,001). Conclusão Nosso estudo demonstrou baixo nível de acurácia da ultrassonografia transvaginal para o diagnóstico de lesões endometriais, quando realizada por profissional não experiente. Assim, é importante considerar o uso da histeroscopia para evitar tratamentos desnecessários e inadequados.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Aged , Polyps , Uterine Diseases/pathology , Uterine Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Uterine Neoplasms/pathology , Leiomyoma/pathology , Hysteroscopy , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endometrium/pathology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 457-466, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341145


Abstract Objective Abnormalities in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis may be related to disease-associated infertility. Although previous RNA-sequencing analysis did not show differential expression in endometrial transcripts of endometriosis patients, other molecular alterations could impact protein synthesis and endometrial receptivity. Our aim was to screen for functional mutations in the transcripts of eutopic endometria of infertile women with endometriosis and controls during the implantation window. Methods Data from RNA-Sequencing of endometrial biopsies collected during the implantation window from 17 patients (6 infertile women with endometriosis, 6 infertile controls, 5 fertile controls) were analyzed for variant discovery and identification of functional mutations. A targeted study of the alterations found was performed to understand the data into disease's context. Results None of the variants identified was common to other samples within the same group, and no mutation was repeated among patients with endometriosis, infertile and fertile controls. In the endometriosis group, nine predicted deleterious mutations were identified, but only one was previously associated to a clinical condition with no endometrial impact. When crossing the mutated genes with the descriptors endometriosis and/or endometrium, the gene CMKLR1 was associated either with inflammatory response in endometriosis or with endometrial processes for pregnancy establishment. Conclusion Despite no pattern of mutation having been found, we ponder the small sample size and the analysis on RNA-sequencing data. Considering the purpose of the study of screening and the importance of the CMKLR1 gene on endometrial

Resumo Objetivo Anormalidades no endométrio eutópico de mulheres com endometriose podem estar relacionadas à infertilidade associada à doença. Embora a análise prévia de sequenciamento de RNA não tenha evidenciado expressão diferencial em transcritos endometriais de pacientes com endometriose, outras alterações moleculares poderiam afetar a síntese de proteínas e a receptividade endometrial. Nosso objetivo foi rastrear mutações funcionais em transcritos de endométrios eutópicos de mulheres inférteis com endometriose e de controles durante a janela de implantação. Métodos Os dados do sequenciamento de RNA de biópsias endometriais coletados durante a janela de implantação de 17 pacientes (6 mulheres inférteis com endometriose, 6 controles inférteis, 5 controles férteis) foram analisados para a descoberta de variantes e a identificação de mutações funcionais. Um estudo direcionado das alterações encontradas foi realizado para compreender os dados no contexto da doença. Resultados Nenhuma das variantes identificadas foi comuma outras amostras dentro do mesmo grupo, assim como nenhuma mutação se repetiu entre pacientes com endometriose, controles inférteis e férteis. No grupo de endometriose, foram identificadas nove mutações deletérias preditas, mas apenas uma foi previamente associada a uma condição clínica sem impacto endometrial. Ao cruzar os genes mutados com os descritores endometriose e/ou endométrio, o gene CMKLR1 foi associado a resposta inflamatória na endometriose e a processos endometriais para estabelecimento da gravidez. Conclusão Apesar de nenhum padrão de mutação ter sido encontrado, ponderamos o pequeno tamanho da amostra e a análise dos dados de sequenciamento de RNA. Considerando o objetivo do estudo de triagem e a importância do gene CMKLR1 na modulação endometrial, este poderia ser um gene candidato para estudos adicionais que avaliem mutações no endométrio eutópico de pacientes com endometriose.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Embryo Implantation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Endometriosis/complications , Endometriosis/genetics , Endometrium/metabolism , Infertility, Female/etiology , Mutation , Computer Simulation , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Infertility, Female/metabolism
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 304-310, Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280037


Abstract Hydrosalpinx is a disease characterized by the obstruction of the salpinx, with progressive accumulation in the shape of a fluid-filled sac at the distal part of the tuba uterina, and closed to the ovary. Women with hydrosalpinges have lower implantation and pregnancy rates due to a combination of mechanical and chemical factors thought to disrupt the endometrial environment. Evidence suggests that the presence of hydrosalpinx reduces the rate of pregnancy with assisted reproductive technology. The main aim of the present is review to make an overview of the possible effects of hydrosalpinx on in vitro fertilization (IVF).We conducted a literature search on the PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Google Scholar data bases regarding hydrosalpinx and IVF outcomes. Hydrosalpinx probably has a direct toxic effect on sperm motility and on the embryos. In addition, the increasing liquid inside the salpinges could alter the mechanisms of endometrial receptivity. The window of endometrial receptivity is essential in the implantation of blastocysts, and it triggers multiple reactions arising from the endometrium as well as the blastocysts. Hydrosalpinx could influence the expression of homeobox A10 (HOXA10) gene, which plays an essential role in directing embryonic development and implantation. Salpingectomy restores the endometrial expression of HOXA10; therefore, it may be one mechanism by which tubal

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Embryo Implantation , Fertilization in Vitro , Treatment Failure , Fallopian Tube Diseases/complications , Salpingectomy , Infertility, Female/therapy , Blastocyst/physiology , Gene Expression , Endometrium/physiopathology , Fallopian Tube Diseases/surgery , Fallopian Tube Diseases/physiopathology , Homeobox A10 Proteins/genetics , Infertility, Female/etiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888047


Endometriosis(EMs) is a stubborn gynecological disease caused by persistent immune-inflammatory effects, and is known as "benign tumor" because of its similar characteristics to malignant tumors. National physician master Professor BAN Xiu-wen believes that the spread of damp-evil is the pathologic foundation for inflammatory response of ectopic endometrium; accumulation of blood stasis is the pathological product of continuous inflammatory attacks, and the combination of dampness and stasis is the main pathogenesis for refractory EMs. Modern researches have shown that immune-inflammatory effect is the key mechanism for development of EMs, and is closely related to cell autophagy, all of which have made it become the hot spots in research of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of EMs. Therefore, with immune-inflammatory effect as the breakthrough point in this research, and with reference to the related research of autophagy, the correlation between "combination of dampness and stasis" and abnormal autophagy-induced immune inflammatory response in ectopic endometrium was discussed, to provide guidance for the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine and modern research.

Autophagy , Endometriosis , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1338-1342, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921056


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect of @*METHODS@#A total of 74 patients with RIF of thin endometrium type undergoing freeze-thaw embryo transfer were randomly divided into an observation group (37 cases) and a control group (37 cases). The patients in the control group were treated with freeze-thaw embryo transfer in hormone replacement cycle, and the estradiol valerate tablets were taken orally from the fifth day of menstruation, 2 mg per day. On the basis of the control group, the observation group was additionally treated with @*RESULTS@#The clinical pregnancy rate was 37.8% (14/37) in the observation group, which was higher than 16.2% (6/37) in the control group (@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of conventional medication,

Acupuncture Therapy , Embryo Transfer , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Rate
Clinics ; 76: e2145, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153958


OBJECTIVES: Arterial embolization of myomas (AEM) is controversial because of the changes that occur in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the endometrium and its effect on gestational success in infertile patients desiring reproductive capability. Therefore, we performed this study on the expression of genes in the ECM of the endometrium, such as those coding metalloproteinases (MMP), before and 6 months after embolization of the uterine arteries. METHODS: Seven women with leiomyomas were evaluated, and MMP3 and MMP10 levels were measured. The women underwent pelvic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), examination, and endometrial biopsy between the 20th and 24th day of the menstrual cycle, and pre- and post-AEM (after 6 months). For data analysis, the Cq comparative method, also known as the 2-ΔΔCT method, was used to calculate the relative quantities of MMP gene expression among the samples collected. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease by 9.52 times in the expression of MMP3 (p=0.007), and a non-significant change in the expression of MMP10 (p=0.22) in post-AEM-treated women than pre-AEM-treated women. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ECM continues to undergo tissue remodeling 6 months after AEM, at least with regard to MMP3 expression, suggesting that AEM affects the ECM for at least 6 months after the procedure.

Humans , Female , Endometrium , Myoma , Metalloproteases , Extracellular Matrix , Uterine Artery
Clinics ; 76: e2380, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153943


OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of low-dose conjugated estrogen (CE), raloxifene, and the combination thereof on the endometrium of postmenopausal women. METHODS: Postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age, with Gail score≥1.67 and no endometrial disorders, were randomly assigned to receive low-dose CE (0.3 mg), raloxifene (60 mg), or combined therapy for 1 year. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed at baseline and every 3 months; the Kupperman Index was assessed at baseline and every 6 months. Endometrial biopsies were performed if endometrial thickness (ET) was ≥5 mm or if vaginal bleeding occurred. The primary outcome was the occurrence of ET≥5 mm over the one-year period. RESULTS: Seventy-three women were randomly assigned and analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Eight, three, and four women in the CE, raloxifene, and combination groups, respectively, exhibited ET≥5 mm. No genital bleeding was reported in the combination group. Endometrial biopsy revealed atrophy or polyps in all groups, with one patient in the CE group exhibiting a proliferative endometrium without atypia. At 6 months, there was a progressive increase in mean ET in the CE group, but not in the other two groups, with statistically significant differences at 6, 9, and 12 months. Mean scores for vasomotor symptoms and Kupperman Index favored the CE and combination groups over raloxifene. CONCLUSION: Combined raloxifene and low-dose CE decreased the severity of menopausal symptoms to a similar extent as CE alone and had similar effects as raloxifene alone on the endometrium.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Raloxifene Hydrochloride , Menopause , Double-Blind Method , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Endometrium/diagnostic imaging
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10117, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153531


The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis by modulating the proliferation and invasion of ectopic endometrial cells in vitro, but related in vivo studies are rare. This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 in a nude mouse model of endometriosis. Ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ecESCs) were isolated from ectopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis and infected with lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) negative control (LV-NC-shRNA) or lncRNA-H19 shRNA (LV-H19-shRNA). The ecESCs infected with LV-NC-shRNA and LV-H19-shRNA were subcutaneously implanted into forty 6- to 8-week-old female nude mice. The size and weight of the endometriotic implants were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after implantation and compared, and lncRNA H19 levels in endometriotic implants were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All nude mice survived the experimental period, and no significant differences in body weight were observed between the experimental group and the control group. All nude mice developed histologically confirmed subcutaneous endometriotic lesions with glandular structures and stroma after 1 week of implantation. The subcutaneous lesions in the LV-NC-shRNA group after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of implantation were larger than those in the LV-H19-shRNA group, and lncRNA H19 levels in subcutaneous lesions in the LV-NC-shRNA group were significantly higher than those in the LV-H19-shRNA group. Knockdown of lncRNA H19 suppresses endometriosis in vivo. Further study is required to explore the underlying mechanism in the future.

Humans , Animals , Female , Rabbits , Endometriosis/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Endometrium , Mice, Nude
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(6): 363-371, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289731


Abstract Background: Levonorgestrel (LNG) is a progesterone receptor agonist used in both regular and emergency hormonal contraception; however, its effects on the endometrium as a contraceptive remain widely unknown and under public debate. Objective: To analyze the effects of LNG or mifepristone (MFP), a progesterone receptor antagonist and also known as RU-486, administered at the time of follicle rupture (FR) on endometrial transcriptome during the receptive period of the menstrual cycle. Methods: Ten volunteers ovulatory women were studied during two menstrual cycles, a control cycle and a consecutively treated cycle; in this last case, women were randomly allocated to two groups of 5 women each, receiving one dose of LNG (1.5 mg) or MFP (50 mg) the day of the FR by ultrasound. Endometrial biopsies were taken 6 days after drug administration and prepared for microarray analysis. Results: Genomic functional analysis in the LNG-treated group showed as activated the bio-functions embryo implantation and decidualization, while these bio-functions in the T-MFP group were predicted as inhibited. Conclusions: The administration of LNG as a hormonal emergency contraceptive resulted in an endometrial gene expression profile associated with receptivity. These results agree on the concept that LNG does not affect endometrial receptivity and/or embryo implantation when used as an emergency contraceptive.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Embryo Implantation/drug effects , Mifepristone/pharmacology , Levonorgestrel/pharmacology , Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal/pharmacology , Endometrium , Transcriptome/drug effects , Ovulation , Time Factors , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Levonorgestrel/administration & dosage , Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal/administration & dosage
Metro cienc ; 28(4): 29-35, 2020/10/29. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151649


RESUMEN La metaplasia ósea endometrial es una patología poco común que se asocia a infertilidad secundaria. La mayoría de casos se presenta en mujeres con antecedente de gestación no evolutiva. La sospecha se hace mediante el hallazgo de un endometrio hiperecogénico que se asemeja a la imagen de un dispositivo intrauterino. El gold standard para el diagnóstico y tratamiento es la histeroscopia con el estudio histopatológico del material obtenido en el pre-cedimeinto. La importancia de su descripción es su presentación en una paciente nuligesta. Se describe el caso clínico y revisión de la literatura. Palabras claves: Metaplasia ósea endometrial, infertilidad secundaria, endometrio hiperecogénico

ABSTRACT Endometrial osseoum metaplasia is a rare condition associated with secondary infertility. Most cases occur in women with a histo-ry of non-evolutionary pregnancy. The suspicion is made by the finding of a hyperechoic endometrium that is similar of an intrauterine de-vice. The diagnostic and therapeutic gold standard is made by hysteroscopy with histopathological study of the material obtained in the precedure. The importance of this case is its presentation in a nulliparous patient. The clinical case and literature review are described

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Endometrium , Infertility , Metaplasia , Pathology , Therapeutics , Hysteroscopy