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1.
Estima (Online) ; 20(1): e0422, Jan-Dec. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1381965

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Verificar a adesão da equipe de enfermagem a um protocolo assistencial de fixação de cateter nasoenteral, após ação de educação em saúde. Método: Estudo quantitativo, transversal, de campo, observacional e descritivo, em um hospital no município do Rio de Janeiro. Constituiu-se de duas etapas: ação de educação em saúde sobre um protocolo de fixação de cateter nasoenteral e coleta de dados após ação de educação em saúde, sob a forma de observação não participante, com a utilização de instrumento contendo informações referentes à presença de fixação, tipo de fixação, registro da data do procedimento e condições da fixação do cateter nasoenteral. Resultados: As ações de educação em saúde abrangeram a participação de 133 profissionais de enfermagem. Dos 123 pacientes observados, 100% possuíam fixação, sendo a mais prevalente a fixação nasal (60,16% / n = 74). Em 68,29% (n = 84) não havia registro de data, 95,93% (n = 118) e 87,80% (n = 108) apresentavam boas condições de limpeza e aderência, respectivamente. Conclusão: Não se atingiu um resultado satisfatório quanto à adesão ao tipo de fixação e registro da data do procedimento. Apesar da adesão insatisfatória, houve alta correlação positiva entre a adesão dos profissionais nas ações de educação e razão de acerto do tipo de fixação


Objective:To verify the adherence of the nursing team to a care protocol for the fixation of a nasoenteral catheter, after a health education action. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, field, observational and descriptive study in a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It consisted of two stages: health education action on a nasoenteral catheter fixation protocol and data collection after health education action, in the form of non-participant observation, using an instrument containing information regarding the presence of fixation, type of fixation, record of the date of the procedure and conditions of fixation of the nasoenteral catheter. Results: Health education actions encompassed the participation of 133 nursing professionals. Of the 123 patients observed, 100% had fixation, the most prevalent being nasal fixation (60.16% / n = 74). In 68.29% (n = 84) there was no date record, 95.93% (n = 118) and 87.80% (n = 108) had good cleaning and adherence conditions, respectively. Conclusion: A satisfactory result was not achieved regarding adherence to the type of fixation and registration of the date of the procedure. Despite the unsatisfactory adherence, there was a high positive correlation between the professionals' adherence to the education actions and the correctness ratio of the type of fixation.


Objetivo:Verificar la adhesión del equipo de enfermería a un protocolo de asistencia para la fijación de catéter nasoenteral, después de una acción de educación en salud. Método: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal, de campo, observacional y descriptivo en un hospital de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro. Constó de dos etapas: acción de educación en salud sobre un protocolo de fijación de catéter nasoenteral y recolección de datos después de la acción de educación en salud, en la forma de observación no participante, utilizando un instrumento que contiene información sobre la presencia de fijación, tipo de fijación, registro de la fecha del procedimiento y condiciones de fijación del catéter nasoenteral. Resultados: Las acciones de educación en salud contaron con la participación de 133 profesionales de enfermería. De los 123 pacientes observados, el 100% presentaba fijación, siendo la más prevalente la fijación nasal (60,16% / n = 74). En el 68,29% (n = 84) no hubo registro de fecha, el 95,93% (n = 118) y el 87,80% (n = 108) tuvieron buenas condiciones de limpieza y adherencia, respectivamente. Conclusión: No se logró un resultado satisfactorio en cuanto a la adherencia al tipo de fijación y registro de la fecha del procedimiento. A pesar de la adhesión insatisfactoria, hubo una alta correlación positiva entre la adhesión de los profesionales a las acciones de educación y la razón de acierto del tipo de fijación.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Enteral Nutrition , Equipment and Supplies , Enterostomal Therapy , Nursing Assessment , Nursing, Team
3.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 77 f p. tab, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398094

ABSTRACT

Os eventos adversos (EA) ocasionados pelo uso da Terapia Nutricional Enteral (TNE) acarretam desde complicações respiratórias, prolongamento da hospitalização a óbitos. Os idosos, devido ao agravamento das doenças crônicas, múltiplas comorbidades e ao próprio processo de envelhecimento, podem ser mais suscetíveis à essas complicações. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e propor estratégias de intervenção que possam melhorar a qualidade do cuidado de saúde e segurança do paciente idoso hospitalizado em TNE, identificando os eventos adversos e os possíveis fatores que contribuem para a sua ocorrência. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura, utilizando as bases de dados do MEDLINE, Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science e CINAHL, no período de 9 de dezembro de 2021 a 28 de janeiro de 2022. Foram analisadas 51 publicações em inglês, português e espanhol, que respondiam à pergunta norteadora deste estudo. Dezoito artigos versavam exclusivamente sobre a população idosa. Os eventos adversos advindos da TNE foram classificados em EA Mecânicos e Outros. Os EA Mecânicos foram desmembrados em: posicionamento inadequado das sondas nasogástricas/nasoentéricas (SNG/SNE); obstrução das SNG/SNE; e remoção acidental das SNG/SNE. As estratégias que contribuiriam para a redução ou prevenção da ocorrência de eventos adversos advindos de SNG/SNE, indicam a cultura de segurança como essencial para a gestão das instituições de saúde. A padronização das condutas com utilização de protocolos técnicos com embasamento científico, o uso de métodos confiáveis para a verificação do posicionamento das SNG/SNE, a comunicação efetiva entre os profissionais da equipe, a capacitação profissional contínua, a responsabilidade conjunta da equipe multiprofissional e o incentivo às notificações voluntárias para o replanejamento das ações contribuem para a construção de barreiras de segurança efetivas.


The adverse events (AE) caused by the use of Enteral Nutritional Therapy (ENT) cause from respiratory complications, prolongation of hospitalization to deaths. The elderly, due to worsening of chronic diseases, multiple comorbidities and the aging process itself, may be more susceptible to these complications. The aim of this study was to identify and propose intervention strategies that can improve the quality of health care and safety of elderly patients hospitalized with NICT, identifying adverse events and possible factors that contribute to their occurrence. An integrative literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science and CINAHL databases from December 9, 2021 to January 28, 2022. We analyzed 51 publications in English, Portuguese, and Spanish that answered the guiding question of this study. Eighteen articles were exclusively about the elderly population. The adverse events resulting from NTT were classified as Mechanical AEs and Other AEs. Mechanical AE were divided into: inadequate positioning of nasogastric/nasoenteric probes (SNG/NEG); SNG/NEG obstruction; and accidental removal of SNG/NEG. The strategies that would contribute to the reduction or prevention of adverse events arising from SNG/SNS indicate the safety culture as essential for the management of health institutions. The standardization of procedures with the use of scientifically based technical protocols, the use of reliable methods to verify the positioning of the SNG/SNS, effective communication between team professionals, continuous professional training, the joint responsibility of the multidisciplinary team and encouraging voluntary notifications for the replanning of actions contribute to the construction of effective safety barriers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Quality of Health Care , Enteral Nutrition , Hospital Care , Patient Safety
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the influence of enteral feeding initiation time on intestinal flora and metabolites in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.@*METHODS@#A total of 29 VLBW infants who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, from June to December, 2020, were enrolled as subjects. According to the enteral feeding initiation time after birth, the infants were divided into two groups: <24 hours (n=15) and 24-72 hours (n=14). Fecal samples were collected at weeks 2 and 4 of hospitalization, and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the microflora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) respectively in fecal samples.@*RESULTS@#The analysis of microflora showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in Chao index (reflecting the abundance of microflora) and Shannon index (reflecting the diversity of microflora) at weeks 2 and 4 after birth (P>0.05). The analysis of flora composition showed that there was no significant difference in the main microflora at the phylum and genus levels between the two groups at weeks 2 and 4 after birth (P>0.05). The comparison of SCFAs between the two groups showed that the <24 hours group had a significantly higher level of propionic acid than the 24-72 hours group at week 4 (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the total amount of SCFAs and the content of the other SCFAs between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early enteral feeding has no influence on the diversity and abundance of intestinal flora in VLBW infants, but enteral feeding within 24 hours can increase the level of propionic acid, a metabolite of intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Child , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Propionates , Prospective Studies
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1379114

ABSTRACT

A terapia nutricional é uma das intervenções terapêuticas mais utilizadas em cuidados intensivos, quando aplicada de forma correta auxilia na diminuição de complicações metabólicas, no equilíbrio imunológico, além de amenizar a perda de massa corporal do paciente gravemente enfermo. Objetivo: avaliar a associação dos indicadores antropométricos e o consumo proteico com o desfecho clínico de pacientes críticos em uso de terapia nutricional enteral (TNE) exclusiva. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo de caráter observacional analítico, com a utilização de dados de pacientes adultos e idosos em uso exclusivo de TNE desenvolvido em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Realizado por meio da coleta de dados secundários registrados nos prontuários de pacientes ≥ 18 anos, que receberam terapia nutricional enteral exclusiva por pelo menos 72 horas. Utilizou-se os indicadores antropométricos índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência do braço. Para a estimativa das necessidades proteicas, considerou-se a recomendação da American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. A adequação nutricional foi realizada por meio da coleta diária do volume da formula enteral prescrita e administrada. Nas análises utilizaram-se testes paramétricos e não paramétricos e foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultado: Participaram do estudo 52 pacientes que estiveram em uso de nutrição enteral exclusiva internados na UTI no hospital por pelo menos de 72 horas durante a etapa de coleta de dados. Desses pacientes a maioria era do sexo masculino (76,9%), com idade média de 45,7 anos (DP=15,0, mínimo 20 e máximo 71). O tempo de internação médio foi de 12 dias. Os diagnósticos de AIDS (síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida) (46,1%) e COVID-19 (13,4%) foram os mais prevalentes. Foram identificados que quase 60% da amostra não tinham comorbidades e o desfecho clínico mais frequente foi a alta hospitalar. Conclusão: Neste estudo não foi verificado associações entre os desfechos clínicos avaliados (alta ou óbito) com o aporte proteico ofertado e os indicadores antropométricos, assim também como não tiveram entre as variáveis demográficas e clínicas investigadas


Nutritional therapy is one of the most used therapeutic interventions in intensive care, when correctly applied, it helps to reduce metabolic complications, immune balance, in addition to mitigating the loss of body mass in seriously ill patients. Objective: to evaluate the association of anthropometric indicators and protein consumption with the clinical outcome of critically ill patients using exclusive enteral nutritional therapy (EN). Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational, analytical study, using data from adult and elderly patients exclusively using EN developed in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Performed by collecting secondary data recorded in the medical records of patients ≥ 18 years old, who received exclusive enteral nutritional therapy for at least 72 hours. Anthropometric indicators body mass index (BMI) and arm circumference were used. For the estimation of protein requirements, the recommendation of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition was considered. Nutritional adequacy was performed through the daily collection of the volume of the prescribed and administered enteral formula. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used in the analyses, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study included 52 patients who had been using exclusive enteral nutrition and were hospitalized in the ICU for at least 72 hours during the data collection stage. Of these patients, the majority were male (76.9%), with a mean age of 45.7 years (SD=15.0, minimum 20 and maximum 71). The mean hospital stay was 12 days. The diagnoses of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) (46.1%) and COVID-19 (13.4%) were the most prevalent. It was identified that almost 60% of the sample had no comorbidities and the most frequent clinical outcome was hospital discharge. Conclusion: In this study, there were no associations between the evaluated clinical outcomes (discharge or death) with the protein intake offered and the anthropometric indicators, as well as they did not have between the demographic and clinical variables investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Enteral Nutrition , Critical Care/methods , Nutrition Therapy , Protein Deficiency , Body Mass Index , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1368708

ABSTRACT

Investigar o uso de drogas vasoativas e a sua relação com a intolerância dietoterápica em pacientes críticos. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo realizado em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs) de um hospital público de Goiânia, no período de setembro de 2020 a junho de 2021. Realizou-se o levantamento de dados em prontuários eletrônicos do início da terapia nutricional enteral (TNE) correlato ao uso de droga vasoativa (DVA) até o 3° dia de internação. Resultados: A análise incluiu 40 pacientes, observou-se a prevalência do sexo masculino (72,50%) e a média de idade observada foi de 53,67 ± 19,86 anos. Nesse estudo o uso de uma DVA (77,50%) foi mais prevalente do que o uso de duas ou mais DVAs. Verificou-se uma relação significativa entre desfecho clínico e uso de DVA, de modo que, o óbito foi mais frequente naqueles que usavam duas ou mais DVAs (p=0,016). Também foi observada a associação entre a hipoglicemia e o uso de DVA. Essa intercorrência foi frequente naqueles com uso de duas ou mais DVAs (p=0,030). O uso de DVA não se associou a intolerância dietoterápica, porém observamos que a obstipação foi a intercorrência mais prevalente (42,50%). Conclusão: O uso de DVA não se associou a intolerância dietoterápica nessa amostra. Porém observamos uma relação significativa entre o uso de DVA e o óbito. Ainda, verificou-se que a hipoglicemia também se relacionou ao uso de DVA


To investigate the use of vasoactive drugs and its relationship with dietary intolerance in critically ill patients. Methods: This is a retrospective longitudinal study carried out in intensive care units (ICUs) of a public hospital in Goiânia, from September 2020 to June 2021. Data were collected from electronic medical records from the beginning of the enteral nutritional therapy (ENT) correlated with the use of vasoactive drugs (VAD) until the 3rd day of hospitalization. Results: The analysis included 40 patients, there was a prevalence of males (72.50%) and the mean age observed was 53.67 ± 19.86 years. In this study, the use of one VAD (77.50%) was more prevalent than the use of two or more VADs. There was a significant relationship between clinical outcome and use of VAD, so that death was more frequent in those who used two or more VADs (p=0.016). An association between hypoglycemia and the use of VAD was also observed. This complication was more frequent in those using two or more VADs (p=0.030). The use of VAD was not associated with gastrointestinal intolerance (GI), but we observed that constipation was the most prevalent complication (42.50%). Conclusion: The use of VAD was not associated with GA in this sample. However, we observed a significant relationship between the use of VAD and death. Furthermore, it was found that hypoglycemia was also related to the use of VAD


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Enteral Nutrition , Nutrition Therapy , Food Intolerance/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Noncommunicable Diseases , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1368446

ABSTRACT

A doença crítica promove um estado hipercatabólico associado a uma resposta inflamatória intensa. Admite-se que essas alterações contribuem para o aumento do gasto de energia e para a elevação do catabolismo proteico. Objetivo: analisar a adequação calórico-proteica da terapia de nutrição enteral e o seu impacto no desfecho clínico de pacientes críticos. Método: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal prospectivo realizado com 36 pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. A adequação da oferta calórico-proteica foi obtida pela relação percentual a partir do quarto dia de implementação da terapia nutricional. Realizou-se o teste de Shapiro Wilk para averiguar a normalidade dos dados e a partir disso, foi aplicado o teste de Mann-Whitney ou de t-Student não pareado. Foi realizada a análise de regressão logística com estimativa de seu coeficiente. Para a regressão estimou-se o intervalo de confiança de 95% e nível de significância de 5%. Foi utilizado o software STATA® versão 14.0 nesta análise. Resultados: Ao avaliar 36 pacientes verificou-se que a sobrevida foi menor entre os indivíduos que apresentaram o menor percentual de adequação calórica (p=0,010) e proteica (p=<0,001). Observou-se que oferta proteica impactou mais expressivamente os desfechos clínicos, ao aumento de 1% na média de adequação proteica as chances de óbito diminuíram 21%. Conclusão: O menor percentual de adequação calórico-proteica foi associado a menor sobrevida de pacientes críticos. Ainda, observou-se que o percentual de adequação proteica se associou mais expressivamente aos desfechos clínicos nessa amostra


The critical illness promotes a hypercatabolic state associated with an intense inflammatory response. It is recognized that those changes contribute to the rise of consumption of energy expenditure and to protein metabolism rise. Objective: to analyze the adequacy caloric-protein of enteral nutrition therapy and its impact on the clinical outcome of critical patients. Method: This is a prospective longitudinal study conducted with 36 hospitalized patients in intensive care units. The caloric-protein adequacy was acquired by percent ratio from the fourth day of nutritional therapy implementation. The Shapiro Wilk test was performed to check the data normality and based on that the Mann-Whitney test or unpaired Student t test was applied. The logistic regression analysis was performed with an estimate of its coefficient. For regression, it was estimated the confidence interval of 95% and significance level of 5%. In this analysis was utilized the STATA® software version 14.0. Results: In the evaluation of 36 patients, it was found that survival was lower among the individuals who had the lower percentage of caloric adequacy (p=0,010) and protein (p=<0,001). It was observed that the protein supply impacted expressively the clinical outcome with an increase of 1% in the average protein adequacy, the chances of death decreased by 21%. Conclusion: The lower percentage of caloric-protein adequacy was associated with lower mortality of critical patients. In addition, in this sampling, it was observed that the protein adequacy percentual joined expressively in the clinical outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Enteral Nutrition , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/therapy , Critical Care , Nutrition Therapy , Body Mass Index , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Sepsis/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Inpatients
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate whether evidence-based standardized nutrition protocol can facilitate the establishment of full enteral nutrition and its effect on short-term clinical outcomes in very preterm/very low birth weight infants.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 312 preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks or a birth weight of <1 500 g. The standardized nutrition protocol for preterm infants was implemented in May 2020; 160 infants who were treated from May 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020 were enrolled as the control group, and 152 infants who were treated from June 1, 2020 to May 31, 2021 were enrolled as the test group. The two groups were compared in terms of the time to full enteral feeding, the time to the start of enteral feeding, duration of parenteral nutrition, the time to recovery to birth weight, the duration of central venous catheterization, and the incidence rates of common complications in preterm infants.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the test group had significantly shorter time to full enteral feeding, time to the start of enteral feeding, duration of parenteral nutrition, and duration of central venous catheterization and a significantly lower incidence rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mortality rate and the incidence rate of common complications in preterm infants including grade II-III necrotizing enterocolitis (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Implementation of the standardized nutrition protocol can facilitate the establishment of full enteral feeding, shorten the duration of parenteral nutrition, and reduce catheter-related bloodstream infection in very preterm/very low birth weight infants, without increasing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the effectiveness of induction therapy with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 62 children with CD who received EEN in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, from March 2013 to August 2021. The medical data included general information and height, weight, Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum albumin level before treatment and after 8 weeks of treatment. The changes in the above indicators were compared before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Among the 62 children with CD, there were 39 boys (63%) and 23 girls (37%), with a mean age of (11.9±3.0) years at diagnosis. Among the 55 children who completed EEN treatment for at least 8 weeks, 48 (87%) achieved clinical remission at week 8. PCDAI at week 8 was significantly lower than that before treatment (P<0.001). Except for 17 children with involvement of the small intestine alone and 3 children with involvement of the colon who did not receive colonoscopy reexamination, the remaining 35 children with involvement of the colon received colonoscopy reexamination after the 8-week EEN treatment. Of the 35 children, 29 (83%) achieved mucosal healing. As for the 48 children who achieved clinical remission at week 8, there were significant improvements in height-for-age Z-score and body mass index-for-age Z-score at week 8 (P<0.01). As for the 7 children who did not achieve clinical remission at week 8, there were no significant changes in height-for-age Z-score and body mass index-for-age Z-score at week 8 (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The 8-week EEN treatment has a good effect on clinical remission and mucosal healing in children with CD. For the children with CD achieving clinical remission, EEN can improve their height and body mass index.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Crohn Disease/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Male , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935262

ABSTRACT

As a serious disease of death and disability, stroke constitutes a serious threat to human health. Because of stroke patients often have high-risk factors of malnutrition such as dysphagia and autonomic eating disorder, the hospitalization time, mortality and disability rate of stroke patients increases. Nutritional therapy can effectively improve the malnutrition of patients, which are of great significance for the treatment and rehabilitation of stroke and the prevention of its complications. Nutrients are important components of nutrition therapy, and different ways of nutrition therapy directly affect the effect of treatment. This article summarizes effects of nutrients and different nutritional treatments on stroke prevention, morbidity and treatment, and provides a theoretical basis and new thinking for further reducing the incidence rate of stroke, improving the quality of life in patients and reducing the financial burden of society and family.


Subject(s)
Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Humans , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Stroke/prevention & control
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928575

ABSTRACT

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease due to impaired pulmonary development and is one of the main causes of respiratory failure in preterm infants. Preterm infants with BPD have significantly higher complication and mortality rates than those without BPD. At present, comprehensive management is the main intervention method for BPD, including reasonable respiratory and circulatory support, appropriate enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition, application of caffeine/glucocorticoids/surfactants, and out-of-hospital management after discharge. The continuous advances in stem cell medicine in recent years provide new ideas for the treatment of BPD. Various pre-clinical trials have confirmed that stem cell therapy can effectively prevent lung injury and promote lung growth and damage repair. This article performs a comprehensive analysis of the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of BPD, so as to provide a basis for clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/prevention & control , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Lung , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
12.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 321-328, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927613

ABSTRACT

Parenteral nutrition has become a routine clinical nutritional treatment. The guidelines at home and abroad unanimously recommend and standardize the application of "all in one" parenteral nutrition."Multi-chamber bag" parenteral nutrition encapsulates nutrients such as fat emulsion, amino acid and glucose in a non polyvinyl chloride soft bag composed of two or three cavities. When in use, the inner cavity separator is opened. The multi-chamber bag preparation has a variety of specifications and has the characteristics of reasonable prescription, strict quality standards, ready-to-use, and other characteristics, which can reduce prescription and configuration errors, reduce bloodstream infections, and meet the clinical nutritional needs of most patients. In view of the non-standard application of multi-chamber bag, the Chinese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition organized domestic experts in general surgery, critical care medicine, gastroenterology, geriatrics, nutrition, clinical pharmacy, and evidence-based medicine to write this expert consensus in accordance with the latest guidelines, expert consensus, and the latest clinical evidence. According to the improved Delphi method, 43 experts discussed and modified 23 recommendations one by one in the first round, and 219 experts voted and put forward modification suggestions in the second round. Each recommendation shall be established only when the approval rate of ≥ 90%. It is hoped that this consensus can promote the rational application of multi-chamber bag for parenteral nutrition.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Critical Care , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition
13.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210054, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365432

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess factors related to the achievement of the caloric estimates of enteral nutritional therapy and the survival of patients with advanced cancer in exclusively palliative care. Methods Retrospective study, where patients using enteral nutrition admitted from March 2019 to February 2020 were divided into two groups: Group 1 included patients who reached 75% of the estimated caloric goals, and Group 2 included those who did not. The data were extracted from the patients' electronic medical records. Logistic regression analyzes were performed to assess associations between the studied sociodemographic, clinical, and nutritional variables, and the Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression were used to assess the survival of the groups. Results A total of 158 patients participated in the study, with a median age of 63 (IIQ: 55-70) years. 57% reached the caloric goal (Group 1). In the logistic regression, the functional capacity (OR: 5.82; CI: 2.28-14.84; p<0.001) and symptoms of nausea or vomiting (OR: 0.050; CI: 0.005-0.455; p=0.008) were independent variables for achieving the caloric goal. Cox regression showed Karnofsky Performance Status as an independent predictor for survival (HR: 1.85; CI: 1.13-3.04). Conclusion Patients with better functionality have longer survival and are potential candidates for reaching the caloric goals proposed by national and international guidelines for cancer patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os fatores relacionados ao alcance das estimativas calóricas da terapia nutricional enteral e a sobrevida dos pacientes com câncer avançado em cuidados paliativos exclusivos. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo no qual pacientes em uso de nutrição enteral internados no período de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1, composto por pacientes que atingiram 75% das metas calóricas estimadas, e Grupo 2, composto por aqueles que não atingiram. Os dados foram extraídos do prontuário eletrônico dos pacientes. Análises de regressão logística foram realizadas para avaliar associações entre as variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e nutricionais estudadas, e a curva de Kaplan-Meier e regressão de Cox foram usadas para avaliar a sobrevida dos grupos. Resultados Participaram do estudo 158 pacientes, com mediana de idade de 63 (IIQ:55-70) anos. Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes atingiram a meta calórica (Grupo 1). Na regressão logística, a capacidade funcional (OR:5,82; IC: 2,28-14,84; p<0,001) e os sintomas náuseas ou vômitos (OR:0,050; IC:0,005-0,455; p=0,008) se mostraram variáveis independentes para o alcance da meta calórica. A regressão de Cox mostrou o Karnofsky Performance Status como preditor independente para sobrevida (HR: 1,85; IC: 1,13-3,04) Conclusão Pacientes com melhor funcionalidade possuem sobrevida maior e são potenciais candidatos ao alcance das metas calóricas propostas por diretrizes nacionais e internacionais para pacientes com câncer em terapia nutricional enteral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Neoplasms/therapy , Palliative Care/methods , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Survival , Retrospective Studies
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 402-404, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345303

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is controversy about the initiation of gastric or oral feeding in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) because they could increase pancreatic stimulation and exacerbate symptoms and complications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and results of patients with SAP who underwent gastric tube or oral feeding versus parenteral or jejunal feeding. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on patients over 18 years old with SAP diagnostic, who had been treated in critical care units. We excluded patients coming from other hospitals and those with incomplete medical records. RESULTS: Thirty patients with SAP were included, fifty three percent of them tolerated the gastric tube or oral feeding, and most of them were females and older than patients who received parenteral or jejunal feeding. Other clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Gastric tube or oral feeding is no absolute contraindication for SAP.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Há controvérsias sobre o início da alimentação gástrica ou oral em pacientes com pancreatite aguda grave (PAG), pois elas podem aumentar a estimulação pancreática e exacerbar os sintomas e complicações. OBJETIVO Descrever as características clínicas e os resultados de pacientes com PAG submetidos à alimentação por sonda gástrica ou via oral versus alimentação parenteral ou jejunal. MÉTODOS Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em pacientes maiores de 18 anos com diagnóstico de PAG, atendidos em unidades de terapia intensiva. Excluímos pacientes procedentes de outros hospitais e aqueles com prontuário incompleto. RESULTADOS Trinta pacientes com PAG foram incluídos, 53% deles toleravam a sonda gástrica ou alimentação via oral, e a maioria era do sexo feminino e tinha mais idade do que os pacientes que receberam alimentação parenteral ou jejunal. Outras características clínicas e resultados foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO A sonda gástrica ou alimentação oral não é contra-indicação absoluta para PAG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pancreatitis/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Enteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 281-288, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an important option for enteral nutrition for both children and adults. It is considered a safe, effective, and advantageous technique in comparison to other complementary feeding routes. It allows continuous feeding, the feeding of patients with swallowing disorders due to neurological causes or others, and the administration of non-palatable diets or medications, all with low rates of complications and mortality. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the main indications and complications of PEG in pediatric patients. In addition, the impact on the nutritional status of patients undergoing PEG was also compared with weight, body mass index (BMI), and height according to references from the World Health Organization. METHODS: This observational and retrospective study included 152 children and adolescents who underwent PEG between January/2003 and December/2018. Patients up to 18 years of age at the time of the procedure were included. Complications related to the procedure were classified as minor or major. Patients with PEG indication for nutritional supplementation were evaluated for weight gain, height, and BMI, using the Z score at the day of the procedure and six months, 1 year, and 2 years after the procedure. RESULTS: Indications for PEG were: swallowing disorder of neurological cause (67.1%), need for nutritional supplementation (25%), swallowing disorder of mechanical origin (6.6%), and indication of gastric decompression (1.3%). Minor complications occurred in 57.8% of patients and major complications in 9.8% of patients. The traction technique corresponded to 92.1% and puncture to 7.9%. The death rate was 1.3%. Thirty-eight patients had an indication for nutritional supplementation. In these patients, there was a gradual increase in both BMI and weight, reaching statistically significant differences (P=0.0340 and P= 0.0105, respectively). These differences were more evident in chronic renal disease patients. Height did not vary significantly (P=0.543). CONCLUSION: PEG proved to be an advantageous option as an auxiliary feeding method in pediatric patients. Dysphagia of neurological origin was the main indication followed by the need for nutritional supplementation. PEG has low frequency of major complications and mortality. This study also showed the importance of PEG in patients who need nutritional supplementation, as it enabled patients to move from undernutrition to normal weight ranges.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea (GEP) é uma importante opção de nutrição enteral para crianças e adultos, sendo considerada uma técnica segura, eficaz e vantajosa em comparação às outras vias de alimentação complementar. Permite a alimentação contínua, a alimentação em pacientes com distúrbios de deglutição de causa neurológica ou outros, a administração de dietas ou medicamentos não palatáveis, todos com baixos índices de complicações e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as principais indicações e complicações de pacientes pediátricos submetidos à GEP e o impacto no estado nutricional de pacientes submetidos à GEP para suplementação nutricional, comparando peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e estatura com referências da Organização Mundial de Saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo de 152 crianças e adolescentes submetidos à GEP, no período de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2018. Foram incluídos pacientes até 18 anos de idade na época do procedimento. As complicações relacionadas ao procedimento foram divididas em menores e maiores. Pacientes com indicação de GEP para suplementação nutricional foram avaliados quanto ao ganho de peso, altura e IMC, por meio do escore Z no dia do procedimento e 6 meses; 1 ano; e 2 anos após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: As indicações para GEP foram distúrbio de deglutição de causa neurológica (67,1%), necessidade de suplementação nutricional (25%), distúrbio de deglutição de origem mecânica (6,6%), e indicação de descompressão gástrica (1,3%). Complicações menores ocorreram em 57,8% dos pacientes e complicações maiores em 9,8%. A técnica de tração correspondeu a 92,1% e a punção, 7,9%. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 1,3%. Trinta e oito pacientes tinham indicação de suplementação nutricional. Nestes, houve aumento gradativo tanto do IMC quanto do peso, com variação estatisticamente significativa da mediana P=0,0340 e P=0,0105, respectivamente, mais evidente nos pacientes renais crônicos. A altura não variou significativamente (P=0,543). CONCLUSÃO: A GEP mostrou-se uma opção vantajosa como forma auxiliar de alimentação em pacientes pediátricos, tendo como principais indicações a disfagia de causa neurológica e a necessidade de suplementação nutricional, com baixa prevalência de complicações maiores e mortalidade. Este estudo também mostrou a importância da GEP em pacientes com necessidade de suplementação nutricional, possibilitando a passagem dos pacientes desnutridos para escores nutricionais de peso adequados à idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Malnutrition , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Enteral Nutrition
18.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(2): 427-436, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340959

ABSTRACT

Resumo O número de idosos e, consequentemente, a incidência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, entre elas a demência, têm aumentado exponencialmente. A demência leva a perda progressiva de funcionalidade, incluindo complicações relacionadas com alimentação. Este artigo traz resultados de revisão integrativa sobre as evidências científicas atuais da terapia nutricional enteral em pacientes com demência em cuidados paliativos. Foram incluídos artigos publicados entre 2009 e 2019. Os dados foram coletados em novembro de 2019, em cinco indexadores, a partir de busca pelos descritores "nutrição enteral", "cuidados paliativos" e "demência". Depois de aplicados os critérios de inclusão, 11 artigos compuseram a amostra. Os principais achados dessas publicações foram divididos em três categorias: "cuidados paliativos e plano de cuidados", "cuidados paliativos e nutrição enteral" e "nutrição enteral em idosos com demência". Os resultados chamam atenção para a necessidade de que a tomada de decisão se baseie em evidências científicas.


Abstract The number of older adults and, consequently, the incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases, including dementia, have increased exponentially. Dementia leads to progressive loss of functionality, including food-related complications. This article presents results of an integrative review on the current scientific evidence of enteral nutritional therapy in patients with dementia in palliative care. Articles published between 2009 and 2019 were included. Data were collected in November 2019 in five databases, based on the following search words: "enteral nutrition", "palliative care" and "dementia". After applying the inclusion criteria, 11 articles remained in the sample. The main findings of these publications were divided into three categories: "palliative care and care plan", "palliative care and enteral nutrition" and "enteral nutrition in older adults with dementia". The results call attention to the need for decision making to be based on scientific evidence.


Resumen El número de ancianos y, en consecuencia, la incidencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, entre ellas la demencia, han aumentado exponencialmente. La demencia lleva a una pérdida progresiva de funcionalidad, incluidas complicaciones relacionadas con la alimentación. Este artículo presenta resultados de una revisión integrativa de las evidencias científicas actuales de la terapia nutricional enteral en pacientes con demencia en cuidados paliativos. Para ello, se incluyeron artículos publicados entre el 2009 y el 2019. Los datos se recopilaron en noviembre del 2019, en cinco indexadores, con base en los descriptores "nutrición enteral", "cuidados paliativos" y "demencia". Después de aplicados los criterios de inclusión, la muestra final consistió en 11 artículos. Los principales hallazgos de estas publicaciones se dividieron en tres categorías: "cuidados paliativos y plan de cuidados", "cuidados paliativos y nutrición enteral" y "nutrición enteral en ancianos con demencia". Los resultados llaman la atención sobre la necesidad de tomar decisiones basadas en evidencias científicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Palliative Care , Health of the Elderly , Enteral Nutrition , Dementia
19.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 69-74, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366839

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da nutrição parenteral total ou enteral, associadas ou não à glutamina, sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal em equinos submetidos à inanição e realimentação. Foram utilizados 16 equinos adultos hígidos, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos, quatro machos e 12 fêmeas, com idade variando entre quatro e 14 anos e peso corporal médio de 248,40 + 2,28 kg, divididos em quatro grupos, quatro animais por grupo: Grupo I (ENTGL): fluidoterapia enteral com eletrólitos associada a glutamina; Grupo II (PARGL): Nutrição parenteral total (NPT) associada a glutamina; Grupo III (ENTFL): fluidoterapia enteral com eletrólitos; Grupo IV (PARFL): fluidoterapia parenteral. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em um esquema fatorial 4x12 (grupos x tempo de colheita), para cada fase, e suas médias comparadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de significância. Independente do grupo experimental ocorreu redução da motilidade gastrintestinal durante a fase de inanição, mais pronunciada nos grupos PARGL e PARFL. Uma vez restabelecida a alimentação a motilidade gastrintestinal retornou à normalidade.


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of enteral or total parenteral nutrition, associated or not with glutamine, on gastrointestinal motility in horses subjected to starvation and refeeding. 16 healthy, mixed-breed adult horses of both sexes, four geldings and 12 mares, with ages ranging from four to 14 years and an average body weight of 248.40 + 2.28 kg, were divided into four groups, four animals per group: Group I (ENTGL): enteral fluid therapy with electrolytes associated with glutamine; Group II (PARGL): total parenteral nutrition (TPN) associated with glutamine; Group III (ENTFL): enteral fluid therapy with electrolytes; Group IV (PARFL): parenteral fluid therapy. The experimental design was entirely randomized, in a 4x12 factorial scheme (groups x harvest time), for each phase, and their means compared by the Duncan test at the level of 5% significance. Regardless of the experimental group, there was a reduction in gastrointestinal motility during the starvation phase, which was more pronounced in the PARGL and PARFL groups. Once the food was restored, gastrointestinal motility returned to normal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enteral Nutrition/veterinary , Parenteral Nutrition, Total/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Motility , Horses , Starvation/veterinary , Glutamine/therapeutic use
20.
Metro cienc ; 29(1 (2021): Enero- Marzo): 23-27, 2021-01-29. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222467

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Describir el soporte nutricional que se administra en la UCI Pediátrica del Hospital Metropolitano y evaluar nuestra capacidad de alcanzar los objetivos nutricionales recomendados en guías clínicas internacionales. Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de datos recolectados prospectivamente desde el 09/01/2018 hasta el 12/31/2019 de todos los pacientes con soporte nutricional. Resultados: Durante el periodo de estudio ingresaron a la UCIP 124 pa-cientes y, de éstos, 31% requirieron soporte nutricional. La edad promedio fue 40 meses, los varones fueron 63%, el diagnóstico fue médico en 63% de los casos, la estadía promedio fue de 3 días y la mortalidad de esta cohorte fue de 4,8%. Se implementó nutrición enteral (NE) en 71,8% de los niños, nutrición parenteral (NP) 15,4%, y nutrición mixta, enteral y parenteral en 12,8%. La NE se inició dentro de las primeras 48 horas en 56,4% de los casos. Al comparar el soporte administrado frente a los objetivos nutricionales, el aporte de energía alcanzó el 75% del objetivo calculado mediante la ecuación de Schofield al día 4 y el 100% al día 8. En los niños desnutridos el 75% del objetivo calórico se alcanzó al día 8. Mediante la NE, el 75% del objetivo se alcanzó al día 4 y el 100% al día 5. El objetivo proteico mínimo se alcanzó al día 7 con NE y al día 3 con NP. El aporte promedio de energía a la población estudiada fue de 42,6 kcal/kg/día y 18,5% de los pacientes recibió un promedio de 57 kcal/kg/día. El aporte promedio de proteínas a esta cohorte fue de 1,43 g/kg/día y 42% de ellos recibió un promedio de 1,5 g/kg/día. Conclusiones: Los objetivos recomendados mínimos de energía y proteínas de 57 kcal/kg/día y 1,5 g/kg/día, respectivamente, para alcanzar anabolismo y balance nitrogenado positivo, no fueron alcanzados en nuestros pacientes durante la primera semana después del ingreso.


ABSTRACT Aims & Objectives: To describe the nutritional support (NS) implemented in our PICU and to evaluate our capacity to achieve the recommended nutritional goals (NG). Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively recollected data from 09/01/2018-12/31/2019 of all patients on NS. Results: During the study period 124 patients were admitted and 31% needed NS, mean age 40 months, males 63%, medical diagnosis 63%, surgical diagnosis 22%, length of stay 3 days, mortality 4,8%. Enteral nutrition (EN) was implemented in 71,8%, parenteral nutrition (PN) in 15,4%, and mixed EN/PN in 12,8%. EN was started ≤ 48 hours in 56,4%. In the comparison between intake and recommended NG, energy intake achieved 75% of NG (Schofield) at day 4 and ≥ 100% at day 8. In malnourished patients 75% of NG was achieved at day 8. With EN, 75% of NG were achieved at day 4 and ≥ 100% at day 5. Minimum protein goal was achieved at day 5, in malnourished patients, at day 4. Protein goal was achieved with EN at day 7 and with PN at day 3. Average energy administered was 42,6 kcal/kg/day and 18.5% of the patients reached 57 kcal/kg/day. Average protein administered was 1,43 g/kg/day and 42% reach a mean of 1,5 g/kg/day. Conclusions: Minimum recommended energy and protein goals of 57 kcal/kg/d and 1,5 g/kg/d (to achieve anabolism and positive nitrogen balance) were not accomplished in our patients during the first week after admission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Enteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition , Nutritional Support , Intensive Care Units , Proteins , Diagnosis , Nutritional Sciences , Metabolism
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