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2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of neonatal enterovirus infection, especially severe enterovirus infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 244 neonates with enterovirus infection. According to the severity of infection, they were divided into a common infection group with 231 neonates and a severe infection group with 13 neonates. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Of the 244 neonates, 207 (84.8%) developed the disease in May to October, with the highest number of patients in June to July. Compared with the common infection group, the severe infection group had a significantly lower gestational age at birth and a significantly higher proportion of preterm infants (P<0.05). Compared with the common infection group, the severe infection group had a significantly earlier onset time (P<0.05) and significantly higher incidence rates of skin petechiae and ecchymosis, respiratory symptoms, sepsis-like manifestations (poor appetite, crying less, and less movement), concomitant diseases (such as pneumonia, myocarditis, necrotic hepatitis, and coagulation disorder), thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated creatine kinase-MB, and elevated alanine aminotransferase (P<0.05). The severe infection group had a significantly higher mortality rate than the common infection group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are significant differences in onset time, common clinical manifestations, and concomitant diseases between the neonates with common and severe enterovirus infection. In the enterovirus epidemic season, if the neonates have rashes and/or sepsis-like manifestations such as poor appetite and less movement, especially if the laboratory tests suggest liver damage and coagulation dysfunction, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the possibility of severe enterovirus infection.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786526

ABSTRACT

Enteroviral infections are common in neonates. One important infection pathway is vertical transmission from an infected mother to her neonate. Here, we report the early detection and successful treatment of a vertically transmitted fulminant enteroviral infection associated with myocarditis and hepatitis. The patient had a sudden onset of high fever on the fourth day of life and developed severe, rapidly progressing symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), hepatitis, and myocarditis accompanied by tachyarrhythmia. As it was the peak season for enteroviral infections and both the mother and the patient's 36-month-old sibling had a high fever around the time of delivery, we suspected an enteroviral infection. Thus, we initiated prompt evaluation of enteroviral infection, as well as close observation and intensive care of the neonate. We strongly recommend evaluation for the possibility of vertical enterovirus infection in neonates when the mother is suspected of having a viral infection (e.g., high fever and negative results from bacterial infectious studies) around the time of delivery and when the neonate shows some early symptoms of infectious diseases such as thrombocytopenia, DIC, hepatitis, and myocarditis. Early detection of enteroviral infections and prompt implementation of proper treatment are key to reduce the risk of complications and mortality associated with enteroviral infections in neonates.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases , Critical Care , Dacarbazine , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Fever , Hepatitis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mortality , Mothers , Myocarditis , Seasons , Siblings , Tachycardia , Thrombocytopenia
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082A/G, -819C/T, and -592C/A polymorphisms with IL-10 level and the severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 137 children with hand-foot-mouth disease due to EV71 infection were enrolled as EV71 infection group, which was further divided into mild group with 91 children and severe group with 46 children, and 122 healthy children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Related clinical data were collected. ELISA was used to measure the serum level of IL-10, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze IL-10 -1082A/G, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the healthy control group, the children with EV71 infection had significantly higher frequency of -1082 AA genotype and A allele (P0.05). The severe group had a significantly higher serum level of IL-10 than the mild group and the healthy control group. IL-10 -1082 AA genotype, -819 TT genotype, and -592 AA genotype were associated with the low expression of IL-10 (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with IL-10 expression and the severity of EV71 infection in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect of carvedilol in the treatment of children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 86 children with severe HFMD caused by EV71 infection who were admitted to the hospital from April 2016 to August 2017. According to whether carvedilol was used, the children were divided into conventional treatment group with 51 children and carvedilol treatment group with 35 children. A total of 56 healthy children who underwent physical examination at the outpatient service during the same period were enrolled as the control group. The two treatment groups were compared in terms of clinical features and levels of catecholamines (norepinephrine, adrenaline and dopamine), and the levels of catecholamines were compared between these two treatment groups and the control group.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, the conventional treatment group and the carvedilol treatment group had significantly higher levels of norepinephrine and adrenaline than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, both the conventional treatment group and the carvedilol treatment group had significant reductions in norepinephrine, adrenaline, blood glucose, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, body temperature and leukocyte count (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional treatment group, the carvedilol treatment group had significantly lower dopamine level, blood glucose, heart rate and respiratory rate after treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Changes in norepinephrine and adrenaline might be involved in the pathogenesis of severe HFMD caused by EV71 infection. Carvedilol, in addition to the conventional treatment, can improve respiration, heart rate and blood glucose in children with severe HFMD caused by EV71 infection.


Subject(s)
Carvedilol , Therapeutic Uses , Child , China , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Drug Therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190160, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040614

ABSTRACT

Human enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequences of one EV-C99 strain and one E29 strain obtained from children suffering from acute gastroenteritis, without symptoms of enteroviral syndromes. This is the first report of EV-C99 in South America, and the second E29 genome described worldwide. Continuous surveillance on EVs is vital to provide further understanding of the circulation of new or rare EV serotypes in the country. The present study also highlights the capacity of EVs to remain in silent circulation in populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus C, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Enterovirus B, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus C, Human/isolation & purification , Feces/virology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 790-794, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974287

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although the use of vaccines has controlled enteric diseases in dogs in many developed countries, vaccine coverage is still under optimal situation in Brazil. There is a large population of nonimmunized dogs and few studies about the identification of the viruses associated with diarrhea. To address this situation, stool samples from 325 dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the detection of common enteric viruses such as Canine adenovirus (CAdV), Canine coronavirus (CCoV), Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine rotavirus (CRV) and Carnivorous protoparvovirus 1 (canine parvovirus 2; CPV-2). At least one of these species was detected in 56.6% (184/325) of the samples. The viruses detected most frequently in either diarrheic or nondiarrheic dog feces were CPV-2 (54.3% of the positive samples), CDV (45.1%) and CCoV (30.4%), followed by CRV (8.2%) and CAdV (4.9%). Only one agent was detected in the majority of the positive samples (63%), but co-infections were present in 37% of the positive samples and mainly included CDV and CPV-2. The data presented herein can improve the clinical knowledge in regions with low vaccine coverage and highlight the need to improve the methods used to control these infectious diseases in domestic dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/virology , Enterovirus Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Brazil , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Enterovirus/classification , Enterovirus/genetics , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Enterovirus Infections/immunology , Enterovirus Infections/prevention & control , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 192-197, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950009

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes. Las exacerbaciones de asma continúan siendo una causa de hospitalización en el Servicio de Urgencias. Los desencadenantesson alérgenos e infecciones, principalmente, de tipo viral. El objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los virus detectados durante la exacerbación asmática y los niveles de eosinófilos e inmunoglobulina E (IgE) sérica en pacientes pediátricos. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico. Se incluyeron niños de cinco a quince años atendidos en Urgencias de Pediatría con exacerbación de asma, en el período de marzo de 2013 a febrero de 2016. Se obtuvo ácido ribonucleico viral en el aspirado nasofaríngeo con el kit CLART PneumoVir. Se cuantificaron los eosinófilos en la sangre periférica y los niveles de IgE sérica total. Se consideró eosinofilia un conteo ≥ 0,4 x 103/mm3 e IgE elevada, ≥ 350 UI/L. Se realizó la correlación de Pearson. Se definió significancia con valor de p ≤ 0,05.Resultados. De 211 niños con exacerbación de asma, en el 20%, se aisló un virus. Los virus aislados más frecuentemente fueron el rinovirus, el enterovirus y el virus sincitial respiratorio. Se encontró una correlación entre los niveles de eosinófilos e IgE sérica total en los niños con exacerbación de asma y rinovirus de 0,89, con una p= 0,0001.Conclusiones. Las infecciones por rinovirus, enterovirus y virus sincitial respiratorio son más frecuentes en las exacerbaciones de asma en menores de 15 años. Se observó una correlación entre los niveles de eosinófilos e IgE en presencia de rinovirus.


Background. Asthma exacerbations are still a cause of hospitalization at the Emergency Department. The triggers of asthma exacerbations include allergens and infections ­mostly viral­. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between viruses detected during an asthma exacerbation and eosinophil and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in pediatric patients. Population and methods. Cross-sectional. analytical study. Children aged 5-15 years seen at the Pediatric Emergency Department with an asthma exacerbation in the period between March 2013 and February 2016 were included. Viral ribonucleic acid was extracted from nasopharyngeal aspirates using the CLART Pneumo Vir kit. Eosinophil levels were measured in peripheral blood and total IgE levels, in serum. Eosinophilia was defined as a count ≥ 0.4 x 103/mm3 and high IgE. as a level ≥ 350 IU/L. The Pearson's correlation was carried out. A value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.Results. Out of 211 children with asthma exacerbation, a virus was isolated in 20%. The most commonly isolated viruses were rhinovirus. enterovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. A correlation of 0.89 was established between eosinophil and total serum IgE levels in children with asthma exacerbation and rhinovirus, with a p value of 0.0001. Conclusions. Rhinovirus, enterovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common viruses in asthma exacerbations in children younger than 15 years. A correlation was established between eosinophil and IgE levels in the presence of rhinovirus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/virology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Eosinophils/metabolism , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/blood , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300357

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line. Jurkat cell model can simulate the function T lymphocytes, so it is widely used in the in vitro studies of T cell signal transduction, cytokines, and receptor expression, and can provide reference and guidance for the treatment of various infectious diseases and the research on their pathogenesis. The Jurkat cell model has been widely used in the in vitro studies of viral diseases and atypical pathogens, but parasitic infection studies using the Jurkat cell model are still rare. This article reviews advances in the application of Jurkat cell model in the research on infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Allergy and Immunology , Deltaretrovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , HIV Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690650

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To eliminate the side effects of aluminum adjuvant and His-tag, we constructed chimeric VLPs displaying the epitope of EV71 (SP70) without His-tagged. Then evaluating whether the VLPs could efficiently evoke not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against EV71 without adjuvant.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The fusion protein was constructed by inserting SP70 into the MIR of truncated HBcAg sequence, expressed in E. Coli, and purified through ion exchange chromatography and density gradient centrifugation. Mice were immunized with the VLPs and sera were collected afterwards. The specific antibody titers, IgG subtypes and neutralizing efficacy were detected by ELISA, neutralization assay, and EV71 lethal challenge. IFN-γ and IL-4 secreted by splenocytes were tested by ELISPOT assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>HBc-SP70 proteins can self-assemble into empty VLPs. After immunization with HBc-SP70 VLPs, the detectable anti-EV71 antibodies were effective in neutralizing EV71 and protected newborn mice from EV71 lethal challenge. There was no significant difference for the immune efficacy whether the aluminum adjuvant was added or not. The specific IgG subtypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b and splenocytes from the mice immunized produced high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The fusion proteins without His-tagged was expressed and purified as soluble chimeric HBc-SP70 VLPs without renaturation. In the absence of adjuvant, they were efficient to elicit high levels of Th1/Th2 mixed immune response as well as assisted by aluminum adjuvant. Furthermore, the chimeric VLPs have potential to prevent HBV and EV71 infection simultaneously.</p>


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Enterovirus A, Human , Genetics , Enterovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Epitopes , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Escherichia coli , Metabolism , Female , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Allergy and Immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Newly identified human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) and human bocavirus (HBoV) cannot propagate in vitro in traditional cell culture models; thus obtaining knowledge about these viruses and developing related vaccines are difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel platform for the propagation of these types of viruses.@*METHODS@#A platform for culturing human airway epithelia in a three-dimensional (3D) pattern using Matrigel as scaffold was developed. The features of 3D culture were identified by immunochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV in 3D cells at designated time points were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Levels of cytokines, whose secretion was induced by the viruses, were measured by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Properties of bronchial-like tissues, such as the expression of biomarkers CK5, ZO-1, and PCK, and the development of cilium-like protuberances indicative of the human respiration tract, were observed in 3D-cultured human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, but not in monolayer-cultured cells. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV and levels of virus-induced cytokines were also measured using the 3D culture system.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data provide a preliminary indication that the 3D culture model of primary epithelia using a Matrigel scaffold in vitro can be used to propagate HRV-C and HBoV.


Subject(s)
Collagen , Drug Combinations , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Virology , Human bocavirus , Humans , Laminin , Parvoviridae Infections , Virology , Primary Cell Culture , Methods , Proteoglycans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Mucosa , Virology , Virus Cultivation
12.
Med. infant ; 24(1): 21-26, marzo 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-879132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los reportes de infecciones por enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) han aumentado en los últimos años. Material y métodos: Cohorte prospectiva. Se realizó la búsqueda de EV-D68 en niños internados en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan entre 1-5-2016 y 30-9-2016 con: infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB) que requirieran cuidados intensivos, parálisis aguda fláccida (PAF) asimétrica con compromiso de sustancia gris en resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) o identificación de cualquier enterovirus con cuadro clínico compatible. La identificación de EV-D68 se realizó en el Servicio de Neurovirus, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas INEI-ANLIS "Dr. CG. Malbrán". Resultados: n: 6. PAF: cuatro niños presentaron PAF asimétrica, con arreflexia y RMN compatible con mielitis. Requirieron ventilación mecánica en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) dos de los 4 niños. Todos presentaron parálisis residual. Se identificó EV-D68 en secreciones nasofaríngeas (SNF) de todos ellos. En líquido cefalorraquídeo sólo en uno. Miocarditis: Una niña sana de 5 años se internó en UCI por disfunción miocárdica y fiebre. Presentaba además derrame pericárdico moderado. Recibió gamaglobulina e.v. con buena evolución. En SNF se identificaron virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR) y EV-D68. IRAB grave: se identificó EV-D68 en un paciente de 14 meses que permaneció en UCI por IRAB grave con requerimientos de ventilación no invasiva por 72 hs, con buena evolución posterior. Se constató coinfección VSR y EV-D68 en SNF. Conclusiones: Se reportan 6 pacientes internados con infección por EV-D68. La vigilancia epidemiológica activa es esencial para identificar la circulación, las características clínicas y el pronostico de las infecciones por virus emergentes (AU)


Introduction: Reports on enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections have increased over the past years. Material and methods: A prospective cohort study. A search for EV-D68 infection was conducted in children hospitalized at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan between 1-5-2016 and 30-9-2016 with: acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) requiring intensive care unit (UCI) admission, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), asymmetry with grey matter involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or identification of any enterovirus associated with compatible features. The identification of EV-D68 was performed at the Department of Neuroviruses of the InstitutoNacional de EnfermedadesInfecciosas INEI-ANLIS "Dr. CG. Malbrán". Results: n: 6. AFP: four children had asymmetric AFP with areflexia and MRI compatible with myelitis. Two of four required mechanical ventilation in the ICU. All of them presented with residual paralysis. EV-D68 was identified in the nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) in all of them and in the cerebrospinal fluid in only one. Myocarditis: A 5-year-old healthy girl was admitted to the ICU because of myocardial dysfunction and fever associated with moderate pericardial effusion. She was put on IV gamma globulin with a good response. In the NPS respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and EV-D68 were identified. Severe ALRI: EV-D68 was identified in a 14-month-old patient who was admitted to the UCU because of severe ALRI requiring non-invasive ventilation for 72 hours with a good outcome. A RSV and EV-D68 coinfection was found in the NPS. Conclusions: We report six inpatients with a EV-D68 infection. Active epidemiological surveillance is crucial to identify circulation of the virus, clinical features, and prognosis of emerging viruses (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Critical Care , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Myelitis/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Acute Disease
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(1): 137-138, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A healthy 6-year-old boy presented with an erythematous macular exanthema, meningeal signs and fever, initially diagnosed with probable bacterial meningitis and treated with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Enteroviral meningitis was confirmed, but the skin lesions continued to evolve and the patient was ultimately diagnosed with erythema dyschromicum perstans. The boy was followed during three years until the spontaneous resolution of the dermatosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Erythema/virology , Meningitis, Viral/complications , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Erythema/diagnosis , Meningitis, Viral/diagnosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311356

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In this proof-of-concept study using Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) strains as examples, we established an amplicon-based whole genome sequencing method using MinION. We explored the accuracy, minimum sequencing time, discrimination and high-throughput sequencing ability of MinION, and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Within the first minute (min) of sequencing, the accuracy of MinION was 98.5% for the single EV71 strain and 94.12%-97.33% for 10 genetically-related CA16 strains. In as little as 14 min, 99% identity was reached for the single EV71 strain, and in 17 min (on average), 99% identity was achieved for 10 CA16 strains in a single run.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MinION is suitable for whole genome sequencing of enteroviruses with sufficient accuracy and fine discrimination and has the potential as a fast, reliable and convenient method for routine use.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Enterovirus , Genetics , Enterovirus A, Human , Genetics , Enterovirus Infections , Virology , Feces , Genome, Viral , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Virology , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Methods
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311350

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus 71 is a neuroinvasive virus that is associated with severe neurological complications. We had earlier suggested that the replication capacity of a severe strain was higher than that of a mild strain. The recombinant 3CRV and 3CDRV virus strains were successfully rescued in our previous study. In the present study, we found no difference in virulence between 3CRV and severe strains. However, the capacity of replication and to cause cell injury of 3CDRV strain decreased in vitro, especially at 39.5 °C. Replacement of 3CD region in the severe strain led to milder symptoms, less body weight loss, and lower viral load in ICR mice. Histopathological findings indicated less severe injury in mice infected with 3CDRV strain. This study suggests that the 3CD region contributes to the attenuation of the severe strain, including its replication capacity and temperature sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Enterovirus A, Human , Genetics , Virulence , Enterovirus Infections , Pathology , Virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mutation , Viral Load , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297187

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between rs9722 polymorphisms in the S100B gene and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 124 HFMD children with enterovirus 71 infection were enrolled as subjects, and 56 healthy children were enrolled as control group. The rs9722 polymorphisms in the S100B gene were detected for both groups, and the serum level of S100B protein was measured for 74 HFMD children.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rs9722 locus of the S100B gene had three genotypes, CC, CT, and TT, and the genotype frequencies were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Compared with the control group, the HFMD group had significant increases in the frequencies of TT genotype and T allele (P<0.01). Children with severe HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 infection had significantly higher frequencies of TT genotype and T allele than those with moderate or mild HFMD (P<0.05). Compared with the cured patients, the patients with poor prognosis had significant increases in the frequencies of TT genotype and T allele in the rs9722 locus of the S100B gene (P<0.05). Among the 74 children with HFMD, the children with TT genotype had the highest serum level of S100B protein, and those with CC genotype had the lowest level (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>T allele in the rs9722 locus of the S100B gene might be a risk factor for severe HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Female , Genotype , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Genetics , Humans , Infant , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Genetics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351405

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association of gene polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-1377C/T and expression of TLR3 with the susceptibility to enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalitis in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 187 children with EV71 infection (59 children in the encephalitis group and 128 in the non-encephalitis group) and 232 children who underwent physical examination were enrolled in the case-control study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the TLR3-1377C/T gene polymorphisms. ELISA was used to measure the serum level of TLR3.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of TLR3-1377C/T between the non-encephalitis group and the encephalitis group. Compared with the control group, the encephalitis group and the non-encephalitis group had significant increases in the serum level of TLR3 (P<0.05), and the non-encephalitis group had the highest level (P<0.05). The encephalitis group had a significantly higher EV71 viral load than the non-encephalitis group (P<0.01). The children aged <1 year or ≥1 year in the encephalitis group and the non-encephalitis group had significant increases in the serum level of TLR3 compared with their counterparts in the control group (P<0.05), and the children aged <1 year or ≥1 year in the non-encephalitis group had a significantly higher serum level of TLR3 than those in the encephalitis group (P<0.05). In the encephalitis group, the children aged ≥1 year had a significantly higher TLR3 concentration than those aged <1 year (P<0.05), and there were no significant differences in the TLR3 concentration between the children aged ≥1 year and <1 year in the non-encephalitis group and the control group. In the encephalitis group, the proportion of children aged <1 year was significantly higher than those aged ≥1 year (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The TLR3-1377C/T gene polymorphisms are not significantly associated with the development of EV71 encephalitis. Low expression of TLR3 might weaken the inhibitory effect on virus replication and promote the development of EV71 encephalitis. The deficiency in the expression of TLR3 in serum after EV71 infection might be an important factor for the development of encephalitis in infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Encephalitis, Viral , Genetics , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Infant , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Genetics
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Enterovirus infection in children can manifest various disease and enterovirus have many serotypes. This study was aimed to investigate neurologic manifestations according to serotypes of enterovirus in pediatric inpatients in Incheon. METHODS: We collected the stool samples from the admitted pediatric patients in Inha University Hospital from January 2015 to September 2016. Enterovirus detection and serotypes identification were performed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and semi-nested RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 527 samples were collected during study period and 170 patients (32.2%) were diagnosed with enterovirus infections. Genetic sequences of enteroviruses were identified: echovirus 18 (50, 40.5%), enterovirus 71 (12, 9.6%), coxakievirus A10 (10, 8.0%), echovirus 6 (7, 5.6%). Virus in patient with meningitis were identified: echovirus 18 (15, 75%), coxakievirus B5 (2, 10%), enterovirus 71 (2, 10%), and echovirus 6 (1, 5%). Neurologic manifestations of echovirus 18 are headache (15, 30%), vomiting (17, 34%), meningeal irritation sign (10, 20.0%). And enterovirus 71 have headache (3, 25%), vomiting (3, 25%), meningeal irritation sign (2, 16.0%), seizure (1, 8.3%), neurologic sequelae (1, 8.3%). Echovirus 18 and neurologic manifestation have a statistically significant correlation with other serotypes (r=0.701, P < 0.01) CONCLUSION: Echovirus 18 infection was more prominent in neurological symptoms than in other serotypes. The major serotype of meningitis was echovirus 18 but there was no reported neurologic sequelae. Enterovirus infection has different neurological symptoms, depending on the serotypes.


Subject(s)
Child , Echovirus 6, Human , Enterovirus B, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Headache , Humans , Inpatients , Meningitis , Neurologic Manifestations , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seizures , Serogroup , Vomiting
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e11, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The 2014 enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak in the United States raised concerns about the introduction of the virus in the Caribbean region. The objective of this study was to provide rapid evidence of the introduction of EV-D68 strains in the Caribbean region during the 2014 outbreak in the United States, using a relatively simple phylogenetic approach. From October 2014 to May 2015, four EV-D68 cases from two countries (Bermuda and Dominica) were detected at the regional referral laboratory at the Caribbean Public Health Agency (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) based on molecular testing of respiratory specimens. All cases were children presenting to hospitals with moderate respiratory distress. No cases of acute flaccid paralysis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the Caribbean strains showed more than 99% similarity with the 2014 U.S.-outbreak strain, providing evidence of the introduction and circulation of the virus in the region.(AU)


RESUMEN El brote de enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) registrado en el 2014 en los Estados Unidos suscitó preocupación acerca de la introducción del virus en el Caribe. El objetivo de este estudio fue aportar pruebas rápidas, mediante la adopción de un enfoque filogénico relativamente sencillo, de que durante ese brote ingresaron en el Caribe cepas del EV-D68. Entre octubre del 2014 y mayo del 2015, el laboratorio regional de referencia ubicado en el Organismo de Salud Pública del Caribe (Puerto España, Trinidad y Tabago) detectó cuatro casos de EV-D68 provenientes de dos países (Bermudas y Dominica) mediante el análisis molecular de muestras respiratorias. Todos los casos correspondían a niños que acudieron al hospital con dificultad respiratoria moderada. No se detectó ningún caso de parálisis flácida aguda. El análisis filogénico de las cepas encontradas en el Caribe demostró una semejanza superior al 99 % con la cepa responsable del brote del 2014 en los Estados Unidos, lo que demuestra la introducción y la circulación del virus en la región.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Enterovirus Infections/prevention & control , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Bermuda/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Dominica/epidemiology , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification
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