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Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202605, jun. 2023. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435886


Introducción. Los virus son los principales agentes etiológicos en las infecciones respiratorias agudas graves; un alto porcentaje queda sin diagnóstico viral. Objetivo. Describir la frecuencia de rinovirus y metapneumovirus en pacientes pediátricos de una unidad centinela de Mar del Plata con infección respiratoria aguda grave y resultado negativo para virus clásicos por inmunofluorescencia y biología molecular. Población y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se evaluó la presencia de rinovirus y metapneumovirus por biología molecular en 163 casos negativos para panel respiratorio por técnicas de vigilancia referencial, durante todo el año 2015. Resultados. Se detectó rinovirus en el 51,5 % de los casos, metapneumovirus en el 9,8 % y coinfección rinovirus-metapneumovirus en el 6,1 %. Fueron negativos para ambos virus el 32,5 %. Conclusiones. La selección de muestras sin diagnóstico virológico permitió identificar rinovirus y metapneumovirus como agentes causales de infecciones respiratorias agudas graves pediátricas y su impacto en la morbimortalidad infantil y en nuestro sistema sanitario.

Introduction. Viruses are the main etiologic agents involved in severe acute respiratory tract infections; a viral diagnosis is not established in a high percentage of cases. Objective. To describe the frequency of rhinovirus and metapneumovirus in pediatric patients with severe acute respiratory infection and negative results for typical viruses by immunofluorescence and molecular biology at a sentinel unit of Mar del Plata. Population and methods. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The presence of rhinovirus and metapneumovirus was assessed by molecular biology in 163 cases negative for respiratory panel by referral surveillance techniques throughout 2015. Results. Rhinovirus was detected in 51.5% of cases, metapneumovirus in 9.8%, and coinfection with rhinovirus and metapneumovirus in 6.1%. Results were negative for both viruses in 32.5%. Conclusions. The selection of samples without a viral diagnosis allowed us to identify rhinovirus and metapneumovirus as causative agents of severe acute respiratory infections in children and assess their impact on child morbidity and mortality and on our health care system

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Viruses , Metapneumovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Rhinovirus , Cross-Sectional Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969855


Objective: To understand the infection status of Enterovirus (EV) in cases of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Luohe City, Henan Province from 2017 to 2021, and analyze the prevalence and type composition of EV in ARIs. Methods: From October 2017 to May 2021, pharyngeal swab samples were collected from 1 828 patients with ARIs in Luohe Central Hospital and the clinical epidemiological data of these cases were also collected. EV-positive samples were identified by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) was amplified by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The results of 5'UTR region were initially typed by Enterovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Based on the typing results, the full-length of VP1 region was amplified by RT-PCR. The EV typing was identified again by VP1 region. Results: Among 1 828 cases of ARIs, 56.7% (1 036) were males. The median (Q1, Q3) age was about 3 (1, 5) years. Patients under 5 years old accounted for 71.6% (1 309 cases). Among all cases, a total of 71 EV-positive samples were identified by qPCR, with a detection rate of 3.88% (71/1 828). The EV detection rates for men and women were 3.28% (34/1 036) and 4.67% (37/792), without statistically significant differences (χ2=2.32, P=0.14). The EV detection rates for 2 to <6 years, 6 months to <2 years, 6 to <10 years, and <6 months were 6.29% (48/763), 3.00% (18/600), 2.52% (4/159), and 1.67% (1/60) (χ2=27.91, P<0.001). The EV detection rate was 0.92% (3/326) in autumn and winter of 2017. The EV detection rates were 1.18% (6/508), 2.47% (12/485) and 8.31% (34/409) in each year from 2018 to 2020, with an increasing trend year by year(χ2trend=29.76, P<0.001). The main prevalent seasons were summer and autumn. The detection rate in spring of 2021 was 4.00% (4/100). A total of 12 types were identified and classified as CVA2, CVA4, CVA5, CVA6, CVA10, CVB3, CVB5, E5, E11, E30, PV-1, and EV-D68. The types of CVA2, CVA10, CVA6, and CVB3 were the dominant phenotypes. In 59 sample of EV typing, the main clinical manifestation was upper respiratory tract infection (36/59, 61.01%). The dominant types detected in upper respiratory tract infections were CVA10 (10/36, 27.78%), CVA6 (9/36, 25.00%) and CVB3 (8/36, 22.22%). The dominant type detected in lower respiratory tract infections was CVA2 (7/19, 36.84%). Conclusion: In Luohe City, Henan Province from 2017 to 2021, EV infection in ARIs cases has clear seasonal and age-specific patterns, and the dominant types of upper and lower respiratory tract infections are different.

Male , Female , Humans , Enterovirus/genetics , 5' Untranslated Regions , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Phenotype , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Phylogeny
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981960


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the positive rate of enterovirus (EV) nucleic acid in throat swabs of term late neonates hospitalized during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and the clinical characteristics of the neonates.@*METHODS@#A single-center cross-sectional study was performed on 611 term late infants who were hospitalized in the neonatal center from October 2020 to September 2021. Throat swabs were collected on admission for coxsackie A16 virus/EV71/EV universal nucleic acid testing. According to the results of EV nucleic acid test, the infants were divided into a positive EV nucleic acid group (8 infants) and a negative EV nucleic acid group (603 infants). Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Among the 611 neonates, 8 tested positive for EV nucleic acid, with a positive rate of 13.1‰, among whom 7 were admitted from May to October. There was a significant difference in the proportion of infants contacting family members with respiratory infection symptoms before disease onset between the positive and negative EV nucleic acid groups (75.0% vs 10.9%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic data, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a certain proportion of term late infants testing positive for EV nucleic acid in throat swabs during the COVID-19 epidemic, but the proportion is low. The clinical manifestations and laboratory test results of these infants are non-specific. Transmission among family members might be an important cause of neonatal EV infection.

Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Enterovirus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pharynx , Nucleic Acids , Enterovirus Infections
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 207-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935372


Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among people ≥6 years old in Beijing from 2011 to 2020. Methods: The incidence data of HFMD cases from 2011 to 2020 were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of China Information for Disease Control and Prevention and the etiological surveillance of HFMD in 29 sentinel hospitals from 16 districts of Beijing. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the distributions, pathogen constituents, and changes of HFMD cases in Beijing people ≥6 years old. Results: From 2011 to 2020, a total of 38 183 cases of HFMD were reported among people ≥6 years old in Beijing, of which 46 (0.12%) cases were severe. The average annual reported incidence was 19.04/100 000. The ratio of males to females were 1.37∶1(22 064∶16 119). The proportion of HFMD in people ≥6 years old increased from 7.56%(2 606/34 488) in 2011 to 24.54% (546/2 225) in 2020. The average incidence of HFMD was higher in Shunyi district, Yanqing district, and Tongzhou district than in other districts in Beijing. The positive rate of enterovirus in sentinel surveillance was 66.78% (1 976/2 959), the proportion of enterovirus group A 71 (EV-A71) was 45.29% (101/223) in 2014, no EV-A71 positive was detected in 2020, and the proportion of Coxsackievirus A 6 (CV-A6) increased from 15.11% (34/225) in 2016 to 81.08% (60/74) in 2020. Conclusions: From 2011 to 2020, the proportion of cases with HFMD in people ≥6 years old in Beijing increased yearly, and the proportion of EV-A71 positive patients decreased basically. Since 2016, CV-A6 has gradually become the dominant pathogen. More attention should be paid to the epidemic situation and dynamic pathogen changes of hand foot mouth disease in people ≥6 years old.

Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , China/epidemiology , Enterovirus , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942207


OBJECTIVE@#To describe the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo after the access of entero-virus-A71 vaccine (2016 to 2019).@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study were performed in children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo from 2016 to 2019. Data for incidence of HFMD was collected from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance Reporting System and the Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) System, while the demographic information was derived from the Immunization Information System. Speci-mens were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and the Wilson method was used to estimate the incidence rate and 95% confidence interval.@*RESULTS@#From 2016 to 2019, a total of 1 044 800 residential children were observed in this population-based cohort. In the study, 102 471 cases of HFMD were diagnosed in 2 651 081 person-years, revealing an overall incidence density of 3 865.25/100 000 person-years. There was no significant decline in the number of the cases after the vaccine was available. The number of the patients of hand foot mouth disease during the four years was 93 421, of whom 84 875 (90.85%) had only one incident record, while 8 946 (9.15%) had 2 or more cases in this period; there were 69 771 (66.06%) patients who only needed to see a doctor once for each disease, 19.92% of the patients needed to be treated twice, and 14 801 (14.02%) patients needed to go to the hospital or clinic three times or more. The incidence of HFMD showed obvious seasonality and periodicity, which mainly concentrated in April to July each year, and the epidemic cycle was 2 years; most of the cases were 1 to 3-year old children, with more cases in male. The incidence density varied across the region, with the highest density observed in Ninghai (4 524.76/100 000 person-years), followed by Xiangshan (3 984.22/100 000 person-years). In 3 748 library-conformed cases, 2 834(75.61%) were detected positive, among which enterovirus-A71, Cox-A16 and other enteroviruses accounted for 9.03%, 31.55% and 59.42%, respectively. During the study period, the cumulative coverage of enterovirus-A71 vaccine increased year by year, with the proportion of enterovirus-A71 and severe cases both gradually decreasing.@*CONCLUSION@#The current status of hand, foot and mouth disease in Ningbo is still serious. Children under 3-year old (especially male children aged 1 year) were the key population for prevention and control. Vaccination might lead to changes in major pathogenic virus type, of which more attention should be paid to the potential impact on disease surveillance, prevention and control.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , China/epidemiology , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828693


OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of neonatal enterovirus infection, especially severe enterovirus infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 244 neonates with enterovirus infection. According to the severity of infection, they were divided into a common infection group with 231 neonates and a severe infection group with 13 neonates. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Of the 244 neonates, 207 (84.8%) developed the disease in May to October, with the highest number of patients in June to July. Compared with the common infection group, the severe infection group had a significantly lower gestational age at birth and a significantly higher proportion of preterm infants (P<0.05). Compared with the common infection group, the severe infection group had a significantly earlier onset time (P<0.05) and significantly higher incidence rates of skin petechiae and ecchymosis, respiratory symptoms, sepsis-like manifestations (poor appetite, crying less, and less movement), concomitant diseases (such as pneumonia, myocarditis, necrotic hepatitis, and coagulation disorder), thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated creatine kinase-MB, and elevated alanine aminotransferase (P<0.05). The severe infection group had a significantly higher mortality rate than the common infection group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are significant differences in onset time, common clinical manifestations, and concomitant diseases between the neonates with common and severe enterovirus infection. In the enterovirus epidemic season, if the neonates have rashes and/or sepsis-like manifestations such as poor appetite and less movement, especially if the laboratory tests suggest liver damage and coagulation dysfunction, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the possibility of severe enterovirus infection.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Infant, Premature , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775105


OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082A/G, -819C/T, and -592C/A polymorphisms with IL-10 level and the severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 137 children with hand-foot-mouth disease due to EV71 infection were enrolled as EV71 infection group, which was further divided into mild group with 91 children and severe group with 46 children, and 122 healthy children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Related clinical data were collected. ELISA was used to measure the serum level of IL-10, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze IL-10 -1082A/G, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the healthy control group, the children with EV71 infection had significantly higher frequency of -1082 AA genotype and A allele (P0.05). The severe group had a significantly higher serum level of IL-10 than the mild group and the healthy control group. IL-10 -1082 AA genotype, -819 TT genotype, and -592 AA genotype were associated with the low expression of IL-10 (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with IL-10 expression and the severity of EV71 infection in children.

Child , Humans , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Interleukin-10 , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775104


OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect of carvedilol in the treatment of children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 86 children with severe HFMD caused by EV71 infection who were admitted to the hospital from April 2016 to August 2017. According to whether carvedilol was used, the children were divided into conventional treatment group with 51 children and carvedilol treatment group with 35 children. A total of 56 healthy children who underwent physical examination at the outpatient service during the same period were enrolled as the control group. The two treatment groups were compared in terms of clinical features and levels of catecholamines (norepinephrine, adrenaline and dopamine), and the levels of catecholamines were compared between these two treatment groups and the control group.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, the conventional treatment group and the carvedilol treatment group had significantly higher levels of norepinephrine and adrenaline than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, both the conventional treatment group and the carvedilol treatment group had significant reductions in norepinephrine, adrenaline, blood glucose, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, body temperature and leukocyte count (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional treatment group, the carvedilol treatment group had significantly lower dopamine level, blood glucose, heart rate and respiratory rate after treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Changes in norepinephrine and adrenaline might be involved in the pathogenesis of severe HFMD caused by EV71 infection. Carvedilol, in addition to the conventional treatment, can improve respiration, heart rate and blood glucose in children with severe HFMD caused by EV71 infection.

Child , Humans , Carvedilol , Therapeutic Uses , China , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Drug Therapy , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786526


Enteroviral infections are common in neonates. One important infection pathway is vertical transmission from an infected mother to her neonate. Here, we report the early detection and successful treatment of a vertically transmitted fulminant enteroviral infection associated with myocarditis and hepatitis. The patient had a sudden onset of high fever on the fourth day of life and developed severe, rapidly progressing symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), hepatitis, and myocarditis accompanied by tachyarrhythmia. As it was the peak season for enteroviral infections and both the mother and the patient's 36-month-old sibling had a high fever around the time of delivery, we suspected an enteroviral infection. Thus, we initiated prompt evaluation of enteroviral infection, as well as close observation and intensive care of the neonate. We strongly recommend evaluation for the possibility of vertical enterovirus infection in neonates when the mother is suspected of having a viral infection (e.g., high fever and negative results from bacterial infectious studies) around the time of delivery and when the neonate shows some early symptoms of infectious diseases such as thrombocytopenia, DIC, hepatitis, and myocarditis. Early detection of enteroviral infections and prompt implementation of proper treatment are key to reduce the risk of complications and mortality associated with enteroviral infections in neonates.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Communicable Diseases , Critical Care , Dacarbazine , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Fever , Hepatitis , Mortality , Mothers , Myocarditis , Seasons , Siblings , Tachycardia , Thrombocytopenia
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190160, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040614


Human enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequences of one EV-C99 strain and one E29 strain obtained from children suffering from acute gastroenteritis, without symptoms of enteroviral syndromes. This is the first report of EV-C99 in South America, and the second E29 genome described worldwide. Continuous surveillance on EVs is vital to provide further understanding of the circulation of new or rare EV serotypes in the country. The present study also highlights the capacity of EVs to remain in silent circulation in populations.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus C, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Enterovirus B, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus C, Human/isolation & purification , Feces/virology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 790-794, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974287


ABSTRACT Although the use of vaccines has controlled enteric diseases in dogs in many developed countries, vaccine coverage is still under optimal situation in Brazil. There is a large population of nonimmunized dogs and few studies about the identification of the viruses associated with diarrhea. To address this situation, stool samples from 325 dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the detection of common enteric viruses such as Canine adenovirus (CAdV), Canine coronavirus (CCoV), Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine rotavirus (CRV) and Carnivorous protoparvovirus 1 (canine parvovirus 2; CPV-2). At least one of these species was detected in 56.6% (184/325) of the samples. The viruses detected most frequently in either diarrheic or nondiarrheic dog feces were CPV-2 (54.3% of the positive samples), CDV (45.1%) and CCoV (30.4%), followed by CRV (8.2%) and CAdV (4.9%). Only one agent was detected in the majority of the positive samples (63%), but co-infections were present in 37% of the positive samples and mainly included CDV and CPV-2. The data presented herein can improve the clinical knowledge in regions with low vaccine coverage and highlight the need to improve the methods used to control these infectious diseases in domestic dogs.

Animals , Dogs , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/virology , Enterovirus Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Brazil , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Enterovirus/classification , Enterovirus/genetics , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Enterovirus Infections/immunology , Enterovirus Infections/prevention & control , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(4): 231-236, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-974048


Resumen Introducción: Las causas de meningoencefalitis, meningitis o encefalitis pueden ser infecciosas o no infecciosas. Para el diagnóstico microbiológico se requieren cultivos y pruebas moleculares. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las causas infecciosas de meningoencefalitis y su presentación clínica. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 28 días de vida con síndrome de meningitis, encefalitis o meningoencefalitis. Se identificó la etiología infecciosa mediante cultivos, tinciones de Gram y pruebas moleculares de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se compararon las características de pacientes con y sin diagnóstico etiológico. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio 50 pacientes con meningoencefalitis (n = 25), meningitis (n = 19) o encefalitis (n = 6). La mediana de edad fue de un año y el 62% de los pacientes fueron de sexo masculino. Se realizó diagnóstico etiológico infeccioso en el 42%: el 65.2% (n = 15) se debió a virus y el 34.8% (n = 8) a bacterias. En los pacientes con diagnóstico etiológico, se presentó un mayor número de leucocitos en líquido cefalorraquídeo (92 leu/mm3 vs. 12 leu/mm3, p = 0.001). Fue más frecuente el antecedente de gastroenteritis (razón de momios [RM]: 3.5; intervalo de confianza al 95% [IC 95%]: 1.007-12.1; p = 0.04) y ante la exploración, fue más frecuente la rigidez de cuello (RM: 3.8; IC 95%: 1-15.2; p = 0.04). Conclusiones: El 42% de los pacientes con meningitis, encefalitis o meningoencefalitis tuvieron diagnóstico etiológico infeccioso. La causa más frecuente fue el enterovirus.

Abstract Background: The etiologies of meningoencephalitis, meningitis or encephalitis may be infectious or non-infectious. For the microbiological diagnosis it is necessary to perform cultures and molecular tests. The objective of this study was to describe the infectious causes of meningoencephalitis and their clinical presentation. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca. Patients older than 28 days of life with meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome were included in the study. Infectious etiology was identified through cultures, Gram stains, and molecular tests of cerebrospinal fluid. The characteristics of patients with and without etiological diagnosis were compared. Results: Fifty patients with meningoencephalitis (n = 25), meningitis (n = 19) or encephalitis (n = 6) were included in the study. The mean age was one year and 62% were male. An infectious etiological diagnosis was performed in 42%; 65.2 % (n = 15) were viruses and 34.8% (n = 8) bacteria. In patients with etiological diagnosis, a higher number of leukocytes were found in cerebrospinal fluid (92 leu/mm3 vs. 12 leu/mm3, p = 0.001); the history of gastroenteritis was more frequent (odds ratio [OR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.007-12.1; p = 0.04) and upon examination, neck stiffness was more common (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1-15.2; p = 0.04). Conclusions: 42 % of the patients with meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis had an infectious etiological diagnosis; the most frequent cause was enterovirus.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Infectious Encephalitis/diagnosis , Meningitis/diagnosis , Meningoencephalitis/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Infectious Encephalitis/microbiology , Infectious Encephalitis/epidemiology , Hospitals , Meningitis/microbiology , Meningitis/epidemiology , Meningoencephalitis/microbiology , Meningoencephalitis/epidemiology , Mexico
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 192-197, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950009


Antecedentes. Las exacerbaciones de asma continúan siendo una causa de hospitalización en el Servicio de Urgencias. Los desencadenantesson alérgenos e infecciones, principalmente, de tipo viral. El objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los virus detectados durante la exacerbación asmática y los niveles de eosinófilos e inmunoglobulina E (IgE) sérica en pacientes pediátricos. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico. Se incluyeron niños de cinco a quince años atendidos en Urgencias de Pediatría con exacerbación de asma, en el período de marzo de 2013 a febrero de 2016. Se obtuvo ácido ribonucleico viral en el aspirado nasofaríngeo con el kit CLART PneumoVir. Se cuantificaron los eosinófilos en la sangre periférica y los niveles de IgE sérica total. Se consideró eosinofilia un conteo ≥ 0,4 x 103/mm3 e IgE elevada, ≥ 350 UI/L. Se realizó la correlación de Pearson. Se definió significancia con valor de p ≤ 0,05.Resultados. De 211 niños con exacerbación de asma, en el 20%, se aisló un virus. Los virus aislados más frecuentemente fueron el rinovirus, el enterovirus y el virus sincitial respiratorio. Se encontró una correlación entre los niveles de eosinófilos e IgE sérica total en los niños con exacerbación de asma y rinovirus de 0,89, con una p= 0,0001.Conclusiones. Las infecciones por rinovirus, enterovirus y virus sincitial respiratorio son más frecuentes en las exacerbaciones de asma en menores de 15 años. Se observó una correlación entre los niveles de eosinófilos e IgE en presencia de rinovirus.

Background. Asthma exacerbations are still a cause of hospitalization at the Emergency Department. The triggers of asthma exacerbations include allergens and infections ­mostly viral­. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between viruses detected during an asthma exacerbation and eosinophil and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in pediatric patients. Population and methods. Cross-sectional. analytical study. Children aged 5-15 years seen at the Pediatric Emergency Department with an asthma exacerbation in the period between March 2013 and February 2016 were included. Viral ribonucleic acid was extracted from nasopharyngeal aspirates using the CLART Pneumo Vir kit. Eosinophil levels were measured in peripheral blood and total IgE levels, in serum. Eosinophilia was defined as a count ≥ 0.4 x 103/mm3 and high IgE. as a level ≥ 350 IU/L. The Pearson's correlation was carried out. A value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.Results. Out of 211 children with asthma exacerbation, a virus was isolated in 20%. The most commonly isolated viruses were rhinovirus. enterovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. A correlation of 0.89 was established between eosinophil and total serum IgE levels in children with asthma exacerbation and rhinovirus, with a p value of 0.0001. Conclusions. Rhinovirus, enterovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common viruses in asthma exacerbations in children younger than 15 years. A correlation was established between eosinophil and IgE levels in the presence of rhinovirus.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/virology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Eosinophils/metabolism , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/blood , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(1): 23-30, ene.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-951288


Resumen Introducción: La reemergencia de las infecciones por Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) se reportó en los EE.UU. desde agosto-octubre de 2014 (691 casos). En México, un brote se reportó en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (24 casos). Se presentan los resultados de la vigilancia epidemiológica en un hospital pediátrico nacional de tercer nivel para Enterovirus sp. (EV) y otros virus respiratorios. Método: Tras la alerta emitida por la reemergencia del EV-D68 en 2014, la vigilancia epidemiológica -que solo detectaba virus respiratorios mediante PCR en pacientes con enfermedad tipo influenza mediante toma de hisopados nasofaríngeos- se expandió para incluir niños con exacerbación de asma o dificultad respiratoria aguda. Las muestras positivas para EV fueron confirmadas y tipificadas por secuenciación. Posteriormente, se utilizó secuenciación de siguiente generación para obtener el genoma viral completo. Resultados: De 1705 muestras, 13 fueron positivas para EV. Los pacientes con EV presentaron la siguiente comorbilidad: enfermedad pulmonar crónica (7.7%), enfermedad neoplásica (15.4%), asma/rinitis alérgica (23%), neumonías de repetición (23%), y otras (23%). De las 13 muestras positivas para EV, tres resultaron positivas para EV-D68. Dichos casos requirieron ventilación mecánica invasiva, no tuvieron afectación neurológica y sobrevivieron. Conclusiones: La afectación por EV-D68 de la población estudiada fue menor que lo reportado en México durante el mismo periodo. Los casos de infección por EV-D68 presentan diversa comorbilidad, aunque escasas enfermedades pulmonares, lo cual pudiera explicar la baja tasa de ataque. La presencia del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica establecido y la prevención de infecciones pudieron haber contenido el brote.

Abstract Background: The reemergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections in the United States was reported from August-October 2014 (691 cases). In Mexico, an outbreak at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases was reported (24 cases). The results of epidemiological surveillance of Enterovirus sp. (EV) and other respiratory viruses in a national pediatric tertiary care level hospital are presented. Methods: Following the alert issued by the reemergence of EV-D68 in 2014, epidemiological surveillance -which only detected respiratory viruses by PCR in patients with influenza-like illness using nasopharyngeal swabs- expanded to include children with asthma exacerbation or acute respiratory distress. Positive samples to EV were confirmed and typed by sequencing. Subsequent sequencing was used to obtain the complete viral genome. Results: Of 1705 samples, 13 were positive to EV. Patients with EV presented the following comorbidities: chronic lung disease (7.7%), neoplastic disease (15.4%), allergic asthma/rhinitis (23%), recurrent pneumonia (23%), and other (23%). Of the 13 samples positive for EV, three were positive for EV-D68. These cases required invasive mechanical ventilation, presented no neurological involvement and survived. Conclusions: The impact of the population studied by EV-D68 was lower than that reported in Mexico during the same period. Cases of EV-D68 infection had multiple comorbidities, but few pulmonary comorbidities, which could explain the low attack rate. The epidemiological surveillance and infection prevention system may have contained the outbreak.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/microbiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Mexico/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300357


Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line. Jurkat cell model can simulate the function T lymphocytes, so it is widely used in the in vitro studies of T cell signal transduction, cytokines, and receptor expression, and can provide reference and guidance for the treatment of various infectious diseases and the research on their pathogenesis. The Jurkat cell model has been widely used in the in vitro studies of viral diseases and atypical pathogens, but parasitic infection studies using the Jurkat cell model are still rare. This article reviews advances in the application of Jurkat cell model in the research on infectious diseases.

Humans , Communicable Diseases , Allergy and Immunology , Deltaretrovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , HIV Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Jurkat Cells , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690650


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To eliminate the side effects of aluminum adjuvant and His-tag, we constructed chimeric VLPs displaying the epitope of EV71 (SP70) without His-tagged. Then evaluating whether the VLPs could efficiently evoke not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against EV71 without adjuvant.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The fusion protein was constructed by inserting SP70 into the MIR of truncated HBcAg sequence, expressed in E. Coli, and purified through ion exchange chromatography and density gradient centrifugation. Mice were immunized with the VLPs and sera were collected afterwards. The specific antibody titers, IgG subtypes and neutralizing efficacy were detected by ELISA, neutralization assay, and EV71 lethal challenge. IFN-γ and IL-4 secreted by splenocytes were tested by ELISPOT assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>HBc-SP70 proteins can self-assemble into empty VLPs. After immunization with HBc-SP70 VLPs, the detectable anti-EV71 antibodies were effective in neutralizing EV71 and protected newborn mice from EV71 lethal challenge. There was no significant difference for the immune efficacy whether the aluminum adjuvant was added or not. The specific IgG subtypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b and splenocytes from the mice immunized produced high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The fusion proteins without His-tagged was expressed and purified as soluble chimeric HBc-SP70 VLPs without renaturation. In the absence of adjuvant, they were efficient to elicit high levels of Th1/Th2 mixed immune response as well as assisted by aluminum adjuvant. Furthermore, the chimeric VLPs have potential to prevent HBV and EV71 infection simultaneously.</p>

Animals , Female , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Enterovirus A, Human , Genetics , Enterovirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Epitopes , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Escherichia coli , Metabolism , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Allergy and Immunology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776071


OBJECTIVE@#Newly identified human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) and human bocavirus (HBoV) cannot propagate in vitro in traditional cell culture models; thus obtaining knowledge about these viruses and developing related vaccines are difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel platform for the propagation of these types of viruses.@*METHODS@#A platform for culturing human airway epithelia in a three-dimensional (3D) pattern using Matrigel as scaffold was developed. The features of 3D culture were identified by immunochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV in 3D cells at designated time points were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Levels of cytokines, whose secretion was induced by the viruses, were measured by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Properties of bronchial-like tissues, such as the expression of biomarkers CK5, ZO-1, and PCK, and the development of cilium-like protuberances indicative of the human respiration tract, were observed in 3D-cultured human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, but not in monolayer-cultured cells. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV and levels of virus-induced cytokines were also measured using the 3D culture system.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data provide a preliminary indication that the 3D culture model of primary epithelia using a Matrigel scaffold in vitro can be used to propagate HRV-C and HBoV.

Humans , Collagen , Drug Combinations , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Virology , Human bocavirus , Laminin , Parvoviridae Infections , Virology , Primary Cell Culture , Methods , Proteoglycans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Mucosa , Virology , Virus Cultivation
Med. infant ; 24(1): 21-26, marzo 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-879132


Introducción: Los reportes de infecciones por enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) han aumentado en los últimos años. Material y métodos: Cohorte prospectiva. Se realizó la búsqueda de EV-D68 en niños internados en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan entre 1-5-2016 y 30-9-2016 con: infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB) que requirieran cuidados intensivos, parálisis aguda fláccida (PAF) asimétrica con compromiso de sustancia gris en resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) o identificación de cualquier enterovirus con cuadro clínico compatible. La identificación de EV-D68 se realizó en el Servicio de Neurovirus, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas INEI-ANLIS "Dr. CG. Malbrán". Resultados: n: 6. PAF: cuatro niños presentaron PAF asimétrica, con arreflexia y RMN compatible con mielitis. Requirieron ventilación mecánica en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) dos de los 4 niños. Todos presentaron parálisis residual. Se identificó EV-D68 en secreciones nasofaríngeas (SNF) de todos ellos. En líquido cefalorraquídeo sólo en uno. Miocarditis: Una niña sana de 5 años se internó en UCI por disfunción miocárdica y fiebre. Presentaba además derrame pericárdico moderado. Recibió gamaglobulina e.v. con buena evolución. En SNF se identificaron virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR) y EV-D68. IRAB grave: se identificó EV-D68 en un paciente de 14 meses que permaneció en UCI por IRAB grave con requerimientos de ventilación no invasiva por 72 hs, con buena evolución posterior. Se constató coinfección VSR y EV-D68 en SNF. Conclusiones: Se reportan 6 pacientes internados con infección por EV-D68. La vigilancia epidemiológica activa es esencial para identificar la circulación, las características clínicas y el pronostico de las infecciones por virus emergentes (AU)

Introduction: Reports on enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections have increased over the past years. Material and methods: A prospective cohort study. A search for EV-D68 infection was conducted in children hospitalized at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan between 1-5-2016 and 30-9-2016 with: acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) requiring intensive care unit (UCI) admission, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), asymmetry with grey matter involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or identification of any enterovirus associated with compatible features. The identification of EV-D68 was performed at the Department of Neuroviruses of the InstitutoNacional de EnfermedadesInfecciosas INEI-ANLIS "Dr. CG. Malbrán". Results: n: 6. AFP: four children had asymmetric AFP with areflexia and MRI compatible with myelitis. Two of four required mechanical ventilation in the ICU. All of them presented with residual paralysis. EV-D68 was identified in the nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) in all of them and in the cerebrospinal fluid in only one. Myocarditis: A 5-year-old healthy girl was admitted to the ICU because of myocardial dysfunction and fever associated with moderate pericardial effusion. She was put on IV gamma globulin with a good response. In the NPS respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and EV-D68 were identified. Severe ALRI: EV-D68 was identified in a 14-month-old patient who was admitted to the UCU because of severe ALRI requiring non-invasive ventilation for 72 hours with a good outcome. A RSV and EV-D68 coinfection was found in the NPS. Conclusions: We report six inpatients with a EV-D68 infection. Active epidemiological surveillance is crucial to identify circulation of the virus, clinical features, and prognosis of emerging viruses (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Critical Care , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Myelitis/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Acute Disease