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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468973


We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.

Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.

Animals , Enzyme Activation , Cyprinidae/growth & development , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-12, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468508


The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on gas exchange and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms seedlings under water deficit and its influence on the recovery potential of the seedlings. The experiment was conducted using four treatments, being daily irrigation or water restriction without and with 10 μM ABA. Seedlings under water deficit + ABA showed greater adjustment to drought, and when re-irrigated, they restored photosynthetic metabolism and water potential. ABA minimizes the reduction in the photosynthetic metabolism and water potential of the leaf, however, it does not increase the antioxidant activity of the O. arborea seedlings under water deficit. These results suggest that this species exhibits plasticity, which enables it to survive also in environments subjected to temporary water deficit regardless of the supplementation of ABA. We suggest that other doses of ABA be researched to expand the beneficial effect of ABA on this species.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido abscísico (ABA) nas trocas gasosas e na atividade de enzimas antioxidantes de mudas de Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms sob deficiência hídrica e sua influência no potencial de recuperação das mudas. O experimento foi conduzido com quatro tratamentos, sendo eles irrigação diária ou restrição hídrica sem e com 10 μM ABA. As mudas sob déficit hídrico + ABA apresentaram maior ajuste à seca e ao serem re-irrigadas restabeleceram o metabolismo fotossintético e o potencial hídrico. O ABA minimizou a redução do metabolismo fotossintético e do potencial da água na folha, porém, não aumentou a atividade antioxidante de mudas de O. arborea sob déficit hídrico. Esses resultados sugerem que esta espécie apresenta plasticidade fisiológica, o que lhe permite sobreviver em ambientes sujeitos a déficit hídrico temporário, independente da suplementação de ABA. Sugerimos que outras doses de ABA sejam avaliadas para ampliar os efeitos benéficos do ABA sobre esta espécie.

Antioxidants/analysis , Dehydration , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Magnoliopsida/metabolism , Enzyme Reactivators/administration & dosage , Enzyme Activation
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e54966, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460983


Many food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have increased their interest in short-chain esters due to their flavor properties. From the industrial standpoint, enzyme reactions are the most economical strategy to reach green products with neither toxicity nor damage to human health. Isoamyl butyrate (pear flavor) was synthesized by isoamyl alcohol (a byproduct of alcohol production) and butyric acid with the use of the immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM and hexane as solvents. Reaction variables (temperature, butyric acid concentration, isoamyl alcohol:butyric acid molar ratio and enzyme concentration) were investigated in ester conversion (%), concentration (mol L-1) and productivity (mmol ester g-1 mixture . h), by applying a sequential strategy of the Fractional Factorial Design (FFD) and the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). High isoamyl butyrate conversion of 95.8% was achieved at 24 hours. At 3 hours, the highest isoamyl butyrate concentration (1.64 mol L-1) and productivity (0.19 mmol ester g-1 mixture . h) were obtained under different reaction conditions. Due to high specificity and selectivity of lipases, process parameters of this study and their interaction with the Lipozyme TL IM are fundamental to understand and optimize the system so as to achieve maximum yield to scale up. Results show that fusel oil may be recycled by the green chemistry process proposed by this study.

Enzyme Activation , Butyrates/administration & dosage , Butyrates/analysis , Isoamylase , Process Optimization/analysis
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200751, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278447


Abstract The unconscious use of pesticides causes various adverse effects on non-target organisms, including humans. Enzymes that control metabolism become the target of the pesticide and the organs are damaged due to toxic effects. Glutathione s-transferase (GST, EC, an important enzyme of the detoxification mechanism and antioxidant defense system, can be affected by such toxic substances. Therefore, the effect of fenarimol on GST enzyme activity was investigated in our study. For this, 200 mg/kg fenarimol was administered intraperitoneally to male and female rats at different periods (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 72 hours). After application, GST enzyme activity was analysed in the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine tissues of the rats. According to our results, activation (liver, kidney, small intestine) or inhibition (brain) of the generally GST enzyme was observed in the tissues of rats exposed to fenarimol. It is thought that the increase and/or decrease in this enzyme activity may be the cause of the toxic effect of fenarimol.

Animals , Rats , Pesticides/adverse effects , Glutathione S-Transferase pi , Enzyme Activation , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190480, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278442


Abstract The evolution of species is inevitably accompanied by the evolution of metabolic networks to adapt to different environments. The metabolic networks of different species were collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) website, and some enzyme reactions with the highest occurrence frequency in all species were found and are reported in this paper. The correlation coefficients of whether the enzyme reactions appear in all species were calculated, and the corresponding evolutionary correlation connection networks were calculated according to different correlation coefficient thresholds. These studies show that, as the evolutionary correlation of enzyme reactions increases, the weighted average of the mean functional concentration ratios of the enzyme reactions also increases, indicating that the functional concentration ratio of enzyme reactions has a certain correlation with the evolutionary correlation. The work presented in this paper enhances our understanding of the characteristics and general rules of metabolic network evolution.

Enzyme Activation , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Adaptation, Biological , Metabolism
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200639, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278433


Abstract Ananas Comosus (also known as pineapple) is a part of Bromeliaceae family and it is consumed as food as well as folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It is reported that pineapple is a rich source of bromelain, a cysteine protease and it is considered as an important enzyme in different industries due to its significant therapeutic and industrial applications such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and meat tenderizing. Bromelain is mostly present in fruit and stem of pineapple, but it is reported that crown, core, and peels, which constitute the waste of the pineapple plant, also contain bromelain but limited data is available. Therefore, the proposed study aimed at utilizing pineapple waste for the extraction and characterization of bromelain. Firstly, crude bromelain was extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7), then it was subjected to partial purification using different fractions of ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 such as 30, 40, 50 and 60% followed by desalting and concentration. Enzyme activity was calculated by using casein digesting unit (CDU) method. The results demonstrated that the crown bromelain showed highest purification of 4.34-fold at 30% (NH4)2SO4 saturation, whereas core and peel bromelain showed highest purification of 2.75 and 2.59-fold at 40% (NH4)2SO4 saturation. The molecular weight of crude and partially purified bromelain was determined by SDS-PAGE analysis and found to be 26 KDa. The pH and thermal stability of all the parts of pineapple showed maximum stability at pH 7 and at 35oC temperature.

Bromelains/isolation & purification , Enzyme Activation , Ammonium Sulfate , Peptide Hydrolases , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180673, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132156


Abstract Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Muscodor now transferred to Induratia are known producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many industrial applications. However, the members of this genus have rarely been reported to produce non-volatile metabolites including enzyme. Enzymes of the endophytes are degraders of the polysaccharides available in the host plants and the knowledge of enzyme production by Induratia spp. may provide insights into their possible biotechnological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase, phytase, protease, endo β-1,4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes produced by fungi of the species Induratia coffeana, Induratia yucatanensis and Induratia sp. isolated from organic coffee plants. All Induratia spp. were able to produce the extracellular enzymes cellulase, pectinase, protease, and phytase. Eight fungi were able to produce lipase and four produced amylase. The specific activity of endo β-1, 4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes were detected for 9 and 8 endophytic fungi, respectively. This work demonstrated for the first time, the array of enzymes produced by Induratia spp. isolated from Coffea arabica in organic systems in Brazil.

Coffea/microbiology , Enzyme Activation , Volatile Organic Compounds/metabolism , Endophytes/enzymology , Brazil
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e019819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138071


Abstract We investigated the in vitro acaricide activity of the methanolic extract (ME) and alkaloid-rich fraction (AF) of Prosopis juliflora on Rhipicephalus microplus and correlated this effect with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The acaricide activity was evaluated using adult and larval immersion tests. Also, we studied the possible interaction mechanism of the major alkaloids present in this fraction via molecular docking at the active site of R. microplus AChE1 (RmAChE1). Higher reproductive inhibitory activity of the AF was recorded, with effective concentration (EC50) four times lower than that of the ME (31.6 versus 121 mg/mL). The AF caused mortality of tick larvae, with lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of 13.8 mg/mL. Both ME and AF were seen to have anticholinesterase activity on AChE of R. microplus larvae, while AF was more active with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.041 mg/mL. The LC-MS/MS analyses on the AF led to identification of three alkaloids: prosopine (1), juliprosinine (2) and juliprosopine (3). The molecular docking studies revealed that these alkaloids had interactions at the active site of the RmAChE1, mainly relating to hydrogen bonds and cation-pi interactions. We concluded that the alkaloids of P. juliflora showed acaricide activity on R. microplus and acted through an anticholinesterase mechanism.

Resumo A atividade carrapaticida in vitro do extrato metanólico (EM) e da fração de alcaloides (FA) de Prosopis juliflora foi investigada, frente ao Rhipicephalus microplus, e relacionada com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). A predição in silico das interações de alcaloides dessa fração com a AChE1 de R. microplus (RmAChE1) foi realizada por acoplamento molecular. A atividade carrapaticida foi avaliada, utilizando-se os ensaios de imersão de adultos e larvas. Maior efeito sobre parâmetros reprodutivos de teleóginas foi verificado para a FA, com valor de Concentração Efetiva 50% (CE50) (31.6 mg/mL), quatro vezes menor do que o valor do EM (121 mg/mL). A FA induziu mortalidade de larvas (Concentração Letal de 50% - CL50 = 13,8 mg/mL). A inibição da atividade da AChE de larvas do carrapato foi observada para EM e FA, sendo a FA mais ativa (Concentração Inibitória 50%- CI50 de 0,041mg/mL). As análises químicas da FA permitiram a identificação dos alcaloides prosopina (1), juliprosinina (2) e juliprosopina (3). No ensaio in silico, observou-se que esses alcaloides podem interagir com o sítio ativo da RmAChE1, principalmente por ligações de hidrogênio e interações cátion-pi. Os alcaloides de P. juliflora têm atividade carrapaticida contra R. microplus, atuando através do mecanismo anticolinesterásico.

Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterases/metabolism , Prosopis/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/enzymology , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Acaricides/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Larva
Rev. MED ; 27(1): 29-43, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115217


Resumen: Los desórdenes congénitos de glicosilación son un conjunto de defectos genéticos de tipo multisistémico que afectan la función de la proteína. Se han descrito cerca de 75 enfermedades desde sus primeros estudios. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método microespectrofotométrico para el diagnóstico de la enzima citosólica fosfomanosa isomerasa EC (PMI), se analizaron 32 muestras de individuos con rango de edad de 0,6 a 27 años y se estableció el intervalo y el valor de referencia de actividad enzimática específica. Este estudio permitirá iniciar el diagnóstico de pacientes deficientes de la PMI de forma temprana y oportuna, lo cual la convierte en una posible enzima candidata para pruebas de tamizaje neonatal, ya que esta patología tiene un tratamiento fácil y de bajo costo, que consiste en la suplementación de manosa en forma oral. El diagnóstico clínico de este desorden metabólico beneficiará al paciente y a su familia al mejorar su calidad de vida, como también al sistema de salud colombiano.

Abstract: Congenital glycosylation disorders are a set of multi-systemic genetic defects affecting protein function. About 75 diseases have been described since early studies. This study developed a microspectrophotometric method for the diagnosis of the cytosolic enzyme phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) (EC, analyzed 32 samples of individuals ranging between 0.6 and 27 years old, and established the interval and reference value of specific enzyme activity. This study will allow early and timely diagnosis of PMI deficient patients, which makes this enzyme a potential candidate for neonatal screening tests since this pathology has an easy, low-cost treatment (oral administration of mannose supplements). Clinical diagnosis of this metabolic disorder will benefit the patient and his family by improving his quality of life, as well as the Colombian healthcare system.

Resumo: Os defeitos congénitos de glicosilação são um conjunto de defeitos genéticos de tipo mul-tissistêmico que afetam a função da proteína. Foram descritas 75 doenças desde seus primeiros estudos. Neste estudo, foi desenvolvido um método microespectrofotométrico para diagnosticar a enzima citosólica fosfomanose isomerase EC (PMI); foram analisadas 32 amostras de indivíduos entre 0,6 e 27 anos e estabelecidos o intervalo e o valor de referência de atividade enzimática específica. Este estudo permitirá iniciar o diagnóstico de pacientes deficientes da PMI de forma precoce e oportuna, o que a converte em uma possível enzima candidata para testes genéticos de rastreio pré-natal, já que essa patologia tem um tratamento fácil e de baixo custo, que consiste na suplementação de manose por via oral. O diagnóstico clínico desse defeito metabólico beneficiará o paciente e sua família ao melhorar a qualidade de vida e o sistema de saúde colombiano.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Microspectrophotometry , Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase , Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation , Diagnosis , Enzyme Activation
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 652-656, abr.-maio 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482015


Estudos utilizando fungos endofíticos como produtores de metabólitos secundários de interesse biotecnológico vem sendo explorados. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a produção de enzimas por fungos filamentosos endofíticos, sendo escolhida a cepa 50 (C50), proveniente da coleção de cultura do Laboratório de Produtos Naturais e Biotecnologia (LPNBio) da UESB. A produção das enzimas amilase, celulase, invertase, lipase e poligalacturonase foi avaliada pelo o índice enzimático, atividade enzimática e verificado o tempo de fermentação de maior produtividade. Com exceção da invertase, a C50 apresentou atividade para as demais enzimas, destaque para lipase e poligalacturonase no tempo de 96 horas de fermentação. Estes resultados mostraram que a C50 tem potencial para ser explorada como produtora de enzimas.

Enzyme Activation , Enzymes/biosynthesis , Enzymes/chemistry , Fermentation , Fungi , Endophytes
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 76-81, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772118


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of millimeter wave (MMW) exposure on apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells and explore the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Through electromagnetic field calculation we simulated MMW exposure in cells and calculated the specific absorption rate (SAR). The optimal irradiation parameters were determined according to the uniformity and intensity of the SAR. A375 cells were then exposed to MMV for 15, 30, 60, or 90 min, with or without pretreatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor AC-DEVD-fmk (10 μmol/L) for 1 h at 90 min before the exposure. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the changes in the viability and Annexin-V/ PI staining was used to detect the apoptosis of the cells following the exposures; Western blotting was used to detect the expression of caspase-3 in the cells.@*RESULTS@#The results of electromagnetic field calculation showed that for optimal MMV exposure, the incident field needed to be perpendicular to the bottom of the plastic Petri dish with the antenna placed below the dish. CCk-8 assay showed that MMW exposure significantly inhibited the cell viability in a time-dependent manner ( < 0.05); exposures for 15, 30, 60, and 90 min all resulted in significantly increased apoptosis of the cells ( < 0.05). The cells with MMW exposure showed significantly increased expression of caspase-3. The inhibitory effect of MMW on the cell viability was antagonized significantly by pretreatment of the cells with AC-DEVD-fmk ( < 0.05), which increased the cell viability rate from (36.7±0.09)% to (59.8±0.06)% ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#35.2 GHz millimeter wave irradiation induces apoptosis in A375 cells by activating the caspase-3 protein.

Humans , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Electromagnetic Fields , Enzyme Activation , Magnetic Field Therapy , Melanoma , Pathology , Therapeutics , Time Factors
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 44-49, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775255


Rifamycins, a group of bacterial RNA polymerase inhibitors, are the firstline antimicrobial drugs to treat tuberculosis. In light of the emergence of rifamycinresistant bacteria, development of new RNA polymerase inhibitors that kill rifamycinresistant bacteria with high bioavailability is urgent. Structural analysis of bacterial RNA polymerase in complex with inhibitors by crystallography and cryo-EM indicates that RNA polymerase inhibitors function through five distinct molecular mechanisms:inhibition of the extension of short RNA; competition with substrates; inhibition of the conformational change of the'bridge helix'; inhibition of clamp opening;inhibition of clamp closure. This article reviews the research progress of these five groups of RNA polymerase inhibitors to provide references for the modification of existing RNA polymerase inhibitors and the discovery of new RNA polymerase inhibitors.

Humans , Antitubercular Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Bacteria , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Metabolism , Drug Discovery , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , RNA, Bacterial , Tuberculosis , Drug Therapy
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1021-1028, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771826


Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric complex, is an important kinase to regulate glycolipid metabolism and energy balance involved in a variety physiological processes in human body. Many research indicated that the function and activity of AMPK were closely related to inflammation, diabetes and cancers. Recent reports show that inhibition of metformin (a first-line drug) on hepatic glucose in patients with hyperglycemia is associated with AMPK pathway, suggesting that targeting AMPK may be one of the effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of a variety of chronic diseases. Here, we review research progress on the structure, activation and regulation of AMPK in glycolipid metabolism to provide an insight into the basic and clinical research of diabetes therapy.

Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Adenosine , Adenosine Monophosphate , Energy Metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Glycolipids
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 270-276, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008977


Objective To evaluate the antagonistic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in rats with lung injury induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: blank control group (C1), water drip control group (C2), PM2.5 exposed group (P), low-dose NAC treated and PM2.5 exposed group (L), middle-dose NAC treated and PM2.5 exposed group (M), and high-dose NAC treated and PM2.5 exposed group (H). PM2.5 suspension (7.5 mg/kg) was administered tracheally once a week for four times. NAC of 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was delivered intragastrically to L, M and H group respectively by gavage (10 ml/kg) for six days before PM2.5 exposure. The histopathological changes and human mucin 5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) content in lung tissue of rats were evaluated. We investigated IL-6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), MUC5AC in lung tissue homogenate by ELISA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in serum and BALF by spectrophotometry, and the expression of p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 proteins by Western blot. All the measurements were analyzed and compared statistically. Results Lung tissue of rats exposed to PM2.5 showed histological destruction and increased mucus secretion of bronchial epithelial cells. Rats receiving NAC treatment showed less histological destruction and mucus secretion. Of P, L, M and H group, MUC5AC in lung tissue, IL-6 in serum and BALF were higher than controls (C1 and C2) (all P<0.05), with the highest levels found in the P group and a decreasing trend with increase of NAC dose. The activity of GSH-PX in serum and BALF of PM2.5 exposed rats (P, L, M and H) was lower than that of controls (all P<0.05), with higher activities found in NAC treated rats (L, M, and H), and an increasing trend with increase of NAC dose. The expressions of p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 proteins in PM2.5 exposed lung tissue (P, L, M and H) was higher than controls (all P<0.05), with decreased levels and dose dependent downregulation found in NAC treated rats. Conclusion NAC can antagonize major MAPK pathway activation, lung oxidative stress and inflammatory injury induced by PM2.5 in rats.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung Injury/pathology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180161, 2019. graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1002712


Wolf cichlid, Parachromis dovii, is a species with a high potential for aquaculture in Central America; however, the knowledge of the digestive physiology in larvae period is limited. For these reason, this study evaluated the changes on digestive enzymes (alkaline and acid proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, lipases, amylases, and phosphatases) during early ontogeny by biochemical analysis. All digestive enzymes were detected at first feeding (6 days after hatching, DAH, 9.49 mm, 168 degree-days DD). Afterwards all enzymes reached two main peaks in activity at 14 or 22 DAH (15.10 mm, 364 DD and 20.83 mm, 550 DD, respectively). Later, there was a gradual decrease in activity for trypsin and acid and alkaline phosphatases until reach the lowest values at 41 DAH. In the case of acid proteases, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, lipase and amylase, all activities reached their maximum values at the end of the larval period, except for alkaline proteases, which showed the maximum value at 14 DAH (15.10 mm, 364 DD). Parachromis dovii larvae have an early capability to hydrolyze exogenous food, agreeing with other carnivorous neotropical cichlid species, for this reason we proposed that the weaning process could begin at 14 DAH.(AU)

El guapote lagunero (Parachromis dovii) es una especie con un alto potencial para la acuicultura en la región de América Central; sin embargo, existe un conocimiento limitado sobre la capacidad digestiva en el periodo larval. Por este motivo, este estudio evaluó los cambios de las enzimas digestivas (proteasas alcalinas y ácidas, tripsina, quimotripsina, aminopeptidasa, carboxipeptidasa, lipasas, amilasas y fosfatasas) durante la ontogenia temprana mediante análisis bioquímico. Todas las enzimas digestivas analizadas se detectaron en la primera alimentación (6 días después de la eclosión, DAH, 9.49 mm, 168 día-grados DD). Después, todas las enzimas alcanzaron dos picos máximos a los 14 o 22 DAH (15.10 mm, 364 DD and 20.83 mm, 550 DD, respectivamente). Después las actividades tripsina, fosfatasas ácidas y alcalina disminuyeron a sus valores más bajos a los 41 DAH. En el caso de las proteasas ácidas y alcalinas, quimotripsina, aminopeptidasa, carboxipeptidasa, lipasa y amilasa, los niveles de actividad aumentaron y alcanzaron su máximo valor al final del período larvario, excepto las proteasas alcalinas, que mostraron su máximo valor a los 14 DAH (15.10 mm, 364 DD). Las larvas de P. dovii tienen una capacidad temprana para hidrolizar alimentos exógenos, lo que concuerda con otras especies de cíclidos neotropicales carnívoros, por lo que proponemos que el proceso de destete inicie a los 14 DAH.(AU)

Animals , Peptide Hydrolases/chemical synthesis , Cichlids/physiology , Enzyme Activation , Aquaculture
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 795-804, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771330


The cyanobacterial circadian clock has three relatively independent parts: the input path, the core oscillator, and the output path. The core oscillator is composed of three clock proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The interactions among these three proteins generate a rhythmic signal and convey the input signals to the output signals to maintain the accuracy and stability of the oscillation of downstream signals. Based on the cyanobacterial circadian clock and the structure, function, and interaction of the clock proteins of the core oscillator, combining the recent results from our laboratory, this review summarized the recent progresses of the molecular mechanism of KaiA in regulating KaiC's enzymatic activity, mediating phase reset of the oscillator, and competing with CikA for the binding site of KaiB.

Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Circadian Clocks , Genetics , Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Cyanobacteria , Genetics , Enzyme Activation , Genetics
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 319-326, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777183


AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzyme in the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis. Recent studies demonstrated that AMPK also plays an important role in the modulation of inflammation, an energy-intensive molecular response. The commonly used AMPK activators include 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and A-769662. In addition, the biological activities of metformin and adiponectin are closely related to activation of AMPK. Numerous studies have shown that these AMPK activators play an effectively protective role in animal models of acute lung injury, asthma, colitis, hepatitis, atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Therefore, AMPK activators may have promising potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation related diseases.

Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Physiology , Adiponectin , Pharmacology , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide , Pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Inflammation , Metformin , Pharmacology , Pyrones , Pharmacology , Thiophenes , Pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1067-1077, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973486


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of alprostadil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by 24h reperfusion. Alprostadil (4 or 8 μg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of reperfusion and myocardial infarct size, levels of troponin T, and the activity of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum were measured. Antioxidative parameters, nitric oxide (NO) content and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (p-eNOS) expression in the left ventricles were also measured. Histopathological examinations of the left ventricles were also performed. Results: Alprostadil treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum troponin T levels, and CK-MB and LDH activity (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with alprostadil significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) and markedly reduced myonecrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P<0.05), NO level (P<0.01) and p-eNOS (P<0.05) were significantly increased in rats treated with alprostadil compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that alprostadil protects against myocardial I/R injury and that these protective effects are achieved, at least in part, via the promotion of antioxidant activity and activation of eNOS.

Animals , Male , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Troponin T/drug effects , Troponin T/blood , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Acta méd. costarric ; 60(2): 30-33, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886410


Resumen La leucemia linfocítica aguda es la enfermedad oncológica con mayor incidencia en la población pediátrica, tanto a nivel mundial como en Costa Rica. Para su tratamiento requiere protocolos de quimioterapia complejos, lo que representa un reto constante para los médicos, ya que deben equilibrar los riesgos y beneficios del manejo. Es necesario tomar en cuenta los factores de riesgo de cada paciente, el grado de severidad de la enfermedad y los potenciales efectos adversos del tratamiento. A continuación, se reporta un caso de pancreatitis aguda edematosa no biliar, secundaria al uso de L-asparginasa, en un paciente con diagnóstico de leucemia linfocítica aguda, atendido en el Hospital Nacional de Niños "Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera". El paciente, quien se encontraba cumpliendo el régimen poliquimioterapeútico AHOPCA 2008, presentó clínica sugestiva de pancreatitis aguda en el día 50 de este, por lo que se decidió no colocar la quimioterapia indicada e inmediatamente se trasladó al Servicio de Emergencias. El cuadro clínico estaba asociado a laboratorios y ultrasonido anormales, por lo que fue tratado interdisciplinariamente y su pronóstico fue favorable; actualmente continúa con tratamiendo quimioterapeútico, como fue indicado.

Abstract The acute lymphocytic leukemia is the oncological disease with the highest incidence in the pediatric population both worldwide and in Costa Rica. It requires complex chemotherapy protocols, which confers a constant challenge on physicians to balance the risks and benefits of management. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the risk factors of each patient, the degree of severity of the disease and the potential adverse effects of the treatment. A case report is presented with an acute non-biliary edematous pancreatitis, secondary to the use of L-asparaginase in a patient diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia, seen at the National Children's Hospital "Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera". The patient who was started on the AHOPCA 2008 polychemotherapy regimen presented symptoms suggestive of acute pancreatitis on the day 50 of the same, so it was decided not to apply the indicated chemotherapy and transfer the patient to the Emergency Room. The clinical picture was associated with abnormal laboratories and ultrasound, so it was immediately treated interdisciplinarily, which is why its prognosis was favorable and currently he continues with chemotherapy treatment as indicated.

Humans , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Enzyme Activation
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 461-470, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886908


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to optimize the dextranase production by fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) and evaluate its activity in dextran reduction in sugarcane juice. The effects, over the P. chlamydosporia dextranase production, of different components from the culture medium were analyzed by Plackett-Burman design and central composite design. The response surface was utilized to determine the levels that, among the variables that influence dextranase production, provide higher production of these enzymes. The enzymatic effect on the removal of dextran present in sugarcane juice was also evaluated. It was observed that only NaNO3 and pH showed significant effect (p<0.05) over dextranase production and was determined that the levels which provided higher enzyme production were, respectively, 5 g/L and 5.5. The dextranases produced by fungus P. chlamydosporia reduced by 75% the dextran content of the sugarcane juice once treated for 12 hours, when compared to the control treatment.

Models, Statistical , Saccharum/metabolism , Dextranase/biosynthesis , Hypocreales/enzymology , Temperature , Dextrans/metabolism , Culture Media/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Activation , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrates