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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881042

ABSTRACT

Two new 2-carboxymethyl-3-hexyl-maleic anhydride derivatives, arthrianhydride A (1) and B (2), along with three known compounds 3-5, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a grasshopper-associated fungus Arthrinium sp. NF2410. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were determined based on the analysis of the HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on inhibitory activity against the enzyme SHP2 and both of them showed moderate inhibitory activity against SHP2.


Subject(s)
Anhydrides/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Products/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fungi/chemistry , Grasshoppers/microbiology , Molecular Structure , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11/antagonists & inhibitors , Secondary Metabolism
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1043-1051, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effect of methylene blue (MB) therapy during the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) process. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were used, (70%) submitted to partial ischemia (IR) or not (NIR) (30%) were obtained from the same animal. These animals were divided into six groups: 1) Sham (SH), 2) Sham with MB (SH-MB); 3) I/R, submitted to 60 minutes of partial ischemia and 15 minutes of reperfusion; 4) NI/R, without I/R obtained from the same animal of group I/R; 5) I/R-MB submitted to I/R and MB and 6) NI/R-MB, without I/R. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Osmotic swelling of mitochondria as well as the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated. Serum (ALT/AST) dosages were also performed. MB was used at the concentration of 15mg/kg, 15 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Statistical analysis was done by the Mann Whitney test at 5%. Results: State 3 shows inhibition in all ischemic groups. State 4 was increased in all groups, except the I/R-MB and NI/R-MB groups. RCR showed a decrease in all I/R and NI/R groups. Mitochondrial osmotic swelling showed an increase in all I/R NI/R groups in the presence or absence of MB. About MDA, there was a decrease in SH values in the presence of MB and this decrease was maintained in the I/R group. AST levels were increased in all ischemic with or without MB. Conclusions: The methylene blue was not able to restore the mitochondrial parameters studied. Also, it was able to decrease lipid peroxidation, preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Liver/blood supply , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Oxygen Consumption , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Cell Respiration , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Mitochondrial Swelling/drug effects
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 97 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969618

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Polifenóis não-extraíveis (NEPPs) são uma fração de polifenóis que não são extraídos da forma convencional por estarem associados à parede celular de produtos de origem vegetal. Um corpo crescente de estudos tem evidenciado seus potenciais efeitos benéficos, especialmente associados à saúde intestinal e interações com a microbiota. O guaraná (Paullinia cupana), fruto típico da biota amazônica, é conhecidamente rico em polifenóis da família dos flavanóis, mas ainda existe uma lacuna a respeito da fração de polifenóis não-extraíveis em sua composição. Objetivo: Caracterizar a fração de polifenóis não-extraíveis quanto a sua composição química, e avaliar sua potencial capacidade de inibição enzimática. Métodos: O guaraná em pó foi submetido a extração aquo-orgânica para obtenção da fração extraível, e o resíduo proveniente dessa extração foi submetido a hidrólise ácida e hidrólise básica para obtenção dos NEPPs. A capacidade redutora total (CRT) foi quantificada pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu. A quantificação de taninos condensados foi realizada pelo método de Porter. A determinação do perfil de fenólicos foi realizada por HPLC-ECD e LC-MS para as frações extraíveis e hidrolisáveis, e MALDi-TOF/TOF para a fração condensada. Os testes enzimáticos foram realizados com base na cinética de estado estacionário. Os testes estatísticos foram realizados utilizando softwares Excel e SPSS. Resultados: O perfil de fenólicos para a fração extraível consiste na presença de Introdução: Polifenóis não-extraíveis (NEPPs) são uma fração de polifenóis que não são extraídos da forma convencional por estarem associados à parede celular de produtos de origem vegetal. Um corpo crescente de estudos tem evidenciado seus potenciais efeitos benéficos, especialmente associados à saúde intestinal e interações com a microbiota. O guaraná (Paullinia cupana), fruto típico da biota amazônica, é conhecidamente rico em polifenóis da família dos flavanóis, mas ainda existe uma lacuna a respeito da fração de polifenóis não-extraíveis em sua composição. Objetivo: Caracterizar a fração de polifenóis não-extraíveis quanto a sua composição química, e avaliar sua potencial capacidade de inibição enzimática. Métodos: O guaraná em pó foi submetido a extração aquo-orgânica para obtenção da fração extraível, e o resíduo proveniente dessa extração foi submetido a hidrólise ácida e hidrólise básica para obtenção dos NEPPs. A capacidade redutora total (CRT) foi quantificada pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu. A quantificação de taninos condensados foi realizada pelo método de Porter. A determinação do perfil de fenólicos foi realizada por HPLC-ECD e LC-MS para as frações extraíveis e hidrolisáveis, e MALDi-TOF/TOF para a fração condensada. Os testes enzimáticos foram realizados com base na cinética de estado estacionário. Os testes estatísticos foram realizados utilizando softwares Excel e SPSS. Resultados: O perfil de fenólicos para a fração extraível consiste na presença de catequina e epicatequina como componentes majoritários, com 5,45 ± 0,15 e 5,95 ± 0,22 mg/g de guaraná em pó (base seca), respectivamente, além de proantocianidinas B1 e B2 e trímero de tipo A. Já o perfil fenólico da fração não-extraível contém uma mistura complexa de monômeros como catequina, leucoantocianidina, cianidina e delfinidina. A fração NEPP também contém dímeros, trímeros, tetrâmeros e pentâmeros de flavanóis, tanto de tipo A quanto de tipo B, com alta variabilidade de grau de hidroxilação. O ensaio enzimático com α-glicosidase resultou em valores de IC50 de 9,504 e 1,624 µg EAG/mL para a fração extraível e a não-extraível, respectivamente. O modo de inibição para ambas as frações foi classificado como misto, com valores de Ki e K'i de 0,403 e 1,735 µg/mL para a fração extraível e 0,287 e 0,847 µg/mL para a fração não-extraível. Conclusões: A fração de polifenóis não-extraíveis possui composição variada e complexa quando comparada a fração extraível, e possui potencial de inibição de α-glicosidase que deve ser explorado de maneira mais aprofundada, uma vez que tal potencial é de interesse para o controle de doenças crônicas como o diabetes tipo 2


Introduction: Non-extractable polyphenols (NEPPs) are a portion of polyphenols that cannot be extracted in the conventional way due to being associated with the cell wall of products of plant origin. A growing number of studies have been showing its potential beneficial effects, especially in relation to gut health and microbiota interactions. The guarana (Paullinia cupana), a fruit native of the Amazon rainforest, is known to be rich in polyphenols from the flavanol family, but there is still a gap about non-extractable polyphenols in its composition. Objective: Characterize the non-extractable polyphenol portion in relation to its chemical composition and evaluate its enzymatic inhibition capacity. Methods: The extractable fraction was obtained by aqueous-organic extraction, and the residue from this extraction was treated with acid and alkaline hydrolysis to obtain the NEPPs. The total reducing capacity (TRC) was quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The quantification of condensed tannins was performed with the Porter method. The phenolic profile was determined by HPLC-ECD and LC-MS for the extractable and hydrolysable fractions, and MALDi-TOF/TOF for the condensed fraction. The enzymatic assay was carried out using steady-state kinetics. The statistical tests were performed using Excel and SPSS. Results: The phenolic profile of the extractable fraction consists of catechin and epicatechin as major components with 5,45 ± 0,15 and 5,95 ± 0,22 mg/g guarana powder (dry weight), respectively, besides B1 and B2 proanthocyanidins and type A trimer. The phenolic profile of the non-extractable fraction contains a complex mixture of monomers like catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, cyanidin, and delphinidin. The NEPP fraction also contains type A and type B dimers, trimers, tetramers, and pentamers of flavanols, with high variability of the degree of hydroxylation. The α-glucosidase enzymatic assay had IC50 values of 9,504 and 1,624 µg GAE/mL for the extractable and non-extractable fraction, respectively. The mode of inhibition was classified as mixed for both fractions, with Ki and K'i values of 0,403 and 1,735 µg/mL for the extractable fraction and 0,287 and 0,847 µg/mL for the non-extractable fraction. Conclusions: The non-extractable polyphenols fraction has a varied and complex composition when compared to the extractable fraction, and it has a α-glucosidase inhibition potential that must be explored in a more detailed fashion since said potential is of interest for the control of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes


Subject(s)
Paullinia/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Research
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(11): e7541, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951721

ABSTRACT

We previously found that acute exercise inhibited the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats by causing an acid-base imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide in this phenomenon. Male rats were divided into exercise or sedentary group and were subjected to a 15-min swim session against a load (2.5 or 5% b.w.). The rate of gastric emptying was evaluated after 5, 10, or 20 min postprandially. Separate groups of rats were treated with vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 0.1 mL/100 g, ip) or one of the following agents: atropine (1.0 mg/kg, ip), the NO non-selective inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10.0 mg/kg, ip), or the selective cGMP inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 5.0 mg/kg, ip), the i-NOS non-specific inhibitor (aminoguanidine; 10.0 mg/kg, ip), the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist (astressin; 100 µg/kg, ip), or the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist Lys1, Pro2,5, Arg3,4, Tyr6 (100 µg/kg, ip). Compared to sedentary rats, both the 2.5 and 5% exercise groups exhibited higher (P<0.05) values of blood lactate and fractional gastric dye recovery. Corticosterone and NO levels increased (P<0.05) in the 5% exercised rats. Pretreatment with astressin, VIP antagonist, atropine, L-NAME, and ODQ prevented the increase in gastric retention caused by exercise in rats. Acute exercise increased gastric retention, a phenomenon that appears to be mediated by the NO-cGMP pathway, CRF, and VIP receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Guanosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Reference Values , Atropine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 436-442, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). Resultados: A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na síntese de NO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Resistance Training , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 356-366, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840829

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the lower urinary tract changes in mice treated with L-NAME, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), after 5 weeks of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), in order to evaluate the role of constitutive and non-constitutive NOS in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. Materials and Methods C57BL6 male mice were partially obstructed and randomly allocated into 6 groups: Sham, Sham + L-NAME, Sham + aminoguanidine, BOO, BOO + L-NAME and BOO + aminoguanidine. After 5 weeks, bladder weight was obtained and cystometry and tissue bath contractile studies were performed. Results BOO animals showed increase of non-voiding contractions (NVC) and bladder capacity, and also less contractile response to Carbachol and Electric Field Stimulation. Inhibition of NOS isoforms improved bladder capacity and compliance in BOO animals. L-NAME caused more NVC, prevented bladder weight gain and leaded to augmented contractile responses at muscarinic and electric stimulation. Aminoguanidine diminished NVC, but did not avoid bladder weight gain in BOO animals and did not improve contractile responses. Conclusion It can be hypothesized that chronic inhibition of three NOS isoforms in BOO animals leaded to worsening of bladder function, while selective inhibition of iNOS did not improve responses, what suggests that, in BOO animals, alterations are related to constitutive NOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/drug therapy , Guanidines/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Pressure , Time Factors , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5556, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839268

ABSTRACT

Muscular atrophy is a progressive degeneration characterized by muscular proteolysis, loss of mass and decrease in fiber area. Tendon rupture induces muscular atrophy due to an intrinsic functional connection. Local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) accelerates tendon histological recovery and induces functional improvement. Here we evaluate the effects of such local nitrergic inhibition on the pattern of soleus muscle regeneration after tenotomy. Adult male Wistar rats (240 to 280 g) were divided into four experimental groups: control (n=4), tenotomized (n=6), vehicle (n=6), and L-NAME (n=6). Muscular atrophy was induced by calcaneal tendon rupture in rats. Changes in muscle wet weight and total protein levels were determined by the Bradford method, and muscle fiber area and central core lesion (CCL) occurrence were evaluated by histochemical assays. Compared to tenotomized (69.3±22%) and vehicle groups (68.1%±17%), L-NAME treatment induced an increase in total protein level (108.3±21%) after 21 days post-injury. A reduction in fiber areas was observed in tenotomized (56.3±1.3%) and vehicle groups (53.9±3.9%). However, L-NAME treatment caused an increase in this parameter (69.3±1.6%). Such events were preceded by a remarkable reduction in the number of fibers with CCL in L-NAME-treated animals (12±2%), but not in tenotomized (21±2.5%) and vehicle groups (19.6±2.8%). Altogether, our data reveal that inhibition of tendon NOS contributed to the attenuation of atrophy and acceleration of muscle regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Regeneration/drug effects , Muscular Atrophy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Tenotomy
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2155-2165, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886808

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Obesity/drug therapy , Phenols/analysis , Water/analysis , Trypsin/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Psidium/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/pharmacology , alpha-Glucosidases/pharmacology , Lipase/pharmacology
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 1018-1027, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on the striated urethral sphincter and the urinary bladder. Materials and Methods: A coaxial catheter was implanted in the proximal urethra and another one in the bladder of female rats, which were anesthetized with subcutaneous injection of urethane. The urethral pressure with saline continuous infusion and bladder isovolumetric pressure were simultaneously recorded. Two groups of rats were formed. In group I, an intrathecal catheter was implanted on the day of the experiment at the L6-S1 level of the spinal cord; in group II, an intracerebroventricular cannula was placed 5-6 days before the experiment. Results: It was verified that the group treated with S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline, via intrathecal pathway, showed complete or partial inhibition of the urethral sphincter relaxation and total inhibition of the micturition reflexes. The urethral sphincter and the detrusor functions were recovered after L-Arginine administration. When S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, there was a significant increase of urethral sphincter tonus while preserving the sphincter relaxation and the detrusor contractions, at similar levels as before the use of the drugs. Nevertheless there was normalization of the urethral tonus when L-Arginine was applied. Conclusions: The results indicate that, in female rats anaesthetized with urethane, the nNOS inhibitor administrated through the intrathecal route inhibits urethral sphincter relaxation, while intracerebroventricular injection increases the sphincter tonus, without changing bladder function. These changes were reverted by L-Arginine administration. These findings suggest that the urethral sphincter and detrusor muscle function is modulated by nitric oxide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Thiourea/analogs & derivatives , Urethra/drug effects , Urination/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Citrulline/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Pressure , Reference Values , Thiourea/pharmacology , Time Factors , Urethane/pharmacology , Urethra/physiology , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/physiology , Injections, Spinal , Citrulline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(3): 226-231, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796123

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB) can counteract or prevent protamine (P) cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA). Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1) Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2) Group P - a) Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b) Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3) Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB) - a) Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b) Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4) Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P) - a) Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b) After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5) Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the endothelium function point of view.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Protamines/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Heparin Antagonists/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Swine , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Protamines/adverse effects , Central Venous Pressure/drug effects , Models, Animal , Heparin Antagonists/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , Malondialdehyde/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4800, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766979

ABSTRACT

β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor-operated Ca2+ channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Parasympatholytics/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 790-797, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756401

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a soluble gas that participates in important functions of the central nervous system, such as cognitive function, maintenance of synaptic plasticity for the control of sleep, appetite, body temperature, neurosecretion, and antinociception. Furthermore, during exercise large amounts of NO are released that contribute to maintaining body homeostasis. Besides NO production, physical exercise has been shown to induce antinociception. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception. In both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests, central [intrathecal (it) and intracerebroventricular (icv)] pretreatment with inhibitors of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway (L-NOArg, ODQ, and glybenclamide) prevented the antinociceptive effect induced by aerobic exercise (AE). Furthermore, pretreatment (it, icv) with specific NO synthase inhibitors (L-NIO, aminoguanidine, and L-NPA) also prevented this effect. Supporting the hypothesis of the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception, nitrite levels in the cerebrospinal fluid increased immediately after AE. Therefore, the present study suggests that, during exercise, the NO released centrally induced antinociception.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nociception/drug effects , Nociception/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Nitric Oxide/cerebrospinal fluid , Pain Measurement , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction/drug effects
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 160-167, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-758002

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.Objective:To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats.Methods:Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP).Results:Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H.Conclusion:One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.


ResumoFundamento:A hipertensão é um problema de saúde pública e faz aumentar a incidência das doenças cardiovasculares.Objetivo:Avaliar os efeitos de uma sessão de exercício resistido sobre os mecanismos contráteis e relaxantes do músculo liso vascular em artéria mesentérica de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME.Métodos:Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (C), Hipertenso (H) e Hipertenso Exercitado (HE). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de 20 mg/kg de NG-nitro L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) durante sete dias antes dos protocolos experimentais. O protocolo de exercício resistido consistiu em dez séries de dez repetições e intensidade de 40% de uma repetição máxima. A reatividade do músculo liso vascular foi avaliada através de curvas concentração-resposta para a fenilefrina (FEN), cloreto de potássio (KCl) e nitroprussiato de sódio (NPS).Resultados:Os ratos tratados com L-NAME apresentaram aumento (p < 0,001) da Pressão Arterial Sistólica (PAS), da Pressão Arterial Diastólica (PAD) e da Pressão Arterial Média (PAM) quando comparados ao período inicial da indução. Não foi observada diferença na sensibilidade da FEN entre os grupos H e HE. O exercício resistido agudo reduziu (p < 0,001) a resposta contrátil induzida pelo KCl nas concentrações de 40 e 60 mM do grupo HE quando comparado ao grupo H. Foi observado maior (p < 0,01) sensibilidade do músculo liso ao NPS no grupo HE quando comparado ao grupo H.Conclusão:Uma sessão de exercício resistido reduz as respostas contráteis induzidas pelo KCl, além de aumentar a sensibilidade do músculo liso ao NO em artéria mesentérica de ratos hipertensos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Body Weight , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/physiopathology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/analysis , Phenylephrine/analysis , Potassium Chloride/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
15.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 461-466, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755065

ABSTRACT

Saxagliptin is a potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4. It is effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus because it stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. In the present study, a liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to quantify the drug in tablets. This method was based on the isocratic elution of saxagliptin, using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% phosphoric acid at pH 3.0 - methanol (70: 30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL.min-1 with UV detection at 225 nm. The chromatographic separation was achieved in 8 minutes on a Waters XBridge C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µm) maintained at ambient temperature. The proposed method proved to be specific and robust for the quality control of saxagliptin in pharmaceutical dosage forms, showing good linearity in the range of 15.0 - 100.0 µg.mL-1 (r>0.999), precision (RSD<1.49%) and accuracy values between 99.42 and 101.59%. The method was found to be stability indicating and was successfully applied for the analysis of saxagliptin in tablets in a routine quality control laboratory...


A saxagliptina é uma inibidora potente e seletiva da enzima dipeptidil peptidase 4. É efetiva no tratamento do Diabete mellitus tipo 2, pois estimula a produção de insulina pelo pâncreas. No presente estudo, desenvolveu-se e validou-se método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para quantificar o fármaco em comprimidos. O método foi baseado em eluição isocrática, utilizando fase móvel constituída por ácido fosfórico 0,1% pH 3,0-metanol (70 : 30, v/v), fluxo de 1,0 mL.min-1, com detecção UV em 225 nm. A separação cromatográfica foi alcançada em 8 minutos em coluna Waters XBridge C18 (250 mm x 4,6 mm, 5 µm) mantida à temperatura ambiente. O método proposto mostrou-se específico e robusto para o controle de qualidade de saxagliptina em comprimidos, sendo linear na faixa de concentração de 15,0-100,0 µg.mL-1 (r>0,999), preciso (RSD<1,49%) e exato, com resultados entre 99,42 e 101,59%. O método mostrou-se indicativo de estabilidade e foi aplicado com sucesso no controle de qualidade de saxagliptina em comprimidos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Compounding/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Clinical Chemistry Tests/methods
16.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 28-33, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. .


OBJETIVO: Elaborar com metodologia original e simplificada um aditivo homólogo do leite humano para a alimentação do recém-nascido de muito baixo peso, conhecer a composição nutricional do leite humano fortificado com esse aditivo e avaliar sua adequação para a alimentação desses recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: Para a produção e análise do leite humano com o aditivo homólogo, 25 amostras de 45 mL de leite humano passaram por processos de retirada de lactose, liofilização e foram diluídas em 50 mL de leite humano. Foram feitas dosagens de lactose, proteínas, lipídios, energia, sódio, potássio, cálcio, fósforo e osmolalidade. RESULTADOS: A composição do leite aditivado foi lactose 9,22 ± 1 g/dL; proteínas 2,20 ± 0,36 g/dL; lípides 2,91 ± 0,57 g/dL; calorias 71,93 ± 8,69 kcal/dL; osmolalidade 389,6 ± 32,4mOsmol/kgH2O; sódio 2,04 ± 0,45mEq/dL; potássio 1,42 ± 0,15mEq/dL; cálcio 43,44 ± 2,98 mg/dL; e fósforo 23,69 ± 1,24 mg/dL. CONCLUSÕES: De acordo com os teores nutricionais analisados, com exceção do cálcio e do fósforo, o leite humano com o aditivo proposto pode atender às necessidades nutricionais do recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso. .


Subject(s)
Aldose-Ketose Isomerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Catechols/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Rhodanine/pharmacology , Aldose-Ketose Isomerases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Catechols/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Rhodanine/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 517-530, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744825

ABSTRACT

A territorial analysis of Aedes aegypti density was conducted in two Colombian cities using an ecosystem and chorematic approach. Entomological and behavioral data (by cluster) and information on the urban context were used to analyze the relationship between territorial structures and dynamics and vector density. The results were represented in graphic (chorematic) models. Arauca showed higher vector density than Armenia. Higher density was related to unplanned urbanization, flood-prone areas, low socioeconomic strata, household water tanks, higher temperature, and recall of control measures for adult mosquitos. Zones with low density indices coincided with diverse socioeconomic, ecological, and behavioral conditions. The study found a relationship between territorial structures and dynamics and vector density in both Arauca and Armenia, where the interaction between ecological and social systems shape areas with high and low A. aegypti density.


Foi realizada uma análise territorial da densidade do Aedes aegypti em duas cidades da Colômbia, desde um enfoque ecossistêmico e da coremática. Com base em informação entomológica e comportamental (por conglomerados) e informação do contexto urbano, foi indagada a relação de estruturas dinâmicas do território com a densidade vetorial. Foram apresentados os resultados com modelos gráficos (coremática). Identificou-se maior densidade vetorial em Arauca do que na Armênia. Maiores densidades foram relacionadas à urbanização não planejada, zonas de alagamento, estratos socioeconômicos baixos, tanques baixos (reservatórios), maior temperatura e relatório de ações contra os mosquitos adultos. Zonas de densidades baixas coincidiram com diversas condições socioeconômicas, ecológicas e comportamentais. Foi encontrada uma relação das estruturas e dinâmicas do território com a densidade vetorial para Arauca e Armênia, onde a interação entre sistemas ecológicos e sociais configura zonas particulares de alta e baixa densidades de A. aegypti.


Se realizó un análisis territorial de la densidad de Aedes aegypti en dos ciudades de Colombia desde un enfoque ecosistémico y la coremática. A partir de información entomológica y comportamental (por conglomerados) e información del contexto urbano, se indagó la relación de estructuras y dinámicas del territorio con la densidad vectorial. Se representaron los resultados con modelos gráficos (coremática). Se identificó mayor densidad vectorial en Arauca que en Armenia. Mayores densidades se relacionaron con urbanización no planeada, zonas de inundación, estratos socioeconómicos bajos, tanques bajos (alberca), mayor temperatura y reporte de acciones hacia los mosquitos adultos. Zonas de densidades bajas coincidieron con diversas condiciones socioeconómicas, ecológicas y comportamentales. Se encontró relación de las estructuras y dinámicas del territorio con la densidad vectorial para Arauca y Armenia, donde la interacción entre sistemas ecológicos y sociales configuran zonas particulares de alta y baja densidad de A. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzamides/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/pharmacology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/enzymology , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/biosynthesis , Cell Line , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Homeodomain Proteins/biosynthesis , Insulin , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Trans-Activators/biosynthesis
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 70-76, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742901

ABSTRACT

Objective: An unclear issue is whether gender may influence at cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated left ventricle remodeling in female and male rats post-MI. Methods: Rats were submitted to anterior descending coronary occlusion. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed on the first and sixth week post-occlusion to determine myocardial infarction size and left ventricle systolic function (FAC, fractional area change). Pulsed Doppler was applied to analyze left ventricle diastolic function using the following parameters: E wave, A wave, E/A ratio. Two-way ANOVA was applied for comparisons, complemented by the Bonferroni test. A P≤=0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no significant differences between genders for morphometric parameters on first (MI [Female (FE): 44.0±5.0 vs. Male (MA): 42.0±3.0%]; diastolic [FE: 0.04±0.003 vs. MA: 0.037±0.005, mm/g] and systolic [FE: 0.03±0.0004 vs. MA: 0.028±0.005, mm/g] diameters of left ventricle) and sixth (MI [FE: 44.0±5.0 vs. MA: 42.0±3.0, %]; diastolic [FE: 0.043±0.01 vs. MA: 0.034±0.005, mm/g] and systolic [FE: 0.035±0.01 vs. MA: 0.027±0.005, mm/g] of LV) week. Similar findings were reported for left ventricle functional parameters on first (FAC [FE: 34.0±6.0 vs. MA: 32.0±4.0, %]; wave E [FE: 70.0±18.0 vs. MA: 73.0±14.0, cm/s]; wave A [FE: 20.0±12.0 vs. MA: 28.0±13.0, cm/s]; E/A [FE: 4.9±3.4 vs. MA: 3.3±1.8]) and sixth (FAC [FE: 29.0±7.0 vs. MA: 31.0±7.0, %]; wave E [FE: 85.0±18.0 vs. MA: 87.0±20.0, cm/s]; wave A [FE: 20.0±11.0 vs. MA: 28.0±17.0, cm/s]; E/A [FE: 6.2±4.0 vs. MA: 4.6±3.4]) week. Conclusion: Gender does not influence left ventricle remodeling post-MI in rats. .


Objetivo: A influência do gênero no remodelamento cardíaco após o infarto do miocárdio é uma questão em intenso debate. Nós avaliamos o remodelamento ventricular esquerdo em ratos infartados de ambos os gêneros. Métodos: O infarto do miocárdio foi induzido por oclusão da artéria coronária descendente anterior (fêmeas [FM]; machos [MC]). A ecocardiografia foi realizada na primeira e sexta semana pós-oclusão para determinar o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e a função sistólica do ventricular esquerdo (mudança na área fracional [FAC]). A função diastólica derivou dos seguintes parâmetros: onda E; onda A; razão E/A. ANOVA duas vias com pós-teste de Bonferroni foi aplicado nas comparações (P≤=0,05). Resultados: Todas variáveis morfométricas foram similares (P>0,05) entre os gêneros com uma (infarto do miocárdio [FM: 44,0±5,0 vs. MC: 42,0±3,0, %]; diâmetro diastólico [FM: 0,04±0,003 vs. MC: 0,037±0,005, mm/g] e sistólico [FM: 0,03±0,0004 vs. MC: 0,028±0,005, mm/g] do VE) e seis (IM [FM: 44,0±5,0 vs. MC: 42,0±3,0, %]; diâmetro diastólico [FM: 0,043±0,01 vs. MC: 0,034±0,005, mm/g] e sistólico [FM: 0,035±0,01 vs. MC: 0,027±0,005, mm/g] do ventricular esquerdo) semanas. Achado similar ocorreu para os dados funcionais com uma (FAC [FM: 34,0±6,0 vs. MC: 32,0±4,0, %]; onda E [FM: 70,0±18,0 vs. MC: 73,0±14,0, cm/s]; onda A [FM: 20,0±12,0 vs. MC: 28,0±13,0, cm/s]; E/A [FM: 4,9±3,4 vs. MC: 3,3±1,8]) e seis (FAC [FM: 29,0±7,0 vs. MC: 31,0±7,0, %]; onda E [FM: 85,0±18,0 vs. MC: 87,0±20,0, cm/s]; onda A [FM: 20,0±11,0 vs. MC: 28,0±17,0 cm/s]; E/A [FM: 6,2±4,0 vs. MC: 4,6±3,4]) semanas. Conclusão: O gênero não é determinante para o remodelamento ventricular esquerdo pós-infarto do miocárdio em ratos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Rats , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestines/drug effects , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Analysis of Variance , Animals, Newborn , Cell Death/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/enzymology , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestines/enzymology , Intestines/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Tyrosine/metabolism
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 120-127, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741147

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden unexpected event, from a cardiac cause, that occurs in less than one hour after the symptoms onset, in a person without any previous condition that would seem fatal or who was seen without any symptoms 24 hours before found dead. Although it is a relatively frequent event, there are only few reliable data in underdeveloped countries. Objective: We aimed to describe the features of SCD in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (600,000 residents) according to Coroners’ Office autopsy reports. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 4501 autopsy reports between 2006 and 2010, to identify cases of SCD. Specific cause of death as well as demographic information, date, location and time of the event, comorbidities and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted were collected. Results: We identified 899 cases of SCD (20%); the rate was 30/100000 residents per year. The vast majority of cases of SCD involved a coronary artery disease (CAD) (64%) and occurred in men (67%), between the 6th and the 7th decades of life. Most events occurred during the morning in the home setting (53.3%) and CPR was attempted in almost half of victims (49.7%). The most prevalent comorbidity was systemic hypertension (57.3%). Chagas’ disease was present in 49 cases (5.5%). Conclusion: The majority of victims of SCD were men, in their sixties and seventies and the main cause of death was CAD. Chagas’ disease, an important public health problem in Latin America, was found in about 5.5% of the cases. .


Fundamento: Morte súbita cardíaca (MSC) é um evento súbito e inesperado, de causa cardiovascular, que ocorre em menos de uma hora após o início dos sintomas, em indivíduo sem qualquer condição clínica prévia potencialmente fatal ou assintomático nas últimas 24 horas antes do óbito, em caso de morte não testemunhada. Apesar de ser um evento relativamente frequente, há poucos dados confiáveis na literatura sobre países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo: Descrever as características da MSC em Ribeirão Preto (SP 600.000 habitantes) baseando-se nos relatórios de autopsias do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos do Interior. Métodos: Foram revisados retrospectivamente 4.501 relatórios de autopsias entre 2006 e 2010, para identificar casos de MSC. Foram coletados dados como causa específica do óbito, características demográficas e comorbidades das vítimas, data, local e hora do evento, e se foram realizadas manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP). Resultados: Foram identificados 899 casos de MSC (20%; razão 30/100.000 habitantes por ano). A principal causa de MSC foi doença arterial coronariana (DAC - 64%), acometendo homens (67%) entre a sexta e a sétima década de vida. A maior parte dos eventos ocorreu durante a manhã, no domicílio (53,3%), e a RCP foi realizada em quase metade das vítimas (49,7%). A comorbidade mais prevalente foi hipertensão arterial sistêmica (57,3%). Doença de Chagas foi detectada em 49 casos (5,5%). Conclusão: A maioria dos casos de MSC ocorreu por DAC em homens entre a sexta e a sétima década de vida. Doença de Chagas, um importante problema de saúde pública na América Latina, foi detectada em 5,5% dos casos. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oligonucleotides/metabolism , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods , Base Sequence , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/economics , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Kinetics , Mutation , Oligonucleotides/genetics , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/economics
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 119-124, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741172

ABSTRACT

Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia) over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing) revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045), 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001) and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027). UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027) and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015). Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia. .


Doenças neurológicas são comuns em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), mas sua prevalência exata é desconhecida. Métodos Nós estudamos prospectivamente a presença de distúrbios neurológicos em 121 pacientes com DII [51 com doença de Crohn (DC) e 70 com colite ulcerativa (RCU)] e 50 controles (gastrite e dispepsia) ao longo de 3 anos. Resultados A avaliação neurológica padronizada (que incluiu testes eletrodiagnósticos) demonstrou que pacientes com DC foram 7,4 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver neuropatias de fibras grossas do que os controles (p = 0,045), 7,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,001) e 5,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver queixas autonômicas (p = 0,027). Pacientes com RCU foram 5 vezes mais propensos de desenvolver neuropatia de fibras grossas (p = 0,027) e 3,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,015). Conclusão Em resumo, este é o primeiro estudo prospectivo a estabelecer que os pacientes tanto com DC quanto de RCU são mais propensos a doenças neuromusculares do que os pacientes com gastrite e dispepsia. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Microcirculation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Femoral Artery/drug effects , Femoral Artery/embryology , Microcirculation/embryology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Sheep , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
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