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1.
J. Health NPEPS ; 6(1)jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147344

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a letalidade da COVID-19 por sexo e idade entre os profissionais de saúde do Estado Pará, Brasil. Método: estudo epidemiológico e observacional, com utilização de dados secundários públicos sobre casos e óbitos acumulados por COVID-19 e dados demográficos, entre março e outubro de 2020. O número de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 ocorridos entre profissionais de saúde foram comparados em relação à idade e ao sexo pelo teste qui-quadrado, seguido por regressão logística pelo método Backward Stepwise de Wald. Resultados: entre os 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, 70,3% eram do sexo feminino e 61,3% com idade entre 30 a 49 anos (39,2±11,6 anos). Registraram-se 97 óbitos, com uma taxa de letalidade de 0,6%. A probabilidade de óbito foi 52,8 vezes (20,7-134,5) e 4,0 vezes (2,5-6,2) maior entre jovens e homens quando comparados às demais notificações. Conclusão: a taxa de letalidade entre os profissionais de saúde é alta, especialmente entre homens jovens. Este é um alerta sobre os impactos da doença entre os trabalhadores da saúde e suscita ao poder público, especificamente ao setor saúde melhores condições de trabalho e políticas de saúde do trabalhador.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the lethality of COVID-19 by sex and age among health professionals in the state of Pará, Brazil. Method: epidemiological and observational study, using public secondary data on cases and deaths accumulated by COVID-19 and demographic data, between March and October 2020. The number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 that occurred among health professionals were compared in relation to age and sex using the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression using Wald's Backward Stepwise method. Results: among the 15,332 confirmed cases of COVID-19, 70.3% were female and 61.3% aged between 30 and 49 years (39.2 ± 11.6 years). 97 deaths were recorded, with a fatality rate of 0.6%. The probability of death was 52.8 times (20.7-134.5) and 4.0 times (2.5-6.2) higher among young men and men when compared to other reports. Conclusion: the lethality rate among health professionals is high, especially among young men. This is an alert about the impacts of the disease among health workers and raises the public authorities, specifically the health sector, better working conditions and worker health policies.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la letalidad de COVID-19 por sexo y edad en profesionales de la salud en el estado de Pará, Brasil. Método: estudio epidemiológico y observacional, utilizando datos secundarios públicos sobre casos y defunciones acumulados por COVID-19 y datos demográficos, entre marzo y octubre de 2020. Se comparó el número de casos y defunciones por COVID-19 ocurridos entre profesionales de la salud en relación con edad y sexo usando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, seguida de regresión logística usando el método de Wald Backward Stepwise. Resultados: entre los 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, el 70,3% eran mujeres y el 61,3% tenían entre 30 y 49 años (39,2 ± 11,6 años). Se registraron 97 muertes, con una tasa de letalidad del 0,6%. La probabilidad de muerte fue 52,8 veces (20,7-134,5) y 4,0 veces (2,5-6,2) más grande entre hombres y jóvenes en comparación con otros informes. Conclusión: la tasa de letalidad entre los profesionales de la salud es alta, especialmente entre los hombres jóvenes. Se trata de una alerta sobre los impactos de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores de la salud y plantea a las autoridades públicas, específicamente al sector salud, mejores condiciones laborales y políticas de salud laboral.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Policy , Brazil , Epidemiologic Studies
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 57-64, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146077

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil de utilização de medicamentos por hipertensos e/ou diabéticos de uma Estratégia de Saúde da Família do Sul de Mato Grosso. Métodos: trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa e transversal com usuários cadastrados em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde. Os dados foram coletados em visitas domiciliares. Resultados: os usuários consumiram uma média de 2,9 medicamentos. Não houve diferença estatística no consumo médio de medicamentos entre homens e mulheres. Os idosos utilizavam mais medicamentos. Os fármacos que atuam no sistema cardiovascular foram os mais consumidos. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para a necessidade da promoção do uso racional de medicamentos, sobretudo na população idosa


Objective: to analyze the profile of drug use by hypertensive and diabetic people from a Family Health Strategy of Southern Mato Grosso. Methods: this is a quantitative and cross-sectional research with users registered at a Basic Health Unit. The data were collected in home visits. Results: the users consumed an average of 2.9 drugs. There was no statistical difference in the mean consumption between men and women. The elders used more drugs. The most used drugs were the ones that work in the cardiovascular system. Conclusion: the results show the need for promoting the rational use of drugs, especially in the elderly population


Objetivo: analizar el perfil de utilización de medicamentos por hipertensos y/o diabéticos de una Estrategia de Salud de la Familia del Sur de Mato Grosso. Métodos: se trata de una investigación cuantitativa y transversal con usuarios registrados en una Unidad Básica de Salud. Los datos fueron colectados en visitas domiciliarias. Resultados: los usuarios consumieron una media de 2,9 medicamentos. No habia diferencia estadística en el consumo medio de medicamentos entre hombres y mujeres. Los ancianos utilizaban más medicamentos. Los fármacos que actúan en el sistema cardiovascular fueron los más consumidos. Conclusión: los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de la promoción del uso racional de medicamentos, sobre todo en la población anciana


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Family Health Strategy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/drug therapy , Epidemiologic Studies , House Calls , Hypertension
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 386-392, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146049

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR) es el principal agente causal de la infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB) en pediatría. Los niños prematuros tienen mayor riesgo de complicaciones asociadas con esta infección. Los objetivos fueron describir y comparar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas asociadas a IRAB por VSR en niños/as nacidos pretérmino y a término, y establecer predictores de letalidad en los prematuros.Métodos. Estudio prospectivo, transversal, de pacientes ingresados por IRAB, en el período 2000-2018. El diagnóstico virológico se realizó mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta o reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa de aspirados nasofaríngeos. Se registraron las características clínico-epidemiológicas. Se desarrolló un modelo de regresión logística múltiple para establecer los predictores de letalidad en prematuros.Resultados. Se incluyeron 16 018 casos de IRAB; 13 545 (el 84,6 %) fueron estudiados; 6047 (el 45 %) positivos; VSR predominó en el 81,1 % (4907); mostró un patrón epidémico estacional; el 14 % (686) fueron prematuros.Los prematuros mostraron mayor frecuencia de comorbilidades, antecedentes respiratorios perinatales, cardiopatía congénita, desnutrición, enfermedad respiratoria crónica, displasia broncopulmonar, hospitalización previa por IRAB y enfermedad neurológica crónica (p < 0,001); requirieron más cuidados intensivos, mayor tiempo de internación y mayor tasa de letalidad (p < 0,01). La cardiopatía congénita fue predictor independiente de letalidad por VSR en prematuros [OR 3,67 (1,25-10,8), p = 0,01].Conclusión. VSR mostró un patrón epidémico, afectó a prematuros con ciertas comorbilidades con mayor morbimortalidad que los de término. La letalidad por VSR en prematuros se asoció con la cardiopatía congénita.


Introduction. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in pediatrics. Preterm infants are at a higher risk for complications. We aimed to describe and compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with ALRTI due to RSV in preterm and term infants and to establish the predictors of fatality among preterm infants.Methods. Prospective, cross-sectional study of patients admitted due to ALRTI in the 2000-2018 period. Viral diagnosis was done by indirect immunofluorescence or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal aspirates. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were recorded. A multiple logistic regression model established the predictors of fatality among preterm infants.Results. A total of 16 018 ALRTI cases were included; 13 545 (84.6 %) were tested; 6047 (45 %) were positive; RSV was prevalent in 81.1 % (4907), with a seasonal epidemic pattern; 14 % (686) were preterm infants.Comorbidities, perinatal respiratory history, congenital heart disease, malnutrition, chronic respiratory disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, prior hospitalization due to ALRTI, and chronic neurological disease (p < 0.001) were more common among preterm infants; they required more intensive care and a longer length of stay, and had a higher fatality rate (p < 0.01). Congenital heart disease was an independent predictor of fatality due to RSV among preterm infants (OR: 3.67 [1.25-10.8], p = 0.01).Conclusion. RSV showed an epidemic pattern and affected more preterm infants with certain comorbidities, with a higher morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants. RSV fatality among preterm infants was associated with congenital heart disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Infant, Premature , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 393-398, dic 2020. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146056

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El uso excesivo de tecnología en niños pequeños es motivo de preocupación en la práctica pediátrica.Objetivo. Evaluar el uso de pantallas en niños < 4 años y su relación con la presencia de preocupación parental por el desarrollo psicomotor en áreas motora, del lenguaje, cognitiva y personal social. Población y métodos. Encuesta realizada a padres y/o madres de niños ≥ 18 meses y < 4 años, controlados en consultorio, durante febrero-mayo de 2018. Estudio descriptivo transversal.Resultados. Se realizaron 150 encuestas. Uso combinado de dispositivos en el 100 %: televisión, el 98 %; smartphones, el 80 %; tabletas, el 52,7 %; computadoras, el 24 %. Promedio de uso: 2,25 h/día en todas las edades (desvío estándar: 1,2). Uso y calidad: juegos, el 60 % (no didácticos, un 23 %); videos, el 88 % (no didácticos, un 20 %). Preocupación parental sobre el desarrollo: el 82 % no poseía; el 8,7 %, sobre el lenguaje; el 9,3 %, sobre falta de atención; las dos últimas coincidieron con mayor exposición: 2,92 h/día (p = 0,0024). Opinión parental sobre uso y efectos en el desarrollo: el 52 %, beneficioso; el 12 %, no influía; el 25,3 %, perjudicial, y el 10,7 %, perjudicial por uso excesivo; las dos últimas coincidieron con menor exposición: 1,8 horas/día (p = 0,0023).Conclusiones.El 100 % de los niños usa dispositivos en forma combinada. La preocupación parental por el desarrollo psicomotor se presenta cuando la exposición está fuera de las recomendaciones vigentes por edades.


Introduction. An excessive technology use among young children is a cause for concern in pediatric practice.Objective. To assess screen use among children < 4 years old and its relation to parental concern about psychomotor development regarding motor, language, cognitive, and personal-social skills.Population and methods. Survey administered to mothers and/or fathers of children aged ≥ 18 months and < 4 years seen at the outpatient office between February and May 2018. Descriptive, cross-sectional study.Results. A total of 150 surveys were completed. Combined device use in 100 %: TV, 98 %; smartphones, 80 %; tablets, 52.7 %; computers, 24 %. Average use: 2.25 h/day across all ages (standard deviation: 1.2). Use and quality: games, 60 % (non-educational, 23 %); videos, 88 % (non-educational, 20 %). Parental concern about development: 82 % had no concerns; 8.7 % was concerned about language; 9.3 %, about attention deficit; the latter two were consistent with a longerexposure time: 2.92 h/day (p = 0.0024). Parental opinion about use and effects on development:52 %, beneficial; 12 %, no effect; 25.3 %, harmful;and 10.7 %, harmful due to excessive use; the latter two were consistent with a shorter exposure time: 1.8 h/day (p = 0.0023).Conclusions. The 100 % of children use devices in combination. Parental concern about psychomotor development is expressed when exposure exceeds the current recommendations for age


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Awareness , Exposure Time , Mobile Devices , Parents , Technology , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 418-422, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146110

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las alergias alimentarias afectan, mayoritariamente, a los niños en los primeros años de vida. Existen escasos datos epidemiológicos en nuestro país.Objetivos: Determinar los agentes causales, describir la prevalencia y características de los pacientes con alergia alimentaria en una población pediátrica argentina.Pacientes y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo observacional, de corte transversal, de pacientes menores de 18 años. Resultados: Se incluyeron 321 pacientes; se confirmó alergia alimentaria en un 64 % (207) de los casos. El 53 % (109) presentó mecanismo mediado por inmunoglobulina E; el 68 % (140), alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca; el 20 % (41), alergia al huevo, y el 12 % (24), anafilaxia como manifestación clínica. La prevalencia global de alergia alimentaria fue del 0,87 % (IC 95 %: 0,7-0,9).Conclusiones: La prevalencia global de alergia alimentaria fue del 0,87 %. La leche de vaca resultó el principal alérgeno incluso en adolescentes.


Introduction: Food allergies affect mostly children in their first years of life. Epidemiological data obtained in Argentina are scarce. Objectives: To determine offending foods and describe the prevalence and characteristics of patients with food allergy in an Argentine pediatric population. Patients and methods: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study on patients younger than 18 years. Results:A total of 321 patients were included; food allergy was confirmed in 64 % (207) of cases. An immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism was observed in 53 % (109); cow's milk protein allergy, in 68 % (140); egg allergy, in 20 % (41); and anaphylaxis as clinical manifestation, in 12 % (24). The overall prevalence of food allergy was 0.87 % (95 % confidence interval: 0.7-0.9). Conclusions: The overall prevalence of food allergy was 0.87 %. Cow's milk was the main allergen, even among adolescents


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Milk Hypersensitivity
6.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(2)set. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1119828

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar os dados epidemiológicos da COVID-19 em Uberlândia e confrontá-los com as determinações municipais de abertura e fechamento comercial em diferentes momentos da pandemia. Método: trata-se de estudo epidemiológico, observacional e descritivo, utilizando dados secundários, referente aos casos notificados da COVID-19 em Uberlândia. Resultados: foram realizados 59.994 testes, sendo 14.389 positivos (23,98%) e 45.605 negativos (76,02%). Registraram-se 265 óbitos e taxa de letalidade de 1,89%. Casos confirmados apresentaram tendência de crescimento após abertura comercial, tendência de estabilização após fechamento comercial, e tendência de queda após a última reabertura comercial, acompanhada de acúmulo de testes suspeitos e queda da testagem populacional. Entre os internados diários, houve predomínio de homens (59%), maiores de 60 anos (55%) e alocados em leitos de enfermaria (55%). Conclusão: percebeu-se expressiva influência do grau de abertura comercial nos indicadores da doença, com incremento da frequência de testes positivos e óbitos, e manutenção das internações.(AU)


Objective: to analyze COVID-19's epidemiological data in Uberlândia and compare them with the municipal determinations of opening and closing of commercial's acitivities at different times of the pandemic. Method: this is an epidemiological, observational and descriptive study, using secondary data, referring to notified cases of COVID-19 in Uberlândia. Results: 59,994 tests were performed, of which 14,389 were positive (23.98%) and 45,605 negative (76.02%). There were 265 deaths and a fatality rate of 1.89%. Confirmed cases showed a growth tendency after commercial opening, a stabilization tendecy after commercial closing, and a downward tendecy after the last commercial reopening, accompanied by an accumulation of suspicious tests and a drop in population testing. Among daily inpatients, there was a predominance of men (59%), older than 60 years old (55%) and allocated to infirmary beds (55%). Conclusion: there was a significant influence of the degree of commercial opening in the indicators of the disease, with an increase in the frequency of positive tests and deaths, and maintenance of hospitalizations.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar los datos epidemiológicos de COVID-19 en Uberlândia y confrontarlos con las determinaciones municipales de apertura y cierre comercial en diferentes momentos de la pandemia. Método: se trata de un estudio epidemiológico, observacional y descriptivo, utilizando datos secundarios, referidos a los casos notificados de COVID-19 en Uberlândia. Resultados: se realizaron 59.994 pruebas, de las cuales 14.389 fueron positivas (23,98%) y 45,605 negativas (76,02%). Hubo 265 muertes y una tasa de mortalidad del 1,89%. Los casos confirmados mostraron una tendencia de crecimiento después de la apertura comercial, una tendencia de estabilización después del cierre comercial y una tendencia a la baja después de la última reapertura comercial, acompañada de una acumulación de pruebas sospechosas y una caída en las pruebas de población. Entre los internados diarios, hubo predominio de hombres (59%), mayores de 60 años (55%) y asignados a camas de enfermería (55%). Conclusión: hubo una influencia significativa del grado de apertura comercial en los indicadores de la enfermedad, con un aumento en la frecuencia de pruebas positivas y muertes, y mantenimiento de hospitalizaciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , Epidemiological Monitoring , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive
7.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

ABSTRACT

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triglycerides , Power, Psychological , Epidemiologic Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Classification , Area Under Curve , Courtship , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glucose , Goals , Insulin , Persons , Organization and Administration , Association , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Discriminant Analysis , Risk , Regression Analysis , Waist Circumference
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1127-1136, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131464

ABSTRACT

The urgency of the studied problem is due to the need for epizootic monitoring of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai and the lack of basic information on the relative and absolute parameters of changes in the epizootic process, scientific, methodological and practical aspects of the assessment of potential risks. The purpose of the article is to study the epizootic process for each nosological form of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai based on statistical information over the period from 1964 to 2017. Epizootic method is a leading method of the study of this problem, which allows the identification and discussion of the association of equine infectious diseases with natural and geographical conditions in the Altai Krai. The article presents data on intensive parameters of the epizootic process of equine infectious diseases and their changes with a description of periodic changes in the Altai Krai. The materials of the article provide veterinary and biology specialists with information on the epizootics of various nosological forms of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai.(AU)


A urgência do problema estudado é devida à necessidade de monitoramento epizoótico de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai, e a falta de informação básica sobre os parâmetros relativos e absolutos de mudanças no processo epizoótico, e aspectos científicos, metodológicos e práticos da avaliação de potenciais riscos. O propósito do artigo é estudar o processo epizoótico para cada forma nosológica de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai, baseado em informação estatística no período de 1964 a 2017. O método epizoótico é o principal método de estudo deste problema, que permite a identificação e discussão da associação entre doenças infecciosas equinas e condições naturais e geográficas do Krai de Altai. Este artigo apresenta dados dos parâmetros intensivos do processo epizoótico de doenças infecciosas bovinas e suas mudanças com uma descrição de mudanças periódicas no Krai de Altai. Os materiais do artigo fornecem informações para especialistas na veterinária e biologia com relação aos epizoóticos de diversas formas nosológicas de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horses , Epidemiologic Studies , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Russia/epidemiology
11.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(2): 146-153, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1104408

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Verificar a prevalência de cáries em pré-escolares, por meio do índice ceo-d. Método: Estudo transversal, desenvolvido entre fevereiro e outubro de 2016, com 189 crianças pré-escolares, com idade de cinco anos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de exame clínico, sistematizados no Microsoft Excel® e analisados com estatística descritiva segundo diretrizes do manual da Pesquisa SB-Brasil 2010. Resultados: Obteve-se índice ceo-d 4,48, com predominância de 90,4% do componente cariado, 3,4% extração indicada, 6,1% obturado. Apenas 20,1% da amostra obteve ceo-d = 0 (não apresentou lesões de cárie) e 68,7% nunca visitou o dentista até o momento da realização da pesquisa. Conclusão: A análise dos resultados dos componentes "c", "e" e "d" do índice ceo-d infere que a alta prevalência da doença cárie está relacionada a fatores diversos, como higiene oral precária, medo/ansiedade, dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde bucal ou escassez destes para a faixa etária. (AU)


Objective: To verify the prevalence of caries disease in preschoolers using the ceo-d index. Method: Cross-sectional study, developed between February and October 2016, with 189 preschoolers with age of five years. The data were collected through clinical examination, systematized in Microsoft Excel® and analyzed with descriptive statistics according to guidelines of SB-Brazil 2010 Research Manual. Results: The ceo-d index was 4.48, with a predominance of 90.4% of the carious component, 3.4% indicated extraction, and 6.1% obturated. Only 20.1% of the sample obtained ceo-d = 0 (did not present caries lesions) and 68.7% never visited the dentist until the moment of the research. Conclusion: The analysis of the results of the components "c", "e" and "d" of the ceo-d index infers that the high prevalence of caries disease is related to diverse factors such as poor oral hygiene, fear/anxiety, difficulty accessing health services or shortage of these for the age group. (AU)


Objetivo: Verificar la prevalencia de caries en los niños en edad pré-escolar, por medio del índice ceo-d. Método: Estudio transversal, desarrollado entre febrero y octubre de 2016, con 189 niños de cinco años. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de examen clínico, sistematizados en Microsoft Excel® y analizados con estadísticas descriptivas de acuerdo con las directrices del Manual de Investigación SB-Brasil 2010. Resultados: Se obtuvo un índice ceo-d 4,48, con predominancia de 90,4% del componente cariado, 3,4% extracción indicada, 6,1% obturado. Solamente 20,1% de la muestra obtuvo ceo-d = 0 (no presentó lesiones de caries) y 68,7% nunca visitó al dentista hasta el momento de la realización de la investigación. Conclusión: El análisis de los resultados de los componentes "c", "e" y "d" del índice ceo-d, indica que la alta prevalencia de la caries está relacionada a factores diversos como higiene oral precaria, miedo/ansiedad, dificultad de acceso a los servicios de salud bucal o escasez de estos para esta franja de edad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Child Health , Epidemiologic Studies , Oral Health , Dental Caries
12.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(2): e2111, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126505

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Es muy importante reconocer los factores que pueden estar relacionados con maloclusión en una determinada población, para realizar medidas preventivas basadas en su realidad. Objetivo: determinar factores relacionados con maloclusiones en niños ecuatorianos de 3 a 9 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico transversal realizado a 400 niños de 3 a 9 años de edad, que estaban en tratamiento en las clínicas de Odontopediatría de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. Los padres de los niños respondieron a preguntas realizadas por un único investigador experimentado sobre la salud, hábitos y nivel socioeconómico. Cada niño fue evaluado clínicamente extra e intraoralmente, siendo cada cara de las piezas dentales observadas en sentido vertical, transversal y sagital, además de la cara oclusal. Se verificó sí existían interferencias oclusales, mordida cruzada posterior o anterior y mordida abierta. Los datos se tabularon en Excel y se aplicó la prueba chi cuadrado (p< 0,05). Resultados: El 77 % de niños presentó maloclusión (p< 0,001). No se encontró una relación significativa de la presencia de maloclusión en los niños con sus familiares que presentaban maloclusión, bajo nivel socioeconómico y lactancia por menos de 1 año (p> 0,05). La mordida cruzada y las interferencias oclusales estuvieron asociadas (p< 0,001). No se encontró asociación entre la mordida abierta y la respiración bucal (p= 0,944). Conclusiones: Existe una cantidad significativa de maloclusión. La herencia familiar, tipo y tiempo de lactancia y nivel socioeconómico no tienen una relación significativa con la maloclusión. La mordida cruzada y las interferencias oclusales están asociadas. La respiración bucal puede no causar mordida abierta en los niños de 3 a 9 años.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Recognizing the factors potentially related to malocclusion in a given population is crucial to implement preventive actions based on that information. Objective: Determine the factors related to malocclusion in 3-9-year-old Ecuadorian children. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted of 400 children aged 3-9 years attending pediatric dental clinics at the Central University of Ecuador School of Dentistry. The children's parents answered a number of questions about health, habits and socioeconomic level at the request of a single experienced researcher. Each child underwent extra- and intraoral clinical examination in which the sides of each tooth were observed on a vertical, transversal and sagittal plane, as well as the occlusal side. Verification was made of the presence of occlusal interference, posterior or anterior crossbite and open bite. The data obtained were tabulated onto Excel spreadsheets and the chi-square test was applied (p< 0.05). Results: Of the total children studied 77% had malocclusion (p< 0.001). The presence of malocclusion in children was not found to have a significant relationship to relatives with malocclusion, low socioeconomic level or breastfeeding for less than 1 year (p> 0.05). An association was found between crossbite and occlusal interference (p< 0.001). No association was observed between open bite and mouth breathing (p= 0.944). Conclusions: Malocclusion is significantly prevalent. Family inheritance, breastfeeding type and duration, and socioeconomic level do not have a significant relationship to malocclusion. Crossbite and occlusal interference are associated. Mouth breathing may not be the reason for open bite in 3-9-year-old children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Malocclusion/prevention & control , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(2): e2899, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126502

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. Las intervenciones comunitarias permiten promover la salud y prevenir enfermedades en el poblador. Objetivo. Describir los diagnósticos y tratamientos realizados por estudiantes de odontología en el Campamento Universitario Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Servicio. Métodos. Se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico, con el enfoque cuantitativo en el distrito de San Pablo de Pillao, provincia Huánuco, Perú. Participaron docentes y estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina, Humana, Odontología, Nutrición y Psicología. De un total de 250 asistentes a las sesiones, 95 adultos fueron atendidos en la consulta odontológica. Se realizaron sesiones educativas referidas a "anemia y desnutrición", "enfermedades diarreicas", "infecciones respiratorias", "alcoholismo y violencia", "crecimiento y desarrollo", "lactancia materna" y "salud bucal", así como una campaña de diagnóstico y tratamiento de efecciones bucodentales. Se utilizó el programa Excel para el análisis de datos. Resultados. Se atendieron 95 pobladores adultos. El 6,3 por ciento correspondió a edéntulos totales y el 40 por ciento a edéntulos parciales. De los dentados, el 97,3 por ciento presentó caries dental con un promedio de índice CPOD (suma de los dientes cariados + dientes perdidos + dientes obturados, en la dentición pemanente) de 2,08 ± 1,56. Con respecto al estado periodontal, el 38,9 por ciento presentó inflamación gingival severa. En los adultos se realizó 35 restauraciones, 28 exodoncia y 8 ajustes de prótesis. En adultos y niños se realizaron fluorizaciones y cinco actividades educativas de promoción de la salud. Conclusiones. La presencia de caries y enfermedad gingival fue altamente prevalente; las principales actividades terapéuticas realizadas en el campamento fueron las restauraciones y exodoncia(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Community interventions make it possible to promote health and prevent disease in the population. Objective: Describe the diagnoses and treatments made by dental students at the Multidisciplinary Research and Service University Camp. Methods: A qualitative epidemiological study was designed for the district of San Pablo de Pillao, Huánuco province, Peru. The participants were teachers and students from the School of Human Medicine, Dentistry, Nutrition and Psychology. Of the total 250 subjects attending the sessions, 95 adults were cared for at the dental service. The educational sessions conducted dealt with the topics of "anemia and malnutrition", "diarrheal diseases", "respiratory infections", "alcoholism and violence", "growth and development", "breastfeeding" and "oral health", as well as a campaign about diagnosis and treatment of oral disorders. Data analysis was performed on Microsoft Excel. Results: Of the total 95 adult residents cared for, 6.3 percent were totally edentulous and 40 percent were partially edentulous. Of the dentate subjects, 97.3 percent had dental caries with a mean DLRP index (sum total of decayed + lost + restored permanent teeth) of 2.08 ± 1.56. As to periodontal status, 38.9 percent had severe gingival inflammation. A total 35 restorations, 28 exodontias and 8 prosthesis adjustments were performed on adult patients. Adults and children alike received fluoridation and attended five educational health promotion sessions. Conclusions: Dental caries and gingival disease were highly prevalent. The main therapeutic actions performed in the camp were restorations and exodontia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Dental , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Community Dentistry/methods , Peru , Epidemiologic Studies , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Mouth Diseases/therapy
14.
ABCS health sci ; 45: e020018, 02 jun 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123695

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is one of the top three reasons of death worldwide for the 15- to 44-year age range. The Brazilian state of Roraima has shown indicators that draw attention when compared to national rates of suicide. In this sense, for the proposal of preventive measures appropriate to the state's reality, it is important to understand the local epidemiological particularities. OBJECTIVE: to identify the epidemiological profile of deaths by suicide in the state of Roraima, Brazil, between 2014 and 2017. METHODS: Descriptive, population-based documentary research. The source of information was the database from the Brazilian public health system (DATASUS). The analysis included deaths by residence caused by suicide from 2014 to 2017. Cut-outs were established according to the variables incidence by municipality, marital status, age, gender, color/race, place of occurrence and method of suicide. RESULTS: 176 deaths were reported in the state of Roraima during the period studied. The average mortality coefficient was 8,6/100.000 inhabitants. Deaths were more frequent among men (73.9%), aged 20 to 29 years (31.2%), resident in the state capital (52.8%), brown (64.2%) or indigenous (25.6%) and single (69.9%). The main suicide method was hanging, strangulation and suffocation (87.5%), with the domicile being the most usual place (72.1%). CONCLUSION: The results imply the need to act on the problem, which grows in proportion and gains prominence in the national indicators. Suspicion of suicidal behavior in the face of consolidated data may reduce the incidence.


INTRODUÇÃO: O suicídio constitui uma das três maiores causas de morte de indivíduos entre 15 a 44 anos de idade no mundo. O Estado brasileiro de Roraima tem demonstrado indicadores que chamam atenção frente às taxas nacionais. Nesse sentido, para a construção de prevenção adequada à realidade do Estado, é importante entender as particularidades epidemiológicas locais. OBJETIVO: Identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos óbitos por suicídio no Estado de Roraima, Brasil, entre os anos de 2014 e 2017. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa documental descritiva, de base populacional. Utilizou-se como fonte das informações a plataforma do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (DATASUS). A análise compreendeu os óbitos por residência causados por suicídio no período de 2014 a 2017. Estabeleceram-se recortes segundo as variáveis incidência por município, estado civil, faixa etária, sexo, cor/raça, local de ocorrência e método do suicídio. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 176 óbitos no Estado de Roraima no período estudado. O coeficiente médio de mortalidade foi de 8,6/100.000 habitantes. Os óbitos foram mais frequentes entre: homens (73,9%), na faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos de idade (31,2%), residentes na capital do Estado (52,8%), pardos(as) (64,2%) ou indígenas (25,6%) e solteiros (69,9%). A principal metodologia foi enforcamento, estrangulamento e sufocamento (87,5%), sendo o próprio domicílio o local da realização mais usual (72,1%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados imprimem necessidade de atuação frente ao problema, que cresce em proporção e ganha destaque ante os indicadores nacionais. A suspeição do comportamento suicida em face de dados consolidados pode reduzir a incidência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicide , Health Profile , Mortality , Epidemiologic Studies
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 317-322, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138029

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly in a Brazilian population sample. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between October 2017 and April 2018. We included male and female volunteers aged 18 years or older. The presence of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly was determined by performing the clinical tests described by Linburg and Comstock. The data were analyzed using the GraphPad Prism software, and we considered differences with p < 0.05. Results The study analyzed 1,008 volunteers (2,016 hands) with a mean age of 38.3 years, 531 (52.67%) of which were male, and 477 (47.33%) were female. The Linburg-Comstock anomaly was diagnosed in 564 (55.95%) individuals, and it was bilateral in 300 (53.2%) of them, right-sided in 162 (28.72%), and left-sided in 102 (18.08%). No significant differences were found when comparing the prevalence between genders. However, a the prevalence of the right-sided anomaly in the male population (n = 99; 70.21%) was higher than in the female one (n = 63; 51.21%), with p = 0.0016. In addition, the presence of pain by the maneuver described by Linburg and Comstock was more prevalent in women (n = 150; 54.94%) than in men (n = 105; 36.08%), with p = 0.0001. These results show the importance of epidemiological studies on the Linburg-Comstock anomaly, mainly in order to investigate the presence of associated conditions. Conclusion The prevalence of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly in the studied population was of 55.95%, and it was bilateral in 53.2% of the volunteers. The presence of the connection was observed more frequently in the right side and among men, but the pain symptom was more frequent among women.


Resumo Objetivo Determinar a prevalência da anomalia de Linburg-Comstock em uma amostra populacional brasileira. Métodos Estudo observacional transversal realizado no período de outubro de 2017 a abril de 2018. Foram incluídos voluntários dos gêneros feminino e masculino, com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos. A presença da anomalia de Linburg-Comstock foi determinada pela realização dos testes clínicos descritos por Linburg e Comstock. Os dados foram analisados por meio do software GraphPad Prism, sendo consideradas diferenças com valores de p < 0,05. Resultados O estudo analisou 1.008 voluntários (2.016 mãos) com idade média de 38,3 anos, dos quais 531 (52,67%) eram do gênero masculino, e 477 (47,33%) eram do gênero feminino. A anomalia de Linburg-Comstock foi diagnosticada em 564 voluntários (55,95%) da população estudada, sendo bilateral em 300 (53,2%), direita em 162 (28,72%), e esquerda em 102 (18,08%). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas quando se comparou a prevalência entre os gêneros. Porém, foi encontrada uma maior prevalência da anomalia direita na população masculina (n = 99; 70,21%) do que na feminina (n = 63; 51,21%), com p = 0,0016. Além disso, a presença da dor pela manobra descrita por Linburg e Comstock foi mais prevalente nas mulheres (n = 150; 54,94%) do que nos homens (n = 105; 36,08%), com p = 0,0001. Estes resultados mostram a importância dos estudos epidemiológicos sobre a anomalia de Linburg-Comstock, principalmente com o intuito de investigar a presença de afecções associadas. Conclusão A prevalência da anomalia de Linburg-Comstock na população estudada foi de 55,95%, sendo bilateral em 53,2% dos voluntários. A presença da conexão foi observada com maior frequência do lado direito em homens, mas o sintoma dor foi mais frequente nas mulheres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tendons/anatomy & histology , Volunteers , Hand Deformities, Congenital , Epidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Finger Joint/abnormalities
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 193-201, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1104196

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La infección respiratoria aguda baja por adenovirus es una importante causa de morbimortalidad en niños. Objetivos: Describir el patrón clínico-epidemiológico y los factores asociados en niños hospitalizados.Métodos. Estudio transversal en niños ingresados por infección respiratoria aguda baja al Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, en 2000-2018. El diagnóstico viral se realizó mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta en secreciones nasofaríngeas. Se compararon características clínico-epidemiológicas de infección por adenovirus con otros virus respiratorios (virus sincicial respiratorio, influenza y parainfluenza). Se utilizó regresión logística múltiple para identificar predictores independientes de infección.Resultados. De 16018 pacientes con infección respiratoria aguda baja, 13545 fueron testeados para virus respiratorios y 6047 (el 45 %) fueron positivos. Adenovirus fue el agente menos frecuente [el 4,4 % (265) de los casos]; presentó una tendencia en descenso durante todo el período estudiado (pico en 2003) y circuló durante todo el año (pico en julio). El 63,8 % eran varones; mediana de edad: 11 meses (rango intercuartílico: 6-20). La presentación clínica más frecuente fue neumonía (el 63 %). El 50 % tenía internaciones previas por causa respiratoria; el 15,6 % eran reingresos; el 58,3 % tenía comorbilidades. El 19,2 % requirió asistencia ventilatoria; el 44 %registró complicaciones. La letalidad fue del 7,7 %. La infección por adenovirus se asoció a edad ≥ 12 meses, sexo masculino, presentación clínica de neumonía, internaciones previas por causas respiratorias y reinternaciones.Conclusiones. Los adenovirus fueron detectados con menor frecuencia que los otros virus respiratorios, aunque presentaron un importante perfil de morbimortalidad


Introduction. Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) caused by adenovirus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children.Objectives. To describe the clinical and epidemiological pattern and associated factors in hospitalized children.Methods. Cross-sectional study in children admitted due to ALRTI to Hospital de Niños "Ricardo Gutiérrez," in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, between 2000 and 2018. Viral diagnosis was done by indirect immunofluorescence in nasopharyngeal secretions. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adenovirus infection were compared to other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza). A multiple logistic regression was done to identify independent predictors of infection.Results. Out of 16 018 patients with ALRTI, 13 545 were tested for respiratory viruses; 6047 (45 %) had a positive result. Adenovirus was the least common agent (4.4 % [265] of cases); it tended towards a reduction over the study period (peak in 2003) and circulated throughout the year (peak in July). In total, 63.8 % of patients were males; median age: 11 months (interquartile range: 6-20). The most common clinical presentation was pneumonia (63 %). Prior admissions due to respiratory conditions were seen in 50 %; 15.6 %were readmissions; 58.3 % had comorbidities. Ventilatory support was required by 19.2 %and complications were recorded in 44 %. The fatality rate was 7.7 %. Adenovirus infection was associated with age ≥ 12 months, male sex, clinical presentation of pneumonia, prior admissions due to respiratory conditions, and readmissions.Conclusions. Adenoviruses were less common than other respiratory viruses, although their morbidity and mortality were important


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Epidemiologic Studies , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
17.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(2): 276-280, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137095

ABSTRACT

Resumo A mortalidade infantil é problema de saúde pública e importante indicador, considerando-se que parte dessas mortes ocorre por causas evitáveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar aglomerados espaciais de óbitos de crianças entre 0 e 4 anos, causas evitáveis e variáveis epidemiológicas em Minas Gerais, entre 2011 e 2015, o que possibilitaria melhorar o planejamento dos serviços de saúde do estado. Em ordem decrescente, as intervenções que mais contribuíram para reduzir a incidência desses óbitos foram atenção à mulher na gestação e no parto, atenção ao recém-nascido e ações de diagnóstico e tratamento, de promoção à saúde e de imunoprevenção. Além disso, constatou-se que 46,85% das mortes por causas evitáveis ocorreram no período neonatal, sendo 43,19% das crianças pardas e 55,27% meninos. Quanto à análise espacial, essa mortalidade concentra-se principalmente nas mesorregiões Norte, Vale do Mucuri e Jequitinhonha.


Abstract Infant mortality is a public health problem and an important public health indicator, considering that part of these deaths occurs from preventable causes. This study aimed to identify spatial clusters of deaths of children between 0 and 4 years old, the preventable causes of death, and epidemiological variables in Minas Gerais, between 2011 and 2015, which may allow improvements in planning health services in the state. In decreasing order, the interventions that most contributed to reduce the incidence of these deaths were the delivery of care to women during pregnancy and childbirth, newborn care, and the actions related to diagnosis and treatment, health promotion, and immunoprevention. In addition, we found that 46.85% of deaths from preventable causes occurred during the neonatal period, 43.19% of the children were brown and 55.27% were boys. As for spatial territorial analysis, this mortality is mainly concentrated in the North, Vale do Mucuri and Jequitinhonha mesoregions.


Resumen La mortalidad infantil se caracteriza como un problema de salud pública y un importante indicador de la salud, teniendo en cuenta que algunas de estas muertes se deben a causas prevenibles. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar aglomerados espaciales de muertes de niños entre 0 y 4 años, causas prevenibles y variables epidemiológicas en el estado de Minas Gerais, en el período 2011-2015, lo que permitiría mejorar la planificación en los servicios de salud del estado. En orden decreciente, las intervenciones que más contribuyeron para reducir la incidencia de estas muertes fueron la atención a la mujer durante el embarazo y el parto, la atención al recién nacido y acciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento, de promoción de la salud y de inmunoprevención. Además de eso, se constató que el 46,85% de las muertes por causas prevenibles ocurrieron en el período neonatal, que el 43,19% de los niños eran pardos y que el 55,27% eran del sexo masculino. En cuanto al análisis espacial, esta mortalidad se concentra principalmente en las mesorregiones del Norte, Vale do Mucuri y Jequitinhonha.


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Studies , Infant Mortality , Spatial Analysis
18.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e853, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139067

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la maculopatía diabética en adultos de 50 años y más en Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica, descriptiva transversal, que tomó la Encuesta Rápida de Ceguera Evitable realizada en Cuba en el año 2016, la cual incluyó la retinopatía diabética validada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: La prevalencia de cualquier grado de maculopatía fue de 8,5 por ciento (6,1 a 10,8) y la maculopatía observable y remitible fue de 4,2 por ciento (2,2 a 6,0). El riesgo de desarrollar maculopatía resultó mayor en el sexo femenino, con el 9,3 por ciento (6,6-12,9), y en los diabéticos que tenían entre 60 y 69 años de edad, de 9,2 por ciento (5,7-14,0). Este riesgo se incrementaba si existía descontrol de la glicemia y si la enfermedad tenía 15 años y más de evolución. La asociación con la retinopatía observable fue de 2,5 por ciento. La discapacidad visual moderada por maculopatía fue de 1,4 % y la grave junto con la ceguera de 0,8 por ciento. La cobertura de tratamiento fue baja (28,6 por ciento por personas). Conclusiones: El diabético de 50 años y más en Cuba tiene baja prevalencia de maculopatía diabética, la cual se comporta de manera similar para la forma observable y para la remitible. La retinopatía no proliferativa moderada tiene mayor riesgo de afectación macular. La discapacidad visual por afectación macular en el diabético es baja, aunque la estrategia de atención oftalmológica en el diabético no alcanza los estándares necesarios de efectividad, relacionados con la cobertura del tratamiento con láser(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of diabetic maculopathy in adults aged 50 years and over in Cuba. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted based on the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness survey developed in Cuba in the year 2016, which included diabetic retinopathy with validation by the World Health Organization. Results: Prevalence of any maculopathy grade was 8.5 percent (6.1 to 10.8), whereas observable, referable maculopathy was 4.2 percent (2.2 to 6.0). Risk for maculopathy was higher in the female sex with 9.3 percent (6.6-12.9) and among diabetics from the 60-69 years age group with 9.2 percent (5.7-14.0). Risk increased in uncontrolled glycemia and when the evolution of the disease was 15 years and over. Association with observable retinopathy was 2.5 percent. Moderate visual disability due to maculopathy was 1.4 percent, while severe disability and blindness were 0.8 percent. Treatment coverage was low (28.6 percent per persons). Conclusion: Prevalence of maculopathy is low among diabetics aged 50 years and over in Cuba, with similar behavior in the observable and the referable variants. Moderate non-proliferative retinopathy shows a higher risk for macular damage. Visual disability due to macular damage is low among diabetics, though the ophthalmological care strategy for diabetics does not achieve the required effectiveness standards in terms of laser therapy coverage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Laser Therapy/methods , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(2): e486366, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127226

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Dimensionar la migración humana en la frontera sur entre Colombia y Venezuela (Departamento de Guainía), y caracterizar las condiciones sociales, de acceso y de atención en salud frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Estudio mixto, epidemiológico y etnográfico. Se calcularon: tasa de migrantes venezolanos (según Migración Colombia al 31 de diciembre de 2019), acceso efectivo a atención médica y dotación en puestos de salud (según datos recolectados entre junio de 2017 y julio de 2019, en todos los puestos de salud de Guainía, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, observación participante y el uso de Google Earth™ y Wikiloc™). Los tiempos medianos se calcularon y graficaron en Stata™. Se describieron dinámicas culturales y de atención en salud a partir del trabajo de campo y de una permanente revisión documental. Resultados Guainía ocupa el puesto 23 en número total de venezolanos, pero es el cuarto departamento en densidad de venezolanos (14,4%). En ausencia del centro de salud de San José, en el río Guainía los tiempos medianos hasta la institución de referencia real son de 8,7 horas en invierno y 12,3 en verano y los casos complejos requieren remisión aérea. En el río Inírida, sin el centro de Chorro Bocón, los tiempos reales son de 11,9 horas en invierno y 16,1 en verano. Solo el 57% de los puestos de salud tenía insumos para manejar infección respiratoria aguda. Conclusiones Ante la llegada de COVID-19 a territorios sur-fronterizos, es necesario fortalecer inmediatamente servicios médicos y de salud pública para evitar elevadas tasas de letalidad.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To size human migration on the southern border between Colombia and Venezuela (Guainía department), and characterize the social, access and health care conditions relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Mixed epidemiological and ethnographic study. Rate of Venezuelan migrants was calculated according to Migration Colombia data until December 31st, 2019, also effective access to medical care, and provision of health posts were calculated, with information from each Guainía health post collected from June 2017 to June 2019, through semi-structured interviews, participant observations, Google Earth™ and Wikiloc™. Stata™ was used to calculate and graph median times of effective access. Cultural dynamics and health care conditions were described by the field work information and a permanent documentary review. Results Guainía is the 23rd department, according to the total number of Venezuelans, but the fourth in Venezuelans density (14,4%). In the Guainía river, the median times to the real reference health institution were 8,7 hours in winter and 12,3 in summer, and complex cases require air referrals. In the Inírida river, the median times to the real reference health institution were 11,9 hours in winter and 16,1 in summer. Only 57% of the health posts had supplies for acute respiratory infections. Conclusions Facing COVID-19 in south border territories, it is necessary to immediately strengthen medical and public health services to avoid high fatality rates.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Infrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration , Effective Access to Health Services/organization & administration , Venezuela/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Anthropology, Cultural
20.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(2): e211, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139440

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Dimensionar la migración humana en la frontera sur entre Colombia y Venezuela (Departamento de Guainía), y caracterizar las condiciones sociales, de acceso y de atención en salud frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Estudio mixto, epidemiológico y etnográfico. Se calcularon: tasa de migrantes venezolanos (según Migración Colombia al 31 de diciembre de 2019), acceso efectivo a atención médica y dotación en puestos de salud (según datos recolectados entre junio de 2017 y julio de 2019, en todos los puestos de salud de Guainía, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, observación participante y el uso de Google Earth™ y Wikiloc™). Los tiempos medianos se calcularon y graficaron en Stata™. Se describieron dinámicas culturales y de atención en salud a partir del trabajo de campo y de una permanente revisión documental. Resultados Guainía ocupa el puesto 23 en número total de venezolanos, pero es el cuarto departamento en densidad de venezolanos (14,4%). En ausencia del centro de salud de San José, en el río Guainía los tiempos medianos hasta la institución de referencia real son de 8,7 horas en invierno y 12,3 en verano y los casos complejos requieren remisión aérea. En el río Inírida, sin el centro de Chorro Bocón, los tiempos reales son de 11,9 horas en invierno y 16,1 en verano. Solo el 57% de los puestos de salud tenía insumos para manejar infección respiratoria aguda. Conclusiones Ante la llegada de COVID-19 a territorios sur-fronterizos, es necesario fortalecer inmediatamente servicios médicos y de salud pública para evitar elevadas tasas de letalidad.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To size human migration on the southern border between Colombia and Venezuela (Guainía department), and characterize the social, access and health care conditions relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Mixed epidemiological and ethnographic study. Rate of Venezuelan migrants was calculated according to Migration Colombia data until December 31st, 2019, also effective access to medical care, and provision of health posts were calculated, with information from each Guainía health post collected from June 2017 to June 2019, through semi-structured interviews, participant observations, Google Earth™ and Wikiloc™. Stata™ was used to calculate and graph median times of effective access. Cultural dynamics and health care conditions were described by the field work information and a permanent documentary review. Results Guainía is the 23rd department, according to the total number of Venezuelans, but the fourth in Venezuelans density (14,4%). In the Guainía river, the median times to the real reference health institution were 8,7 hours in winter and 12,3 in summer, and complex cases require air referrals. In the Inírida river, the median times to the real reference health institution were 11,9 hours in winter and 16,1 in summer. Only 57% of the health posts had supplies for acute respiratory infections. Conclusions Facing COVID-19 in south border territories, it is necessary to immediately strengthen medical and public health services to avoid high fatality rates.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Infrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration/trends , Effective Access to Health Services/organization & administration , Venezuela/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Colombia/epidemiology
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