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1.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 030-043, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402679

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el primer caso de COVID-19 se confirmó en Paraguay el 7 de marzo de 2020. No se han encontrado publicaciones que haya caracterizado la frecuencia y características clínicoepidemiológica de COVID-19 en estudiantes de medicina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y características clínicas de estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacífico en el periodo académico 2020-2021. Metodología: estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, que incluyó a estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacifico. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta virtual por Google Docs© que incluía la edad, sexo, curso, síntomas, secuelas, pruebas laboratoriales y resultados para SARS-CoV-2 y gravedad del cuadro. Resultados: se encuestaron 342 estudiantes entre 18 a 42 años de los 6 cursos, 70,8 % de sexo femenino, 66,4 % presentó síntomas compatibles con COVID-19, el más frecuente (44,2 %) fue el dolor de cabeza. El 67,5 % estuvo en contacto con alguna persona con COVID-19 y 40,4 % informó no haber respetado estrictamente la cuarentena, el 61,7 % se realizó alguna prueba laboratorial y de ellos el 42,7 % resultó positivo para el SARS-CoV-2, 98,9 % cursó con cuadro leve. El 86,7 % conocía el nexo de contagio. Se observó significativamente (p<0,001) mayor frecuencia de COVID19 en los estudiantes ≤21 años (65 % vs 32 %), los que tuvieron contacto con persona con COVID19 (49,1 % vs 10,5 %), y aquellos que presentaron síntomas compatibles (48,8 % vs 18,6 %). Conclusiones: casi la mitad de los participantes presentaron resultados positivos para SARS-CoV2, lo que pone de manifiesto una alta transmisión comunitaria.


Introduction: the first case of COVID-19 in Paraguay was confirmed on March 7, 2020. No publications characterizing the frequency and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in medical students have been found. Objective: to determine the frequency of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and clinical characteristics of medical students at the Universidad del Pacífico during the 2020-2021 academic period. Methodology: this was a cross-sectional descriptive observational study, that included medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico. The data was obtained through an online survey by Google Docs© that included age, sex, academic year, symptoms, sequelae, laboratory testing and results for SARS-CoV-2 and severity of the condition. Results: 342 students between 18 and 42 years of age from the 6 courses were surveyed, 70.8% were female; 66.4 % presented symptoms compatible with COVID-19, the most frequent (44.2 %) was headache. 67.5 % were in contact with someone with COVID-19 and 40.4 % reported not strictly following quarantine guidelines, 61.7 % underwent some laboratory testing and 42.7 % of them were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 98.9 % had a mild infection. 86.7 % knew the contagion source. A significantly (p<0.001) higher frequency of COVID-19 was observed in students ≤21 years old (65 % vs 32 %), those who had contact with a person with COVID-19 (49.1 % vs 10.5 %), and those who presented compatible symptoms (48.8 % vs 18.6 %). Conclusions: almost half of the participants presented positive results for SARS-CoV-2, which shows high community transmission.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Universities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 31(3)sept.-dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1410317

ABSTRACT

El coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo es el agente causal de la COVID-19. En la semana del 21 al 27 de marzo de 2021 se confirmó en Cuba un incremento del 8 por ciento de los casos. El Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba decidió aprobar la intervención sanitaria con los candidatos vacunales SOBERANA para ser administrados al personal que laboraba en instituciones de salud. Los objetivos del presente trabajo son describir las coberturas de vacunación alcanzadas con el esquema heterólogo de SOBERANA y la progresión de la enfermedad en los sujetos vacunados con el mismo. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo. Se captaron 884 sujetos que cumplieron los criterios para ser incluidos. Los sujetos fueron seguidos por los investigadores del sitio centinela durante la aplicación del esquema y 5 meses después de concluido. Se lograron adecuadas coberturas de vacunación para el esquema heterólogo de tres dosis de SOBERANA. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes en el grupo de trabajadores que enfermó de COVID-19 después de 14 días de culminado el esquema heterólogo fueron: hipertensión arterial, asma, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y cardiopatía isquémica. La mayor proporción de enfermos correspondió a los que trabajaron durante la pandemia en zona roja con alto riesgo, seguido de los que trabajaron en zona verde y en el grupo de los profesionales y, por último, los trabajadores no profesionales no técnicos. No se describió progresión de la enfermedad hacia las formas graves y críticas en los trabajadores vacunados. Los síntomas y signos más frecuentes en el grupo de enfermos fueron fiebre, tos, astenia y anorexia. Se lograron adecuadas coberturas vacunales llegando a ser abortada la progresión de la enfermedad a formas graves o críticas a pesar de la alta exposición laboral del personal y la existencia de comorbilidades crónicas(AU)


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the causative agent of COVID-19. In the week of March 21 to 27, 2021 an increase of 8 percent in cases was confirmed in Cuba. The Cuban Ministry of Public Health decided to approve the health intervention with the SOBERANA vaccine candidates to be administered to the staff working in health institutions. The objectives were to describe the vaccination coverage achieved with the SOBERANA heterologous scheme and the progression of the disease in the vaccinated subjects. This is a descriptive, prospective study. We perceived 884 subjects that fulfilled the criteria to be included. The subjects were followed up by the researchers of the sentinel site during the application of the scheme and 5 months after its conclusion. Adequate vaccination coverage was achieved for the heterologous scheme of three doses of SOBERANA. The most frequent comorbidities inside the group of workers who fell ill of COVID-19, 14 days after of completing the heterologous scheme were: high blood pressure, asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. The bigger proportion of sick persons corresponded to those who worked in the high-risk red zone, followed by those who worked in the green zone and in the professional group, and lastly non-professional non-technical workers. Disease progression to severe and critical forms was not described in vaccinated workers. Symptoms and more frequent signs in the sick persons were fever, cough, asthenia and anorexia. Adequate vaccination coverage was achieved; the progression of the disease to severe or critical forms was aborted despite the high occupational exposure of the staff and chronic comorbidities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Immunization Programs , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Cuba
3.
Nursing ( São Paulo) ; 25(293): 8828-8841, out.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1402421

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:investigar os fatores relacionados para a redução das metas vacinais infantis.Método: revisão integrativa da literatura embasada no checklist Preferred Reporting Itens for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. As bases de dados consultadas foram Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Banco de Dados de Enfermagem em março de 2021.Foram incluídos artigos originais, nacionais e disponíveis na íntegra, publicados no período de 2016 a 2021.Resultados:a amostra compreendeu 10 artigos. A falta de tempo dos pais para levar os filhos às unidades de saúde para serem vacinadas foi evidenciado em 4 (40%) estudos, 2 (20%) mostraram a dificuldade de acesso as unidades por motivos de locomoção e outros 2 (20%) citaram as salas de vacinas com falta de imunobiológicos.Conclusão:a redução das metas vacinais infantis está relacionada à falta de tempo dos pais, deslocamento e falta de insumos nas unidades de saúde.(AU)


Objective: toinvestigatethefactors related tothereductionofchildhoodvaccinationgoals.Method:integrativeliterature review basedonthe Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The databases consultedwereLatin American and CaribbeanLiteratureon Health Sciences, Nursing Database in March 2021. Original, national and availablearticlespublished in theperiodfrom 2016 to 2021 wereincluded.Results: the sample comprised 10 articles. The lackof time for parentsto take theirchildrento health unitstobevaccinatedwas evidenced in 4 (40%) studies, 2 (20%) showeddifficulty in accessingtheunits for reasonsoflocomotion and another 2 (20%) citedvaccineroomswith a lackofimmunobiologicals.Conclusion: thereductionofchildhoodvaccination targets is related tothelackof time ofparents, displacement and lackofsupplies in the health units(AU)


Objetivo: investigar los factores relacionados con la reducción de las metas de vacunación infantil.Método: revisión integrativa de la literatura basadaen la lista de verificación Elementos de informe preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas y metanálisis. Las bases de datos consultadas fueron Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe enCiencias de la Salud, Base de Datos de Enfermeríaenmarzo de 2021. Se incluyeron artículos originales, nacionales y disponibles publicados enel período de 2016 a 2021.Resultados: la muestraestuvocompuesta por 10 artículos. La falta de tiempo de los padres para llevar a sus hijos a las unidades de salud para ser vacunados se evidencióen 4 (40%) estudios, 2 (20%) mostrarondificultad para acceder a las unidades por motivos de locomoción y otros 2 (20%) citaron vacuna salas concarencia de inmunobiológicos.Conclusion: la reducción de las metas de vacunación infantil está relacionada con la falta de tiempo de los padres, eldesplazamiento y la falta de insumos en las unidades de salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Child , Child Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Vaccination Coverage
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 214-217, out.2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400071

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o uso da fitoterapia como alternativa terapêutica, tem aumentado, no entanto ainda existem lacunas no conhecimento sobre o tema, o que impede a completa adesão da prática por parte dos profissionais de saúde. Objetivos: este trabalho teve como objetivoverificar o conhecimento sobre a prática da fitoterapia por profissionais de saúde em unidades de Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Metodologia: foi realizado umestudo quantitativo, transversal, com aplicação de questionário contendo perguntas sobre a fitoterapia. Além disso, foi também desenvolvida uma análise descritiva, com frequência relativa e absoluta e análise de correlação através do teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson, utilizando teste de regressão binomial e multinominal. Resultados: participaram da pesquisa, 156 profissionais de saúde, distribuídos em 20 ESF do município de Rondonópolis-MT, sendo 24 enfermeiros, 8 médicos, 7 odontólogos, 4 farmacêuticos, 6 psicólogos, 10 técnicos em enfermagem, 88 agentes comunitários de saúde, 7 técnicos em saúde bucal, 1 técnico de farmácia e 1 educador físico. Destaca-se que 58% não souberam explicar a diferença entre fitoterápicos e plantas medicinais, 52% não sabiam realizar orientações nem citar o nome de medicamentos proveniente das plantas (53%), 88% não fizeram curso ou disciplina na área. No entanto, 86% tem interesse em se qualificar no assunto. Dentre os profissionais prescritores, 72,1% afirmaram prescrever raramente ou não prescrever a fitoterapia em sua prática profissional. Conclusão: evidenciam-se falhas no conhecimento sobre a fitoterapia e a necessidade de capacitação aos profissionais que atuam nas ESF, de forma a se sentirem seguros para prescrever e orientar quanto aos riscos e benefícios do uso das plantas como alternativa terapêutica.


Introduction: the use of phytotherapy as a therapeutic alternativehas increased, however there are still gaps in knowledge on the subject, what stopping the full adherence to the practice by health professionals. Objectives: this work aimed to verify the knowledge about the practice of herbal medicine by health professionals in Family Health Strategy Units (FHS). Method: A quantitative study was carried out, cross-sectional study, with the application of a questionnaire containing questions about herbal medicine. In addition, a descriptive analysis was also carried out, using relative and absolute frequency and correlation analysis through Pearson's chi-square test, using binomial and multinomial regression test. Results: 156 health professionals participated in the research, distributed in 20 FHS in the city of Rondonópolis-MT, 24 nurses, 8 doctors, 7 dentists, 4 pharmacists, 6 psychologists, 10 nursing technicians, 88 community health agents, 7 technicians in oral health, 1 pharmacy technician and 1 physical educator. It is noteworthy that 58% could not explain the difference between herbal medicines and medicinal plants, 52% did not know how to provide guidance or mention the name of medicines derived from plants (53%), 88% did not take a course or discipline in the area. However, 86% are interested in qualifying in the subject. Among the prescribing professionals, 72.1% stated that they rarely or didn ́t prescribe phytotherapy in their professional practice. Conclusion: there is evidence of gaps in knowledge about herbal medicine and the need for training professionals working in the FHS, in order to feel safe to prescribe and guide about the risks and benefits of using plants as a therapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plants, Medicinal , Primary Health Care , National Health Strategies , Health Personnel , Phytotherapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Evaluation Studies as Topic
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 218-224, out.2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400138

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estimar a tendência temporal da mortalidade por lesões autoprovocadas intencionalmente no Brasil e suas regiões no período de 1980 a 2019. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados foram provenientes do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, e foram estratificados segundo faixa etária, ano, local e sexo. Foi calculada a taxa padronizada de mortalidade (TPM) e utilizada para análise de tendência, por intermédio do modelo JoinPoint. Resultados: o Brasil registrou ao longo da série temporal, 297.367 óbitos por lesões autoprovocadas intencionalmente. O sexo masculino apresentou maior quantitativo de óbitos com 231.821 (78,0%), seguido do feminino com 65.546 (22,0%). A tendência temporal média da TPM por suicídio no Brasil foi de crescimento entre homens e mulheres com Variação Percentual Anual Média (VPAM) de 0,9% e 1,2%, respectivamente (p<0,05). No Norte, a VPAM foi de 2,1% para o grupo geral, 2,5% para homens e 1,9% para mulheres (p<0,05). O Nordeste apresentou VPAM=2,7% e 3,0% no grupo geral e masculino, respectivamente (p<0,05). A região sul apresentou aumento somente no grupo geral com VPAM=0,5% (p<0,05), enquanto o Sudeste não apresentou dados significativos. O Centro-oeste apresentou VPAM=1,7%, 1,7% e 1,2% no grupo geral, masculino e feminino, respectivamente. Conclusão: o Brasil apresentou um índice considerável de mortes por lesões autoprovocadas, onde o sexo masculino predominou. As regiões Sul e Centro-oeste apresentaram as maiores médias de TPM em todos os grupos. A tendência temporal média foi de crescimento na maioria das regiões (p<0,05), exceto no Sudeste, no qual foi estacionária (p>0,05).


Objective: to estimate the temporal trend of mortality from intentional self-harm in Brazil and its regions from 1980 to 2019. Methodology: this is an ecological time series study. The data came from the Mortality Information System and were stratified according to age group, year, location and sex. The age-standard mortality rate (ASMR) was calculated and used for trend analysis, using the JoinPoint model. Results: over the time series, Brazil recorded 297,367 deaths from intentional self-harm. Males had the highest number of deaths with 231,821 (78.0%), followed by females with 65,546 (22.0%). The average temporal trend of ASMR by suicide in Brazil was of growth among men and women with Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) of 0.9% and 1.2%, respectively (p<0.05). In the North, the AAPC was 2.1% for the general group, 2.5% for men and 1.9% for women (p<0.05). The Northeast presented AAPC=2.7% and 3.0% in the general and male groups, respectively (p<0.05). The southern region showed an increase only in the general group with AAPC=0.5% (p<0.05), while the Southeast did not present significant data. The Midwest presented AAPC=1.7%, 1.7% and 1.2% in the general group, male and female, respectively. Conclusion: Brazil had a considerable rate of deaths from self-harm, where males predominated. The South and Center-West regions had the highest average ASMR in all groups. The average temporal trend was of growth in most regions (p<0.05), except in the Southeast, where it was stationary (p>0.05).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Self Mutilation , Suicide , Mortality , Death , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Ecological Studies
6.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 238-242, out.2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400152

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a colelitíase é uma das doenças mais comuns do trato digestivo, acometendo 6-10% da população adulta. Destes, aproximadamente 8- 20% apresentam coledocolitíase associada. A estratificação de risco de coledocolitíase pré-operatória nos portadores de colelitíase busca subsidiar a definição de uma terapêutica mais adequada, em tempo hábil, para cada caso. Objetivo:estratificar o risco pré-operatório de coledocolitíase em pacientes submetidos a colecistectomia em um hospital terciário. Metodologia:estudo observacional descritivo, retrospectivo, a partir da análise de prontuários de pacientes submetidos a colecistectomia por cálculos biliares em um hospital público em João Pessoa, Paraíba, entre agosto de 2021 e janeiro de 2022, durante a pandemia de COVID-19. A estratificação de risco foi realizada a partir do estabelecido pela Sociedade Americana de Endoscopia Digestiva (ASGE) em 2010. Resultados: foram selecionados 41 pacientes, a maior parte do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,6 anos, em sua maioria submetidos a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica, sem colangiografia intraoperatória. O exame de imagem mais realizado no pré-operatório foi a ultrassonografia de abdome. De acordo com os critérios da ASGE, 18 (43,9%) pacientes foram classificados como baixo risco, 19 (46,4%) foram estratificados no risco intermediário, e 4 foram de alto risco (9,7%). Conclusão: apesar de uma amostra de tamanho limitado, evidencia-se frequência relevante do risco alto ou intermediário de coledocolitíase em portadores de colelitíase. A estratificação de risco para coledocolitíase é uma ferramenta importante a ser utilizada de rotina no pré-operatório da colecistectomia nos pacientes com diagnóstico de colelitíase.


Introduction: gallstones are one of the most common diseases of the digestive tract, affecting 6-10% of the adult population. Of these, approximately 8-20% have associated choledocholithiasis. Preoperative risk stratification of choledocholithiasis in patients with cholelithiasis seeks to allow setting of a proper therapy, in a timely manner, for each case. Objective: stratify preoperative risk of choledocholithiasis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy in a tertiary hospital. Methods: descriptive, retrospective observational study, based on the analysis of medical records of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones in a public hospital in João Pessoa, Paraíba, between August 2021 and January 2022, during COVID-19 pandemic. Risk stratification was performed based on American Society for Digestive Endoscopy (ASGE) criteria from 2010. Results: 41 patients were evaluated. Most of them were female, with a mean age of 49.6 years, most of whom underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy without intraoperative cholangiography. The most common imaging performed preoperatively was abdominal ultrasound. According to ASGE criteria, 18 (43.9%) patients were classified as low risk, 19 (46.4%) were stratified into intermediate risk, and 4 scored high risk (9.7%). Conclusion: despite a limited sample size, there is a relevant prevalence of high or intermediate preoperative risk of choledocholithiasis in patients with cholelithiasis. Risk stratification for choledocholithiasis is an important tool to be routinely used in the preoperative period of cholecystectomy in patients with diagnosis of cholelithiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cholelithiasis , Gallstones , Choledocholithiasis , Epidemiology, Descriptive
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(3): 26478, out. 2022. graf, tab, maps
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399030

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Analisar a mortalidade por suicídio no estado de Pernambuco, no período de 2010 a 2019. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e ecológico, com uma abordagem quantitativa. Foram utilizados dados secundários disponibilizados no Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. O estudo calculou a Taxa de Mortalidade por Suicídio e considerou as seguintes variáveis: ano do óbito, localização geográfica, sexo, faixa etária e raça/cor. O processamento e análise dos dados ocorreram com auxílio das planilhas eletrônicas do Excel e do software SIG QGIS 3.16, sendo utilizadas medidas de frequência absolutas e relativas e apresentados em tabelas, figuras e mapa temático. Resultados:Nos últimos anos, Pernambuco vem apresentando um aumento namortalidade por suicídio, se destacando a prevalência na população masculina (77,33%), na faixa etária de 20 a 39 anos (40,95%) e na população negra (79,26%). Em relação adistribuição geográfica das taxas médias, o estado apresentou diferenças, destacando-se a Região de Saúde XI(Serra Talhada), seguida por Região de Saúde V (Garanhuns), Região de Saúde VII (Salgueiro) e Região de Saúde IX (Oricuri). Conclusões:A análise da mortalidade por suicídio foi importante para a construção do perfil das vítimas, possibilitando a identificação dos grupos vulneráveis e direcionando as intervenções. Além disso, destaca-se a importância da implementação e aprimoramento das políticas públicas voltadas para a prevenção do suicídio (AU).


Objective:To analyze suicide mortality in the state of Pernambuco, from 2010 to 2019. Methodology:This is a descriptive and ecological study, with a quantitative approach. Secondary data available from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The study calculated the Suicide Mortality Rate and considered the following variables: year of death, geographic location, gender, age group and race/color. Data processing and analysis took place with the help of Excel spreadsheets and SIG software QGIS 3.16, using absolute and relative frequency measures and presented in tables, figures and thematic map. Results:In recent years, Pernambuco has shown an increase in suicide mortality, with the prevalence in the male population (77,33%), in the age group from 20 to 39 years old (40,95%) and in the black population standing out (79,26%). Regarding the geographical distribution of the average rates, the state showed differences, highlighting Health Region XI(Serra Talhada), followed by Health Region V (Garanhuns), Health Region VII (Salgueiro)and Health Region IX (Oricuri).Conclusions:The analysis of suicide mortality was important for the construction of the victims' profile, enabling the identification of vulnerable groups and directing interventions. In addition, the importance of implementing and improving public policies aimed at suicide prevention is highlighted (AU).


Objetivo: Analizar la mortalidad por suicidio en el estado de Pernambuco, de2010 a 2019.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y ecológico, con enfoque cuantitativo. Se utilizaron datos secundarios disponibles del Sistema de Información de Mortalidad y del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. El estudio calculó la Tasa de Mortalidad por Suicidio y consideró las siguientes variables: año de muerte, ubicación geográfica, sexo, grupo de edad y raza/color. El procesamiento y análisis de datos se llevó a cabo con la ayuda de hojas de cálculo de Excel y el software SIG QGIS 3.16, utilizando medidas de frecuencia absoluta y relativa y presentados en tablas, figuras y mapa temático.Resultados: En los últimos años, Pernambuco muestra aumento de mortalidad por suicidio, destacando la prevalencia en la población masculina (77,33%), en el grupo de edad de 20 a 39 años (40,95%) y en la población negra (79,26%). En cuanto a la distribución geográfica de las tasas medias, el estado presentó diferencias,destacándosela XIRegión Sanitaria (Serra Talhada), seguida de la Región Sanitaria V (Garanhuns), la Región Sanitaria VII (Salgueiro) y la Región Sanitaria IX (Oricuri).Conclusiones: El análisis de la mortalidad por suicidio fue importante para la construcción del perfil de las víctimas, posibilitando la identificación de los grupos vulnerables y orientando las intervenciones. Además, se destaca la importancia de implementar y mejorar las políticas públicas orientadas a la prevención del suicidio (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Mortality Registries/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Mortality/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(3): 29054, out. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399497

ABSTRACT

Introdução:É indispensável entender a saúde mental por meio das relações históricas e socioculturais que o indivíduo mantém com o outro, com a comunidade e com o meio em que trabalha. Percebe-se que os aspectos referentes às conceituações de saúde não estão em consonância com a realidade dos profissionais de saúde no Brasil. Como forma de promover o autocuidado, as Práticas Integrativas e Complementares apresentam-se como uma estratégia de promoção da saúde mental dos trabalhadores da saúde. Objetivo:Descrever as experiências de realização de ações de promoção da saúde mental dos trabalhadores da saúde em um hospital geral do interior do Rio Grande do Norte. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo do tipo relato de experiência, desenvolvido a partir da realização de açõesde promoção à saúde mental dos trabalhadores no contexto do "Setembro Amarelo" e "Janeiro Branco", desenvolvidas pela equipe de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde Materno-Infantil da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte. Resultados e Discussão:Os profissionais foram instigados a refletir sobre a temática e relacionar com as suas vivências, discutindo estratégias de autocuidado no ambiente de trabalho. Observou-se a predominância dos profissionais de enfermagem em relação às demais categorias profissionais. Estes relataram que os momentos foram prazerosos e o sentiram como uma oportunidade de relaxamento no ambiente de trabalho, desejando que estes pudessem ocorrer com mais frequência. Conclusões:As ações desenvolvidas e descritas se mostraram como estratégias importantes para a discussão e sensibilização sobre a temática, bem como a relevância de estratégias de promoção à saúde mental nos espaços ocupacionais do Sistema Único de Saúde (AU).


Introduction:It is essential to understand mental health through the historical and sociocultural relationships that the person maintains with each other, with the community and with the place on which he works. It is noticed that the aspects referring to health concepts are not into the reality of health professionals in Brazil. As a way of promoting self-care, the integrative and complementary practices are presented as a strategy to promote the mental health of health workers. Objective:To report the experiences ofaccomplishment of actions to promote the mental health of health workers in a general hospital in the countryside of Rio Grande do Norte. Methodology:This is an experience report study, developed from the implementation of actions to promote the mental health of workers in the context of "Yellow September" and "White January", performed by the Maternal Childlike Multiprofessional Residency team of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Results and Discussion:The professionals were encouraged to reflect on the theme and relate it with their experiences, discussing self-care strategies in the work environment. There was a prevalence of nursing professionals in relation to other professional categories. They reported that the moments were pleasant and felt it as an opportunity for relaxation in the work environment, wishing that these could happen more often.Conclusions:The actions developed and described proved to be important strategies for the discussion and awareness of the subject, as well as the relevance of strategies to promote mental health in the occupational spaces of the Unified Health System (AU).


Introducción: Es fundamental comprender la saludmental a través de las relaciones históricas y socioculturales que el individuo mantiene con el otro, con la comunidad y con el medio en el que se desenvuelve. Se nota que los aspectos referentes a los conceptos de salud no están en consonancia con la realidad de los profesionales de la salud en Brasil. Como una forma de promover el autocuidado, las Prácticas Integrativas y Complementarias se presentan como una estrategia para promover la salud mental de los trabajadores del área. Objetivo: Describir las experiencias de realización de acciones de promoción de la salud mental de los trabajadores de la salud en un hospital general en el interior del Rio Grande do Norte. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio de relato de experiencia, desarrollado a partir de la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud mental de los trabajadores en el contexto de "Septiembre Amarillo" y "Enero Blanco", diseñado por el equipo de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud Materno-Infantil de la Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte. Resultados y Discusiones: Los profesionales fueron estimulados a reflexionar sobre el tema y relacionarlo con sus experiencias, discutiendo estrategias de autocuidado en el ambiente de trabajo. Hubo predominio de los profesionales de enfermeríaen relación a las demás categorías profesionales. Ellos dijeron que los momentos fueron agradables y lo sintieron como una oportunidad de relajación en el ambiente de trabajo, deseando que estos pudieran ocurrir con mayor frecuencia. Conclusiones: Las acciones desarrolladas y descritas demostraron ser estrategias importantes para la discusión y sensibilización sobre el tema, así como la pertinencia de las estrategias de promoción de la salud mental en los espacios ocupacionales del Sistema Único de Salud (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Care , Complementary Therapies/psychology , Mental Health , Occupational Health , Mental Health Assistance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Health Personnel , Health Promotion
9.
Educ. med. super ; 36(3): e3332, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404565

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La pandemia actual ocasionó cambios en la educación superior universitaria. La instauración de la modalidad virtual en la Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades en la carrera de enfermería hizo presumir que el rendimiento académico podría verse afectado. Antes del inicio de la pandemia ya existía gran heterogeneidad en el rendimiento académico de los alumnos. Los estilos de aprendizaje podrían ser uno de los factores que con influencia en el rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre los estilos de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico en educación virtual de estudiantes de enfermería de cuarto, quinto y séptimo ciclos de la Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades. Métodos: Se tuvo en cuenta un enfoque cuantitativo, con un diseño no experimental, de tipo descriptivo-correlacional, observacional, de corte transversal y retrospectivo. Se evaluó una muestra de 30 estudiantes de la carrera de enfermería de la Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades. El instrumento utilizado para determinar el estilo de aprendizaje de cada uno de los estudiantes fue el "Cuestionario de Estilos de Aprendizaje de David Kolb", mientras que para determinar el rendimiento académico se empleó una ficha de recolección de datos. Resultados: La mayoría de los estudiantes fueron de sexo femenino (93 %) y tenían entre 18 a 29 años (73 %). En cuanto a la relación entre los estilos de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico, se obtuvo un chi cuadrado de 9,7305 (p = 0,365). El estilo de aprendizaje más frecuente fue el estilo asimilador (37 %), seguido del estilo convergente (27 %). El nivel de rendimiento académico más frecuente resultó el bueno (80 %), seguido por el regular (16,67 %). Conclusiones: La relación entre los estilos de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico no es estadísticamente significativa.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The current pandemic caused changes in higher education. The establishment of the virtual modality for the Nursing major at the University of Sciences and Humanities led to the presumption that academic performance could be affected. Before the onset of the pandemic, the academic performance of students was highly heterogeneous. Learning styles could be one of the factors influencing academic performance. Objective: To identify the relationship between learning styles and academic performance in virtual education of Nursing students in their fourth, fifth and seventh cycles from the University of Sciences and Humanities. Methods: A quantitative approach was used, with a nonexperimental, descriptive-correlational, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective design. A sample of thirty Nursing students from the University of Sciences and Humanities was evaluated. The instrument used to determine the learning style of each of the students was the David Kolb's learning style inventory, while a data collection form was used to determine academic performance. Results: Most of the students were of female sex (93 %) and aged between 18 and 29 years old (73 %). Regarding the relationship between learning styles and academic performance, a chi-square of 9.7305 (P= 0.365) was obtained. The most frequent learning style was the assimilative style (37 %), followed by the convergent style (27 %). The most frequent academic performance level was the category good (80 %), followed by fair (16.67 %). Conclusions: The relationship between learning styles and academic performance is not statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19/prevention & control , Learning , Students, Nursing , Universities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Education, Distance/methods , Observational Study
10.
Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 193-197, jul.-ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393292

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la prevención y control de infecciones (PCI) pretenden prevenir, detener y propagar enfermedades infecciosas en pacientes y trabajadores de la salud. Este enfoque debe comenzar con la formación y capacitación del profesional de la salud, inmunizaciones recomendadas y ejecución de medidas universales de protección. Objetivos: evaluar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en la prevención y control de infec- ciones de los estudiantes y pasantes de servicio social de la licenciatura en Estomatología de la UAM-X. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y observacional mediante una encuesta anónima como instrumento para recolección de datos a una muestra de 108 alumnos y pasantes. Resultados: se encontró que al contestar el interrogatorio sobre «prevención y control de infecciones¼, 59.3% tuvo un nivel de conocimientos aceptable y 40.7% tuvo un nivel muy bueno. De los encuestados, 87% desinfecta y cambia las barreras de protección entre cada paciente, 9.3% al comenzar y finalizar el día; el restante 3.7%, cuando está visiblemente sucio o cuando hay derrame de sustancias de líquidos corporales. Conclusión: los encuestados tienen adecuados conocimientos y prácticas, lo que infiere que tienen el sustento teórico y habilidades para enfrentarse a la etapa postpandemia para la atención de pacientes (AU)


ntroduction: infection prevention and control (IPC) efforts to prevent, stopping and spreading infectious diseases in patients and healthcare workers. This approach should begin with education and training of the health professional, recommended immunizations and implementation of universal protective measures. Objectives: to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices in infection prevention and control stomatology career's students and social service interns UAM-X. Material and methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and observational study was carried out using an anonymous survey as an instrument for data collection from a sample of 108 students and interns. Results: it was found that when answering the questionnaire on «infection prevention and control¼, 59.3% had an acceptable level of knowledge and 40.7% had a very good level. 87% of the respondents disinfect and change the protective barriers between each patient, 9.3% at the beginning and end of the day; the remaining 3.7% when visibly dirty or when there is spillage of body fluids. Conclusion: respondents have adequate knowledge and practices, inferring that they have the theoretical support and skills to face the post-pandemic stage of patient care (AU)


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Protective Clothing , Schools, Dental , Students, Dental/psychology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Internship and Residency , Mexico
11.
Rev. ADM ; 79(4): 204-208, jul.-ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395675

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la caries es una enfermedad compleja que afecta a cualquier edad. La prevalencia es mayor en la primera dentición, sobre todo en población con baja percepción económica. El fluoruro diamino de plata (FDP) al 38% ha sido utilizado como una alter- nativa de tratamiento para esta enfermedad. Funciona como una solución remineralizante y cariostática. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto remineralizante del FDP al 38% en dentina afectada por lesiones de caries en molares temporales. Material y métodos: estudio clínico, epidemiológico, descriptivo, longitudinal y experimental. Se llevó a cabo en molares de primera dentición de niños de tres a cinco años de edad. Los niños seleccionados tenían molares con lesiones cariosas dentinarias, Pitts las denomina D3. No se incluyeron niños con dientes que presentaron patologías pulpares irreversibles. La aplicación del FDP al 38% la efectuó un operador entrenado para esta finalidad. Se utilizaron los criterios de Nyvad para determinar el grado de dureza de la dentina y con ello deducir su remineraliza- ción. Se observó la permanencia de la remineralización efectuada por un periodo de cinco meses. Resultado y conclusión: el FDP es un compuesto eficaz en 91% de los casos en un periodo de cinco meses o más (AU)


Introduction: dental caries is a complex disease that affects any age. The prevalence is higher in primary dentition, especially in a population with low economic perception. 38% silver diamine fluoride (FDP) has been used as an alternative treatment for this disease. It works as a remineralizing and cariostatic solution. Objective: to evaluate the remineralizing effect of 38% FDP on dentin affected by dental caries, in temporary molars. Material and methods: clinical, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and experimental study. It was carried out in temporary molars of children between three and five years of age. The selected children presented molars with dental carious lesions, Pitts calls them D3. Children with teeth that presented irreversible pulp pathologies were not included. The application of the FDP to 38% was carried out by an operator trained for this purpose. The Nyvad criteria were used to determine the degree of hardness of the dentin and thereby deduce its remineralization. The permanence of the remineralization carried out was observed for a period of five months. Result and conclusion: the FDP is an effective compound in 91% of the cases, in a period of five months or more (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Tooth, Deciduous/injuries , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Silver Compounds/therapeutic use , Dental Caries , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dentin/drug effects , Diamines/therapeutic use
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 514-520, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Due to its poor prognosis and mortality rates, heart failure (HF) has been recognized as a malignant condition, comparable to some cancers in developed countries. Objectives: To compare mortality from HF and prevalent cancers using data from a nationwide database in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from Brazilian administrative databases of death records and hospitalization claims maintained by the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed according to main diagnosis, year of occurrence (2005-2015), sex and age group. Descriptive analyses of absolute number of events, hospitalization rate, mortality rate, and in-hospital mortality rate were performed. Results: The selected cancers accounted for higher mortality, lower hospitalization and higher in-hospital mortality rates than HF. In a group analysis, HF showed mortality rates of 100-150 per 100,000 inhabitants over the period, lower than the selected cancers. However, HF had a higher mortality rate than each type of cancer, even when compared to the most prevalent and deadly ones. Regarding hospitalization rates, HF was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization when compared to cancer-related conditions as a group. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that HF has an important impact on mortality, hospitalization and in-hospital mortality, comparable to or even worse than some types of cancer, representing a potential burden to the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Neoplasms/diagnosis
13.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(3): 68-76, 18-jul-2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379527

ABSTRACT

Introducción: uno de los efectos nocivos de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) es su uso sin control, lo que ha generado una adicción hacia ellas. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de tecnoadicción de las TIC en estudiantes universitarios de nivel superior, posgrado y profesionistas de diferentes áreas. Metodología: estudio descriptivo cuya población fueron universitarios de nivel superior, posgrado y profesionistas de diferentes áreas de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) durante el ciclo escolar 2020-2. El muestreo fue no probabilístico. Resultados: al analizar los datos de la Escala de adicción de internet, el 49% respondió que permanece en internet más tiempo del que desea y el 38.2% mencionó que intenta reducir la cantidad de tiempo que pasa en línea. En cuanto al uso compulsivo, el 32.8% mencionó que sigue usando internet a pesar de que su intención es reducir su uso; el 30.5% dice que está corto de sueño debido al uso de internet. Conclusiones: existe tecnoadicción entre profesionistas y estudiantes universitarios de nivel superior y posgrado de la UNAM y del IPN. El personal de salud debe establecer estrategias de prevención del uso del internet para evitar trastornos de salud mental como depresión y aislamiento, entre otros.


Background: One of the harmful effects of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) is their uncontrolled use, which has generated an addiction to them. Objective: To know the prevalence of technology addiction of ICTs in university students of higher level, postgraduate and professionals from different areas. Methodology: Descriptive study whose population was university students of higher level, postgraduate degrees and professionals from different areas of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) during the 2020-2 school year. The sampling was non-probabilistic. Results: When analyzing the data of the Internet addiction scale, 49% responded that they stay on the internet much more time than what they want to, and 38.2% mentioned that they try to reduce the amount of time they spend online. As for compulsive use, 32.8% mentioned that they continue to use the internet despite the fact that their intention is to use it less; 30.5% say they are short of sleep due to internet use. Conclusions: There is technology addiction among professionals and university students of higher and postgraduate levels of UNAM and IPN. Health personnel must establish prevention strategies for the use of internet, in orded to avoid mental health disorders such as depression, isolation, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Information Technology/statistics & numerical data
14.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 80(231): 25-30, jul. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392550

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La caries dental es una enfermedad infecciosa y multifactorial, que co- mienza por una desmineralización del esmalte producida por la acción de ácidos generados por bacterias presentes en el biofilm dental. Estas lesiones se inician como manchas blancas (MB) y es el único estadio de la caries dental capaz de ser revertido mediante la aplicación profesional de agentes remineralizantes, por lo que es fundamental la detección y tratamiento temprano de las mismas. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de manchas blancas en la dentición temporaria de los niños atendidos en el Servicio de Clínica y Orientación del Hospital de Odontología Infantil (HOI) «Don Benito Quinquela Martín¼. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluó una muestra de 94 niños con dentición temporaria, en el Servicio de Clínica y Orientación del HOI, teniendo en cuenta los ingresos y reingresos, durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2019 y febrero de 2020. Resultados: La prevalencia de manchas blancas de un total de 94 niños evaluados fue del 55 %. De los pacientes que presentaron MB, el 59 % fue de sexo masculino y el 41 % de sexo femenino. La media de edad fue de 4.77 años. De los pacientes atendidos, 73 concurrieron por primera vez y 21 pacientes fueron reingresos. Conclusión: La prevalencia de manchas blancas en la muestra evaluada de niños atendidos en el Servicio de Clínica y Orientación del HOI fue del 55 %. Este resultado sugiere la necesidad de continuar y potenciar la promoción de la salud bucal, no solo como herramienta estratégica para brindar conocimientos acerca de los beneficios de una correcta higiene oral y una dieta saludable, sino también como factor de prevención en cuanto a la aparición de lesiones de caries y posteriores consecuencias adversas (AU)


Introduction: Dental caries is an infectious and multifactorial disease that begins with the demineralization of the enamel produced by the action of acids generated by bacteria in the dental biofilm. These lesions start as white spots (WS), and it's the only stage of dental caries capable of being reverted by the professional application of remineralizing agents. Hence, its early detection and treatment are essential. Objective: To determine the prevalence of white spots in the temporary dentition of children treated at the Clinical and Orientation Service of "Don Benito Quinquela Martin" Children's Dentistry Hospital (CDH). Materials and methods: A sample of 94 children with temporary dentition was evaluated on admission and readmission at CDH's Clinical and Orientation Service between September 2019 and February 2020. Results: The prevalence of WS in 94 children evaluated was 55%: 59% of patients who presented WS were males, and 41% were females. The mean age was 4.77 years. Seventy-three patients seen attended for the first time, and the other 21 were readmissions. Conclusion: The prevalence of WS in children who attended CDH's Clinical and Orientation Service was relevant. This result indicates that we must continue and enhance oral health promotion as a strategy to give knowledge about good oral hygiene benefits, a healthy diet, and to prevent the appearance of caries lesions and subsequent consequences (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tooth, Deciduous/pathology , Dental Care for Children , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Service, Hospital , Tooth Remineralization , Fluorides, Topical , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tooth Demineralization/epidemiology
15.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2589, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408998

ABSTRACT

Prescritos en la práctica clínica por su eficacia. En su inicio se utilizó para tratar la angina de pecho. hoy día es usado para el tratamiento de cualquier forma de taquicardia. Objetivo: Reconocer la prescripción de la Amiodarona y sus efectos adversos. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión descriptiva en las bases de datos de Lilacs donde se encontraron 18 artículos y en PubMed/Medline (Mesh) 206 artículos, de los cuales se le aplicaron los criterios de inclusión a 51 artículos. Conclusiones: La amiodarona es uno de los antiarrítmicos más utilizados para el tratamiento de las arritmias, su variedad de efectos adversos y toxicidad es conocida, por tanto, los pacientes en tratamiento ameritan un minucioso monitoreo(AU)


Introduction: Amiodarone is one of the most prescribed antiarrhythmic drugs in clinical practice due to its efficacy. Initially it was used to treat angina pectoris, however, today it is used to treat any form of tachycardia. Objective: To identify the prescription of amiodarone and its adverse effects. Methods: A descriptive review was carried out in Lilacs databases where 18 articles were found and in PubMed/Medline (Mesh) 206 articles were retrieved. The inclusion criteria were applied to 51 articles. Conclusions: Amiodarone is one of the most widely used antiarrhythmic drugs for the treatment of arrhythmias, its variety of adverse effects and toxicity is known, therefore, patients undergoing treatment justify careful monitoring(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Tachycardia/epidemiology , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive
16.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2871, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408995

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El monitoreo continuo del Electroencefalograma, es la recogida simultánea de la actividad cerebral y la conducta clínica por un período de horas a días. Por el alto costo de la técnica aún no está muy difundida. Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad del monitoreo electroencefalográfico continuo en el paciente crítico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y longitudinal en 118 sujetos mayores de 19 años ingresados en las unidades de terapia del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras; entre noviembre 2016 a octubre 2018 con indicación de un Electroencefalograma continuo. Se consideraron variables clínicas y electroencefalográficas: escala de Glasgow, ocurrencia de crisis, diagnóstico, estado al egreso, anormalidad del Electroencefalograma, descargas epileptiformes, sospecha de estatus epiléptico no convulsivo por electroencefalograma entre otras. Los datos se procesaron con test de Chi cuadrado, test de Mc Nemar y test t de student, se empleó un nivel de significación de p≤0.05. Resultados: 60 de los pacientes pertenecían al sexo femenino, la mediana de las edades fue 67,5 años. La escala de Glasgow mostró asociación significativa con el grado de anormalidad del electroencefalograma (p=0,001), es la arreactividad y la discontinuidad de la actividad de base predictores de pobre pronóstico. Se observaron descargas epileptiformes periódicas en 100 pacientes. Se definió estatus epiléptico no convulsivo en 56 sujetos (37,28 por ciento) y en 81 sujetos (68,64 por ciento) el resultado del electroencefalograma motivó una conducta médica. Conclusiones: El monitoreo continuo del electroencefalograma es útil en el diagnóstico y manejo del paciente con episodios no convulsivos, permite formular un pronóstico neurológico y orientó la conducta médica(AU)


Introduction: The continuous monitoring of the electroencephalogram is the simultaneous collection of brain activity and clinical behavior for a period of hours to days. Due to the high cost of the technique, it is not yet widely used. Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of continuous electroencephalographic monitoring in critically ill patients. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out in 118 subjects over 19 years of age admitted to the therapy units at Hermanos Ameijeiras Surgical Clinical Hospital; from November 2016 to October 2018. They were indicated a continuous electroencephalogram. Clinical and electroencephalographic variables were considered, such as Glasgow scale, seizure occurrence, diagnosis, discharge status, electroencephalogram abnormality, epileptiform discharges, suspicion of nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram, among others. The data was processed with the Chi square test, the Mc Nemar test and the student's t test, using significance level of p≤0.05. Results: Sixty patients were female, the median age was 67.5 years. The Glasgow scale showed significant association with the degree of electroencephalogram abnormality (p=0.001). A reactivity and discontinuity of baseline activity are predictors of poor prognosis. Periodic epileptiform discharges were observed in 100 patients. Non-convulsive status epilepticus was defined in 56 subjects (37.28 percent) and in 81 subjects (68.64 percent) the result of the electroencephalogram motivated a medical procedure. Conclusions: The continuous monitoring of the electroencephalogram is useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with non-convulsive episodes, it allows formulating a neurological prognosis and guided medical conduct(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
17.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2772, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408994

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipercolesterolemia familiar es una enfermedad con alta prevalencia, no tratada acorta la esperanza de vida, por lo que el diagnóstico a edades tempranas resulta fundamental. Las pruebas genéticas constituyen el gold standard para el diagnóstico de hipercolesterolemia familiar, sin embargo, la no disponibilidad del test genético no debe constituir un impedimento para la adecuada conducta en estos casos. Objetivo: Identificar criterios clínicos predictores en el diagnóstico por pesquisa de la hipercolesterolemia familiar. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo a partir de una muestra de 393 pacientes (casos índices) de HF en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras; durante el período 2008-2018. Resultados: En la pesquisa familiar fueron identificados 177 (15,66 por ciento) nuevos casos de hipercolesterolemia familiar, de ellos se clasifican como casos positivos 35 (19,77 por ciento), casos probables 58 (32,77 por ciento) y casos posibles 84 (47,46 por ciento). Las categorías del estrato Make early diagnosis to prevent early death MEDPED y la edad del caso índice resultaron ser las variables clínicas de interés con mayor probabilidad para identificar nuevos casos de hipercolesterolemia familiar. Conclusiones: los criterios clínicos estandarizados de la escala make early diagnosis to prevent early death P y la edad del caso índice resultaron ser indicadores predictivos de gran valor para identificar y estratificar casos con variantes fenotípicas de hipercolesterolemia familiar(AU)


Introduction: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disease with high prevalence; it shortens life expectancy if it is not treated, so early diagnosis is essential. Genetic tests are the gold standard for the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia, however, the unavailability of the genetic test should not be an obstacle to proper conduct in these cases. Objective: To identify predictive clinical criteria in the diagnosis by screening of familial hypercholesterolemia. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was carried out from a sample of 393 patients (index cases) of FH at Hermanos Ameijeiras Surgical Clinical Hospital from 2008 to 2018. Results: In the family investigation, 177 (15.66 percent) new cases of familial hypercholesterolemia were identified, 35 of them (19.77 percent) are classified as positive cases, 58 (32.77 percent) as probable cases and 84 as possible cases (47.46 percent)The stratum categories of Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Death (MEDPED) and the age of the index case turned out to be the clinical variables of interest with the greatest probability to identify new cases of familial hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions: The standardized clinical criteria of the make early diagnosis to prevent early death P scale and the age of the index case turned out to be highly valuable predictive indicators to identify and stratify cases with phenotypic variants of familial hypercholesterolemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Dyslipidemias
18.
Educ. med. super ; 36(2)jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404552

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ampliación de la matrícula en la carrera de estomatología y la apertura de nuevos escenarios docentes descentralizados han constituido un reto en la formación de los educandos. Con el ejercicio del examen estatal se certifica la competencia de los egresados. Objetivo: Comparar los resultados de la evaluación final de la asignatura Atención integral a la población con los del examen ordinario estatal de la carrera de estomatología en los escenarios docentes descentralizados de Plaza de la Revolución. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal de los resultados del examen ordinario estatal de la carrera de estomatología en el período 2014-2021, en los escenarios docentes descentralizados de Plaza de La Revolución. Los resultados finales se compararon con la nota final de la asignatura Atención integral a la población. Se trabajó con el universo de los estudiantes (161). Se utilizaron los números enteros y el porcentaje. Resultados: Los resultados de la asignatura Atención integral a la población fueron ligeramente superiores a los obtenidos en la prueba estatal. En ambos predominaron las calificaciones de alto rendimiento, para un 69,5 por ciento y un 57,1 por ciento respectivamente. Conclusiones: La calidad satisfactoria de los resultados docentes de los exámenes finales de Atención integral a la población y el estatal se mantuvieron con una tendencia a la mejoraría de las calificaciones de los últimos tres cursos(AU)


Introduction: An increase in the enrollment acceptance for the dental medicine major and the creation of new decentralized teaching settings have become challenges with respect to the training of students. The state examination certifies the competence of graduates. Objective: To compare the results of the final evaluation corresponding to the subject of Comprehensive Population Care with the results of the first call for the state examination corresponding to the dental medicine major in the context of decentralized teaching settings of Plaza de la Revolución Municipality, Havana, Cuba. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out with the results of the first call for the state examination corresponding to the dental medicine major in the period 2014-2021, in the context of decentralized teaching settings of Plaza de La Revolución Municipality. The final results were compared with the final scores corresponding to the subject of Comprehensive Population Care. The universe of students (161) were included. Integer numbers and percentages were used. Results: The results corresponding to the subject of Comprehensive Population Care were slightly higher than the results obtained in the state examination. Both were characterized by predominantly high performance scores, accounting for 69.5 percent and 57.1 percent, respectively. Conclusions: The satisfactory quality of the teaching results corresponding to the final exams for the subject of Comprehensive Population Care and the state examination maintained a tendency of improving scores in the last three academic years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Total Quality Management/methods , Academic Performance/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oral Medicine/education
19.
Educ. med. super ; 36(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404543

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las competencias específicas, igualmente llamadas técnicas o especializadas, tienen que ver con lo propio de determinadas ocupaciones. Designan aquellas relativas al campo disciplinario, de formación y de experiencia del participante. Son la base particular del ejercicio profesional y están vinculadas a condiciones específicas de ejecución. Objetivo: Determinar las competencias específicas del especialista de medicina general integral para enfrentar la conducta violenta. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y de corte transversal durante el primer semestre de 2020. Se desarrolló un trabajo de grupo con informantes clave que ofrecían atención especializada a las víctimas de situaciones violentas en el Centro Comunitario de Salud Mental del municipio Playa. Se aplicaron diferentes técnicas grupales, entre las que se destacaron: la tormenta y la escritura de ideas, las cuales, unidas a la experiencia y el conocimiento de cada participante, propiciaron el logro del objetivo propuesto. Resultados: Como principal aporte teórico se determinó un conjunto de competencias que permitieron al especialista de medicina general integral enfrentar las conductas violentas, orientadas esencialmente a la prevención y la detección temprana de esta compleja problemática de salud. Conclusiones: Resultó pertinente determinar un sistema de competencias, en términos de conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes, que permitieran al especialista de medicina general integral enfrentar el comportamiento violento, al considerar que la asistencia a las víctimas dependería de la capacidad de estos profesionales para reconocer, comprender y responder a situaciones violentas(AU)


Introduction: Specific competences, also called technical or specialized, have to do with what is specific to certain occupations. They refer to those related to the disciplinary, training and expertise area of the participant. They are the particular basis of professional practice and are linked to specific performance conditions. Objective: To determine the specific competences of the family and community medicine specialist to deal with violent behavior. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out during the first semester of 2020. A group work was developed with key informants who provided specialized care to victims of violent situations in the Community Center for Mental Health of Playa Municipality, Havana, Cuba. Different group techniques were applied, with a special interest in brainstorming and writing of ideas, which, together with the experience and knowledge of each participant, favored the achievement of the proposed objective. Results: As the main theoretical contribution, a set of competences was determined that allowed the specialist in family and community medicine to face violent behaviors, oriented essentially to the prevention and early identification of this complex health concern. Conclusions: It was pertinent to determine a system of competences, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes, that would allow the specialist in family and community medicine to face violent behavior; upon considering that assistance to victims would depend on the professionals' ability to recognize, understand and respond to violent situations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services/methods , Behavior , Attitude , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , General Practice
20.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1533, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408452

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trasplante es la opción terapéutica más favorable para las personas con insuficiencia renal crónica. El donante puede ser cadavérico o donante vivo, emparentado o no. Los resultados del trasplante están en relación con varios factores inmunológicos y no inmunológicos. Objetivo: Caracterizar inmunogenéticamente a los donantes cadavéricos cubanos para trasplante renal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo de los donantes cadavéricos durante el año 2019. Se analizó la región de procedencia, sexo, color de la piel y rangos de edades de los donantes, así como, grupo sanguíneos ABO y Rhesus Rh; serología para VIH, Virus de hepatitis B(VHB) y Virus de hepatitis C (VHC); y hábitos tóxicos. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 95 donantes cadavéricos, 62 provenientes del occidente y 33 del centro del país. El 63,2 por ciento fueron masculinos y 36,8 por ciento femenino. El grupo de edad de mayor frecuencia fue 40 - 60 años y la edad media de 49,45 años. El 58,95 por ciento de los pacientes fueron de grupo sanguíneo O; 30,53 por ciento grupo A y los grupos B y AB tuvieron 5,26 por ciento de prevalencia; y solo 8 fueron Rh negativos. Todos tuvieron serología para VIH, VHB y VHC negativas. Las enfermedades asociadas más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus. Conclusiones: Los donantes cadavéricos durante el año 2019 mostraron características similares a las reportadas por otros estudios. El aumento de las edades de los donantes incide en la aparición de enfermedades asociadas y esto pudiera repercutir en el resultado del trasplante(AU)


Introduction: Transplantation is the most favorable therapeutic option for people with chronic renal failure. The donor can be a cadaveric or living donor, related or not. Transplant outcomes are related to various immunological and non-immunological factors. Objective: To characterize Cuban cadaveric donors for renal transplantation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study of cadaveric donors was carried out during the year 2019. The region of origin, sex, skin color and age ranges of the donors were analyzed, as well as ABO and Rhesus Rh blood groups; serology for HIV, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and toxic habits. Results: A total of 95 cadaveric donors were studied, 62 from the West and 33 from the Center of the country. 63.2 percent were male and 36.8 percent female due to the most frequent age group being 40-60 years and the mean age of 49.45 years. 58.95 percent of the patients were of blood group O, 30.53 percent group A and groups B and AB had 5.26 percent prevalence; and only 8 were Rh negative. All had negative serology for HIV, HBV and HCV. The most frequent associated diseases were arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: The cadaveric donors during the year 2019 showed characteristics similar to those reported by other studies. The increase in the age of the donors affects the appearance of associated diseases and this could affect the result of the transplant(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue Donors , Blood Group Antigens , Skin Pigmentation , Survivors , Living Donors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Immunologic Factors , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
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