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1.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3524, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289651

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cáncer de esófago avanzado es una de las neoplasias más agresivas con una elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. Botsuana ocupa el duodécimo cuarto puesto mundial con respecto a las muertes ocasionadas por esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínico-patológicas de los pacientes con cáncer esofágico avanzado en el Hospital Princess Marina de Gaborone, Botsuana. Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo-descriptivo donde se caracterizó clínica y patológicamente a 45 pacientes con el diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de cáncer de esófago avanzado en el periodo de enero a septiembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (86,7 %) y los pacientes mayores de 60 años (60,0 %). La disfagia, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso fueron los síntomas más frecuentes y prevalecieron los pacientes con un tiempo entre la aparición de los síntomas y el diagnóstico-endoscópico entre tres y seis meses; la dieta inadecuada, el etilismo crónico y el hábito de fumar fueron los factores de riesgo predominantes. La localización anatómica más frecuente fue el tercio medio (51,1 %), el tipo endoscópico predominante fue el vegetante (46,7 %) y la mayoría de los pacientes presentó el tipo histológico carcinoma epidermoide (95,6 %) bien diferenciado (84,4 %). Conclusiones: El estudio de las características clínico-patológicas de los pacientes con cáncer esofágico avanzado permite su correcta estadificación, siendo una herramienta útil en la valoración multidisciplinaria del tratamiento debido a su complejo manejo clínico e institucional.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Advanced esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive neoplasms with high morbidity and mortality. Botswana ranks 14th in the world for deaths from this disease. Objective: To determine the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with advanced esophageal cancer at the Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Method: A prospective-descriptive study was carried out, where 45 patients with endoscopic and histological diagnosis of advanced esophageal cancer were characterized clinically and pathologically, from January to September 2019. Results: Males predominated (86.7%), and also patients older than 60 years (60.0%). Dysphagia, anorexia and weight loss were the most frequent symptoms, and prevailed patients with three to six months between the appearance of symptoms and endoscopic diagnosis; inadequate diet, chronic alcoholism, and smoking were the predominant risk factors. The most frequent anatomical location was the middle third (51.1%), the predominant endoscopic type was the vegetative (46.7%) and most of the patients presented the histological type squamous cell carcinoma (95.6%) well differentiated (84.4%). Conclusions: The study of the clinical-pathological characteristics of patients with advanced esophageal cancer allows its correct staging, being a useful tool in the multidisciplinary assessment of treatment due to its complex clinical and institutional management.


RESUMO Introdução: O câncer de esôfago avançado é uma das neoplasias mais agressivas com alta morbimortalidade. Botswana ocupa o 14º lugar no mundo em mortes por esta doença. Objetivo: determinar as características clínico-patológicas de pacientes com câncer de esôfago avançado no Hospital Princesa Marina em Gaborone, Botsuana. Método: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo-descritivo em que 45 pacientes com diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de câncer de esôfago avançado foram caracterizados clínica e patologicamente de janeiro a setembro de 2019. Resultados: Predominou o sexo masculino (86,7%) e pacientes com mais de 60 anos ( 60,0%). Disfagia, anorexia e perda de peso foram os sintomas mais frequentes e prevaleceram os pacientes com tempo entre o aparecimento dos sintomas e o diagnóstico endoscópico entre três e seis meses; dieta inadequada, alcoolismo crônico e tabagismo foram os fatores de risco predominantes. A localização anatômica mais frequente foi o terço médio (51,1%), o tipo endoscópico predominante foi o vegetativo (46,7%) e a maioria dos pacientes apresentou o tipo histológico carcinoma espinocelular (95,6%) bem diferenciado (84,4%). Conclusões: O estudo das características clínico-patológicas dos pacientes com câncer de esôfago avançado permite seu correto estadiamento, sendo uma ferramenta útil na avaliação multidisciplinar do tratamento devido ao seu complexo manejo clínico e institucional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy/methods , Botswana , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
2.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1547, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The identification of prognostic factors of esophageal cancer has allowed to predict the evolution of patients. Aim: Assess different prognostic factors of long-term survival of esophageal cancer and evaluate a new prognostic factor of long-term survival called lymphoparietal index (N+/T). Method: Prospective study of the Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital, between January 2004 and December 2013. Included all esophageal cancer surgeries with curative intent and cervical anastomosis. Exclusion criteria included: stage 4 cancers, R1 resections, palliative procedures and emergency surgeries. Results: Fifty-eight patients were included, 62.1% were men, the average age was 63.3 years. A total of 48.3% were squamous, 88% were advanced cancers, the average lymph node harvest was 17.1. Post-operative surgical morbidity was 75%, with a 17.2% of reoperations and 3.4% of mortality. The average overall survival was 41.3 months, the 3-year survival was 31%. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors showed that significant variables were anterior mediastinal ascent (p=0.01, OR: 6.7 [1.43-31.6]), anastomotic fistula (p=0.03, OR: 0.21 [0.05-0.87]), N classification (p=0.02, OR: 3.8 [1.16-12.73]), TNM stage (p=0.04, OR: 2.8 [1.01-9.26]), and lymphoparietal index (p=0.04, RR: 3.9 [1.01-15.17]. The ROC curves of lymphoparietal index, N classification and TNM stage have areas under the curve of 0.71, 0.63 and 0.64 respectively, with significant statistical difference (p=0.01). Conclusion: The independent prognostic factors of long-term survival in esophageal cancer are anterior mediastinal ascent, anastomotic fistula, N classification, TNM stage and lymphoparietal index. In esophageal cancer the new lymphoparietal index is stronger than TNM stage in long-term survival prognosis.


RESUMO Racional: A identificação de fatores prognósticos do câncer de esôfago permitiu prever a evolução dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar diferentes fatores prognósticos da sobrevida em longo prazo do câncer de esôfago e avaliar um novo fator prognóstico da sobrevida em longo prazo chamado índice linfoparietal (N+/T). Método: Estudo prospectivo do Hospital Clínico da Universidade do Chile, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2013. Incluiu todas as operações de câncer de esôfago com intenção curativa e anastomose cervical. Os critérios de exclusão incluíram: câncer em estágio 4, ressecções R1, procedimentos paliativos e operações de emergência. Resultados: Cinquenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos, 62,1% eram homens, a idade média foi de 63,3 anos. Um total de 48,3% eram escamosos, 88% eram cânceres avançados, a colheita média de linfonodos foi de 17,1. A morbidade cirúrgica pós-operatória foi de 75%, com 17,2% de reoperações e 3,4% de mortalidade. A sobrevida global média foi de 41,3 meses, a sobrevida em três anos foi de 31%. A análise multivariada dos fatores prognósticos mostrou que variáveis significativas foram elevação pelo mediastinal anterior (p=0,01, OR: 6,7 [1,43-31,6]), fístula anastomótica (p=0,03, OR: 0,21 [0,05-0,87]), classificação N (p=0,02, OR: 3,8 [1,16-12,73]), estágio TNM (p=0,04, OR: 2,8 [1,01-9,26]) e índice linfoparietal (p=0,04, RR: 3,9 [1,01-15,17]. As curvas ROC do índice linfoparietal, classificação N e estádio TNM apresentam áreas abaixo da curva de 0,71, 0,63 e 0,64, respectivamente, com diferença estatística significativa (p=0,01). Conclusão: Os fatores prognósticos independentes de sobrevida em longo prazo no câncer de esôfago são a elevação mediastinal anterior, fístula anastomótica, classificação N, estágio TNM e índice linfoparietal. No câncer de esôfago, o novo índice linfoparietal é mais forte que o estágio TNM no prognóstico de sobrevida em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods , Cancer Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Chile/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5409, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133733

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is used to provide enteral nutritional support for patients with obstructive oropharyngeal or esophageal neoplasms. The placement of the catheter is considered safe, with few complications. Despite this, a specific complication that is considered rare, has been increasingly described in the literature, i.e., metastasis of head and neck cancer in the gastrostomy stoma. In this report, we described a case of metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in the gastrostomy site, and discussed the possible etiologies and alternatives, seeking to reduce the incidence of this complication.


RESUMO A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea é utilizada para oferecer suporte nutricional enteral para pacientes com neoplasias obstrutivas de orofaringe ou esôfago. A colocação da sonda é considerada segura, com poucas complicações. Apesar disso, uma complicação em particular, considerada rara, está sendo cada vez mais descrita na literatura: a metástase de neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço para o estoma da gastrostomia. Neste relato, descrevemos um caso de metástase de carcinoma espinocelular de laringe para o sítio da gastrostomia, e discutimos as possíveis etiologias e alternativas, buscando diminuir a incidência desta complicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/secondary , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(5): 589-591, May 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012970

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Our case report shows the complexity of dealing with tracheal tumors, highlighting the importance of the method used for staging. In this report, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was crucial to identify the involvement of the esophageal muscular propria in a tracheal tumor and change the surgical planning of the case. Staging this kind of tumor represents a challenge for physicians. There is no evidence in the literature on which methods represent the gold standard for T staging.


RESUMO Neste relato de caso mostramos a complexidade em lidar com tumores traqueais, destacando a importância do método usado para estadiamento. Neste relato, a ecoendoscopia (EUS) foi fundamental para identificar o envolvimento da camada muscular própria esofágica por um tumor traqueal e alterar o planejamento cirúrgico do caso. O estadiamento desse tipo de tumor representa um desafio para os médicos. Não há evidências na literatura sobre quais métodos representam o padrão ouro para o estadiamento T.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tracheal Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Endosonography/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tracheal Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 382-396, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004275

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de esófago en estadio avanzado, es uno de los más agresivos. En Cuba ocupa el décimo lugar entre las causas de muerte. Objetivo: caracterizar clínico y patológicamente a los pacientes con cáncer esofágico diagnosticados en el hospital estudiado. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo-descriptivo donde se efectuó una caracterización clínico-patológica a 59 pacientes con el diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de cáncer de esófago, en el Hospital Faustino Pérez Hernández de Matanzas, de enero del 2016 a diciembre del 2017. Se estudiaron variables como: grupo etáreo, sexo, antecedentes patológicos personales y familiares, factores de riesgo, síntomas y signos predominantes en el diagnóstico, tiempo de aparición de los síntomas, tipo endoscópico, localización, tipo histológico, grado de diferenciación histológica, estadio de la enfermedad, tipo de tratamiento y tiempo de vida posterior al diagnóstico. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino (88.1%) en pacientes mayores de 60 años (52.6%). La disfagia, la astenia y la anorexia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes; el etilismo crónico y el hábito de fumar fueron los factores de riesgo predominantes. La localización anatómica más frecuente fue el tercio medio (54.2%), el tipo endoscópico vegetante (88.1%) y el tipo histológico carcinoma epidermoide bien diferenciado (55.9%). Hubo relación entre el tiempo de inicio de los síntomas entre 3 y 6 meses antes del diagnóstico y el estadio IV de la enfermedad que predominó en 29 pacientes (49.2%). La mayoría de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento oncológico combinado con cirugía paliativa (47.5%) o ningún tratamiento (45.8%) pues el 50.8% de los pacientes fallecieron al mes del diagnóstico demostrando que el diagnóstico del cáncer esofágico se realiza casi siempre en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad cuando son posible pocas opciones terapéuticas. Conclusiones: el cáncer de esófago aún sigue diagnosticándose de forma tardía en estadios avanzados, con elevada prevalencia del carcinoma epidermoide sobre el adedocarcinoma que indica pocas acciones de salud preventivas sobre los factores de riesgo en la población estudiada, existiendo relación entre el estadio avanzado de la enfermedad y el poco tiempo de vida de estos pacientes posterior al diagnóstico.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the advanced-stage esophagus cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers. In Cuba, it is in the tenth place among the death reasons. Objective: to clinically and pathologically characterize the patients with esophageal cancer diagnosed in the mentioned hospital. Materials and methods: a prospective-descriptive study was carried out based on the clinical-histological characterization of 59 patients with the endoscopic and histological diagnosis of esophageal cancer in the Hospital "Faustino Pérez Hernández", of Matanzas, in the period from January 2016 to December 2017. The studied variables were: age group, sex, personal and familiar pathological antecedents, risk factors, symptoms and signs that were predominant in the diagnosis, time passed since the symptoms appeared, endoscopic kind, location, histological kind, level of histological differentiation, disease stage, kind of treatment, and life time after the diagnosis. Results: male sex predominated (88.1 %) in patients older than 60 years (52.6 %). Dysphagia, asthenia and anorexia were the most frequent signs. Alcoholism and smoking were the predominant risk factors. The most frequent anatomic location was the middle third (54.3 %); the endoscopic vegetating kind (88.1 %) and the histological kind well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma (55.9 %) prevailed. The authors found a relation between the beginnings of the symptoms 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis and the disease IV stage predominating in 29 patients (49.2 %). Most of patients underwent oncologic treatment combined with palliative surgery (47.5 %) or no treatment (45.8 %), because 50.8 % of the patients died a month after the diagnosis, showing that the diagnosis of esophageal cancer is almost always achieved at advanced stages of the disease, when few therapeutic options are possible. Conclusions: esophageal cancer is still being diagnosed late, in advanced stages, with a higher prevalence of the epidermoid carcinoma over the adenocarcinoma. It indicates few health preventive actions on the risk factors among the studied population. There is a relation between the disease advanced stage and the few time patients live after the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(2): 170-174, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896438

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To investigate the diagnostic criteria of mediastinal lymph node metastasis (MLNM) in esophageal carcinoma (EC) by comparing the lymph node sizes measured by computed tomography (CT) and obtained by postoperative pathological examination. Method: A total of 305 EC patients were selected. MLNM location, shortest diameter and number were investigated one week before surgery, and then compared with their pathological findings. Results: The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the minimum diameters of MLNM in the thoracic cavity was 8 mm (area under curve [AUC] = 0.766, Youden index = 0.424), 5 mm in supraclavicular fossa (AUC = 0.785, Youden index = 0.494), 6 mm in tracheoesophageal groove (AUC = 0.755, Youden index = 0.405); the sensitivity was increased significantly, and the Youden index was increased significantly when compared with 10 mm. Conclusion: The shortest diameter of diagnostic criteria of lymph nodes in EC could be less than 10 mm on CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Mediastinal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/secondary , Middle Aged
7.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(4): e1405, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasia that requires a multidisciplinary treatment in which survival and prognosis are still not satisfactory. The complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is considered a good prognosis factor, and esophagectomy is indicated. Aim: Survival analysis of cases with pathologic complete response (ypT0 ypN0) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, submmitted to esophagectomy. Methods: Between 1983-2014, 222 esophagectomies were performed, and 177 were conducted to neoadjuvant treatment. In 34 patients the pathologic response was considered complete. Medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed regarding type of chemotherapy applied, amount of radiotherapy, interval between the neoadjuvant therapy and the surgery, body mass index; postoperative complications; hospital admission time and survival. Results: The average age was 55.8 years. Twenty-five patients were subjected to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and nine to neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The total radiation dose ranged from 4400 until 5400 cGy. The chemotherapy was performed with 5FU, cisplatin, and carbotaxol, concomitantly with the radiotherapy. The esophagectomy was transmediastinal, followed by the cervical esophagogastroplasty performed on a average of 49.4 days after the neoadjuvant therapy. The hospital admission time was an average of 14.8 days. During the follow-up period, 52% of the patients submitted to radiotherapy and chemotherapy were disease-free, with 23.6% of them presenting more than five years survival. Conclusions: The neoadjuvant treatment followed by esophagectomy in patients with pathologic complete response is beneficial for the survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.


RESUMO Racional: O carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago é neoplasia de natureza agressiva, que requer tratamento multidisciplinar e tem taxas de sobrevida e prognóstico ainda não satisfatórios. A resposta patológica completa à neoadjuvância com quimioterapia e radioterapia é considerada fator de bom prognóstico e a esofagectomia está indicada. Objetivo: Análise de sobrevida dos casos com resposta patológica completa (ypT0 ypN0) à neoadjuvância com quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia, submetidos à esofagectomia. Métodos: Entre 1983-2014, 222 esofagectomias foram realizadas e 177 foram submetidas ao tratamento neoadjuvante. Em 34 pacientes, a resposta patológica foi considerada completa. Os prontuários dos pacientes foram revisados retrospectivamente quanto ao tipo de quimioterapia aplicada, quantidade de radioterapia, intervalo entre a terapia neoadjuvante e a operação, índice de massa corporal (IMC), complicações pós-operatórias, tempo de internação hospitalar e sobrevida. Resultados: A idade média foi de 55,8 anos. Vinte e cinco pacientes foram submetidos a quimioterapia e radioterapia e nove à radioterapia neoadjuvante. A dose total de radiação variou de 4400 até 5400 cGy. A quimioterapia foi realizada com 5FU, cisplatina e carbotaxol, concomitantemente à radioterapia. A esofagectomia foi transmediastinal, seguida da esofagogastroplastia cervical realizada em média 49,4 dias após a terapia neoadjuvante. O tempo de internação hospitalar foi em média de 14,8 dias. Durante o período de seguimento, 52% dos pacientes submetidos a radioterapia e quimioterapia estavam livres de doença, com 23,6% apresentando sobrevida maior que cinco anos. Conclusão: O tratamento neoadjuvante seguido de esofagectomia, nos pacientes com resposta patológica completa, oferece benefícios na sobrevida de portadores de carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Esophagectomy/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/therapy , Time Factors , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Disease-Free Survival , Neoadjuvant Therapy/mortality , Chemoradiotherapy/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Clinics ; 72(4): 197-201, Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus, and it originates from mesenchymal tissue. This study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of esophageal leiomyoma and aimed to evaluate the role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis and treatment selection for these lesions. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients who had suspected esophageal leiomyomas in endoscopic ultrasonography were enrolled at the Endoscopy Center of The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University from January 1st, 2009 to May 31th, 2015. The main outcomes included the demographic and morphological characteristics, symptoms, comparisons of diagnosis and treatment methods, adverse events, and prognosis. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-seven patients were diagnosed as having an esophageal leiomyoma by pathological examination. The mean patient age was 50.57±9.983 years. In total, 62.9% of the lesions originated from the muscularis mucosa, and the others originated from the muscularis propria. The median distance to the incisors was 30±12 cm. The median diameter was 0.72±0.99 cm. As determined by endoscopic ultrasonography, most existing leiomyomas were homogeneous, endophytic, and spherical. The leiomyomas from the muscularis mucosa were smaller than those from the muscularis propria and much closer to the incisors (p<0.05). SMA (smooth muscle antibody) (97.2%) and desmin (94.5%) were positive in the majority of patients. In terms of treatments, patients preferred endoscopic therapies, which led to less adverse events (e.g., intraoperative bleeding, local infection, pleural effusion) than surgical operations (p<0.05). The superficial leiomyomas presented less adverse events and better recovery (p<0.05) than deep leiomyomas. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic ultrasonography has demonstrated high accuracy in the diagnosis of esophageal leiomyomas and provides great support in selecting treatments; however, EUS cannot completely avoid misdiagnosis, so combining it with other examinations may be a good strategy to solve this problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Endosonography/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Leiomyoma/diagnostic imaging , Mesenchymoma/diagnostic imaging , Data Accuracy , Desmin/metabolism , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/methods , Endosonography/standards , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Leiomyoma/pathology , Leiomyoma/therapy , Mesenchymoma/pathology , Mesenchymoma/therapy , Muscle, Smooth/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Tomography/methods
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(1): 4-10, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Most prevalent esophageal neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Other tumors are uncommon and poorly studied. Primary neuroendocrine esophageal neoplasm is a rare carcinoma and most of its therapy management is based on lung neuroendocrine studies. Neuroendocrine tumors can be clustered in the following subtypes: high grade (small cell carcinoma or large cell carcinoma) and low grade (carcinoids). OBJECTIVE The present study aims to assess clinical and pathological neuroendocrine esophageal tumors in a single oncologic center. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients and review of the literatures was performed. RESULTS Fourteen patients were identified as neuroendocrine tumors, 11 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 67.3 years old. Ten patients were classified as small cell, 3 as large cell and 1 as carcinoid. Four patients presented squamous cell carcinoma simultaneously and 1 also presented adenocarcinoma. Main sites of metastasis were liver, peritoneum, lung and bones. Most patients died before 2 years of follow-up. Patient with longer survival died at 35 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine esophageal tumors are rare; affect mainly men in their sixties or seventies. High grade tumors can be mixed to other subtypes neoplasms, such as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Most of these patients have poor overall survival rates.


RESUMO CONTEXTO As neoplasias esofágicas mais prevalentes são o adenocarcinoma e o carcinoma espinocelular. Outros subtipos histológicos são incomuns e pouco estudados. Neoplasia neuroendócrina esofágica é uma patologia rara e seu manejo atualmente se baseia nos conhecimentos prévios de tumores neuroendócrinos de pulmão. Tumores neuroendócrinos podem ser divididos nas seguintes formas: alto grau (pequenas células ou grandes célula) e baixo grau (carcinoides). OBJETIVO Avaliar clínica e patologicamente os tumores de esôfago em um centro oncológico referenciado. MÉTODOS Foi realizada análise retrospectiva e revisão da literatura de neoplasias neuroendócrinas de esôfago. RESULTADOS Foram identificados 14 pacientes com tumores neuroendócrino, sendo 11 homens, 3 mulheres. Idade média foi de 67,3 anos de idade. Desses pacientes, 10 foram classificados como pequenas células, 3 como grandes células e 1 como carcinoide. Foram encontrados quatro casos de tumor misto neuroendócrino e carcinoma espinocelular, e um caso de tumor misto adenoneuroendócrino. Principal sítio de metástases foi fígado, peritônio, pulmão e ossos. A maioria dos pacientes foi a óbito em até 2 anos de seguimento. Paciente com sobrevida mais longa foi a óbito após 35 meses do diagnóstico. CONCLUSÃO Neoplasias neuroendócrinas de esôfago são raras, afetam principalmente o sexo masculino na 7ª ou 8ª década de vida. A maioria dos pacientes com tumores de alto grau tem sobrevida curta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Retrospective Studies , Neuroendocrine Tumors/mortality , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged
10.
Clinics ; 72(3): 150-153, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common esophageal diseases in the developing world, but the relationship between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Helicobacter pylori infection remains a neglected topic. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A second purpose was to determine the incidence and factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection following esophagectomy. METHOD: The microorganism was identified by testing the gastric biopsy materials from 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients (66 females; 39 were esophagectomized) for urease activity in a medium containing urea and a power of hydrogen detection reagent and comparing the results with those from a healthy population. Differences in patient characteristics were assessed with chi-square tests and t-tests for categorical and continuous factors, respectively. RESULTS: The patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had a significantly lower prevalence of Helicobacter pylori compared with the healthy population (p<0.001). The naive and esophagectomized patients, in contrast, showed no significant differences in Helicobacter pylori infection (p>0.005). Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma showed a significant association between leukocytosis and hypoglobulinemia and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (p=0.023 and p=0.045, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Helicobacter pylori is not an etiological factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We found a statistically significant negative correlation between esophageal squamous cell cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. These findings may guide new strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/microbiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/microbiology , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 29(4): 215-217, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837543

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Knowing esophageal tumors behavior in relationship to lymph node involvement, distant metastases and local tumor invasion is of paramount importance for the best esophageal tumors management. Aim: To describe lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and local tumor invasion in esophageal carcinoma, according to tumor topography and histology. Methods: A total of 444 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 105 adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into four groups: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the three esophageal segments: cervical, middle, and distal. They were compared based on their CT scans at the time of the diagnosis. Results: Nodal metastasis showed great relationship with of primary tumor site. Lymph nodes of hepatogastric, perigastric and peripancreatic ligaments were mainly affected in distal tumors. Periaortic, interaortocaval and portocaval nodes were more commonly found in distal squamous carcinoma; subcarinal, paratracheal and subaortic nodes in middle; neck chains were more affected in cervical squamous carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma had a higher frequency of peritoneal involvement (11.8%) and liver (24.5%) than squamous cell carcinoma. Considering the local tumor invasion, the more cranial neoplasia, more common squamous invasion of airways, reaching 64.7% in the incidence of cervical tumors. Middle esophageal tumors invade more often aorta (27.6%) and distal esophageal tumors, the pericardium and the right atrium (10.4%). Conclusion: Esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in different topographies present peculiarities in lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and local tumor invasion. These differences must be taken into account in esophageal cancer patients' care.


RESUMO Racional: Conhecer o comportamento das neoplasias esofágicas em relação à disseminação linfonodal, distribuição de metástases e invasão local do tumor, pode auxiliar o manejo dos pacientes. Objetivo: Descrever o envolvimento linfonodal, disseminação metastática e invasão local dos carcinomas esofágicos, de acordo com a topografia e o tipo histológico do tumor. Método: Pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma espinocelular de esôfago (n=444) e adenocarcinoma de esôfago (n=105) foram retrospectivamente analisados. Foram divididos em quatro grupos: adenocarcinoma e carcinoma espinocelular do segmento cervical, médio e distal. Tais grupos foram comparados baseando-se em tomografias computadorizadas realizadas no momento do diagnóstico. Resultados: Disseminação linfonodal mostrou grande associação com topografia do tumor. Linfonodos do ligamento hepatogástrico, perigástricos e peripancreáticos foram acometidos principalmente por tumores de esôfago distal; linfonodos periaórticos, interaortocavais, portocavais no carcinoma espinocelular de esôfago distal; e linfonodos subcarinais, paratraqueais, subaórticos nos tumores de esôfago médio. Cadeias cervicais foram acometidas por espinocelulares cervicais. Adenocarcinoma teve maior frequência de acometimento peritoneal (11,8%) e hepático (24,5%) do que carcinoma espinocelular. Considerando invasão tumoral local, quanto mais cranial a neoplasia, mais comum a invasão do espinocelular em vias aéreas, chegando à incidência de 64,7% nos tumores cervicais. Tumores de esôfago médio invadem mais frequentemente aorta (27,6%) e tumores de esôfago distal, o pericárdio e átrio direito (10,4%). Conclusões: Adenocarcinoma e carcinoma espinocelular de esôfago em diferentes topografias apresentam peculiaridades na disseminação linfática, metástases à distância e invasão local do tumor. Tais diferenças devem ser consideradas no manejo do paciente com carcinoma esofágico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Viscera , Retrospective Studies , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Invasiveness
12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(1): 10-19, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777112

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Esophageal cancer occurs as a local disease in 22% of cases, and a minority of this disease is limited to the mucosa or submucosa (early lesions). Endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, and argon plasma coagulation have emerged as alternatives to surgical resection for early lesions. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to identify studies that statistically compare survival, disease-free survival, morbidity and mortality associated with the procedure, and mortality associated with cancer in the endoscopic versus surgical therapies. Data sources A systematic review using MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, EBSCO, LILACS, Library University of Sao Paulo, BVS, and SCOPE. Study selection Randomized controlled trial, controlled clinical trial, clinical trial, and cohort study. Criteria - Studies that statistically compare survival, disease-free survival, morbidity and mortality associated with the procedure, and mortality associated with cancer in patients who underwent endoscopic and surgical therapy for early lesions of esophageal cancer. Data extraction Independent extraction of the articles by two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. Limitation Only retrosprospective cohort studies comparing the endoscopic and surgical therapies were recovered. Results The survival rates after 3 and 5 years were different and exhibited superiority with the surgical therapies over time. Endoscopy is superior in the control of mortality related to cancer with a high rate of disease recurrence. With regard to the comorbidity and the mortality associated with the procedure, endoscopy is superior. Conclusion There is no evidence from clinical trials. In this systematic review, surgical therapies showed superiority for survival, and endoscopic therapies showed superiority in the control of mortality related to cancer with a high rate of disease recurrence; also, for the comorbidity and the mortality associated with the procedure, endoscopy is superior. Prospective, controlled trials with large sample sizes are necessary to confirm the results of the current analysis.


RESUMO Contexto Cerca de 22% dos casos de câncer esofágico ocorrem como uma doença local e uma minoria é considerada lesão precoce, isto é, está limitada à mucosa ou submucosa. A ressecção endoscópica da mucosa, dissecção endoscópica da submucosa, a terapia fotodinâmica, a terapia laser e coagulação com plasma de argônio se desenvolveram como alternativas à ressecção cirúrgica para lesões precoces. Objetivo O objetivo desta revisão sistemática é identificar estudos que comparam terapia endoscópica com terapia cirúrgica, quanto à sobrevivência, à sobrevivência livre de doença, à morbidade e a mortalidade associada ao procedimento e a mortalidade associada ao câncer. Fontes de dados - Revisão sistemática utilizando MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, EBSCO, LILACS, Biblioteca da Universidade de São Paulo, BVS e ESCOPE. Seleção de estudo Estudo randomizado controlado, ensaio clínico e estudo de coorte. Critérios Estudos que comparam a sobrevivência, a sobrevivência livre de doença, a morbidade e a mortalidade associadas ao procedimento e mortalidade associada ao câncer na endoscópica e terapia cirúrgica para lesões precoces de câncer de esôfago. Extração de dados Extração independente de artigos com dois autores usando campos de dados pré-definidos, incluindo indicadores de qualidade do estudo. Limitação Somente estudos de coorte retrospectivos comparando endoscopia e a cirurgia foram recuperados. Resultados As taxas de sobrevida após 3 e 5 anos foram diferentes e mostrou-se superioridade das terapias cirúrgicas em relação às endoscópicas ao longo do tempo. A endoscopia é superior no controle da mortalidade relacionada ao câncer com alta taxa de recorrência da doença. Em relação à morbidade e mortalidade associadas ao procedimento, a endoscopia é superior. Conclusão Não há evidências de ensaios clínicos. Esta revisão sistemática mostrou superioridade na sobrevivência das terapias cirúrgicas. As terapias endoscópicas evidenciam superioridade no controle da mortalidade relacionada ao câncer com uma alta taxa de recorrência da doença. Além disso, a endoscopia correlaciona-se com menor morbidade e mortalidade associadas à intervenção. Ensaios controlados com grandes amostras são necessários para confirmar os resultados da análise atual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(8): 580-585, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757987

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) in patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC).METHODS: A total of 50 patients with EC were analyzed for GPS, nutritional and clinicopathologic parameters. Patients with CRP ≤ 1.0mg/L and albumin ≥ 3.5mg/L were considered as GPS=0. Patients with only CRP increased or albumin decreased were classified as GPS=1 and patients with CRP > 1.0mg/L and albumin < 3.5mg/L were considered as GPS=2.RESULTS: GPS of 0, 1 and 2 were observed in seven, 23 and 20 patients, respectively. A significant inverse relationship was observed between GPS scores and the survival rate. The survival rate was greatest in patients with GPS= 0 and significantly higher than those from patients with GPS=1 and GPS=2. Minimum 12-month survival was observed in 71% patients with GPS=0 and in 30% patients with GPS=1. None of the patients with GPS=2 survived for 12 months. A significant relationship between CRP or albumin individually and the survival rate was observed. No significant relationship among nutritional, clinic pathological parameters and survival was found.CONCLUSION:Glasgow Prognostic Score is an useful tool to predict survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Serum Albumin/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/blood , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/blood , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Survival Analysis
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 273-276, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751322

ABSTRACT

Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is one of the most severe clinical manifestations of Graves’ disease (GD), and its treatment might involve high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. The higher incidence of GO among females, and the reported association between polymorphisms of estrogen receptor (ER) and GD susceptibility have led us to question the role of estrogen and its receptor in GO pathogenesis. We, thus, assessed estrogen receptor-alpha (ERA) gene expression in cultures of orbital fibroblasts from a patient with GO before (controls) and after treatment with 10 nM and 100 nM dexamethasone (DEX). Orbital fibroblasts showed ERA gene expression. In the cells treated with 10 nM and 100 nM DEX, ERA gene expression was, respectively, 85% higher and 74% lower, than in the control group. We concluded that ERA gene expression is found in the orbital fibroblasts of patient with GO, which may be affected by glucocorticoids in a dose-related manner. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):273-6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology , Mucous Membrane/pathology
16.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(2): 94-97, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The esophageal cancer is one of the most common and aggressive worldwide. Recently, the AJCC changed the staging system, considering, among others, the important role of the lymph node metastasis on the prognosis. AIM: To discuss the applicability of different forms of lymph node staging in a western surgical center. METHODS: Four hundred eighty seven patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled. Three staging systems were evaluated, the 6th and the 7th AJCC editions and the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio. RESULTS: The majority of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma. The mean lymph node sample was eight. Considering the survival, there was no significant difference between the patients when they were classified by the 7th AJCC edition. Analysis of the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio, just on the group of patients with 0 to 25%, has shown significant difference (p=0,01). The 6th AJCC edition shows the major significant difference between among the classifications evaluated. CONCLUSION: In this specific population, the 7th AJCC edition for esophageal cancer was not able to find differences in survival when just the lymph node analysis was considered. .


RACIONAL: O câncer de esôfago é um dos mais comuns e agressivos que existem. Recentemente o AJCC mudou o sistema de estadiamento, considerando, entre outros fatores, a importância da metástase linfonodal sobre o prognóstico. OBJETIVO: Discutir a aplicabilidade de diferentes formas de estadiamento linfonodal em um serviço de cirurgia ocidental. MÉTODOS: Quatrocentos e oitenta e sete pacientes com câncer de esôfago foram arrolados. Três estadiamentos foram avaliados, a 6a e a 7a Edição do AJCC e o Índice de Metástase Linfonodal. RESULTADOS: A maioria foi casos foi composta por carcinoma epidemóide. A média de amostra linfonodal foi de oito. Considerando a sobrevida, não houve diferença significativa entre os pacientes quando foram classificados pela 7a Edição do AJCC. Analisando o Índice de Metástase linfonodal, apenas o grupo de pacientes com 0-25% mostrou diferença significativa (p=0,01). A 6a Edição do AJCC mostrou a maior diferença entre as classificações avaliadas. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando as características da amostra, a nova classificação do AJCC não foi capaz de evidenciar diferenças significativas na sobrevida dos pacientes, quando apenas o estadiamento linfonodal foi avaliado. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Esophageal Neoplasms/classification , Esophageal Neoplasms/secondary , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 714-719, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze and propose a treatment strategy after endoscopic resection of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a single institution. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 37 patients who were treated by endoscopic resection during a 6-year period. RESULTS: The mean tumor size was 11.5+/-5.5 mm (range, 3 to 31 mm). Thirty-one lesions (83.8%) were treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection, and six lesions were treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (16.2%). The en bloc resection rate and complete resection rate were 91.9% and 81.8%, respectively. The tumor invasion depth was diagnosed as epithelial in five cases (13.5%), lamina propria mucosa in 12 cases (32.4%), muscularis mucosa in 10 cases (27.0%) and submucosa in 10 cases (27.0%). The complication rate was 13.5% and included three cases (8.1%) of perforation. Ten patients who had muscularis mucosa and submucosa lesions received additional treatments, including six patients who were treated with esophagectomy, three patients who were treated with radiotherapy and one patient who was treated with chemoradiotherapy. One patient with lamina propria lesions received radiotherapy due to a positive resection margin. The median follow-up duration was 22 months (range, 4 to 79 months), and no recurrence or metastasis was noted during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Tailored management after endoscopic treatment of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma can offer an acceptable oncologic outcome in early esophageal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Protocols , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Chemoradiotherapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Dissection , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy , Esophagoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Postoperative Care , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 470-477, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic resection (ER) of superficial esophageal neoplasm (SEN) is a technically difficult procedure. We investigated the clinical outcomes of ER for SEN to determine its feasibility and effectiveness. METHODS: Subjects who underwent ER for SEN at Asan Medical Center between December 1996 and December 2010 were eligible. The clinical features of patients and tumors, histopathological characteristics, adverse events, ER results and survival were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients underwent ER for 147 SENs. En bloc resection (EnR) was performed in 118 lesions (80.3%). Complete resection (CR) was accomplished in 128 lesions (86.5%), and curative resection (CuR) was performed in 118 lesions (79.7%). The EnR, CR, and CuR rates were significantly greater in the endoscopic submucosal dissection group when compared to those in the endoscopic resection group. Adverse events occurred in 22 patients (17.1%), including bleeding (n=2, 1.6%), perforation (n=12, 9.3%), and stricture (n=8, 6.2%). Local tumor recurrence occurred in 2.0% of patients during a median follow-up of 34.8 months. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 94.0% and 97.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ER is a feasible and effective method for the treatment of SEN as indicated by favorable clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease-Free Survival , Dissection/adverse effects , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Perforation/epidemiology , Esophageal Stenosis/epidemiology , Esophagoscopy/adverse effects , Female , Gastric Mucosa/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Postoperative Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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