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Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 79-83, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935583


Objective: To compare the effects of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on the long-term survival of patients with radical resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Totally 1 082 patients with stage T3-4aN0-3M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited in this study who underwent radical resection at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fourth Hospital, Hebei Medical University from January 2005 to January 2015. There were 798 males and 284 females, with a median age of 61 years (range: 37 to 86 years). There were 138 patients undergoing preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 392 patients postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and 552 patients surgery alone. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was used as the benchmark group to match the propensity score with the adjuvant chemotherapy group and the surgery-only group respectively at a ratio of 1∶3. A total of 7 covariates including tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor invasion depth, tumor differentiation degree, surgical procedure, vascular tumor thrombus and nerve invasion were included, and the caliper value was taken as 0.1. After matching, a total of 699 patients were included for the analysis, including 128 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group, 267 patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group, and 304 patients in the surgery alone group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves which was tested by the Log-rank method for survival analysis. Results: After matching analysis, the 5-year overall survival rate was 41.5% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group with a median overall survival time of 43 months (95%CI: 27 to 59 months), 57.6% in the adjuvant chemotherapy group with a median overall survival time unreached, and 24.9% in the surgery alone group with a median overall survival time of 28 months (95%CI: 25 to 31 months) (χ²=60.475, P<0.01). For overall survival after matching, the adjuvant chemotherapy group was better than the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (χ²=11.384, P=0.001), the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was better than the surgery alone group (χ²=8.654, P=0.003), and the adjuvant chemotherapy group was better than surgery alone group (χ²=60.234, P<0.01). Conclusion: Both preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the long-term survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing radical resection, and the improvement effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is more obvious.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 395-401, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935227


Objective: To construct the diagnostic model of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and precancerous lesions in endoscopic images based on the YOLOv5l model by using deep learning method of artificial intelligence to improve the diagnosis of early ESCC and precancerous lesions under endoscopy. Methods: 13, 009 endoscopic esophageal images of white light imaging (WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI) and lugol chromoendoscopy (LCE) were collected from June 2019 to July 2021 from 1, 126 patients at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, including low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, ESCC limited to the mucosal layer, benign esophageal lesions and normal esophagus. By computerized random function method, the images were divided into a training set (11, 547 images from 1, 025 patients) and a validation set (1, 462 images from 101 patients). The YOLOv5l model was trained and constructed with the training set, and the model was validated with the validation set, while the validation set was diagnosed by two senior and two junior endoscopists, respectively, to compare the diagnostic results of YOLOv5l model and those of the endoscopists. Results: In the validation set, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the YOLOv5l model in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes were 96.9%, 87.9%, 98.3%, 88.8%, 98.1%, and 98.6%, 89.3%, 99.5%, 94.4%, 98.2%, and 93.0%, 77.5%, 98.0%, 92.6%, 93.1%, respectively. The accuracy in the NBI model was higher than that in the WLI model (P<0.05) and lower than that in the LCE model (P<0.05). The diagnostic accuracies of YOLOv5l model in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes for the early ESCC and precancerous lesions were similar to those of the 2 senior endoscopists (96.9%, 98.8%, 94.3%, and 97.5%, 99.6%, 91.9%, respectively; P>0.05), but significantly higher than those of the 2 junior endoscopists (84.7%, 92.9%, 81.6% and 88.3%, 91.9%, 81.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: The constructed YOLOv5l model has high accuracy in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in endoscopic WLI, NBI and LCE modes, which can assist junior endoscopists to improve diagnosis and reduce missed diagnoses.

Artificial Intelligence , Endoscopy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Narrow Band Imaging , Precancerous Conditions/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1229-1232, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-952431


Objective: To investigate the clinical features of patients with cardiac metastases from digestive system tumors. Methods: This retrospective study collected and analyzed the medical records of patients with cardiac metastases from digestive system tumors who received treatments in the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between January 1999 and January 2021. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: A total of 19 patients were identified. The primary tumors were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n=7), gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (n=6), hepatobiliary cancers (n=3) and colorectal cancers (n=3). 16 patients had pericardial metastases, 2 patients had right atrium metastases, and 1 patient had left ventricle metastasis. The most common symptom was dyspnea, which was present in 8 cases. 7 patients received locoregional treatment, while 11 patients underwent systemic therapies. The median overall survival from diagnosis of primary cancer was 31.4 months, and the median overall survival time from diagnosis of cardiac metastasis was 4.7 months. Conclusion: Cardiac metastasis from digestive system tumors is associated with low incidence and a poor prognosis. Systemic treatment remains the cornerstone of management, while novel anti-tumor drugs may improve therapeutic efficacy.

Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Digestive System Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1160-1167, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-952422


Objective: To explore the function and mechanism of long non-coding RNA MIR503HG in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: The MIR503HG expression data in 60, 119 and 23 cases of ESCC and their paired adjacent tissues were chosen from three ESCC datasets GSE53622, GSE53624 and GSE130078, respectively. The expression data of MIR503HG in 81 ESCC tissues and 271 unpaired normal esophageal tissues were screened from the combined dataset of Cancer Genome Atlas and Genotype-Tissue Expression Database (TCGA+ GTEx). The MIR503HG knockdown plasmid was constructed, packaged into lentivirus. The lentivirus was used to infect with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines KYSE30 and KYSE510 to screen out the stable MIR503HG knockdown cell lines. ESCC cell line KYSE30 was transiently transfected with miRNA mimics to overexpress hsa-miR-503-3p and hsa-miR-503-5p.The expression levels of MIR503HG, hsa-miR-503-3p and hsa-miR-503-5p were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The proliferation ability of the cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 and clone formation assay. The invasion and migration ability of the cells were detected by Transwell assay. Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of MIR503HG on the proliferation of ESCC was detected by xenograft experiment in BALB/c-nu/nu mice. Results: Both GEO and TCGA+ GTEx databases showed that the expression of MIR503HG in ESCC tissues was higher than that in adjacent tissues and normal esophageal tissues (P<0.01). Compared with shNC group, the proliferation rates of KYSE30 and KYSE510 cells after knockdown of MIR503HGwere significantly inhibited (P<0.001). The colony formation numbers of KYSE30 cells in shMIR503HG1 group and shMIR503HG2 group were (2.00±1.41) and (1.33±0.47), respectively, significantly lower than that of the shNC group (P=0.002). The clone formation numbers of KYSE510 cells in shMIR503HG1 group and shMIR503HG2 group were (174.67±15.97) and (80.33±6.34), respectively, significantly lower than that of the shNC group (P<0.001). The invasive numbers of KYSE30 cells in shMIR503HG1 group and shMIR503HG2 group were 75.33±6.02 and 45.67±7.59, significantly lower than that of the shNC group(P<0.001). The migrating number of KYSE30 cells in shMIR503HG1 group and shMIR503HG2 group were 244.00±10.23 and 210.67±13.52, significantly lower than that of the shNC group(P<0.001), and the cell cycle was arrested in G(0)/G(1) phase. The xenograft experiment showed that the subcutaneous tumor in shMIR503HG group was significantly smaller than that in shNC group, and the tumor weight in shMIR503HG group was (0.097±0.026) g, which was lower than (0.166±0.021) g in shNC group (P<0.001). After knockdown of MIR503HG, the relative expression levels of hsa-miR-503-3p in KYSE30 cells of shMIR503HG1 group and shMIR503HG2 group were 0.66±0.02 and 0.58±0.00, respectively, the relative expression levels of hsa-miR-503-5p were 0.64±0.00 and 0.68±0.03, respectively, which were all lower than those in shNC group (P<0.01). After knockdown of MIR503HG, overexpression of hsa-miR-503-3p and hsa-miR-503-5p attenuated the inhibitory effects of knockdown of MIR503HG on proliferation (P<0.001), invasion (P<0.01) and migration (P<0.001) of KYSE30 cells. Conclusions: MIR503HG promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of ESCC cells by regulating hsa-miR-503 pathway and can be used as a new potential target for targeted therapy of ESCC.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Mice, Nude , MicroRNAs/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1125-1131, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-952417


Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes, failure patterns and prognostic factors of definitive radiotherapy in patients with cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 148 CEC patients who treated with definitive radiotherapy in Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2001 to December 2017. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy (59.4-70 Gy) and 33.1% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates. The log rank test was used for survival comparison and univariate prognostic analysis. The Cox model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis. Results: The median follow-up time was 102.6 months. The median survival time, 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 22.7 months, 49.9% and 28.3%. The median, 2- and 5-year progression-free survival were 12.6 months, 35.8% and 25.8%. The 2- and 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival were 59.1% and 50.8%. The 2- and 5-year distant metastases-free survival were 74.6% and 65.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that EQD(2)>66 Gy was the only independent prognostic indicator for OS (P=0.040). The median survival time and 5-year OS rate significantly improved in patients who received EQD(2)>66 Gy than those who received≤66 Gy (31.2 months vs. 19.2 months, 40.1% vs. 19.1%, P=0.027). A total of 87 patients (58.8%) developed tumor progression. There were 50 (33.8%), 23 (15.5%) and 39 (26.4%) patients developed local, regional recurrence and distant metastases, respectively. Eleven patients (7.4%) underwent salvage surgery, and the laryngeal preservation rate for entire group was 93.9%. Conclusions: Definitive radiotherapy is an effective treatment for cervical esophageal carcinoma with the advantage of larynx preservation. Local recurrence is the major failure pattern. EQD(2)>66 Gy is associated with the improved overall survival.

Humans , Retrospective Studies , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Radiotherapy Dosage
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 712-716, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940930


Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract, lymph node metastasis is a frequently encountered metastasis in the esophageal cancer patients. The number of lymph node metastasis is reported as an important prognostic factor, and it also affects the choice of postoperative treatments in the esophageal cancer. It was reported that the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph nodes are the most common sites of nodal metastasis and need to be completely dissected during the esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancers. Dissection of the lymph nodes along bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves not only improves the accuracy of staging, but also improves postoperative survival of esophageal cancer patients due to reducing the local recurrence. However, it also brings problems such as injury of laryngeal recurrent nerves, and increases postoperative complications such as pulmonary complications and malnutrition due to aspiration and coughing. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the structure and function of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves during esophagectomy through careful manipulations, and minimize the impact of complications in prognosis and quality of life from injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2143-2156, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948560


Esophageal cancer (EC) has a high incidence and poor prognosis. The two major histological types, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, differ in their epidemiology and treatment options. Patients with locally advanced EC benefit from multimodal therapy concepts including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and perioperative chemotherapy. Currently, immunotherapy for the solid tumor is a hot spot. Treatment with adjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is the first immunotherapy for resectable EC listed in the latest National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for the Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Cancers. Recent clinical trials have established ICIs for three treatment models of resectable EC. Their short-term results demonstrated ideal efficacy and tolerable toxicity, though some concerns remain. This review summarizes the novel data on the ICIs for resectable EC and lists the registered related clinical trials. Hopefully, this review can provide a reference for ongoing research on the treatment options for resectable EC.

Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Immunotherapy
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1066-1075, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948314


Although the incidence rate of esophageal cancer in China is on the decline, China is still a high-incidence country of esophageal cancer with great regional variation. In recent years, the five-year survival of esophageal cancer in China has improved significantly. However, due to the absence of typical symptoms in early stage, there still exists a large esophageal cancer diagnostic yield gap between China and developed countries. At present, there are no international guidelines defining the target population for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) screening. Exploring and implementing effective esophageal cancer screening together with early diagnosis and early treatment are the keys to reducing the mortality and improving the survival rate and life quality. Endoscopic therapies, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), are used to treat early-stage esophageal cancer. If the tumor invasion is deep or lymph node metastasis is suspected, surgery is needed, meanwhile radiation therapy could also be an optional treatment. Regular follow-up and surveillance are required for any strategy above to deal with relapse and metachronous primary cancers. The Early Diagnosis and Treatment Group of the Chinese Medical Association Oncology Branch has reached an expert consensus on screening and diagnostic protocols for esophageal cancer, on endoscopic and surgical treatment of early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions, as well as on postoperative monitoring and adjuvant therapy. This consensus follows the evidence-based medicine at both domestic and international levels, combines the current clinical practice and application experience in the treatment of esophageal cancer in China, is based on a multidisciplinary treatment model, and can be used as a reference for clinicians.

Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Consensus , Early Detection of Cancer , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/methods , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927899


Objective: To investigate the effect of Xuanfu Daizhe decoction on the stemness of esophageal cancer cells. Methods: The BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into the control group and experimental group, 5 mice in each group, which were continuously administered with normal saline and Xuanfu Daizhe decoction (9.89 g/kg) by gastrogavage, respectively. Human esophageal carcinoma cells ECA-109 (5×106) were subcutaneously injected into the mice on the 8th day. Tumor volume was measured twice a week. The mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after injection, and the tumor tissue and mouse serum were collected. The expressions of the major stemness-regulating transcription factors, i.e., NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2, were detected by RT-qPCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. ECA-109 cells were treated with 10% fetal bovine serum and serum from the above two groups of mice for 48 hours respectively, and three replicate wells were set in each group, and the expressions of NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and the levels of AKT and p-AKT were detected by RT-qPCR and Western Blot, respectively. ALDH activity in tumor cells was detected by flow cytometry; the number of spheroids of tumor cells was detected by the spheroidization experiment. Results: Compared with the control group, the growth and size of esophageal cancer tumors were significantly inhibited by Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction; the expressions of NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, the ALDH activity, the number of spheroids, and the levels of AKT and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in esophageal cancer cells were significantly reduced by Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction inhibits the stemness of esophageal cancer cells, it may be a potentially effective drug for the treatment of esophageal cancer and provides a theoretical basis for the exploration of new effective drugs for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

Animals , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Transcription Factors
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 813-819, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927525


BACKGROUND@#Family clustering of esophageal cancer (EC) has been found in high-risk areas of China. However, the relationships between cancer family history and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions (ECPL) have not been comprehensively reported in recent years. This study aimed to provide evidence for identification of high-risk populations.@*METHODS@#This study was conducted in five high-risk areas in China from 2017 to 2019, based on the National Cohort of Esophageal Cancer. The permanent residents aged 40 to 69 years were examined by endoscopy, and pathological examination was performed for suspicious lesions. Information on demographic characteristics, environmental factors, and cancer family history was collected. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to evaluate odds ratios between family history related factors and ECPL.@*RESULTS@#Among 33,008 participants, 6143 (18.61%) reported positive family history of EC. The proportion of positive family history varied significantly among high-risk areas. After adjusting for risk factors, participants with a family history of positive cancer, gastric and esophageal cancer or EC had 1.49-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.62), 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.38-1.67), or 1.66-fold (95% CI: 1.50-1.84) higher risks of ECPL, respectively. Participants with single or multiple first-degree relatives (FDR) of positive EC history had 1.65-fold (95% CI: 1.47-1.84) or 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.46-2.54) higher risks of ECPL. Participants with FDRs who developed EC before 35, 45, and 50 years of age had 4.05-fold (95% CI: 1.30-12.65), 2.11-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.25), and 1.91-fold (95% CI: 1.44-2.54) higher risks of ECPL, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Participants with positive family history of EC had significantly higher risk of ECPL. This risk increased with the number of EC positive FDRs and EC family history of early onset. Distinctive genetic risk factors of the population in high-risk areas of China require further investigation.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR-EOC-17010553.

Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936055


Adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) is at a special anatomic site with obviously higher morbidity of postoperative complication than gastric cancers at other sites. Postoperative quality of life and survival rate are influenced by the occurrence of complications. Moreover, the perioperative complications are associated with multiple factors such as patient factors (advanced age, obesity and preoperative nutritional status), surgical factors (surgical route, surgical procedure, resection range and prophylactic multivisceral resection), tumor factors (size, stage) etc. Optimizing perioperative management and formulating standardized surgical methods are the key points to prevent postoperative complications of AEG. In conclusion, we should strive to ensure the radical resection and reduce the occurrence of postoperative complications in order to truly benefit patients.

Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Gastrectomy , Humans , Neoplasm Staging , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3524, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289651


RESUMEN Introducción: El cáncer de esófago avanzado es una de las neoplasias más agresivas con una elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. Botsuana ocupa el duodécimo cuarto puesto mundial con respecto a las muertes ocasionadas por esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínico-patológicas de los pacientes con cáncer esofágico avanzado en el Hospital Princess Marina de Gaborone, Botsuana. Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo-descriptivo donde se caracterizó clínica y patológicamente a 45 pacientes con el diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de cáncer de esófago avanzado en el periodo de enero a septiembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (86,7 %) y los pacientes mayores de 60 años (60,0 %). La disfagia, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso fueron los síntomas más frecuentes y prevalecieron los pacientes con un tiempo entre la aparición de los síntomas y el diagnóstico-endoscópico entre tres y seis meses; la dieta inadecuada, el etilismo crónico y el hábito de fumar fueron los factores de riesgo predominantes. La localización anatómica más frecuente fue el tercio medio (51,1 %), el tipo endoscópico predominante fue el vegetante (46,7 %) y la mayoría de los pacientes presentó el tipo histológico carcinoma epidermoide (95,6 %) bien diferenciado (84,4 %). Conclusiones: El estudio de las características clínico-patológicas de los pacientes con cáncer esofágico avanzado permite su correcta estadificación, siendo una herramienta útil en la valoración multidisciplinaria del tratamiento debido a su complejo manejo clínico e institucional.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Advanced esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive neoplasms with high morbidity and mortality. Botswana ranks 14th in the world for deaths from this disease. Objective: To determine the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with advanced esophageal cancer at the Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Method: A prospective-descriptive study was carried out, where 45 patients with endoscopic and histological diagnosis of advanced esophageal cancer were characterized clinically and pathologically, from January to September 2019. Results: Males predominated (86.7%), and also patients older than 60 years (60.0%). Dysphagia, anorexia and weight loss were the most frequent symptoms, and prevailed patients with three to six months between the appearance of symptoms and endoscopic diagnosis; inadequate diet, chronic alcoholism, and smoking were the predominant risk factors. The most frequent anatomical location was the middle third (51.1%), the predominant endoscopic type was the vegetative (46.7%) and most of the patients presented the histological type squamous cell carcinoma (95.6%) well differentiated (84.4%). Conclusions: The study of the clinical-pathological characteristics of patients with advanced esophageal cancer allows its correct staging, being a useful tool in the multidisciplinary assessment of treatment due to its complex clinical and institutional management.

RESUMO Introdução: O câncer de esôfago avançado é uma das neoplasias mais agressivas com alta morbimortalidade. Botswana ocupa o 14º lugar no mundo em mortes por esta doença. Objetivo: determinar as características clínico-patológicas de pacientes com câncer de esôfago avançado no Hospital Princesa Marina em Gaborone, Botsuana. Método: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo-descritivo em que 45 pacientes com diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de câncer de esôfago avançado foram caracterizados clínica e patologicamente de janeiro a setembro de 2019. Resultados: Predominou o sexo masculino (86,7%) e pacientes com mais de 60 anos ( 60,0%). Disfagia, anorexia e perda de peso foram os sintomas mais frequentes e prevaleceram os pacientes com tempo entre o aparecimento dos sintomas e o diagnóstico endoscópico entre três e seis meses; dieta inadequada, alcoolismo crônico e tabagismo foram os fatores de risco predominantes. A localização anatômica mais frequente foi o terço médio (51,1%), o tipo endoscópico predominante foi o vegetativo (46,7%) e a maioria dos pacientes apresentou o tipo histológico carcinoma espinocelular (95,6%) bem diferenciado (84,4%). Conclusões: O estudo das características clínico-patológicas dos pacientes com câncer de esôfago avançado permite seu correto estadiamento, sendo uma ferramenta útil na avaliação multidisciplinar do tratamento devido ao seu complexo manejo clínico e institucional.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy/methods , Botswana , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887529


INTRODUCTION@#We report outcomes of patients with oesophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) plus surgery or definitive chemoradiotherapy (chemoRT) at our institution.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent chemoRT from 2005 to 2017. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival (DFS) and toxicities.@*RESULTS@#We identified 96 patients with median age of 64 years and squamous cell carcinoma in 82.3%. Twenty-nine patients (30.2%) received NACRT plus surgery, 67 patients (69.8%) received definitive chemoRT. Median follow-up was 13.5 months. The 3/5-year OS were 26.4%/13.4%, and 59.6%/51.6% in the definitive chemoRT and NACRT plus surgery groups, respectively. The 3/5-year DFS were 19.3%/12.3%, and 55.7%/37.2% in the definitive chemoRT and NACRT plus surgery groups, respectively. NACRT plus surgery significantly improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.72, @*CONCLUSION@#NACRT plus surgery improved OS and DFS. However, in view of treatment-related complications, careful selection of patients is warranted. With the predominant histology of our cohort being squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), our results may be more relevant for those with SCC.

Chemoradiotherapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921986


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the correlation of methylation status of dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1) gene in tumor tissues with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients of esophageal cancer.@*METHODS@#Tumor tissue, paracancerous tissue and normal esophageal mucosal specimens of 104 patients with esophageal cancer were collected. Methylation-specific PCR was used to determine the methylation status of the DACH1 gene. Univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression model were used to analyze the correlation between DACH1 methylation status and clinical pathological characteristics of the patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze the relationship between DACH1 methylation status and prognostic survival of patients.@*RESULTS@#The methylation rate of the DACH1 gene in esophageal cancer tumor tissue was 30.77% (32/104), which was higher than those in adjacent tissues (1.92%) and normal esophageal mucosa (0%) (P 0.05) but tumor differentiation, TNM staging, and lymph node metastasis(P< 0.05). The degree of tumor differentiation, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis of patients are independent risk factors for the methylation status of the DACH1 gene. By March 2020, 89 of the 104 patients had died. Among them, the median survival foresophageal cancer patients with DACH1 gene methylation was 22 months, which was lower than 34 months of those without DACH1 methylation (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Methylation of the DACH1 gene may be involved in the occurrence and progress of esophageal cancer. The degree of tumor differentiation, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis of patients are independent risk factors for the methylation status of the DACH1 gene. Patients with esophageal cancer but unmethylated DACH1 gene have a longer prognostic survival.

Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Eye Proteins/genetics , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Methylation , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Transcription Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(3): 180-188, mar 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361584


Objetivo: Demonstrar fatores envolvidos nos distúrbios do sono em profissionais que fazem plantões. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal, cuja amostra foi composta de 244 voluntários, plantonistas da área da saúde, sendo 191 do sexo feminino, que responderam a um questionário socioeconômico, associado à aplicação da Escala de Sonolência de Epworth e ao Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh. Os dados foram analisados pelos coeficientes de Spearman e de Kendall Tau, com distribuição de probabilidade gama. Resultados: Houve significância (p<0,05) com o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh e a atividade física (+0,216), ergonomia (+0,148), filhos (-0,146), valor da remuneração (+0,112) e disfunção durante o dia (+0,352). Também houve significância com a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth e atividade física (+0,138), renda familiar (-0,118), trabalho semanal (-0,151), latência do sono (-0,106), duração do sono (-0,107), eficiência do sono (-0,139) e disfunção durante o dia (+0,170). Por fim, a eficiência do sono teve significiância com profissão (-0,209), tabagismo (+0,402), Escala de Sonolência de Epworth (-0,139) e dissonias com a obesidade (índice de massa corporal >30; razão de chance de 1,40; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 1,02-1,94). Conclusão: As medidas autorrelatadas são prontamente obtidas com questionários validados, como a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth e o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh, encontrando-se correlações com renda familiar, ter ou não filhos, índice de massa corporal, atividade física, ergonomia, condições de trabalho, tabagismo e componentes biopsicossociais. Em virtude do caráter transversal deste estudo é indispensável mais estudos com maior follow-up

Objective: To demonstrate factors involved in sleep disorders in professionals who take shifts. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study whose sample consists of 244 volunteers, on-duty health workers, 191 females, who answered a socioeconomic questionnaire, associated with application of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data were analyzed with Spearman's and Kendall Tau coefficients, and gamma probability distribution. Results: There was significance (p<0,05) with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and physical activity (+0,216), ergonomics (+0,148), children (-0,146), the wage (+0,112), dysfunction during the day (+0,352). Also there was significance with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and physical activity (+0,138), family income (-0,118), weekly workload (-0,151), sleep latency (-0,106), sleep duration (-0,107), sleep efficiency (-0,139), and dysfunction during the day (+0,170). Finally, sleep efficiency was significant with occupation (-0,209), smoking habits (+0,402), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (-0,139), dyssomnia with obesity (body index mass >30; OR of 1,40; CI 95% 1,02-1,94). Conclusion: Self-reported measures are readily obtained with validated questionnaires such as Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, with correlations with family income, having children or not, body mass index, physical activity, ergonomics, working conditions, smoking habits, and biopsychosocial components. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, further research with longer follow-up is indispensable

Humans , Barrett Esophagus/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Barrett Esophagus/surgery , Barrett Esophagus/complications , Barrett Esophagus/etiology , Barrett Esophagus/physiopathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/blood , Barrett Esophagus/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/blood , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/physiopathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/blood , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(1): 46-54, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251834


ABSTRACT Background: Fibrinogen (Fib) to albumin (ALB) fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio as a prognostic index for esophageal cancer has been confirmed. A novel prognostic index was initially proposed with fibrinogen to prealbumin ratio (FPR) in patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Objective: The objective of the study was to study the prognostic role of the novel prognostic index (FPR) in patients with resectable ESCC without any neoadjuvant treatment. Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 372 resectable ESCC patients without any neoadjuvant treatment were included. The best cutoff values were selected by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Two Cox regression analyses with forward stepwise (one for categorical variables and the other for continuous variables) were used to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Results: The best cutoff point was 0.014 for FPR. Patients with lower levels of FPR (≤0.014) had better CSS (50.7% vs. 18.0%, p < 0.001) and OS (48.0% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.001) than patients with higher levels of FPR (> 0.014). Multivariate Cox analyses (categorical and continuous) demonstrated that FPR was an independent prognostic factor in CSS (categorical: hazard ratio [HR]: 2.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.504-2.697, p < 0.001; continuous per 0.01: HR: 1.438, 95% CI: 1.154-1.793, p = 0.001) and OS (categorical: HR: 1.964, 95% CI: 1.475-2.617, p < 0.001; continuous per 0.01: HR: 1.429, 95% CI: 1.146-1.781, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Our study indicated that FPR served as an independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable ESCC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Prealbumin/metabolism , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5409, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133733


ABSTRACT Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is used to provide enteral nutritional support for patients with obstructive oropharyngeal or esophageal neoplasms. The placement of the catheter is considered safe, with few complications. Despite this, a specific complication that is considered rare, has been increasingly described in the literature, i.e., metastasis of head and neck cancer in the gastrostomy stoma. In this report, we described a case of metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in the gastrostomy site, and discussed the possible etiologies and alternatives, seeking to reduce the incidence of this complication.

RESUMO A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea é utilizada para oferecer suporte nutricional enteral para pacientes com neoplasias obstrutivas de orofaringe ou esôfago. A colocação da sonda é considerada segura, com poucas complicações. Apesar disso, uma complicação em particular, considerada rara, está sendo cada vez mais descrita na literatura: a metástase de neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço para o estoma da gastrostomia. Neste relato, descrevemos um caso de metástase de carcinoma espinocelular de laringe para o sítio da gastrostomia, e discutimos as possíveis etiologias e alternativas, buscando diminuir a incidência desta complicação.

Humans , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/secondary , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1547, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152619


ABSTRACT Background: The identification of prognostic factors of esophageal cancer has allowed to predict the evolution of patients. Aim: Assess different prognostic factors of long-term survival of esophageal cancer and evaluate a new prognostic factor of long-term survival called lymphoparietal index (N+/T). Method: Prospective study of the Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital, between January 2004 and December 2013. Included all esophageal cancer surgeries with curative intent and cervical anastomosis. Exclusion criteria included: stage 4 cancers, R1 resections, palliative procedures and emergency surgeries. Results: Fifty-eight patients were included, 62.1% were men, the average age was 63.3 years. A total of 48.3% were squamous, 88% were advanced cancers, the average lymph node harvest was 17.1. Post-operative surgical morbidity was 75%, with a 17.2% of reoperations and 3.4% of mortality. The average overall survival was 41.3 months, the 3-year survival was 31%. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors showed that significant variables were anterior mediastinal ascent (p=0.01, OR: 6.7 [1.43-31.6]), anastomotic fistula (p=0.03, OR: 0.21 [0.05-0.87]), N classification (p=0.02, OR: 3.8 [1.16-12.73]), TNM stage (p=0.04, OR: 2.8 [1.01-9.26]), and lymphoparietal index (p=0.04, RR: 3.9 [1.01-15.17]. The ROC curves of lymphoparietal index, N classification and TNM stage have areas under the curve of 0.71, 0.63 and 0.64 respectively, with significant statistical difference (p=0.01). Conclusion: The independent prognostic factors of long-term survival in esophageal cancer are anterior mediastinal ascent, anastomotic fistula, N classification, TNM stage and lymphoparietal index. In esophageal cancer the new lymphoparietal index is stronger than TNM stage in long-term survival prognosis.

RESUMO Racional: A identificação de fatores prognósticos do câncer de esôfago permitiu prever a evolução dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar diferentes fatores prognósticos da sobrevida em longo prazo do câncer de esôfago e avaliar um novo fator prognóstico da sobrevida em longo prazo chamado índice linfoparietal (N+/T). Método: Estudo prospectivo do Hospital Clínico da Universidade do Chile, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2013. Incluiu todas as operações de câncer de esôfago com intenção curativa e anastomose cervical. Os critérios de exclusão incluíram: câncer em estágio 4, ressecções R1, procedimentos paliativos e operações de emergência. Resultados: Cinquenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos, 62,1% eram homens, a idade média foi de 63,3 anos. Um total de 48,3% eram escamosos, 88% eram cânceres avançados, a colheita média de linfonodos foi de 17,1. A morbidade cirúrgica pós-operatória foi de 75%, com 17,2% de reoperações e 3,4% de mortalidade. A sobrevida global média foi de 41,3 meses, a sobrevida em três anos foi de 31%. A análise multivariada dos fatores prognósticos mostrou que variáveis significativas foram elevação pelo mediastinal anterior (p=0,01, OR: 6,7 [1,43-31,6]), fístula anastomótica (p=0,03, OR: 0,21 [0,05-0,87]), classificação N (p=0,02, OR: 3,8 [1,16-12,73]), estágio TNM (p=0,04, OR: 2,8 [1,01-9,26]) e índice linfoparietal (p=0,04, RR: 3,9 [1,01-15,17]. As curvas ROC do índice linfoparietal, classificação N e estádio TNM apresentam áreas abaixo da curva de 0,71, 0,63 e 0,64, respectivamente, com diferença estatística significativa (p=0,01). Conclusão: Os fatores prognósticos independentes de sobrevida em longo prazo no câncer de esôfago são a elevação mediastinal anterior, fístula anastomótica, classificação N, estágio TNM e índice linfoparietal. No câncer de esôfago, o novo índice linfoparietal é mais forte que o estágio TNM no prognóstico de sobrevida em longo prazo.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods , Cancer Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Chile/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(5): 589-591, May 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012970


SUMMARY Our case report shows the complexity of dealing with tracheal tumors, highlighting the importance of the method used for staging. In this report, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was crucial to identify the involvement of the esophageal muscular propria in a tracheal tumor and change the surgical planning of the case. Staging this kind of tumor represents a challenge for physicians. There is no evidence in the literature on which methods represent the gold standard for T staging.

RESUMO Neste relato de caso mostramos a complexidade em lidar com tumores traqueais, destacando a importância do método usado para estadiamento. Neste relato, a ecoendoscopia (EUS) foi fundamental para identificar o envolvimento da camada muscular própria esofágica por um tumor traqueal e alterar o planejamento cirúrgico do caso. O estadiamento desse tipo de tumor representa um desafio para os médicos. Não há evidências na literatura sobre quais métodos representam o padrão ouro para o estadiamento T.

Humans , Male , Aged , Tracheal Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Endosonography/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tracheal Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 382-396, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004275


RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de esófago en estadio avanzado, es uno de los más agresivos. En Cuba ocupa el décimo lugar entre las causas de muerte. Objetivo: caracterizar clínico y patológicamente a los pacientes con cáncer esofágico diagnosticados en el hospital estudiado. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo-descriptivo donde se efectuó una caracterización clínico-patológica a 59 pacientes con el diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de cáncer de esófago, en el Hospital Faustino Pérez Hernández de Matanzas, de enero del 2016 a diciembre del 2017. Se estudiaron variables como: grupo etáreo, sexo, antecedentes patológicos personales y familiares, factores de riesgo, síntomas y signos predominantes en el diagnóstico, tiempo de aparición de los síntomas, tipo endoscópico, localización, tipo histológico, grado de diferenciación histológica, estadio de la enfermedad, tipo de tratamiento y tiempo de vida posterior al diagnóstico. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino (88.1%) en pacientes mayores de 60 años (52.6%). La disfagia, la astenia y la anorexia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes; el etilismo crónico y el hábito de fumar fueron los factores de riesgo predominantes. La localización anatómica más frecuente fue el tercio medio (54.2%), el tipo endoscópico vegetante (88.1%) y el tipo histológico carcinoma epidermoide bien diferenciado (55.9%). Hubo relación entre el tiempo de inicio de los síntomas entre 3 y 6 meses antes del diagnóstico y el estadio IV de la enfermedad que predominó en 29 pacientes (49.2%). La mayoría de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento oncológico combinado con cirugía paliativa (47.5%) o ningún tratamiento (45.8%) pues el 50.8% de los pacientes fallecieron al mes del diagnóstico demostrando que el diagnóstico del cáncer esofágico se realiza casi siempre en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad cuando son posible pocas opciones terapéuticas. Conclusiones: el cáncer de esófago aún sigue diagnosticándose de forma tardía en estadios avanzados, con elevada prevalencia del carcinoma epidermoide sobre el adedocarcinoma que indica pocas acciones de salud preventivas sobre los factores de riesgo en la población estudiada, existiendo relación entre el estadio avanzado de la enfermedad y el poco tiempo de vida de estos pacientes posterior al diagnóstico.

ABSTRACT Introduction: the advanced-stage esophagus cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers. In Cuba, it is in the tenth place among the death reasons. Objective: to clinically and pathologically characterize the patients with esophageal cancer diagnosed in the mentioned hospital. Materials and methods: a prospective-descriptive study was carried out based on the clinical-histological characterization of 59 patients with the endoscopic and histological diagnosis of esophageal cancer in the Hospital "Faustino Pérez Hernández", of Matanzas, in the period from January 2016 to December 2017. The studied variables were: age group, sex, personal and familiar pathological antecedents, risk factors, symptoms and signs that were predominant in the diagnosis, time passed since the symptoms appeared, endoscopic kind, location, histological kind, level of histological differentiation, disease stage, kind of treatment, and life time after the diagnosis. Results: male sex predominated (88.1 %) in patients older than 60 years (52.6 %). Dysphagia, asthenia and anorexia were the most frequent signs. Alcoholism and smoking were the predominant risk factors. The most frequent anatomic location was the middle third (54.3 %); the endoscopic vegetating kind (88.1 %) and the histological kind well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma (55.9 %) prevailed. The authors found a relation between the beginnings of the symptoms 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis and the disease IV stage predominating in 29 patients (49.2 %). Most of patients underwent oncologic treatment combined with palliative surgery (47.5 %) or no treatment (45.8 %), because 50.8 % of the patients died a month after the diagnosis, showing that the diagnosis of esophageal cancer is almost always achieved at advanced stages of the disease, when few therapeutic options are possible. Conclusions: esophageal cancer is still being diagnosed late, in advanced stages, with a higher prevalence of the epidermoid carcinoma over the adenocarcinoma. It indicates few health preventive actions on the risk factors among the studied population. There is a relation between the disease advanced stage and the few time patients live after the diagnosis.

Humans , Male , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Study