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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 259-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969832

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of abnormal liver function in patients with advanced esophageal squamous carcinoma treated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody SHR-1210 alone or in combination with apatinib and chemotherapy. Methods: Clinical data of 73 patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma from 2 prospective clinical studies conducted at the Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from May 11, 2016, to November 19, 2019, were analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis of influencing factors. Results: Of the 73 patients, 35 had abnormal liver function. 13 of the 43 patients treated with PD-1 antibody monotherapy (PD-1 monotherapy group) had abnormal liver function, and the median time to first abnormal liver function was 55 days. Of the 30 patients treated with PD-1 antibody in combination with apatinib and chemotherapy (PD-1 combination group), 22 had abnormal liver function, and the median time to first abnormal liver function was 41 days. Of the 35 patients with abnormal liver function, 2 had clinical symptoms, including malaise and loss of appetite, and 1 had jaundice. 28 of the 35 patients with abnormal liver function returned to normal and 7 improved to grade 1, and none of the patients had serious life-threatening or fatal liver function abnormalities. Combination therapy was a risk factor for patients to develop abnormal liver function (P=0.007). Conclusions: Most of the liver function abnormalities that occur during treatment with PD-1 antibody SHR-1210 alone or in combination with apatinib and chemotherapy are mild, and liver function can return to normal or improve with symptomatic treatment. For patients who receive PD-1 antibody in combination with targeted therapy and chemotherapy and have a history of long-term previous smoking, alcohol consumption and hepatitis B virus infection, liver function should be monitored and actively managed in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/drug therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Prospective Studies , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Liver Diseases/etiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 160-164, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969819

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influence factors of poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the predictive value of inflammatory reaction indexes including neutrophils and lymphocytes ratio (NLR), platelet and lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte and lymphocyte ratio (MLR) provision and differentiation degree, infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis number on the postoperative recurrence of ESCC. Methods: A total of 130 patients with ESCC who underwent radical resection from February 2017 to February 2019 in Nanyang Central Hospital were selected and divided into good prognosis group (66 cases) and poor prognosis group (64 cases) according to the prognostic effect. The clinical data and follow-up data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent influencing factors of poor prognosis. Spearman correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between preoperative NLR, PLR and MLR with the degree of differentiation, depth of invasion and number of lymph node metastases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy of NLR, PLR and MLR in predicting poor prognosis of ESCC. Results: Univariate analysis showed that the degree of differentiation, the degree of invasion and the number of lymph node metastasis were related to the prognoses of patients with ESCC (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the degree of differentiation, depth of invasion and number of lymph node metastases were independent influencing factors for poor prognosis of patients with ESCC, moderate differentiation (OR=2.603, 95% CI: 1.009-6.715) or low differentiation (OR=9.909, 95% CI: 3.097-31.706), infiltrating into fibrous membrane (OR=14.331, 95% CI: 1.333-154.104) or surrounding tissue (OR=23.368, 95% CI: 1.466-372.578), the number of lymph node metastases ≥ 3 (OR=9.225, 95% CI: 1.693-50.263) indicated poor prognosis. Spearman correlation analysis showed that NLR was negatively correlated with the degree of differentiation and the number of lymph node metastases (r=-0.281, P=0.001; r=-0.257, P=0.003), PLR was negatively correlated with the degree of differentiation, depth of invasion and number of lymph node metastasis (r=-0.250, P=0.004; r=0.197, P=0.025; r=-0.194, P=0.027), MLR was positively correlated with the degree of differentiation and the number of lymph node metastasis (r=0.248, P=0.004; r=0.196, P=0.025). ROC curve analysis showed that the areas under the curve of NLR, PLR and MLR in predicting poor prognosis of ESCC were 0.971, 0.925 and 0.834, respectively. The best cut-off value of NLR was 2.87. The sensitivity and specificity of NLR in predicting poor prognosis of ESCC were 90.6% and 87.9%, respectively. The optimal cut-off value of PLR was 141.75. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor prognosis of ESCC were 92.2% and 87.9%, respectively. The best cut-off value of MLR was 0.40. The sensitivity and specificity of MLR in predicting poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were 54.7% and 100.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The degree of differentiation, the degree of invasion and the number of lymph node metastases are closely related to the poor prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. NLR, PLR and MLR can provide important information for predicting the poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Neutrophils , Lymphocytes , Blood Platelets/pathology , Inflammation , Retrospective Studies
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969818

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze clinicopathological features of circumferential superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions and investigate the risk factors for deep submucosal invasion and angiolymphatic invasion retrospectively. Methods: A total of 116 cases of esophageal squamous epithelial high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by gastroscopy, biopsy pathology and endoscopic resection pathology during November 2013 to October 2021 were collected, and their clinicopathological features were analyzed. The independent risk factors of deep submucosal invasion and angiolymphatic invasion were analyzed by logistic regression model. Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking history (OR=3.090, 95% CI: 1.165-8.200; P<0.05), The AB type of intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) (OR=11.215, 95% CI: 3.955-31.797; P<0.05) were the independent risk factors for the depth of invasion. The smoking history (OR=5.824, 95% CI: 1.704-19.899; P<0.05), the presence of avascular area (AVA) (OR=3.393, 95% CI: 1.285-12.072; P<0.05) were the independent factors for the angiolymphatic invasion. Conclusions: The risk of deep submucosal infiltration is greater for circumferential superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with drinking history and IPCL type B2-B3 observed by magnifying endoscopy, while the risk of angiolymphatic invasion should be vigilant for circumferential superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with smoking history and the presence of AVA observed by magnifying endoscopy. Ultrasound endoscopy combined with narrowband imagingand magnification endoscopy can improve the accuracy of preoperative assessment of the depth of infiltration of superficial squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions and angiolymphaticinvasion in the whole perimeter of the esophagus, and help endoscopists to reasonably grasp the indications for endoscopic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Esophagoscopy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/surgery , Margins of Excision , Risk Factors
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1910-1922, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980975

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common aggressive malignant tumors in the digestive system with a severe epidemiological situation and poor prognosis. The early diagnostic rate of EC is low, and most EC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Multiple multimodality treatments have gradually evolved into the main treatment for advanced EC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. And the emergence of targeted therapy and immunotherapy has greatly improved the survival of EC patients. This review highlights the latest advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy for EC, discusses the efficacy and safety of relevant drugs, summarizes related important clinical trials, and tries to provide references for therapeutic strategy of EC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 871-878, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007381

ABSTRACT

Surgical resection remains the cornerstone of the multidisciplinary treatment for patient with localized esophageal cancer. Lymphadenectomy is a pivotal step of radical esophagectomy, which is advanced technique required. Although the consensus on mediastinal lymph node dissection in the radical esophagectomy had been published in China, no agreement or consensus are available on the abdominal lymph node dissection. Based on the latest guidelines or consensuses, available clinical evidence, and agreements from Chinese expert panel of abdominal lymph node dissection in the radical esophagectomy, Chinese Society of Esophageal Cancer, China Anti-cancer Association organized experts to discuss and write this consensus. The expert consensus focuses on the key points of and makes recommendations for surgical approach, extent of lymphadenectomy, quality control and complication management for abdominal lymph node dissection in the radical esophagectomy in China. Applying a standard and efficient abdominal lymph node dissection in the radical surgical resection for patient with esophageal cancer is important and indispensable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophagectomy/methods , Consensus , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , China , Lymph Nodes/pathology
6.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 802-807, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012311

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of esophageal carcinoma with gland duct differentiation. Methods: The clinical, morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of eight cases of esophageal carcinoma with gland duct differentiation diagnosed from 2012 to 2022 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were summarized. Results: There were four males and four females, with a mean age of 68.5 (range 59-82) years. Two tumors were located in middle esophagus, five in the lower esophagus, and one in the cardia. The mean diameter was 2.4 cm (range 0.6-4.5 cm). The tumor had a bilayer epithelial structure, including the inner luminal epithelium and the outer basal epithelium. Immunohistochemistry showed that CK7 (8/8) and CK18 (8/8) were positive in the inner epithelium. p40 (8/8), p63 (8/8) and CK5/6 (8/8) were positive in the outer epithelium. SMA, calponin and CD117 were all negative. p53 mutants were found in all eight cases (strong and diffuse positivity in 6/8; complete loss of expression in 2/8). No columnar metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia and ectopic gastric mucosa were observed in the surface squamous epithelium in the cases. The mean follow-up time was 21.5 months (range 5-51 months). Seven patients survived and one patient died 31 months after surgery due to recurrence and liver metastasis. Conclusion: Esophageal carcinoma with esophageal gland duct differentiation is a rare tumor with unique histologic and IHC characteristics.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Metaplasia/metabolism , Carcinoma/pathology
7.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 339-345, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986796

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to explore the feasibility of a single-port thoracoscopy- assisted five-step laparoscopic procedure via transabdominal diaphragmatic(TD) approach(abbreviated as five-step maneuver) for No.111 lymphadenectomy in patients with Siewert type II esophageal gastric junction adenocarcinoma (AEG). Methods: This was a descriptive case series study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) age 18-80 years; (2) diagnosis of Siewert type II AEG; (3) clinical tumor stage cT2-4aNanyM0; (4) meeting indications of the transthoracic single-port assisted laparoscopic five-step procedure incorporating lower mediastinal lymph node dissection via a TD approach; (5) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 0-1; and (6) American Society of Anesthesiologists classification I, II, or III. The exclusion criteria included previous esophageal or gastric surgery, other cancers within the previous 5 years, pregnancy or lactation, and serious medical conditions. We retrospectively collected and analyzed the clinical data of 17 patients (age [mean ± SD], [63.6±11.9] years; and 12 men) who met the inclusion criteria in the Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine from January 2022 to September 2022. No.111 lymphadenectomy was performed using five-step maneuver as follows: superior to the diaphragm, starting caudad to the pericardium, along the direction of the cardio-phrenic angle and ending at the upper part of the cardio-phrenic angle, right to the right pleura and left to the fibrous pericardium , completely exposing the cardio-phrenic angle. The primary outcome includes the numbers of harvested and of positive No.111 lymph nodes. Results: Seventeen patients (3 proximal gastrectomy and 14 total gastrectomy) had undergone the five-step maneuver including lower mediastinal lymphadenectomy without conversion to laparotomy or thoracotomy and all had achieved R0 resection with no perioperative deaths. The total operative time was (268.2±32.9) minutes, and the lower mediastinal lymph node dissection time was (34.0±6.0) minutes. The median estimated blood loss was 50 (20-350) ml. A median of 7 (2-17) mediastinal lymph nodes and 2(0-6) No. 111 lymph nodes were harvested. No. 111 lymph node metastasis was identified in 1 patient. The time to first flatus occurred 3 (2-4) days postoperatively and thoracic drainage was used for 7 (4-15) days. The median postoperative hospital stay was 9 (6-16) days. One patient had a chylous fistula that resolved with conservative treatment. No serious complications occurred in any patient. Conclusion: The single-port thoracoscopy-assisted five-step laparoscopic procedure via a TD approach can facilitate No. 111 lymphadenectomy with few complications.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diaphragm/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Feasibility Studies , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy/methods , Gastrectomy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Thoracoscopy
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 334-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986795

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in multimodality treatment offer excellent opportunities to rethink the paradigm of perioperative management for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. One treatment clearly doesn't fit all in terms of a broad disease spectrum. Individualized treatment of local control of bulky primary tumor burden (advanced T stage) or systemic control of nodal metastatic tumor burden (advanced N stage) is essential. Given that clinically applicable predictive biomarkers are still awaited, therapy selection guided by diverse phenotypes of tumor burden (T vs. N) is promising. Potential challenges regarding the use of immunotherapy may also boost this novel strategy in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Immunotherapy
9.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 325-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986793

ABSTRACT

Due to the anatomical specificity of esophagus, esophagectomy can be carried out using different approaches, such as left transthoracic, right transthoracic and transhiatal approaches. Each surgical approach is associated with a different prognosis due to the complex anatomy. The left transthoracic approach is no longer the primary choice due to its limitations in providing adequate exposure, lymph node dissection, and resection. The right transthoracic approach is capable of achieving a larger number of dissected lymph nodes and is currently considered the preferred procedure for radical resection. Although the transhiatal approach is less invasive, it could be challenging to perform in a limited operating space and has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Minimally invasive esophagectomy offers a wider range of surgical options for treating esophageal cancer. This paper reviews different approaches to esophagectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986792

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor in China. For resectable ones, surgery is still the primary treatment. At present, the extent of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Extended lymphadenectomy makes metastatic lymph nodes more likely to be resected, which contributed to pathological staging and postoperative treatment. However,it may also increase the risk of postoperative complications and affect prognosis. Therefore, it is controversial how to balance the optimal extent/number of dissected lymph nodes for radical resection with the lower risk of severe complications. In addition, whether the lymph node dissection strategy should be modified after neoadjuvant therapy needs to be investigated, especially for patients who have a complete response to neoadjuvant therapy. Herein, we summarize the clinical experience on the extent of lymph node dissection in China and worldwide, aiming to provide guidence for the extent of lymph node dissection in esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Esophagectomy
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 508-513, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984750

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the characteristics and influencing factors of lymph node metastasis of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to explore the reasonable range of lymph node dissection and the value of right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection. Methods: The clinicopathological data with thoracic ESCC were retrospectively analyzed, and the characteristics of lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve and its influencing factors were explored. Results: Eighty out of 516 patients had lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, the metastasis rate was 15.5%. Among 80 patients with lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, 25 cases had isolated metastasis to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node but no other lymph nodes. The incidence of isolated metastasis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node was 4.8% (25/516). A total of 1 127 lymph nodes along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve were dissected, 115 lymph nodes had metastasis, and the degree of lymph node metastasis was 10.2%. T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and tumor location were associated with right paraglottic nerve lymph node metastasis (all P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis rate along the right recurrent laryngeal in patients with upper thoracic squamous cell carcinoma (23.4%, 26/111) was higher than that of patients with middle (13.5%, 40/296) and lower (12.8%, 14/109) thoracic squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.033). In patients with poorly differentiated ESCC (20.6%, 37/180) the metastasis rate was higher than that of patients with moderately (14.6%, 39/267) and well-differentiated (5.8%, 4/69; P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis rate of patients with stage T4 (27.3%, 3/11) was higher than that of patients with stage T1 (9.6%, 19/198), T2 (19.0%, 16/84) and T3 (18.8%, 42/1 223; P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that tumor location (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.41-0.90, P=0.013), invasion depth (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92, P=0.007), and differentiation degree (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.13-2.49, P=0.011) were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis along right recurrent laryngeal nerve of ESCC. Conclusions: The lymph node along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a higher rate of metastasis and should be routinely dissected in patients with ESCC. Tumor location, tumor invasion depth, and differentiation degree are risk factors for lymph node metastasis along right recurrent laryngeal nerve in patients with ESCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Esophagectomy
12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 482-489, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984747

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) knockdown on the migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) KYSE-450 cell and underlying mechanism. Methods: Lentiviral transfection was conducted to establish sh-NC control cell and ACC1 knocking down cell (sh-ACC1). Human siRNA HSP27 and control were transfected by Lipo2000 to get si-HSP27 and si-NC. The selective acetyltransferase P300/CBP inhibitor C646 was used to inhibit histone acetylation and DMSO was used as vehicle control. Transwell assay was performed to detect cell migration. The expression of HSP27 mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the expressions of ACC1, H3K9ac, HSP27 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins E-cadherin and Vimentin were detected by western blot. Results: The expression level of ACC1 in sh-NC group was higher than that in sh-ACC1 group (P<0.01). The number of cell migration in sh-NC group was (159.00±24.38), lower than (361.80±26.81) in sh-ACC1 group (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-NC group were statistically significant compared with sh-AAC1 group (P<0.05). The migrated cell number in sh-NC+ si-NC group was (189.20±16.02), lower than (371.60±38.40) in sh-ACC1+ si-NC group (P<0.01). The migrated cell number in sh-NC+ si-NC group was higher than that in sh-NC+ si-HSP27 group (152.40±24.30, P<0.01), and the migrated cell number in sh-ACC1+ si-NC group was higher than that in sh-ACC1+ si-HSP27 group (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-NC+ si-NC group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ si-NC and sh-NC+ si-HSP27 groups (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-ACC1+ si-NC group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ si-HSP27 group (P<0.01). After 24 h treatment with C646 at 20 μmmo/L, the migrated cell number in sh-NC+ DMSO group was (190.80±11.95), lower than (395.80±17.10) in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group (P<0.01). The migrated cell number in sh-NC+ DMSO group was lower than that in sh-NC+ C646 group (256.20±23.32, P<0.01). The migrated cell number in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group was higher than that in sh-ACC1+ C646 group (87.80±11.23, P<0.01). The protein expressions of H3K9ac, HSP27, E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-NC+ DMSO group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group and sh-NC+ C646 group (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of H3K9ac, HSP27, E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ C646 group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Knockdown of ACC1 promotes the migration of KYSE-450 cell by up-regulating HSP27 and increasing histone acetylation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Cadherins/metabolism , Cell Movement , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 368-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984731

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the outcome of patients with esophagogastric junction cancer undergoing thoracoscopic laparoscopy-assisted Ivor-Lewis resection. Methods: Eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with esophagogastric junction cancer and underwent Ivor-Lewis resection assisted by thoracoscopic laparoscopy at the National Cancer Center from October 2019 to April 2022 were collected. The neoadjuvant treatment mode, surgical safety and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Results: Siewert type Ⅱ (92.8%) and adenocarcinoma (95.2%) were predominant in the cases. A total of 2 774 lymph nodes were dissected in 84 patients. The average number was 33 per case, and the median was 31. Lymph node metastasis was found in 45 patients, and the lymph node metastasis rate was 53.6% (45/84). The total number of lymph node metastasis was 294, and the degree of lymph node metastasis was 10.6%(294/2 774). Among them, abdominal lymph nodes (100%, 45/45) were more likely to metastasize than thoracic lymph nodes (13.3%, 6/45). Sixty-eight patients received neoadjuvant therapy before surgery, and nine patients achieved pathological complete remission (pCR) (13.2%, 9/68). Eighty-three patients had negative surgical margins and underwent R0 resection (98.8%, 83/84). One patient, the intraoperative frozen pathology suggested resection margin was negative, while vascular tumor thrombus was seen on the postoperative pathological margin, R1 resection was performed (1.2%, 1/84). The average operation time of the 84 patients was 234.5 (199.3, 275.0) minutes, and the intraoperative blood loss was 90 (80, 100) ml. One case of intraoperative blood transfusion, one case of postoperative transfer to ICU ward, two cases of postoperative anastomotic leakage, one case of pleural effusion requiring catheter drainage, one case of small intestinal hernia with 12mm poke hole, no postoperative intestinal obstruction, chyle leakage and other complications were observed. The number of deaths within 30 days after surgery was 0. Number of lymph nodes dissection, operation duration, and intraoperative blood loss were not related to whether neoadjuvant therapy was performed (P>0.05). Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy or immunotherapy was not related to whether postoperative pathology achieved pCR (P>0.05). Conclusion: Laparoscopic-assisted Ivor-Lewis surgery for esophagogastric junction cancer has a low incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, high safety, wide range of lymph node dissection, and sufficient margin length, which is worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Loss, Surgical , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophagectomy , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Laparoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology
14.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 131-134, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936055

ABSTRACT

Adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) is at a special anatomic site with obviously higher morbidity of postoperative complication than gastric cancers at other sites. Postoperative quality of life and survival rate are influenced by the occurrence of complications. Moreover, the perioperative complications are associated with multiple factors such as patient factors (advanced age, obesity and preoperative nutritional status), surgical factors (surgical route, surgical procedure, resection range and prophylactic multivisceral resection), tumor factors (size, stage) etc. Optimizing perioperative management and formulating standardized surgical methods are the key points to prevent postoperative complications of AEG. In conclusion, we should strive to ensure the radical resection and reduce the occurrence of postoperative complications in order to truly benefit patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Gastrectomy , Neoplasm Staging , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
15.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 79-83, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935583

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effects of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on the long-term survival of patients with radical resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Totally 1 082 patients with stage T3-4aN0-3M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited in this study who underwent radical resection at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fourth Hospital, Hebei Medical University from January 2005 to January 2015. There were 798 males and 284 females, with a median age of 61 years (range: 37 to 86 years). There were 138 patients undergoing preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 392 patients postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and 552 patients surgery alone. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was used as the benchmark group to match the propensity score with the adjuvant chemotherapy group and the surgery-only group respectively at a ratio of 1∶3. A total of 7 covariates including tumor location, number of positive lymph nodes, tumor invasion depth, tumor differentiation degree, surgical procedure, vascular tumor thrombus and nerve invasion were included, and the caliper value was taken as 0.1. After matching, a total of 699 patients were included for the analysis, including 128 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group, 267 patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group, and 304 patients in the surgery alone group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves which was tested by the Log-rank method for survival analysis. Results: After matching analysis, the 5-year overall survival rate was 41.5% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group with a median overall survival time of 43 months (95%CI: 27 to 59 months), 57.6% in the adjuvant chemotherapy group with a median overall survival time unreached, and 24.9% in the surgery alone group with a median overall survival time of 28 months (95%CI: 25 to 31 months) (χ²=60.475, P<0.01). For overall survival after matching, the adjuvant chemotherapy group was better than the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (χ²=11.384, P=0.001), the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was better than the surgery alone group (χ²=8.654, P=0.003), and the adjuvant chemotherapy group was better than surgery alone group (χ²=60.234, P<0.01). Conclusion: Both preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the long-term survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing radical resection, and the improvement effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is more obvious.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 712-716, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940930

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract, lymph node metastasis is a frequently encountered metastasis in the esophageal cancer patients. The number of lymph node metastasis is reported as an important prognostic factor, and it also affects the choice of postoperative treatments in the esophageal cancer. It was reported that the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph nodes are the most common sites of nodal metastasis and need to be completely dissected during the esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancers. Dissection of the lymph nodes along bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves not only improves the accuracy of staging, but also improves postoperative survival of esophageal cancer patients due to reducing the local recurrence. However, it also brings problems such as injury of laryngeal recurrent nerves, and increases postoperative complications such as pulmonary complications and malnutrition due to aspiration and coughing. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the structure and function of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves during esophagectomy through careful manipulations, and minimize the impact of complications in prognosis and quality of life from injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology
17.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 62-67, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927899

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of Xuanfu Daizhe decoction on the stemness of esophageal cancer cells. Methods: The BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into the control group and experimental group, 5 mice in each group, which were continuously administered with normal saline and Xuanfu Daizhe decoction (9.89 g/kg) by gastrogavage, respectively. Human esophageal carcinoma cells ECA-109 (5×106) were subcutaneously injected into the mice on the 8th day. Tumor volume was measured twice a week. The mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after injection, and the tumor tissue and mouse serum were collected. The expressions of the major stemness-regulating transcription factors, i.e., NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2, were detected by RT-qPCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. ECA-109 cells were treated with 10% fetal bovine serum and serum from the above two groups of mice for 48 hours respectively, and three replicate wells were set in each group, and the expressions of NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and the levels of AKT and p-AKT were detected by RT-qPCR and Western Blot, respectively. ALDH activity in tumor cells was detected by flow cytometry; the number of spheroids of tumor cells was detected by the spheroidization experiment. Results: Compared with the control group, the growth and size of esophageal cancer tumors were significantly inhibited by Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction; the expressions of NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, the ALDH activity, the number of spheroids, and the levels of AKT and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in esophageal cancer cells were significantly reduced by Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction inhibits the stemness of esophageal cancer cells, it may be a potentially effective drug for the treatment of esophageal cancer and provides a theoretical basis for the exploration of new effective drugs for the treatment of esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Transcription Factors
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 395-401, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935227

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct the diagnostic model of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and precancerous lesions in endoscopic images based on the YOLOv5l model by using deep learning method of artificial intelligence to improve the diagnosis of early ESCC and precancerous lesions under endoscopy. Methods: 13, 009 endoscopic esophageal images of white light imaging (WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI) and lugol chromoendoscopy (LCE) were collected from June 2019 to July 2021 from 1, 126 patients at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, including low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, ESCC limited to the mucosal layer, benign esophageal lesions and normal esophagus. By computerized random function method, the images were divided into a training set (11, 547 images from 1, 025 patients) and a validation set (1, 462 images from 101 patients). The YOLOv5l model was trained and constructed with the training set, and the model was validated with the validation set, while the validation set was diagnosed by two senior and two junior endoscopists, respectively, to compare the diagnostic results of YOLOv5l model and those of the endoscopists. Results: In the validation set, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the YOLOv5l model in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes were 96.9%, 87.9%, 98.3%, 88.8%, 98.1%, and 98.6%, 89.3%, 99.5%, 94.4%, 98.2%, and 93.0%, 77.5%, 98.0%, 92.6%, 93.1%, respectively. The accuracy in the NBI model was higher than that in the WLI model (P<0.05) and lower than that in the LCE model (P<0.05). The diagnostic accuracies of YOLOv5l model in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes for the early ESCC and precancerous lesions were similar to those of the 2 senior endoscopists (96.9%, 98.8%, 94.3%, and 97.5%, 99.6%, 91.9%, respectively; P>0.05), but significantly higher than those of the 2 junior endoscopists (84.7%, 92.9%, 81.6% and 88.3%, 91.9%, 81.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: The constructed YOLOv5l model has high accuracy in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in endoscopic WLI, NBI and LCE modes, which can assist junior endoscopists to improve diagnosis and reduce missed diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Endoscopy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Narrow Band Imaging , Precancerous Conditions/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 813-819, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Family clustering of esophageal cancer (EC) has been found in high-risk areas of China. However, the relationships between cancer family history and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions (ECPL) have not been comprehensively reported in recent years. This study aimed to provide evidence for identification of high-risk populations.@*METHODS@#This study was conducted in five high-risk areas in China from 2017 to 2019, based on the National Cohort of Esophageal Cancer. The permanent residents aged 40 to 69 years were examined by endoscopy, and pathological examination was performed for suspicious lesions. Information on demographic characteristics, environmental factors, and cancer family history was collected. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to evaluate odds ratios between family history related factors and ECPL.@*RESULTS@#Among 33,008 participants, 6143 (18.61%) reported positive family history of EC. The proportion of positive family history varied significantly among high-risk areas. After adjusting for risk factors, participants with a family history of positive cancer, gastric and esophageal cancer or EC had 1.49-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.62), 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.38-1.67), or 1.66-fold (95% CI: 1.50-1.84) higher risks of ECPL, respectively. Participants with single or multiple first-degree relatives (FDR) of positive EC history had 1.65-fold (95% CI: 1.47-1.84) or 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.46-2.54) higher risks of ECPL. Participants with FDRs who developed EC before 35, 45, and 50 years of age had 4.05-fold (95% CI: 1.30-12.65), 2.11-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.25), and 1.91-fold (95% CI: 1.44-2.54) higher risks of ECPL, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Participants with positive family history of EC had significantly higher risk of ECPL. This risk increased with the number of EC positive FDRs and EC family history of early onset. Distinctive genetic risk factors of the population in high-risk areas of China require further investigation.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR-EOC-17010553.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
20.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3524, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289651

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cáncer de esófago avanzado es una de las neoplasias más agresivas con una elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. Botsuana ocupa el duodécimo cuarto puesto mundial con respecto a las muertes ocasionadas por esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínico-patológicas de los pacientes con cáncer esofágico avanzado en el Hospital Princess Marina de Gaborone, Botsuana. Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo-descriptivo donde se caracterizó clínica y patológicamente a 45 pacientes con el diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de cáncer de esófago avanzado en el periodo de enero a septiembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (86,7 %) y los pacientes mayores de 60 años (60,0 %). La disfagia, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso fueron los síntomas más frecuentes y prevalecieron los pacientes con un tiempo entre la aparición de los síntomas y el diagnóstico-endoscópico entre tres y seis meses; la dieta inadecuada, el etilismo crónico y el hábito de fumar fueron los factores de riesgo predominantes. La localización anatómica más frecuente fue el tercio medio (51,1 %), el tipo endoscópico predominante fue el vegetante (46,7 %) y la mayoría de los pacientes presentó el tipo histológico carcinoma epidermoide (95,6 %) bien diferenciado (84,4 %). Conclusiones: El estudio de las características clínico-patológicas de los pacientes con cáncer esofágico avanzado permite su correcta estadificación, siendo una herramienta útil en la valoración multidisciplinaria del tratamiento debido a su complejo manejo clínico e institucional.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Advanced esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive neoplasms with high morbidity and mortality. Botswana ranks 14th in the world for deaths from this disease. Objective: To determine the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with advanced esophageal cancer at the Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Method: A prospective-descriptive study was carried out, where 45 patients with endoscopic and histological diagnosis of advanced esophageal cancer were characterized clinically and pathologically, from January to September 2019. Results: Males predominated (86.7%), and also patients older than 60 years (60.0%). Dysphagia, anorexia and weight loss were the most frequent symptoms, and prevailed patients with three to six months between the appearance of symptoms and endoscopic diagnosis; inadequate diet, chronic alcoholism, and smoking were the predominant risk factors. The most frequent anatomical location was the middle third (51.1%), the predominant endoscopic type was the vegetative (46.7%) and most of the patients presented the histological type squamous cell carcinoma (95.6%) well differentiated (84.4%). Conclusions: The study of the clinical-pathological characteristics of patients with advanced esophageal cancer allows its correct staging, being a useful tool in the multidisciplinary assessment of treatment due to its complex clinical and institutional management.


RESUMO Introdução: O câncer de esôfago avançado é uma das neoplasias mais agressivas com alta morbimortalidade. Botswana ocupa o 14º lugar no mundo em mortes por esta doença. Objetivo: determinar as características clínico-patológicas de pacientes com câncer de esôfago avançado no Hospital Princesa Marina em Gaborone, Botsuana. Método: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo-descritivo em que 45 pacientes com diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico de câncer de esôfago avançado foram caracterizados clínica e patologicamente de janeiro a setembro de 2019. Resultados: Predominou o sexo masculino (86,7%) e pacientes com mais de 60 anos ( 60,0%). Disfagia, anorexia e perda de peso foram os sintomas mais frequentes e prevaleceram os pacientes com tempo entre o aparecimento dos sintomas e o diagnóstico endoscópico entre três e seis meses; dieta inadequada, alcoolismo crônico e tabagismo foram os fatores de risco predominantes. A localização anatômica mais frequente foi o terço médio (51,1%), o tipo endoscópico predominante foi o vegetativo (46,7%) e a maioria dos pacientes apresentou o tipo histológico carcinoma espinocelular (95,6%) bem diferenciado (84,4%). Conclusões: O estudo das características clínico-patológicas dos pacientes com câncer de esôfago avançado permite seu correto estadiamento, sendo uma ferramenta útil na avaliação multidisciplinar do tratamento devido ao seu complexo manejo clínico e institucional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy/methods , Botswana , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
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