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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-8, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1399360

ABSTRACT

Background: Tomato is a source of bioactive compounds, antimicrobials, and antioxidants. Tomato leaf preparations have been empirically used for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic, and antiseptic purposes. However, research on the potential activity of tomato leaf extracts against oral microorganisms and in managing oropharyngeal infections is scarce. Objective: To investigate tomato leaf ethanolic extract's antioxidant and growth inhibitory capacity against common oral pathogenic microorganisms, namely, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Candida albicans.Methods: Ethanolic extracts were made from 'Chonto' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves. The antimicrobial activity was measured with the microdilution technique using vancomycin and fluconazole as positive controls. The antioxidant capacity was measured with the ORAC assay using Trolox as a positive control. Results: We found a high percentage of growth inhibition (≥100%) against S. mutans and P. gingivalis at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, the extract was ineffective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans. Finally, we observed that the extract exerted a high antioxidant capacity (126%) compared to the positive control. Conclusions: This study provides new insights into the potential antimicrobial effect of tomato leaf extracts on common oral pathogenic bacteria, which may ultimately result in the development of new herbal products that might help prevent and treat oral infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Our findings also support previous studies on the high antioxidant capacity of tomato leaf extracts


Antecedentes: El tomate es una fuente de compuestos bioactivos, antimicrobianos y antioxidantes. Las hojas de tomate se han utilizado empíricamente con fines antiinflamatorios, analgésicos, antibióticos y antisépticos. Sin embargo, los estudios sobre la actividad de los extractos de hojas de tomate contra los microorganismos orales y en el manejo de las infecciones orofaríngeas son escasos. Objetivo: Investigar la capacidad antioxidante del extracto etanólico de la hoja de tomate y su actividad inhibitoria de crecimiento contra microorganismos patógenos orales comunes, a saber, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Candida albicans.Métodos: Se realizaron extractos etanólicos a partir de hojas de tomate 'Chonto' (Lycopersicon esculentum). La actividad antimicrobiana se midió con la técnica de microdilución utilizando vancomicina y fluconazol como controles positivos. La capacidad antioxidante se midió con el ensayo ORAC utilizando Trolox como control positivo. Resultados: Encontramos un alto porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento (≥100%) contra a S. mutans y P. gingivalis a una concentración de 500 mg/L. Sin embargo, el extracto fue ineficaz en la inhibición el crecimiento de C. albicans. Finalmente, observamos que el extracto tuvo una alta capacidad antioxidante (126%) en comparación con el control positivo. Conclusiones: Este estudio proporciona nuevos conocimientos sobre el posible efecto antimicrobiano de los extractos de hojas de tomate en bacterias patógenas orales comunes, lo cual puede resultar en el desarrollo de nuevos productos naturales que podrían ayudar a prevenir y tratar infecciones orales, como la caries dental y la enfermedad periodontal. Nuestros hallazgos también respaldan los estudios previos sobre la alta capacidad antioxidante de los extractos de hojas de tomate


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Streptococcus mutans , Candida albicans , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lycopersicon esculentum , Ethanol
3.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 63(1): 11-20, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397449

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2, síndrome metabólico, sobrepeso, obesidad, riesgo de diabetes tipo 2 y factores asociados en comerciantes de cinco mercados populares de la ciudad de La Paz, gestión 2017. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal analítico, en comerciantes de un mercado por cada red urbana de salud, de ambos sexos y con edad mayor o igual a 18 años. En 4 de los 5 mercados se trabajó con la totalidad de la población, en la red 1 se calculó una muestra de 273. Las mediciones que se tomaron fueron datos generales, test de FINDRISC, antropometría, pruebas laboratoriales, presión arterial y recordatorio de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo la información de 807 comerciantes, con edad de 49.21±14.2 años, el 90.42% mujeres, la prevalencia de diabetes fue 19.5%, síndrome metabólico 47%, sobrepeso 37.5%, obesidad 41.7%; riesgo de tener diabetes en 10 años es del 32.7%, de fumar por lo menos 1 cigarrillo al día, durante los últimos 6 meses es del 12.7% en mujeres y del 25.3% en varones; de consumo de riesgo de alcohol es del 20.8%, de sedentarismo del 58.6%; la dieta en mujeres es hipercalórica, hiperlipídica e hiperglusídica.CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de diabetes es 3 veces mayor al estimado del 2015 para Bolivia, la de síndrome metabólico más alta que la estimada en Sudamérica; los hábitos de vida son inadecuados y de riesgo.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, overweight, obesity, risk of type 2 diabetes and associated factors in merchants of five popular markets in the city of La Paz, management 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study of merchants in one market for each urban health network, of both sexes and aged 18 years or older. In 4 of the 5 markets we worked with the entire population, in network 1 a sample of 273 was calculated. The measurements that were taken were general data, FINDRISC test, anthropometry, laboratory tests, blood pressure and 24 recall hours. RESULTS: Information was obtained from 807 merchants, aged 49.21 ± 14.2 years, 90.42% women, the prevalence of diabetes was 19.5%, metabolic syndrome 47%, overweight 37.5%, obesity 41.7%; risk of having diabetes in 10 years is 32.7%, of smoking at least 1 cigarette a day, during the last 6 months it is 12.7% in women and 25.3% in men; risk consumption of alcohol is 20.8%, sedentary lifestyle is 58.6%; the diet in women is hypercaloric, hyperlipidic and hyperglusidic. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diabetes is 3 times higher than the 2015 estimate for Bolivia, the metabolic syndrome prevalence higher than that estimated in South America; lifestyle habits are inappropriate and risky.


Subject(s)
Female , Adolescent , Prevalence , Metabolic Syndrome , Sedentary Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethanol , Overweight , Habits , Obesity
4.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 56: e20210402, 2022. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1365407

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe and discuss the participation of adolescents from a quilombola community in the transformation of the comic "Possible Story" ("Uma História Possível"), from the Comic on alcohol, into an educational game. Method: Implementation of the creative and sensitive method of art-based research, with adolescents from a quilombola community in the state of Espírito Santo, for the development of a board game. Results: The democratic and interactive space favored the problematization of images and narratives about alcohol consumption mediated in the comic book. The group selected scenes, reordered the story, devised questions and riddles, formulated true and false assertions in a 17-card composition of the board game. The potential of the game as a content mediating tool to promote learning, reinforcement, and fixation of scientific content was evaluated. Conclusion: The active and dynamic participation of adolescents took place from conception to evaluation of the board game, encouraging them to reflect on a community context of cultural permissiveness of alcohol use.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir y discutir la participación de adolescentes de una comunidad quilombola en la transformación de cómics de "Una Historia Posible" (Uma História Possível), del Almanaque sobre alcohol en juego educativo. Método: Implementación del método creativo y sensible de investigación basada en arte, con adolescentes de una comunidad quilombola de Espírito Santo, Brasil, en el desarrollo de un juego de mesa. Resultados: El espacio democrático e interactivo favoreció la problematización de imágenes y narrativas sobre el consumo de alcohol mediado en los cómics. El grupo seleccionó escenas, reordenó la historia, elaboró preguntas y charadas, formuló aserciones de mito o verdad en una composición de 17 fichas del juego de mesa. Se evaluó el potencial del juego como herramienta mediadora de contenido para promover el aprendizaje, el repaso y la memorización de contenidos científicos. Conclusión: La participación activa y dinámica de adolescentes ocurrió desde la concepción hasta la evaluación del juego de mesa, estimulándolos a la reflexión sobre un contexto comunitario de permisividad cultural de uso del alcohol.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever e discutir a participação de adolescentes de uma comunidade quilombola na transformação de quadrinhos de "Uma História Possível", do Almanaque sobre o álcool, em jogo educativo. Método: Implementação do método criativo e sensível de pesquisa baseada em arte, com adolescentes de uma comunidade quilombola do Espírito Santo, no desenvolvimento de um jogo de tabuleiro. Resultados: O espaço democrático e interativo favoreceu a problematização de imagens e narrativas sobre o consumo de álcool mediadas na história em quadrinhos. O grupo selecionou cenas, reordenou a história, elaborou perguntas e charadas, formulou asserções de verdadeiro e falso numa S composição de 17 cartas do jogo de tabuleiro. Avaliou-se o potencial do jogo como ferramenta mediadora de conteúdo para promover a aprendizagem, o reforço e fixação de conteúdos científicos. Conclusão: A participação ativa e dinâmica de adolescentes deu-se desde a concepção até a avaliação do jogo de tabuleiro, estimulando-os à reflexão sobre um contexto comunitário de permissividade cultural de uso do álcool.


Subject(s)
Blacks , Ethanol , Educational and Promotional Materials , Pediatric Nursing , Adolescent
5.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210221, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386120

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar o uso de lock de etanol na profilaxia infecciosa de cateteres venosos de longa permanência em recém-nascidos com disfunção intestinal grave e dependentes de nutrição parenteral total e prolongada, internados em um Centro de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (nível terciário) entre 2015 e 2020. Das 914 admissões, seis (0,65%) recém-nascidos preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A mediana da idade da passagem do cateter foi de 121,5 dias, sendo dois cateteres PowerPicc (PICC Power Sinergy™, São Paulo), um cateter Groshong (Groshong™ Central Venous Catheter BD, São Paulo) e três cateteres de silicone, todos tunelizados. O tempo de permanência apresentou mediana de 182,5 dias. Cinco pacientes apresentaram pelo menos um episódio de infecção associada ao cateter venoso central, sendo isolados agentes Gram-positivos, negativos e fungos. A mediana de dias de internação foi de 555, e a mortalidade, 33,3%. O lock de etanol não apresentou efeitos colaterais e foi relativamente eficaz na prevenção de infecções relacionadas ao cateter venoso central.


Abstract The aim of this study was to report on use of ethanol lock in long-term catheters in newborns with severe intestinal dysfunction, dependent on total and prolonged parenteral nutrition, in a Neonatal Intensive Care Center (tertiary level), between 2015 and 2020. Six infants (0.65%) out of the 914 admitted during the period met the inclusion criteria. The median age at catheter placement was 121.5 days. Two Powerpicc (PICC Power Sinergy™, São Paulo), one Groshong (Groshong™ Central Venous Catheter BD, São Paulo), and three silicone catheters were used, all tunneled, and the median dwell duration was 182.5 days. Four patients had at least one episode of infection related to the central venous catheter, and Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal agents were isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 555 days and mortality was 33.3%. The ethanol lock did not cause any side effects and was relatively effective in preventing infections related to the central venous catheter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Short Bowel Syndrome/complications , Ethanol , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Fatal Outcome , Intensive Care Units
6.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 369-374, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935156

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in mildly symptomatic patients (NYHA class Ⅱ) with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy(HOCM). Methods: This retrospective study included 150 mildly symptomatic patients with HOCM hospitalized in Beijing Anzhen Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from March 2001 to December 2017, consisting of medical therapy group (n=102) and ASA group (n=48). Baseline clinical data were collected, patients were followed up to a mean of 6.0 (3.5, 8.1) years. Overall and HCM-related mortality events (including chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation related stroke, sudden cardiac death) were observed in the two groups. Moreover, the improvement of NYHA function classification and left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG) were also evaluated. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Age of this cohort was (52.9±14.5)years, 92 cases(61.3%) were male. In the follow-up, LVOTG was reduced from (85.8±35.4)mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to (27.7±19.8)mmHg (P<0.001) in the ASA group, and from (66.3±35.0)mmHg to (56.5±27.7)mmHg in medical therapy group(P<0.01). At the last clinical follow-up, there were 32 patients (66.7%) whose LVOTG were<30 mmHg, septal thickness decreased from (20.3±3.8)mm to (16.1±3.4)mm (P<0.001), NYHA classification was also remarkably improved (P<0.001). New-onset atrial fibrillation tended to be lower in the ASA group compared to medical therapy group (9.3%(4/43) vs. 20.8%(20/96),P=0.096). Eleven patients (10.8%) in the medical therapy group and 2 patients (4.2%) in the ASA group died during the follow-up. One patient received pacemaker during the peri-procedural period, 1 patient was implanted with two-chamber pacemaker due to Ⅲ° atrioventricular block at 10 years after operation in the ASA group. Survival free of all-cause mortality of ASA group at 5 and 10 years was 97.9% and 97.9%, respectively, which was comparable to the medical therapy group (P=0.231). Survival free of HCM-related mortality was similar between the two groups (P=0.397). Conclusions: Compared with medical therapy in mildly symptomatic patients with HOCM, long-term survival rate is similar after ASA. Meanwhile, ASA can remarkably reduce LVOTG and improve the clinical status of the patients. Therefore, ASA may be used as an alternative therapy for mildly symptomatic HOCM patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/therapy , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Heart Septum/surgery , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928205

ABSTRACT

Liposomes with precisely controlled composition are usually used as membrane model systems to investigate the fundamental interactions of membrane components under well-defined conditions. Hydration method is the most common method for liposome formation which is found to be influenced by composition of the medium. In this paper, the effects of small alcohol (ethanol) on the hydration of lipid molecules and the formation of liposomes were investigated, as well as its coexistence with sodium chloride. It was found that ethanol showed the opposite effect to that of sodium chloride on the hydration of lipid molecules and the formation of liposomes. The presence of ethanol promoted the formation of liposomes within a certain range of ethanol content, but that of sodium chloride suppressed the liposome formation. By investigating the fluorescence intensity and continuity of the swelled membranes as a function of contents of ethanol and sodium chloride, it was found that sodium chloride and ethanol showed the additive effect on the hydration of lipid molecules when they coexisted in the medium. The results may provide some reference for the efficient preparation of liposomes.


Subject(s)
Ethanol/pharmacology , Lipids , Liposomes
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928184

ABSTRACT

This study employed Box-Behnken design combined with flux attenuation to explore the nanofiltration conditions for separation of alcohol precipitation liquid during the preparation of Reduning Injection and discussed the applicability of nanofiltration in the separation of the liquid with high-concentration ethanol. The effects of nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off(MWCO) and pH on the rejection of chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were consistent with the principles of pore size sieving and charge effect, respectively. The rejection of the three phenolic acids was reduced by concentration polarization effect caused by trans-membrane pressure(TMP). The swelling of membrane surface decreased the pore size and membrane flux for effective separation. Chlorogenic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were more sensitive to pH and ethanol concentration than 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. A certain correlation existed between the compound structure and the separation factors of nanofiltration, and the separation rules were associated with the comprehensive effect of charge effect, pore size sieving, concentration polarization, steric hindrance and so on.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ethanol , Injections
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927996

ABSTRACT

In this study, the toxicological/pharmacological research method of "quantity-weight-evidence" network was first proposed and practiced to supplement the existing methodology of network toxicology. We transformed the traditional qualitative network into a quantitative network in this study by attributing weights to toxic component content and target frequency, which improved the reliability of data and provided a research idea for the systematic safety evaluation and toxicological research of Chinese medicinal herbs. Firstly, 50% ethanol extract of Dysosma versipellis(DV) was administrated to rats via gavage and the potential hepatotoxic components were identified by serum pharmacochemistry. Then, the component targets were obtained from SwissTargetPrediction, PharmMapper and other online databases, and the target weights were given according to the relative content of components and target fishing frequency. Meanwhile, the targets of hepatotoxicity were predicted from online databases such as Comparative Toxicology Database(CTD) and GeneCards. Subsequently, protein-protein interaction analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment were performed with the STRING database. Finally, the quantitative network of "toxic components-weighted targets-pathways" was constructed. Eleven potential toxic compounds were predicted, including podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxone, deoxypodophyllotoxin, and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin. A total of 106 hepatotoxic targets and 65 weighted targets(e.g., Cdk2, Egfr, and Cyp2 c9) were identified. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment showed that these targets could act on PI3 K-AKT, MAPK, and Ras signaling pathways to play a role in inflammatory response and oxidative stress. However, traditional network toxicology showed that 51 targets such as AKT1, Alb, and Stat3 may lead to hepatotoxicity by mediating inflammation and cell proliferation. In conclusion, we proposed "quantity-weight-evidence" network toxicology in this study and used it to study the mechanism of DV-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This study confirms the feasibility of this new methodology in toxicological evaluation and further improves the systematic evaluation of the safety of Chinese medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Ethanol , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401818

ABSTRACT

Introduction There are persistent gaps in screening, identification, and access to care for common mental disorders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. An initial step towards reducing this gap is identifying the prevalence, co-morbidities, and context of these disorders in different clinical settings and exploring opportunities for intervention. This study evaluates the prevalence and correlates of depression and substance use disorders among adults presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of a major national hospital in East Africa. Methods This study utilized the World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (WHO-STEPS) tool and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to conduct a cross-sectional survey capturing socio-demographic data, tobacco, and alcohol use and rates of depression in a sample of adults presenting to the ED. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for each outcome of interest and socio-demographics. Results Of 734 respondents, 298 (40.6%) had a PHQ-9 score in the "moderate" to "severe" range indicative of major depressive disorder. About 17% of respondents endorsed current tobacco use while about 30% reported being daily alcohol users. Those with high PHQ-9 score had higher odds of reporting current tobacco use ("severe range" = adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.05, 3.26). Those with a "severe" PHQ-9 scores were 9 times (aOR 2.3-35.3) more likely to be daily drinkers. Conclusions Screening and identification of people with depression and substance use disorders in the ED of a large national hospital in Kenya is feasible. This offers an opportunity for brief intervention and referral to further treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders , Depression , Ethanol , Emergency Service, Hospital
11.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(2): 1-10, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364280

ABSTRACT

Resumen El consumo crónico de alcohol es un problema de salud mundial que afecta particularmente a la población femenina. Sin embargo, los efectos de la ingesta semicrónica en cantidades moderadas a bajas en el ovario y el oocito son poco conocidos. En un modelo murino, se administró etanol al 10% en agua de bebida (hembras tratadas) o agua (hembras control) por 15 días, y luego de la superovulación o no (ovulación espontánea), se analizó el ciclo estral y la calidad ovárico-gamética. En las hembras tratadas, la frecuencia y duración del diestro aumentó, y las frecuencias de folículos y cuerpos lúteos disminuyeron vs hembras controles, valores que se restauraron luego de la superovulación. Sin embargo, en las hembras tratadas, la tasa de proliferación celular folicular y el desbalance de la expresión ovárica de VEGF (factor de crecimiento endotelial) persistieron luego de la superovulación. El número de ovocitos ovulados con metafase II anormal, fragmentados y activados partenogenéticamente fue mayor en las hembras tratadas respecto las controles. En conclusión, el consumo semicrónico moderado de alcohol produce anestro, ciclo estral irregular, foliculogénesis deficiente y anomalías núcleo-citoplasmáticas en los oocitos ovulados. Estas alteraciones podrían constituirse en un factor etiológico de pérdida gestacional temprana y desarrollo embrionario anormal luego del consumo de alcohol.


Abstract Chronic alcohol consumption is a global health problem that particularly affects the female population. However, the ef-fects of semi-chronic ethanol intake in low-moderate amounts on the ovary and oocyte are poorly understood. In a mouse model, 10% ethanol was administered in drinking water (treated females) or water (control females) for 15 days, and after superovulation or not (spontaneous ovulation), the estrous cycle and ovarian-gametic quality were analyzed. In treated females, the frequency and duration of the diestrus increased, and the frequencies of follicles and corpus luteum decreased vs control females, values that restored after superovulation. However, in treated females, the follicular cell proliferation rate and the imbalance in ovarian expression of VEGF (endothelial growth factor) persisted after superovulation. The number of ovulated oocytes with abnormal metaphase II, fragmented and parthenogenetically activated was higher in treated females than in control ones. In conclusion, moderate semi-chronic alcohol consumption produces anestrum, irregular estrous cycle, poor folliculogenesis, and nuclear-cytoplasmic abnormalities in ovulated oocytes. These alterations could constitute an etiological factor of early gestational loss and abnormal embryonic development after alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mice , Oocytes/drug effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Ethanol/adverse effects , Ovarian Follicle/drug effects , Ovary/cytology , Ovary/drug effects , Oviducts/cytology , Oviducts/drug effects , Ovulation/drug effects , Models, Animal , Estrous Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation , Germ Cells/cytology , Germ Cells/drug effects , Ovarian Follicle/cytology
12.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211194, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253930

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol-conditioned dentin on endodontic sealer penetration into dentinal tubules by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Methods: Forty human maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented and divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the drying methods: 1) wet: vacuum only, 2) paper points: vacuum + absorbent paper points, (3) 70% ethanol: 70% ethanol (1 min) + vacuum + absorbent paper points, and (4) 100% ethanol: 100% ethanol (1 min) + vacuum + absorbent paper points. All root canals were filled with resin-based endodontic sealer. Four sections from each third (cervical, middle, and apical) were examined by CLSM. Root canal wall perimeter infiltrated by sealer, maximum depth of sealer penetration, percentage of penetrated area, and fluorescence intensity of rhodamine B were measured. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results: No statistical difference was found when percentage of root canal wall coverage infiltrated by sealer were compared. The groups in which ethanol solutions were used presented greater depth of sealer penetration, higher percentage of penetrated area, and higher fluorescence intensity of rhodamine B (p< 0.05) when compared with the wet and paper point groups. Overall, 100% ethanol produced better results than 70% ethanol, except for rhodamine B intensity (cervical third). In addition, the absorbent paper points drying method behaved better than did vacuum only group, except for rhodamine B intensity (apical third). Conclusion: Ethanol-conditioned dentin improved the penetration of resin-based sealer into dentinal tubules, especially at the concentration of 100%


Subject(s)
Humans , Wettability , Microscopy, Confocal , Resin Cements , Dentin , Ethanol , Endodontics
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 660-671, nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369981

ABSTRACT

Search for safe antioxidants and novel nutraceuticals urged to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholine esterase and anti-lipoxygenase activity of various leaf extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius. Extraction was optimized from freeze dried plant extracts quenched with liquid nitrogen using water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Maximum extract yield, total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were obtained in case of ethanolic extraction. The highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylradical scavenging in terms of IC50 value of 55.26 µg/mL was observed for ethanolic leaf extract. The acetylcholine esterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities (IC50) were also observed for ethanolic extract. These findings for ethanolic extract were statistically significant when compared with other extracts (ρ<0.05). The haemolytic % values indicated that all extracts were associated with very low or negligible toxicity. The epicatechin, isorhamnetin, rutin, scopoleptin, skimmianine, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside, cornoside, creatinine, choline, pyruvic acid, α-hydroxybutyric acid, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified as major functional metabolites in ethanolic leaf extract of C. lancifoliusby 1H-NMR. The identified metabolites were probably responsible for the pharmacological properties of C.lancifolius. The findings may be utilized as pharmacological leads for drug development and food fortification.


Se insta a la búsqueda de antioxidantes seguros y nuevos nutracéuticos para evaluar la actividad antioxidante, anti-acetilcolina esterasa y anti-lipoxigenasa de varios extractos de hojas de Conocarpus lancifolius. La extracción se optimizó a partir de extractos de plantas liofilizados enfriados con nitrógeno líquido usando agua, etanol, metanol, hexano, acetato de etilo y cloroformo. En el caso de extracción etanólica se obtuvo el rendimiento máximo de extracto, el contenido de fenoles totales y el contenido de flavonoides totales. La mayor eliminación de radicales 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo en términos de valor de CI50 de 55,26 µg/mL se observó para el extracto de hoja etanólico. También se observaron las actividades inhibidoras de la acetilcolina esterasa y lipoxigenasa (CI50) para el extracto etanólico. Estos hallazgos para el extracto etanólico fueron estadísticamente significativos en comparación con otros extractos (ρ<0.05). Los valores del % hemolítico indicaron que todos los extractos estaban asociados con una toxicidad muy baja o insignificante. Se identificaron la epicatequina, isorhamnetina, rutina, escopoleptina, skimmianina, quercetina-3-O-α-ramnosido, quercetina-3-O-ß-glucósido, cornosido, creatinina, colina, ácido pirúvico, ácido α-hidroxibutírico, filantrina e hipofillantina. como metabolitos funcionales principales en el extracto etanólico de hojas de C. lancifoliuspor 1H-NMR. Los metabolitos identificados probablemente fueron responsables de las propiedades farmacológicas de C. lancifolius. Los hallazgos pueden utilizarse como pistas farmacológicas para el desarrollo de fármacos y la fortificación de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Combretaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Ethanol , Antioxidants/chemistry
14.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3455, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289633

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirrosis hepática es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en nuestro país, y la presencia de infecciones y su descompensación constituyen motivos de ingreso hospitalario en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar las enfermedades asociadas al cuidado sanitario más frecuentes en pacientes cirróticos ingresados. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática, ingresados en el Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" de provincia Granma, en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 hasta septiembre de 2020. La población estuvo conformada por la totalidad de pacientes mayores de 18 años y de ambos sexos. Los datos se recogieron de las historias clínicas hospitalarias. En el análisis estadístico se empleó el estadígrafo Chi-cuadrado obtenido a partir de tablas de contingencia, y para medir la fuerza de la misma los riesgos relativos (RR), se utilizó un nivel de significación (valor p) menor de 0,05. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, descompensados con Child-Pugh (B), el alcohol como la etiología más frecuente de la cirrosis, a los que se les realizaron cuidados sanitarios como la colocación de sonda vesical, abordaje venoso central y periférico, así como intubación endotraqueal. Las principales infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario observadas en estos pacientes fueron la flebitis, bacteriemia, la infección del tracto urinario y la neumonía. Conclusiones: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario según orden de frecuencia fueron la flebitis, la bacteriemia, la pielonefritis, neumonía y cistitis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Liver cirrhosis has been confirmed as one of the most common diseases in Cuba. Infection and decompensated cirrhosis constitute the cause of hospitalization. Objective: To identify the most frequent health care-associated diseases in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Method: A cohort study involving 90 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis was conducted at the Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" in Granma, from January 2017 through September 2020. The total patients underwent study were over 18 years old and both sex. Data were collected from patients´ hospitalization history. Chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis and to measure its power (the relative risk), a P-value less than 0.05 was used. Results: Most patients were male, decompensated with Child-Pugh class B. All hospitalized patients who underwent health care such as bladder catheter placement, central and peripheral venous approach, as well as endotracheal intubation, alcohol was considered the major etiological factor cause of cirrhosis. The main healthcare-associated infections observed in these patients were phlebitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and pneumonia. Conclusions: The healthcare-associated infections in order of frequency were phlebitis, bacteremia, pyelonephritis, pneumonia and cystitis.


RESUMO Introdução: A cirrose hepática é uma das doenças mais frequentes em nosso país, e a presença de infecções e sua descompensação constituem motivos de internação nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar as doenças associadas aos cuidados de saúde mais frequentes em pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em 90 pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose hepática, internados no Hospital Geral Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" da província de Granma, no período de janeiro de 2017 a setembro de 2020. A população foi constituída por para todos os pacientes com mais de 18 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram coletados em prontuários hospitalares. Na análise estatística, foi utilizada a estatística Qui-quadrado obtida em tabelas de contingência e, para medir a força dos riscos relativos (RR), foi utilizado um nível de significância (p-valor) menor que 0,05. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, descompensados com Child-Pugh (B), sendo o álcool a etiologia mais frequente da cirrose, que realizaram cuidados de saúde como colocação de cateter vesical, abordagem venosa central e periférica, além de intubação endotraqueal. As principais infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde observadas nestes pacientes foram flebite, bacteremia, infecção do trato urinário e pneumonia. Conclusões: As infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde em ordem de frequência foram flebite, bacteremia, pielonefrite, pneumonia e cistite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Infections , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Phlebitis , Pneumonia , Pyelonephritis , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia , Cystitis , Ethanol
15.
Psychol. av. discip ; 15(1): 83-93, ene.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356673

ABSTRACT

Resumen La proporción de usuarios de una sustancia de abuso que desarrolla problemas con su consumo (abuso o dependencia) representa solo una parte de esta población. En México, el 63.8 % de la población consume alcohol, y de ellos, el 15 % desarrolla algún trastorno por consumo de alcohol (TCA). Se ha observado una relación causal entre el trastorno por consumo de sustancias (TCS) y la falta de autocontrol. Es decir, satisfacer necesidades de manera impulsiva, v. gr., consumir una droga sin evaluar las consecuencias. La corteza prefrontal (CPF) es el principal sustrato neuroanatómico del autocontrol y característicamente la CPF alcanza la madurez alrededor de los 30 años, sugieriendo que el autocontrol se alcanza despues de esta edad. Se ha propuesto que todos los grupos etarios que no han consolidado el uso del autocontrol son vulnerables al TCS. Similarmente ocurre con aquellos sujetos que por algún trastorno psiquiátrico tienen como característica una limitada función prefrontal. La CPF coordina una red subcortical cuya interacción depende de distintos sistemas de neurotransmisión, entre ellos, endocanabinoides. En este trabajo se revisó la función de la CPF y del sistema de endocanabinoides (sECB) y su relación con la vulnerabilidad a la adicción y otros trastornos psiquiátricos.


Abstract The proportion of users of a substance of abuse who develop problems with its use (abuse or dependence) represents only a part of this population. In Mexico, 63.8% of the population consumes alcohol and only 15% of them develop an alcohol use disorder (AUD). A causal relation has been observed between substance use disorder (SUD) and the lack of self-control. Which means, satisfying needs in an impulsive way, v.gr. using a drug, without considering the consequences. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the main neuroanatomical substrate of self-control and characteristically reaches maturity around the age of 30, suggesting that self-control is reached after this age. We suggest that all age groups that have not consolidated the use of self-control are vulnerable to SUD. The same occurs with those who, due to a psychiatric disorder, have the characteristic of a limited prefrontal function. The PFC coordinates a subcortical network whose interaction depends on different neurotransmission systems among them, the endocannabinoids system (ECBs). In this work we will review the function of the PFC, the ECBs and its relationship with vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Substance-Related Disorders , Impulsive Behavior , Synaptic Transmission , Endocannabinoids , Ethanol , Alcoholism , Self-Control , Mental Disorders
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 322-327, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285159

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is an alternative to surgery for the treatment of thyroid nodules (TNs). However, size reductions of treated (TTNs) and untreated TN (UTNs) have not been compared. Volumetric reductions in TTNs with PEI were evaluated by comparing TTNs and UTNs in the same patient, and independent variables predicting good post-PEI outcomes were analyzed. Materials and methods: Overall, 282 patients with multinodular goiters were selected. Two nodules located in different lobes were compared for common disease behaviors. Overall, 150 nodules were selected from 75 patients (6 M: 69 F) with a mean age of 50.1 ± 17.4 years. This prospective nonrandomized intervention study prioritized treating TNs of greater volume or single hyperfunctioning TNs. A single observer experienced in PEI and an ultrasound specialist performed the interventions. Results and discussion: TTNs (mean volume: 14.8 ± 16.2 mL) were reduced by 72.6 ± 27.3% of their initial volume, while UTNs increased by a mean of 365.7 ± 1.403.8% (p < 0.00001). The patients underwent a mean of 4.0 ± 3.1 outpatient PEI sessions without relevant complications. Logistic regression analysis showed that the magnitude of the PEI induced reduction was associated with the number of treatment sessions (p = 0.03, CI [1.1-38.2]) and not with ultrasonographic characteristics of the nodules. Each PEI session increased the rate of TN reduction by a factor of 6.7. Conclusions: PEI is a well-tolerated outpatient procedure that effectively reduces the volume of TNs and is noticeably superior to conservative treatment for all ultrasonographic classifications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/drug therapy , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome , Ethanol , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 98-101, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251555

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de consumo crónico de alcohol, que consultó por dolor abdominal inespecífico, fiebre intermitente no cuantificada y pérdida de peso, con posterior aumento del perímetro abdominal. Se encontró ascitis y hallazgos en imágenes que sugerían cirrosis. El estudio del líquido ascítico fue no hipertensivo con predominio de linfocitos y niveles de adenosina-desaminasa (ADA) elevados. La ecografía y tomografía de abdomen mostraron el engrosamiento del peritoneo y la biopsia peritoneal por laparoscopia fue compatible con enfermedad granulomatosa, con reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) positiva para Mycobacterium tuberculosis en un paciente sin otras causas de inmunosupresión. Este caso muestra la necesidad de mantener una alta sospecha clínica de TB en patologías abdominales con clínica inespecífica, aun en pacientes sin inmunocompromiso claro.


Abstract This is the case of a patient with a history of chronic alcohol consumption, who consulted for nonspecific abdominal pain, intermittent fever, and weight loss, with subsequent increase in the abdominal perimeter. Ascites and imaging findings suggestive of cirrhosis were found. The study of ascitic fluid was non-hypertensive with a predominance of lymphocytes and elevated adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels. Ultrasound and abdominal tomography showed peritoneal thickening. Laparoscopic peritoneal biopsy was compatible with granulomatous disease, with positive PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a patient with no other causes of immunosuppression. This report shows the importance of keeping a high index of suspicion for TB in patients with abdominal pathology, even in those without evident inmunocompromise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peritoneum , Ascites , Tuberculosis , Alcohol Drinking , Ethanol
18.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 19-25, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251541

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pancreatitis del surco (PS) o "groove pancreatitis", es una forma de pancreatitis crónica infrecuente; nombrada así por su localización en el surco pancreatoduodenal. Suele predominar en varones con antecedente de ingesta de alcohol. Es de gran importancia realizar diagnóstico diferencial con cáncer de páncreas, dada su ubicación. Los avances en los métodos diagnósticos, como la ultrasonografía endoscópica, han permitido un abordaje más certero, sin embargo, no se cuenta con guías de manejo y las aproximaciones terapéuticas siguen siendo basadas en patologías similares.


Abstract Groove pancreatitis (GP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis located in the pancreaticoduodenal groove, hence its name. It is predominant in males with a history of alcohol intake. Making a differential diagnosis between this condition and pancreatic cancer is highly relevant given its location. Advances in diagnostic methods, such as endoscopic ultrasonography, have allowed a more accurate approach. However, no management guidelines are available and therapeutic approaches are still based on similar pathologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Similar , Diagnosis, Differential , Ethanol
19.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 77-81, 03/03/2021. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177502

ABSTRACT

Los diferentes reportes de consumo de sustancias evidencian cómo el consumo de alcohol afecta diferentes órganos y sistemas; según el tiempo de presentación hay riesgos agudos y crónicos. Dentro de las complicaciones agudas gastrointestinales asociadas al consumo de alcohol está el síndrome de Boerhaave consistente en una ruptura esofágica espontánea. Es importante identificar este síndrome porque se relaciona con alta mortalidad debido a la amplia gama de signos y síntomas que produce, como vómito, disnea, taquipnea, taquicardia y dolor esternal, que pueden generar confusión con otras enfermedades como el tromboembolismo pulmonar. El objetivo de este reporte es pre-sentar el primer caso clínico en Colombia de un paciente con síndrome de Boerhaave como complicación del consumo de alcohol, ya que es importante que el personal de salud reconozca los factores de riesgo que lo desencadenan.


Numerous reports of substance use show how alcohol consumption affects different organs and systems; related risks can be acute and chronic, depending on the time of presentation. Among the acute gastrointestinal complications associated with alcohol consumption is Boerhaave syndrome, which consists of a spontaneous esophageal rupture. It is important to identify this pathology because it is associated with high mortality due to the wide range of signs and symptoms that it produces such as vomiting, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, and sternal pain, which can lead to confusion with other diseases like pulmonary thromboembolism and may therefore delay proper and timely diagnostic. The objective of this report is to present the first clinical case reported in Colombia of a patient who suffered from Boerhaave syndrome secondary to chronic alcohol consumption and to sensitize the health personnel about the importance of recognizing alcohol consumption as a risk factor for this complication.


Os diferentes relatos de uso de substâncias mostram como o consumo de álcool afeta diferentes órgãos e sistemas; dependendo da época de apresentação, existem riscos agudos e crônicos. Entre as complicações gastrointestinais agudas associadas ao con-sumo de álcool está a síndrome de Boerhaave, que consiste em uma ruptura esofágica espontânea. É importante identificar essa síndrome, pois está associada a alta mortalidade devido à ampla gama de sinais e sintomas que produz, como vômitos, dispneia, taquipneia, taquicardia e dor esternal, que podem levar à confusão com outras doenças, como tromboembolismo pulmonar. O objetivo deste relatório é apresentar o primeiro caso clínico na Colômbia de um paciente com síndrome de Boerhaave como uma complicação do consumo de álcool, pois é importante que o pessoal de saúde reconheça os fatores de risco que a desencadeiam.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Drinking , Pain , Pulmonary Embolism , Rupture , Tachycardia , Vomiting , Confusion , Ethanol
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346675

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the difference in the on-line searches for terms related to hand hygiene during the COVID-19 pandemic in developed and middle-income countries. Material and Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed the digital data through the Google Trends website to obtain the variation of the relative search volume (RSV) through the terms "alcohol gel" and "handwashing." According to socio-economic development, the countries were divided into two groups: countries from different continents and hemispheres, with more than 15 million inhabitants, with more than 50% of the population with access to the Internet network and over 1,000 confirmed cases of infected with COVID-19. The paired t-test was applied to compare the means. The significance value adopted was p<0.010. Results: The searches related to the term "hand washing" were more significant when compared to the term "alcohol gel," and the term "alcohol gel" presented a higher average volume of research in developed countries (p<0.010). The developed countries had a higher average relative volume of research than middle-income countries (p<0.010). Developed countries sought more for the term "alcohol gel," and the term "hand washing" showed no difference in the volume of research about the country's socio-economic aspect. Conclusion: Developed countries have a higher volume of search for hand hygiene terms. The middle-income countries must create proposals for raising awareness outside the on-line environment so that this information reaches the entire population during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Developed Countries , Hand Hygiene , Internet Access , COVID-19 , Primary Prevention , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ethanol
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