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Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1430762


La autopsia médico legal en Costa Rica, en casos sospechosos de intoxicación por cocaetileno se debe realizar bajo las normas establecidas en la Guía de estándares de trabajo para la Sección de Patología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal. El análisis del mecanismo fisiopatológico de cómo estas sustancias provocan alteraciones en el organismo que pueden conllevar a un eventual fallecimiento corresponde a parte del análisis requerido en la investigación ante la sospecha de esta causa de muerte. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este artículo es describir los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que ocurren durante el consumo combinado de cocaína y etanol, los mecanismos que conllevan a la muerte de personas consumidoras de estas sustancias y las consideraciones médico legales a tomar en cuenta para el diagnóstico de esta causa de muerte. Se realizó revisión de artículos científicos, sobre los efectos del uso combinado de la cocaína y el etanol. La literatura describe que el uso combinado de cocaína y etanol potencia los efectos farmacocinéticos y bioquímicos de cada una de estas sustancias, que su derivado, el cocaetileno, es capaz de generar por sí mismo los mecanismos causantes de la muerte. Que los principales mecanismos fisiopatológicos que conllevan la muerte ante el uso combinado de estas sustancias son de origen cardiovascular y hepático. Como consideraciones médico legales a tomar en cuenta para el diagnóstico de esta manera de muerte accidental, en la Sección de Toxicología del Departamento de Ciencias Forenses de Costa Rica, la cuantificación del cocaetileno y las sustancias relacionadas no se realiza, aunque se encuentra actualmente en el desarrollo de un proyecto para la determinación de la estabilidad de las drogas en sangre bajo las condiciones de almacenamiento, con el fin de ofrecer la posibilidad de cuantificar ciertas drogas (en donde se podría incluir el cocaetileno) en un futuro próximo.

Medical-legal autopsy in Costa Rica, in suspected cases of cocaethylene poisoning must be performed under the regulations established in the Work Standards Guide for the Forensic Pathology Section of the Department of Legal Medicine. The analysis of the pathophysiological mechanism of how these substances cause alterations in the organism that can lead to eventual death corresponds to part of the analysis required in the investigation when this cause of death is suspected. Therefore, the objective of this article is to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms that occur during the combined consumption of cocaine and ethanol, the mechanisms that lead to the death of people who consume these substances, and the medico-legal considerations to be considered for the diagnosis. of this cause of death. A review of scientific articles was carried out on the effects of the combined use of cocaine and ethanol. The literature describes that the combined use of cocaine and ethanol enhances the pharmacokinetic and biochemical effects of each one of these substances, that its derivative, cocaethylene, can generate the mechanisms that cause death by itself. That the main pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to death in the combined use of these substances are of cardiovascular and hepatic origin. As legal medical considerations to take into account for the diagnosis of this type of accidental death, in the Toxicology Section of the Department of Forensic Sciences of Costa Rica, the quantification of cocaethylene and related substances is not carried out, although it is currently in the development of a project for the determination of the stability of drugs in blood under storage conditions, in order to offer the possibility of quantifying certain drugs (which could include cocaethylene) in the near future.

Humans , Cause of Death , Cocaine/adverse effects , Ethanol/analysis , Poisoning
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 55-64, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223246


BACKGROUND: Ethanol concentration (PE), ethanol productivity (QP) and sugar consumption (SC) are important values in industrial ethanol production. In this study, initial sugar and nitrogen (urea) concentrations in sweet sorghum stem juice (SSJ) were optimized for high PE (≥10%, v/v), QP, (≥2.5 g/L·h) and SC (≥90%) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSJKKU01. Then, repeated-batch fermentations under normal gravity (NG) and high gravity (HG) conditions were studied. RESULTS: The initial sugar at 208 g/L and urea at 2.75 g/L were the optimum values to meet the criteria. At the initial yeast cell concentration of ~1 × 108 cells/mL, the PE, QP and SC were 97.06 g/L, 3.24 g/L·h and 95.43%, respectively. Repeated-batch fermentations showed that the ethanol production efficiency of eight successive cycles with and without aeration were not significantly different when the initial sugar of cycles 2 to 8 was under NG conditions (~140 g/L). Positive effects of aeration were observed when the initial sugar from cycle 2 was under HG conditions (180­200 g/L). The PE and QP under no aeration were consecutively lower from cycle 1 to cycle 6. Additionally, aeration affected ergosterol formation in yeast cell membrane at high ethanol concentrations, whereas trehalose content under all conditions was not different. CONCLUSION: Initial sugar, sufficient nitrogen and appropriated aeration are necessary for promoting yeast growth and ethanol fermentation. The SSJ was successfully used as an ethanol production medium for a high level of ethanol production. Aeration was not essential for repeated-batch fermentation under NG conditions, but it was beneficial under HG conditions.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sorghum/chemistry , Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Urea , Yeasts/growth & development , Aeration , Sorghum/microbiology , Ethanol/analysis , Sugars , Juices , Fermentation , Gravitation , Nitrogen
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1759-1763, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038662


It was determined by the total collection of excreta method, with broilers from 22 to 32 days of age, the coefficients of apparent metabolism of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance (AMEn) of the ethanol co-products of corn: acid oil and dried distillery grains with soluble (DDGS). The DDGS and corn acid oil presented nutritional metabolization coefficients ranging from 43 to 83% and AMEn equal 2393.5 and 7859.2kcal/kg respectively, and may be food alternatives to soybean meal and soybean oil.(AU)

Animals , Chickens , Biomass , Zea mays , Ethanol/analysis , Garbage , Animal Feed/analysis
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180178, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001423


Abstract We present an improved method of direct transesterification suitable for the quantitative analysis of multiple dry samples for its fatty acid content, using a minimal amount of biomass and reactants. The method features an acid-catalyzed direct alcoholysis of microgram samples of dry biomass; the rationale behind the solvent and reagent proportions chosen is discussed. The method was validated using seven microbial strains with diverse lipid content (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii, Candida tropicalis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Schizochytrium limacinum), and compared with a macroscale direct transesterification method, and with gravimetric analysis of lipids extracted with solvents. The microscale method showed a conversion of 98.06 ± 0.87% of the lipids, using approximately 3 mg of dry biomass, 1mL of 0.2M H2SO4 dissolved in anhydrous ethanol (the acid is the catalyzer and ethanol the reactant)). The mixture was maintained at 70 °C for 20 h with periodic mixing, and then extracted with 2mL n-heptane and analyzed by GC-FID. The lipid content was then calculated considering dilution and sample mass. This method is effective, reliable, and technically attractive for analytical and comparative purposes.

Biomass , Ethanol/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Triage/methods , Gravimetry/methods
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(9): 1834-1837, set. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976516


The objective of this research was to determine in necropsied dogs the best time for fixation in ethylic alcohol (EA) and preservation in 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution (SCAS 30%), aiming micro-surgical training. Five groups of necropsied dogs (G1 to G5) were fixed with EA, and put in boxes containing EA for 30 (G2), 60 (G3), 90 (G4) or 120 days (G5). After that, each group was preserved in SCAS 30% for 120 days. The control group (G1) was composed by cadavers without fixation/preservation. At the end of each period, two fragments of external jugular vein per cadaver were collected, for traction test. Immediately after the collection, the cadavers femoral veins were evaluated (by 2 people) regarding the suture quality in binocular surgical microscope, and attributed scores from 0 (bad) to 5 (excellent), regarding the fresh samples. The average at the maximum rupture strength of the G3 fixation end (21.51N), such as the average of the G2 preserving end (21.62N) remained closer to the control group (19.98N) and the G2 was the group with the best score for venous suture training. The EA was efficient as a fixative just like SCAS as a dog cadavers' preservative. The small change of the traction test values, together with the best suture score, indicated the group kept for 30 days in EA and SCAS (G2) as the best for venous micro-surgical training.(AU)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, em cadáveres de cães, o melhor tempo para fixação em álcool etílico (AE) e conservação em solução aquosa de cloreto de sódio (SACS) a 30% visando o treinamento microcirúrgico. Cadáveres de cinco grupos (G1 a G5) foram fixados com AE e colocados em caixas contendo AE por 30 (G2), 60 (G3), 90 (G4) ou 120 days (G5). Depois, cada grupo foi conservado em SACS 30% por 120 dias. O grupo controle (G1) foi composto de cães sem fixação/conservação. Ao final de cada período, 2 fragmentos da veia jugular externa por cadáver foram coletados para o teste de tração. Imediatamente após a coleta, as veias femorais foram avaliadas (por 2 pessoas) em relação à qualidade da sutura em microscópio cirúrgico binocular, e atribuídos escores de 0 (péssimo) à 5 (excelente), em relação às amostras frescas. A média da força máxima de ruptura no G3 no final da fixação (21,51N), assim como a média do G2 no final da conservação (21,62N) foram as que mais se mantiveram próxima do grupo controle (19,98N) e o G2 foi o grupo com o melhor escore para treinamento da sutura venosa. O AE foi eficiente como fixador assim como a SACS foi efetiva na conservação de cadáveres de cães. A pequena alteração nos valores do teste de tração, junto com o melhor escore para sutura, indicaram o grupo mantido por 30 dias em AE e SACS (G2) como o melhor para treinamento venoso microcirúrgico.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Suture Techniques/veterinary , Ethanol/analysis , Dogs/surgery , Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(2): 135173, 26 jul. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-913303


The present study hypothesized that intramammary infection (IMI) might reduce milk ethanol stability (MES), mainly when IMI is caused by major pathogens. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of IMI on bovine MES using a natural exposure experimental design. Ninety-four lactating cows from five dairy herds were selected once they were determined to have an IMI, based on milk bacteriological culturing with positive isolation and somatic cell count (SCC) > 200×103 cells/mL in two out of three composite milk samples collected during three consecutive weeks. After selection, cows were sampled a second time (within two weeks) for evaluation at mammary quarter level (n = 326): milk yield (kg/quarter/day), MES, composition (fat, protein, lactose, casein, total solids and solids-non-fat), and bacteriologic culture. The effect of subclinical mastitis on MES was tested by two models: 1) comparison of healthy vs. infected quarters; and 2) comparison of contralateral mammary quarter within cow. The only milk composition variable associated with MES was lactose (r = 0.18; P < 0.01). Subclinical IMI did not affect MES when the comparison was performed using both models (1 and 2). Likewise, MES did not change when infected quarters were sorted into two groups of pathogens (major, minor and infrequent; and contagious, environmental, minor and infrequent) and compared with healthy mammary quarters. Considering the results of both models, subclinical IMI did not affect MES of dairy cows.(AU)

Neste trabalho investigou-se a hipótese de que a infecção intramamária (IIM) poderia reduzir a estabilidade do leite ao etanol (ELA), principalmente quando a IIM é causada por agentes primários. Assim, em um experimento de exposição natural, foi avaliado o efeito da IIM sobre a ELA em bovinos. Noventa e quatro vacas em lactação de cinco rebanhos leiteiros foram selecionadas por apresentar IIM, segundo resultados de cultura bacteriológica de amostras compostas de leite (isolamento positivo) e contagem de células somáticas (CCS) > 200×103 células/mL em pelo menos duas de três coletas semanais consecutivas. Após essa seleção, as vacas foram amostradas pela segunda vez (dentro de duas semanas) para avaliação da IIM em amostras de leite coletadas por quarto mamário (n = 326): produção de leite (kg/quarto/dia), ELA, composição (gordura, proteína, lactose, caseína, sólidos totais e sólidos não gordurosos) e cultura bacteriológica. O efeito da mastite subclínica sobre a ELA foi testada por dois modelos: 1) comparação de quarto sadio versus infectado; e 2) comparação de quartos mamários contralaterais. A única variável de composição do leite associada à ELA foi a lactose (r = 0,18; P < 0,01). A IIM subclínica não afetou a ELA quando a comparação foi realizada utilizando-se os dois modelos (1 e 2); bem como a ELA não foi alterada quando os quartos infectados foram classificados em grupos de agentes patogênicos (primários, secundários e infrequentes; ou contagiosos, ambientais, secundários e infrequentes) e comparados com os quartos mamários sadios. Os resultados obtidos com os dois modelos empregados demonstraram que a IIM subclínica não afetou a ELA de vacas leiteiras.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Calcium Channels/analysis , Caseins/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Ethanol/analysis , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 140-150, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974343


Abstract Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) using the thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain DBKKUY-53 immobilized in an alginate-loofah matrix (ALM) was successfully developed. As found in this study, an ALM with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 5 mm3 is effective for cell immobilization due to its compact structure and long-term stability. The ALM-immobilized cell system exhibited greater ethanol production efficiency than the freely suspended cell system. By using a central composite design (CCD), the optimum conditions for ethanol production from SSJ by ALM-immobilized cells were determined. The maximum ethanol concentration and volumetric ethanol productivity obtained using ALM-immobilized cells under the optimal conditions were 97.54 g/L and 1.36 g/L h, respectively. The use of the ALM-immobilized cells was successful for at least six consecutive batches (360 h) without any loss of ethanol production efficiency, suggesting their potential application in industrial ethanol production.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Sorghum/microbiology , Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry , Cells, Immobilized/metabolism , Cells, Immobilized/chemistry , Sorghum/metabolism , Sorghum/chemistry , Ethanol/analysis , Alginates/chemistry , Fermentation
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 592-601, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889150


Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

Humans , Alcoholic Beverages/microbiology , Kefir/analysis , Malus/microbiology , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/metabolism , Biodiversity , Brazil , Ethanol/analysis , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation , Food Handling , Kefir/microbiology , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Malus/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Taste
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 269-277, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833807


The aim of the current study was to investigate biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage (mainly Poaceae family grasses) prepared in organic and conventional farms and to relate these parameters to fermentative parameters. The mean dry matter (DM) content was 364.10±93.31 and 424.70±95.93g/kg in the silage from organic and conventional farms respectively. The silage samples from organic farms had 17.00% higher (P≤ 0.05) tyramine (TY) than the silage from conventional farms. Conventional farm samples were characterized by 46.00% higher histamine (HIS) (P≤ 0.05), 9.80% higher putrescine (PUT) (P≤ 0.05), 17.30% higher cadaverine (CAD) (P≤ 0.05). Aflatoxins (AFL) (total) and zearalenone (ZEN), T-2/HT-2 concentrations were higher respectively 16.00% (P≤ 0.05) and 13.40% (P≤ 0.05), 1.80% (P≤ 0.05) in the silage prepared in organic farms. Deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration was higher 42.40% (P≤ 0.05) in silage from conventional farms. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactic acid, ethanol, pH and ammonia nitrogen showed that the silage samples from organic and conventional farms were of good quality. Our study suggests differences in biogenic amine formation or mycotoxins content in silage from organic and conventional farming, but, overall, the measured values are too low to be relevant for animal health. Furthermore, these differences might as well be due to the difference in dry matter content and plant maturity between the organic and conventional silage samples.(AU)

O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar concentrações de aminas biogênicas micotoxinas em silagem embalada (principalmente gramíneas da família Poaceae) preparada em fazendas orgânicas e convencionais e relacionar esses parâmetros a parâmetros fermentativos. A massa seca média (MS) foi 364,10±93,31 e 424,70±95,93g/kg na silagem de fazendas orgânicas e convencionais, respectivamente. As amostras de silagem de fazendas orgânicas tinham 17% a mais de tyramina (TY) (p≤ 0,05) que as de fazendas convencionais. As amostras de fazendas convencionais foram caracterizadas por histamina (HIS) 46,00% mais alta (P≤ 0,05), 9,80% putrecina (PUT) mais alta (P≤ 0,05), 17,30% de cadaverina (CAD) mais alta (P≤ 0,05). Aflatoxnas (AFL) (total) e zearalenone (ZEN), T-2/HT-2 tinham concentrações mais altas em respectivamente 16,00% (P≤ 0,05) e 13,40% (P≤ 0,05), 1,80% (P≤ 0,05) na silagem preparada em fazendas orgânicas. Deoxinivalenol (DON) tinha concentração mais alta 42,40% (P≤ 0,05) na silagem de fazendas convencionais. Ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV), ácido lático, etanol, pH e nitrogênio de amônia mostraram que as amostras de silagem de fazendas orgânicas e convencionais tinham boa qualidade. Nosso estudo sugere diferenças na formação biogênica de amônia ou micotoxinas em silagem de fazendas orgânicas ou convencionais mas, em geral, os valores medidos foram muito baixos para serem relevantes à saúde animal. Ademais, essas diferenças podem ser devido à diferença na matéria sólida e maturidade da planta entre as amostras de silagem orgânica e convencional.(AU)

Biogenic Amines/analysis , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Mycotoxins/analysis , Organic Agriculture , Poaceae , Ammonia/analysis , Ethanol/analysis , Lactic Acid/analysis , Reference Standards
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(4): 327-332, July 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757872


Background Ethanol has been pointed out as a laccase inducer. However, there are controversial reports about its efficiency with some fungi. In this study, we hypothesized that ethanol laccase induced in Pycnoporus sanguineus depends on nitrogen nutriment conditions. To prove this, we assessed laccase production in submerged cultures of P. sanguineus, with different nitrogen concentrations and with, or without ethanol added in a factorial designed experiment. Results In order to analyze the effects of factors on the response variables, a factorial ANOVA, and response-surface models were performed. It was found that the nitrogen source was the main factor that affected laccase production in P. sanguineus. The treatments with yeast extract (2 g/L) and ethanol (3 g/L) induced the highest laccase activity (31.01 ± 4.9 U/L), while the treatments with urea reached the lowest activity (less than 1.6 U/L). Ethanol had positive and synergic effects on laccase production, in accordance with the surface response model, as long as simple nitrogen sources (urea) were not available. Conclusions We suggest that laccase in P. sanguineus is regulated by a catabolic nitrogen repression mechanism; laccase activity is strongly inhibited by urea used as nitrogen source and it decreases when the amount of urea increases; contrarily, a synergic positive effect was observed between yeast extract and ethanol on laccase production.

Laccase/biosynthesis , Ethanol/metabolism , Pycnoporus/enzymology , Nitrogen/analysis , Yeasts , Analysis of Variance , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Ethanol/analysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 148-153, May 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750640


Background To study the relationship between intracellular anabolism and astaxanthin production, the influence of intracellular protein and fatty acids on astaxanthin production by four mutant Phaffia rhodozyma strains and their variations was investigated in this research. Results First, the content of astaxanthin in cells showed a reverse fluctuation in contrast to that of protein during the whole fermentation process. Moreover, compared with the three other strains, the astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strain of the yeast P. rhodozyma, called JMU-MVP14, had the highest specific productivity of astaxanthin as 6.8 mg/g, whereas its intracellular protein and fatty acid contents were the lowest. In addition, as a kind of sugar metabolic product, ethanol was only produced by P. rhodozyma JMU-VDL668 and JMU-7B12 during fermentation. Conclusions The results indicated that the accumulation of ethanol, intracellular protein, and fatty acids had competition effects on astaxanthin synthesis. This condition may explain why the P. rhodozyma strains JMU-VDL668 and JMU-7B12 achieved relatively lower astaxanthin production (1.7 and 1.2 mg/L) than the other two strains JMU-MVP14 and JMU-17W (20.4 and 3.9 mg/L).

Basidiomycota/metabolism , Xanthophylls/biosynthesis , Yeasts , Proteins/analysis , Biomass , Xanthophylls/analysis , Culture Techniques , Ethanol/analysis , Fatty Acids , Fermentation
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Apr; 52 (2): 203-208
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158224


Polypyrrole (PPy)-bile salt composite was used for sensing ethanol vapor. PPy was synthesized by interface polymerization for subsequent fabrication of thin film of its composite with bile salt, by in-situ co-dispersion method and then exposed to ethanol vapour. Sensing was visualized through changes in morphological, structural and optical characterizations. The ethanol exposed film showed larger agglomeration as revealed in its surface morphology on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and greater crystallinity as seen through X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of the ethanol incorporated film also gave signature of the presence of bile salt and alcohol. Alcohol incorporation pattern resulted in increase in electrical conductance from 7.08539 × 10-5 mA/V to 8.0356 × 10-5 mA/V, as determined from current voltage characterizations. Average molecular weight (Mn) obtained from gel permeation chromatography changed from 6160 to 10300 on ethanol intake. Photoluminescence (PL) intensity was quenched and the PL peak shifted from 430 to 409 on ethanol exposure. Changes in morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of the composite on ethanol exposure showed its prospective application for sensing ethanol.

Bile Acids and Salts/diagnosis , Chromatography , Ethanol/analysis , Polymers/analogs & derivatives , Polymers/diagnosis , Pyrroles/analogs & derivatives , Pyrroles/diagnosis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(2): 88-95, Mar. 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745575


Background Triterpenoids are multifunctional secondary metabolites in plants. But little information is available concerning the actual yield, optimal extraction method and pharmacologic activity with regard to triterpenoids from Jatropha curcas leaves (TJL). Hence, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The effects of three independent variables, namely liquid-to-solid ratio, ethanol concentration and extraction time on TJL yield were investigated. TJL obtained by silica column chromatography was tested against bacterial and fungal species relevant to oral disease and wounds through broth microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. Results A second order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to TJL yield (R2 = 0.983, P < 0.01). The optimum extraction conditions were 16 mL/g (liquid-to-solid ratio), 70% (ethanol concentration) and 50 min (extraction time). Predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. TJL had extraordinarily strong antibacterial and antifungal activities (24.42 µg/mL < MIC < 195.31 µg/mL) against all the tested human pathogens except Bacteroides vulgatus (390.62 µg/mL) and Bacteroides stercoris (781.25 µg/mL). The DPPH and ABTS assays revealed a moderate antioxidant activity of TJL compared with ascorbic acid. Conclusion These results provided reliable scientific basis for further investigation of triterpenoids from J. curcas.

Triterpenes/analysis , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Jatropha/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Bacteria/drug effects , Ultrasonics , Free Radical Scavengers , Ethanol/analysis , Fungi/drug effects
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 14(2): 34-38, jul. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-728039


Con el objetivo de determinar el valor del cociente etanol en humor vítreo y sangre en cádaveres necropsiados en la Morgue del Cusco, se realizó un estudio transversal, postmorten, estableciendo la cantidad de etanol y su correlación. El estudio incluyó 45 cadáveres a los que se les tomó las muestras que se almacenaron a 4ºC y se procesaron por cromatografía de gases. El coeficiente de correlación de etanol fue de 0.990, demostrando muy buena correlación. El cociente etanol en humor vítreo/sangre fue de 1,09. Se concluye que la determinación rutinaria de etanol en humor vítreo consitituye un buen método para ratificar el valor de etanol determinado en sangre, especialmente cuando se sospeche de contaminación de la sangre.

In order to determine the value of the ethanol ratio in vitreous humor and blood in autopsied cadavers in the Morgue of Cusco, cross-sectional study was performed postmortem, establishing the amount of ethanol and its correlation. The study included 45 bodies on which they took samples were stored at 4ºC and processed by gas chromatography. The correlation coefficient was 0.990, ethanol showing a very good correlation. Ethanol ratio in vitreous / blood mood was 1.09. We conclude that the routine determination of ethanol in vitreous humor consitituye a good way to ratify the value determined ethanol in blood, especially when there is suspicion of contamination of the blood.

Humans , Chromatography, Gas , Vitreous Body , Ethanol/analysis , Blood Specimen Collection
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(4): 321-327, 8/4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705767


The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Contrast Sensitivity/drug effects , Fourier Analysis , Color Vision/drug effects , Ethanol/analysis , Psychophysics/methods , Review Literature as Topic , Size Perception , Task Performance and Analysis , Visual Acuity , Visual Perception/drug effects
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(4): 10-10, July 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684025


Background: Cellulose can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The difference between the optimal temperature of cellulase and microbial fermentation, however, has been identified as the critical problem with SSF. In this study, one fungal strain (AnsX1) with high cellulase activity at low temperature was isolated from Antarctic soils and identified as Verticillium sp. by morphological and molecular analyses. Results: The biochemical properties of crude AnsX1 cellulase samples were studied by filter paper cellulase assay. The maximum cellulase activity was achieved at low temperature in an acidic environment with addition of metal ions. Furthermore, AnsX1 cellulase demonstrated 54-63% enzymatic activity at ethanol concentrations of 5-10%. AnsX1 cellulase production was influenced by inoculum size, carbon and nitrogen sources, and elicitors. The optimal culture conditions for AnsX1 cellulase production were 5% inoculum, wheat bran as carbon source, (NH4)2SO4 as nitrogen source, and sorbitol added in the medium. Conclusions: Our present work has potential to enable the development of an economic and efficient cold-adapted cellulase system for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels in future.

Cellulase/biosynthesis , Verticillium/enzymology , Carbon/metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Cellulase/metabolism , Cellulase/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Cold Temperature , Verticillium/isolation & purification , Culture Media , Ethanol/analysis , Ethanol/metabolism , Enzyme Assays , Antarctic Regions , Nitrogen/metabolism
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(3): 431-437, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684161


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity in vitro of ethanolic extracts of Banisteriopsis anisandra. Tests were performed using the extracts overlay method in the culture medium for phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, and disk diffusion for the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanolic extracts from leaves were prepared by maceration (extract I) and decoction (extract II) at 430.0, 215.0 and 107.5 mg/mL. The growth inhibition of R. solani and F. oxysporum was determined by calculating the mycelia growth speed rate (MGSR) and, in relation C. albicans and S. aureus, it was determined by measuring the inhibition halos. Extracts that caused significant inhibition were also tested at 86.0, 64.5, 43.0 and 21.5 mg/mL for C. albicans and S. aureus. Both extracts showed inhibitory activity on the microorganisms studied. Rizoctonia solani showed lower MGSR in the presence of extract II (107.5 mg/mL) and Fusarium oxysporum showed slight MGSR reduction in the presence of extract I (107.5 mg/mL) and II (107.5 and 215 mg/mL). Ethanolic extracts I and II inhibited the growth of C. albicans, with the highest rates of inhibition observed in the presence of extract II (215.0 mg/mL). For S. aureus, the highest inhibitory activity was observed in the presence of ethanolic extract II, prepared by decoction at 430.0 mg/mL. Results showed a promising antimicrobial activity of extracts of B. anisandra, which may contribute to further studies leading to a future development of medicines to treat human and plant diseases caused by these organisms.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos etanólicos de Banisteriopsis anisandra. Os testes foram realizados utilizando o método de sobreposição de extratos em meio de cultura para fungos fitopatogênicos Rhizoctonia solani e Fusarium oxysporum e de difusão em disco para os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans. Foram testados de extratos etanólicos de folhas preparados por maceração (extrato I) e decocção (extrato II), nas concentrações de 430,0; 215,0 e 107,5 mg/mL. A inibição do crescimento de R. solani e F. oxysporum foi determinada pelo cálculo do índice de velocidade de crescimento micelial (IVCM) e de C. albicans e S. aureus, por meio da medida da halos de inibição. Os extratos que causaram inibição significativa também foram testados nas concentrações de 86,0; 64,5; 43,0 e 21,5 mg/mL para C. albicans e S. aureus. Ambos os extratos mostraram atividade inibitória sobre os microrganismos estudados. Rizoctonia solani apresentou menor IVCM na presença do extrato II (107,5 mg/mL) e Fusarium oxysporum apresentou discreta redução no IVCM na presença do extrato I (107,5 mg/mL) e II (107,5 e 215 mg/mL). Extratos etanólicos I e II inibiram o crescimento de C. albicans, com as maiores taxas de inibição observadas na presença do extrato II (215,0 mg/mL). Para S. aureus a maior atividade inibitória foi observada na presença do extrato II, na concentração de 430 mg/mL. Os resultados mostraram promissora atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de B. anisandra, o que pode contribuir para estudos futuros visando o desenvolvimento de medicamentos para doenças humanas e de plantas causadas por estes microrganismos.

Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Banisteriopsis/adverse effects , Ethanol/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 113-118, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676894


Biochemical and molecular analysis was used for identification of different kefir yeasts species from Brazil, Canada and the United States of America. The sugar/ethanol-resistant activity of the yeasts was evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus had the highest growth rates, suggesting biotechnological applications possible for these strains.

Base Sequence , Cultured Milk Products , Ethanol/analysis , Genome, Bacterial , In Vitro Techniques , Yeasts/genetics , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 225-234, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676918


A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-¹.

Biomass , Carbon , Cellulase/analysis , Cellulase/isolation & purification , Ethanol/analysis , Industrial Microbiology , Garbage , Oryza/enzymology , Trichoderma/enzymology , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Hydrolysis , Methods , Methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1302-1308, Oct.-Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665812


Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Dilution/methods , Ethanol/analysis , Plant Extracts/toxicity , In Vitro Techniques , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Grassland , Methods