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1.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 732-735, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the etiology mechanism and treatment of iatrogenic blepharoptosis after double eyelid surgery in Asia.@*METHODS@#To extensively review the literature related to iatrogenic blepharoptosis after double eyelid surgery, and to summarize and analyze the related anatomical mechanism, existing treatment options, and indications.@*RESULTS@#Iatrogenic blepharoptosis is a relatively common complication after double eyelid surgery, sometimes it is combined with other eyelid deformities such as sunken upper eyelid and wide double eyelid, which makes it difficult to repair. The etiology is mainly caused by improper adhesion of tissues and scars, improper removal of upper eyelid tissue, and injury of a link of levator muscle power system. Whether blepharoptosis occurs after double eyelid surgery by incision or suture, it should be repaired by incision. The principles of repair include surgical loosening of tissue adhesion, anatomical reduction, and repair of damaged tissues. The key is to use surrounding tissues or transplanted fat to prevent adhesion.@*CONCLUSION@#When repairing iatrogenic blepharoptosis clinically, appropriate surgical methods should be selected based on the causes and severity of the blepharoptosis, combined with treatment principles, in order to achieve better repair results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Blepharoplasty/methods , Eyelids/surgery , Iatrogenic Disease , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery
2.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 713-716, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate effectiveness of transconjunctival lower eyelid blepharoplasty with "super released" orbital fat in correction of lower eyelid pouch protrusion and tear trough and palpebromalar groove depression.@*METHODS@#A clinical data of 82 patients (164 sides) with lower eyelid pouch protrusion and tear trough and palpebromalar groove depression, who met the selection criteria between September 2021 and May 2022, was retrospectively analyzed. Of the included patients, 3 were males and 79 were females, with an average age of 34.5 years (range, 22-46 years). All patients had varying degrees of eyelid pouch protrusion and tear trough and palpebromalar groove depression. The deformities were graded by the Barton grading system as gradeⅠ in 64 sides, grade Ⅱ in 72 sides, and grade Ⅲ in 28 sides. The orbital fat transpositions were performed through the lower eyelid conjunctival approach. The membrane surrounding the orbital fat was completely released, allowing the orbital fat to fully herniate until the herniated orbital fat did not retract significantly in a resting and relaxed state, which is regarded as the "super released" standard. The released fat strip was spread into the anterior zygomatic space and the anterior maxillary space, and percutaneous fixed to the middle face. The suture that penetrates the skin was externally fixed by adhesive tape pasting without knotted.@*RESULTS@#There were 3 sides with chemosis after operation, 1 side with facial skin numbness, 1 side with mild lower eyelid retraction at the early stage after operation, and 5 sides with slight pouch residue. No hematoma, infection, or diplopia occurred. All patients were followed up 4-8 months, with an average of 6.2 months. The eyelid pouch protrusion, tear trough, and palpebromalar groove depression were significantly corrected. At last follow-up, the deformity was graded by Barton grading system as grade 0 in 158 sides and grade Ⅰ in 6 sides, with a significant difference compared to the preoperative score ( P<0.001). Patient's self-evaluation satisfaction reached very satisfied in 67 cases (81.7%), satisfied in 10 cases (12.2%), generally satisfied in 4 cases (4.8%), and dissatisfied in 1 case (1.2%).@*CONCLUSION@#The "super released" orbital fat can effectively prevent the retraction of orbital fat, reduce the probability of residual or recurrence of eyelid pouches, and improve the correction effect.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Blepharoplasty , Retrospective Studies , Depression , Eyelids/surgery , Face/surgery , Adipose Tissue/transplantation
3.
Cambios rev med ; 21(2): 853, 30 Diciembre 2022. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416037

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La ptosis palpebral se define como el descenso o disfunción del párpado con respecto a su posición considerada como normal, pudiendo causar alteraciones del campo visual. Puede dividirse en lesiones congénitas o adquiridas, por el grado de disfunción entre otros. Blefaroplastia, es el término para la corrección de la misma. Existen varias técnicas correctivas quirúrgicas y no quirúrgicas. CASOS. Se presenta una serie de 5 casos tratados mediante abordaje quirúrgico anterior; detallando la técnica quirúrgica utilizada, con corrección de las estructuras hipertrofiadas, sección, suspensión, sutura del elevador palpebral o su encortamiento; suspensión de índole estática con el uso de fascia del paciente y finalizando el procedimiento con la confección del surco palpebral superior. RESULTADOS. Los 5 pacientes fueron tratados con técnicas quirúrgicas individualizadas obteniéndose buenos resultados estéticos y funcionales, sin complicaciones durante o después del procedimiento. DISCUSIÓN. La técnica de blefaroplastia quirúrgica dependerá del grado de disfunción; se describen tres principales: Fasanella Servat, para ptosis leve y útil para ptosis congénita leve o síndrome de Horner; Reinserción de la aponeurosis del músculo elevador, técnica que respeta la anatomía y permite regular diferentes grados de ptosis; y Suspensión del párpado al músculo frontal pudiendo ser definitiva o reversible. La edad de intervención para ptosis congénita antes del año de edad es urgente, si tapa la pupila para así evitar ambliopía y tortícolis compensatoria, en el resto de casos se sugiere realizarla a partir de los 5 años de edad. CONCLUSIONES. El conocimiento adecuado de la anatomía palpebral, etiología de la dermatocalasia y blefaroptosis, permite realizar una correcta cirugía reparadora individualizada para cada paciente. Las técnicas presentadas en este trabajo son reproducibles.


INTRODUCTION. Palpebral ptosis is defined as the descent or dysfunction of the eyelid with respect to its position considered as normal, which can cause alterations in the visual field. It can be divided into congenital or acquired lesions, according to the degree of dysfunction, among others. Blepharoplasty is the term for its correction. There are several surgical and non-surgical corrective techniques. CASES. We present a series of 5 cases treated by anterior surgical approach; detailing the surgical technique used, with correction of the hypertrophied structures, section, suspension, suture of the palpebral elevator or its shortening; static suspension with the use of the patient's fascia and ending the procedure with the confection of the superior palpebral sulcus. RESULTS. All 5 patients were treated with individualized surgical techniques obtaining good aesthetic and functional results, without complications during or after the procedure. DISCUSSION. The surgical blepharoplasty technique will depend on the degree of dysfunction; three main techniques are described: Fasanella Servat, for mild ptosis and useful for mild congenital ptosis or Horner syndrome; Reinsertion of the levator muscle aponeurosis, a technique that respects the anatomy and allows regulating different degrees of ptosis; and Eyelid suspension to the frontalis muscle, which can be definitive or reversible. The age of intervention for congenital ptosis before one year of age is urgent, if it covers the pupil in order to avoid amblyopia and compensatory torticollis, in the rest of cases it is suggested to perform it from 5 years of age. CONCLUSIONS. The adequate knowledge of the palpebral anatomy, etiology of dermatochalasis and blepharoptosis, allows a correct individualized reparative surgery for each patient. The techniques presented in this work are reproducible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Surgery, Plastic , Blepharoptosis , Horner Syndrome , Esthetics , Eyelids , Oculomotor Muscles , Blepharoplasty , Ecuador , Eyelid Diseases , Visual Field Tests
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441722

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir los resultados de las blefaroplastias con láser de CO2 y radiocirugía realizada a pacientes con dermatochalasis del párpado superior en el Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en pacientes del servicio de Oftalmología. Después de aplicar los criterios de selección la muestra quedó conformada por los primeros 100 pacientes que asistieron de forma consecutiva y se dividieron al azar en dos grupos de 50 casos cada uno, al grupo A se le realizó blefaroplastia superior transcutánea con radiofrecuencia y al grupo B se le realizó blefaroplastia superior transcutánea con láser de CO2. Resultados: En ambos predominaron los pacientes entre los 60 a 79 años, el sexo femenino y los de color de piel blanca (p>0,05); se logró una reducción completa de la piel redundante en más de un 50 pr ciento. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio con el láser de CO2 fue de 31.5 min y con radiofrecuencia de 35,9 min. El sangrado intraoperatorio fue menor en operados con el láser de CO2. La satisfacción de los pacientes fue buena en ambos grupos. Complicaciones posoperatorias: el 16 del grupo A y el 11% del B, presentaron alguna complicación. Conclusiones: Se observó que con el uso del láser de CO2 el tiempo quirúrgico, el sangrado intraoperatorio y las complicaciones disminuyeron; con lo cual mejoró el aprovechamiento del salón. Ambas técnicas mostraron un elevado grado de satisfacción y mejoría de la estética palpebral por lo que son efectivas y seguras(AU)


Objective: To describe the results of CO2 laser blepharoplasty and radiosurgery performed in patients with upper eyelid dermatochalasis. Methods: A descriptive longitudinal study was carried out in patients of the Ophthalmology Service of the Clinical Surgical Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras". After applying the selection criteria, the sample consisted of the first 100 patients who attended consecutively and were randomly divided into two groups of 50 cases each. Group A underwent transcutaneous upper blepharoplasty with radiofrequency and group B underwent transcutaneous upper blepharoplasty with CO2 laser. Results: In both groups, patients between 60 and 79 years of age, female gender and white skin color predominated (p>0.05); a complete reduction of redundant skin was achieved in more than 50 percnt. The average surgical time with CO2 laser was 31.5 min and with radiofrequency 35.9 min. Intraoperative bleeding was lower in those operated with the CO2 laser. Patient satisfaction was good in both groups. Postoperative complications: 16 por ciento of group A and 11 percent of group B presented some complication. Conclusions: It was observed that with the use of CO2 laser the surgical time, intraoperative bleeding and complications decreased; thus improving room utilization. Both techniques showed a high degree of satisfaction and improvement of palpebral aesthetics, so they are effective and safe(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blepharoplasty/methods , Eyelids/injuries
5.
Medisan ; 26(1)feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405768

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un neonato, producto de parto eutócico, a término y normopeso, asistido en el Hospital Distrital de Barrillas, perteneciente a la zona rural del Departamento Huehuetenango en Guatemala, que al nacer presentó escamas grandes y gruesas diseminadas en la piel, así como eversión de párpados y labios. Se le diagnosticó ictiosis arlequín, por lo que se mantuvo ingresado en la Unidad de Cuidados Neonatales de dicho centro. La evolución fue desfavorable, con persistencia de complicaciones, tales como sepsis grave y alteraciones hidroelectrolíticas, a pesar del tratamiento médico, por lo que falleció a los 6 días de nacido e igual período de hospitalización.


The case report of a newborn baby, product of an eutocic childbirth, at term and normal weight, is described. He was assisted in Barrillas Distrital Hospital, belonging to the rural area of the Huehuetenango Department in Guatemala due to big and thick flakes disseminated in the skin when being born, as well as eversion of eyelids and lips. Arlekin ichthyosis was diagnosed, reason why he was admitted to the Neonates Care Unit of this center. The clinical course was unfavorable, with persistence of complications, such as serious sepsis and hydroelectrolitic disorders, in spite of the medical treatment, reason why he died after 6 days of being born and same period of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Ichthyosis , Skin , Eyelids , Lip
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0032, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376780

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the literature, there is a confusing classification among congenital floppy eyelid, eyelid eversion and ectropion. They are described as eyelid malposition with laxity and out-turning of the eyelids in newborns, usually associated with conjunctival prolapse and chemosis. Although the underlying pathophysiology of these rare conditions is obscure, they share anatomic characteristics. Thus, instead of a plethora of denominations, a spectrum approach should join these entities. In this paper, the authors present a case series of four patients that illustrates distinctive presentations of this condition and advocate that it should be considered as variants of a spectrum of congenital ectropion. Mild cases, when promptly treated, can benefit from clinical treatment. On the other hand, severe and delayed cases will need surgical correction as in the case of acquired ectropion.


RESUMO Na literatura, existe uma classificação confusa entre floppy eyelid congênita, eversão palpebral e ectrópio congênito. Essas afecções são similarmente descritas como pálpebras frouxas e evertidas em recém-nascidos e geralmente associadas a prolapso de conjuntiva e quemose. Embora a fisiopatologia dessas raras afecções seja incerta, elas apresentam íntimas características anatômicas em comum. Assim, ao invés dessa nomenclatura variada, seria interessante incluí-las em um espectro de uma só doença. Neste artigo. apresenta-se uma série de quatro casos que ilustram diferentes apresentações dessa afecção e propõe-se que todas devam ser consideradas variações do espectro de ectrópio congênito. Casos leves são beneficiados quando tratados precocemente. Por outro lado, casos mais graves ou que são tratados tardiamente necessitarão de procedimento cirúrgico semelhante ao ectrópio adquirido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Ectropion/congenital , Eyelids/abnormalities , Ectropion/surgery , Ectropion/therapy , Eyelids/surgery
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0005, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360915

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the upper and lower blepharoplasty technique associated with canthopexy with double pre septal orbicularis muscle elevation with a single suture in order to evaluate the efficacy of the technique. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 5,882 patients who underwent this technique between January 1999 and July 2015 were evaluated. The frequency and main causes of clinical complications and surgical reoperation were analyzed. Results: The incidence of complications found was 12.7% (n=750), being 0.8% (n=47) due to persistent chemosis, 3% (n=176) due to poor lower eyelid positioning, 4.17% (n=245) due to mild eyelid retraction and 4.8% (n=282) because of mild to moderate chemosis. Conclusion: The technique appears to be effective as it is simple and practical, and capable of resulting in positive functional and aesthetic outcomes with low rates of complications.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a técnica de blefaroplastia superior e inferior associada à cantopexia associada à dupla elevação do músculo orbicular pré-septal em uma única sutura e avaliar sua eficácia. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, no qual foram avaliados 5.882 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à blefaroplastia superior e inferior com a utilização da cantopexia, entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2015. Taxas e principais causas de complicações clínicas e reintervenção cirúrgica foram analisadas. Resultados: A incidência de complicações encontradas foi de 12,7% (n=750), sendo 0,8% (n=47) de caso de quemose persistente, 3% (n=176) de mau posicionamento palpebral inferior (ectrópio), 4,17% (n=245) de leve retração pálpebra e 4,8% (n=282) de quemose leve a moderada. Conclusão: A técnica mostra-se eficaz por ser simples e prática, podendo ter resultados funcionais e estéticos positivos e com baixo índice de complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Suture Techniques , Blepharoplasty/adverse effects , Blepharoplasty/methods , Eyelid Diseases/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Skin Aging , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Conjunctival Diseases/etiology , Edema/etiology , Eyelids/surgery , Facial Muscles/surgery
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1066, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352033

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una búsqueda sobre carcinoma basal de párpado, con el objetivo de describir el contexto actual del tratamiento quirúrgico, no quirúrgico y reconstructivo. Con el fin de eliminar el tumor con las menores secuelas funcionales y estéticas posibles, son aceptadas muchas opciones de tratamiento en el manejo actual de esta patología, que incluyen: tratamientos tópicos (imiquimod, interferones, vismodegib, sonidegib), procedimientos mínimamente invasivos (terapia fotodinámica), modalidades ablativas (curetaje, electrocauterización, criocirugía) y procedimientos altamente especializados (resección quirúrgica convencional, radioterapia o cirugía de Mohs). El tratamiento previo, el subtipo histológico, el sitio y el tamaño de la lesión deben considerarse en la planificación quirúrgica, porque se ha demostrado que afectan las tasas de curación. A partir de estos elementos, se desarrolló un algoritmo para el tratamiento del carcinoma basocelular que podría ayudar a elegir la técnica quirúrgica y los márgenes de seguridad, especialmente en lugares donde la cirugía micrográfica no está ampliamente disponible(AU)


A bibliographic search was conducted about basal eyelid carcinoma with the purpose of describing the current context of surgical, non-surgical and reconstructive treatment. Current management of this condition includes many treatment options aimed at removing the tumor with the least possible functional and esthetic sequels. Among them are the following: topical medication (imiquimod, interferons, vismodegib, sonidegib), minimally invasive procedures (photodynamic therapy), ablative therapy (curettage, electrocauterization, cryosurgery) and highly specialized procedures (conventional surgical resection, radiotherapy or Mohs surgery). Surgical planning should consider the previous treatment, the histological subtype, and the site and size of the lesion. These factors have been shown to affect cure rates. Based on these elements, an algorithm was developed for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma which may be useful in selecting the surgical technique and safety margins, particularly in settings where micrographic surgery is not widely available(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/radiotherapy , Mohs Surgery/methods , Cryosurgery/methods , Eyelids/injuries , Review Literature as Topic , Imiquimod/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 11-16, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153094

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the effect of upper blepharoplasty on corneal topography and intraocular lens power calculation using Galilei and IOLMaster. Methods: Thirty patients submitted to upper blepharoplasty from May 2014 to March 2017 at the Hospital Oftalmológico de Sorocaba (São Paulo, Brazil) were included in this observational case series. All patients underwent imaging sessions with Galilei and IOLMaster preoperatively (baseline) and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Primary outcome measures using both devices included flattest, average, and steepest corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, and blepharoplasty-induced corneal astigmatism. Determination of axial length and lens power calculation were performed using only IOLMaster (Holladay formula). Paired t-test and vectorial analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: Sixty eyes from 30 patients were prospectively included. Vectorial analysis showed that 6 months after surgery, blepharoplasty induced on average 0.39 D and 0.31 D of corneal astigmatism, as measured with Galilei and IOLMaster, respectively. IOLMaster measurements showed that average corneal curvature (44.56 vs 44.64 D, p=0.01), steepest corneal curvature (45.17 vs 45.31, p=0.01) and corneal astigmatism (1.22 vs 1.34, p=0.03) were higher 6 months after surgery. IOLMaster measurements also showed that intraocular lens power was significantly smaller 6 months after surgery (22.07 vs 21.93, p=0.004). All other parameters showed no change for comparisons between baseline and 6 months (p>0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Upper eyelid blepharoplasty influenced intraocular lens calculation using the IOLMaster. However, the influence was not clinically significant. No topographic changes were found using Galilei.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da blefaroplastia superior na topografia corneana e no cálculo do poder das lentes intraoculares usando Galilei e IOLMaster. Métodos: Trinta pacientes submetidos a blefaroplastia superior de maio de 2014 a março de 2017 no Hospital Oftalmológico de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil foram incluídos neste estudo de série de casos observacional. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a sessões de imagem com Galilei e IOLMaster antes da cirurgia (exame de base) e no 1º e 6º mês pós-operatório. Os resultados primários utilizando os dois aparelhos incluíram ceratometria, astigmatismo corenano e astigmatismo corneano induzido pela blefaroplastia. O comprimento axial e o cálculo do poder da lente intraocular foram realizados unicamente com o IOLMaster (fórmula de Holladay). Teste-t pareado e análise vetorial foram usados na análise estatística. Resultados: Sessenta olhos de 30 pacientes foram incluídos prospectivamente. A análise vec­torial mostrou que após 6 meses da cirurgia, a blefaroplastia superior induziu na média 0,39 D de astigmatismo corneano medido com o Galilei e 0,31 D com IOLMaster. As medidas com o IOLMaster mostraram que a ceratometria média (44,56 vs 44,64 D, p=0,01), ceratometria máxima (45,17 vs 45,31, p=0,01) e o astigmatismo corneano (1,22 vs 1,34, p=0,03) foram maiores após 6 meses da blefaroplastia. As medidas com IOLMaster mostraram que o poder da lente intraocular foi significativamente menor 6 meses após a blefaroplastia (22,07 vs 21,93, p=0,004). Todos os outros parâmetros não mostraram mudanças entre o pré-operatório e o 6º mês da cirurgia (p>0,05 para todas as comparações). Conclusões: A blefaroplastia superior influenciou o cálculo da lente intrao­cular utilizando o IOLMaster. Contudo, a influência não foi cli­­nicamente significativa. Não foram encontradas mudanças topográficas com o Galilei.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astigmatism , Astigmatism/etiology , Biometry , Blepharoplasty , Lenses, Intraocular , Refraction, Ocular , Brazil , Cornea/surgery , Cornea/diagnostic imaging , Corneal Topography , Blepharoplasty/adverse effects , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Eyelids
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200406, 2021.
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136918

Subject(s)
Tick Infestations , Eyelids
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200398, 2021.
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136923
12.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0019, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288628

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A amiloidose é caracterizada pela deposição extracelular de fibrilas amiloides proteicas nos tecidos, incluindo conjuntiva, motivada por sua insolubilidade em proteínas proteolíticas. A amiloidose conjuntival, afetando especificamente a conjuntiva palpebral, é um achado raro na prática clínica. Os autores descrevem um caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, caucasiano, de 71 anos, apresentando lesões bilaterais localizadas na conjuntiva da pálpebra inferior, elevadas, bem delimitadas, amareladas, aliadas a pálpebras desestabilizadas. Foi realizada excisão cirúrgica das lesões, e o exame histológico confirmou se tratar de amiloidose conjuntival. Não houve recorrência após o procedimento. A amiloidose conjuntival afetando ambas as pálpebras inferiores é um achado raro na literatura. O manejo da amiloidose conjuntival depende da extensão do envolvimento local e do status sistêmico do paciente, variando de sintomático, com o uso de lubrificantes, até cirúrgico, com a remoção das lesões.


ABSTRACT Amyloidosis is characterized by extracellular deposition of protein amyloid fibrils in tissues, including conjunctiva, which are insoluble in proteolytic proteins. Conjunctival amyloidosis specifically in the palpebral conjunctiva is a rare finding in clinical practice. The authors described the case of a 71-year-old caucasian male patient, with bilateral lesions located in the lower eyelid conjunctiva, elevated, well-defined, yellowish, combined with destabilized eyelids. Surgical excision of the lesions was performed, and the histological examination confirmed conjunctival amyloidosis. There was no recurrence after the procedure. Conjunctival amyloidosis in both lower eyelids is a rare finding in the literature. The management of conjunctival amyloidosis depends on the extent of local involvement and patient's general health status, varying from symptomatic, with use of ocular lubricants, to surgical, by removing the lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Conjunctival Diseases/diagnosis , Eyelid Diseases/diagnosis , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Conjunctiva/pathology , Eyelids/pathology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1381-1385, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134452

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Frontaly and anteriorly the orbit is closed by a skin-muscular closure of eyelids. The eyelids limit the palpebral fissure, which is subject to geographical, racial, and age variations. As a part of the face, eyelids and palpebral fissure play a very important role in the attractiveness of the individual, but al so in the diagnosis of certain local and systemic pathological processes. The aim of the study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the palpebral fissure in a young population without pathological conditions and syndromes. The study was conducted on 90 subjects (45 male and 45 female) aged 19.28±0.69 years. Subjects were photographed with a Nikon D3400 camera, and the morphometric parameters were measured with the ImageJ 1.48v software. Statistical analysis of the data was performed in Windows Excel. The measurements in the study were the distance between the mid-points of both pupils, distance between both external canthi, distance between both internal canthi, palpebral fissure width and palpebral fissure height at three points. The average height of the palpebral fissure to the right is 9.35±1.55 mm and to the left is 9.41±1.56 mm. The average width of the palpebral fissure on the right is 27.05±1.71 mm and on the left is 27.18±1.68 mm. It was found that there was some difference in the measured parameters, however, this difference was not statistically significant.


RESUMEN: El músculo orbicular de los ojos se encuentra en la cara, delante de la órbita y debajo de la piel. Los párpados limitan la fisura palpebral, la abertura natural, sujeta a variaciones geográficas, raciales y de edad. Los párpados y la fisura palpebral juegan un papel importante en la estética de las personas, pero también en el diagnóstico de ciertos procesos patológicos locales y sistémicos. El objetivo del estudio fue realizar un análisis morfométrico de la fisura palpebral en una población joven sin enfermedades o condiciones patológicas. El estudio se realizó en 90 sujetos (45 hombres y 45 mujeres) de 19,28 ± 0,69 años. Los sujetos fueron fotografiados con una cámara Nikon D3400, y los parámetros morfométricos se midieron con el software ImageJ 1.48v. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó en Windows Excel. Se midieron la distancia entre los puntos medios de ambas pupilas, la distancia entre ambos cantos laterales, la distancia entre ambos cantos mediales, el ancho de la fisura palpebral y la altura de la fisura palpebral en tres puntos. La altura promedio de la fisura palpebral a la derecha fue 9,35 ± 1,55 mm y a la izquierda fue 9,41 ± 1,56 mm. El ancho promedio de la fisura palpebral a la derecha era 27,05 ± 1,71 mm y a la izquierda era 27,18 ± 1,68 mm. Se determinó una diferencia leve en los parámetros medidos, sin embargo, esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Eyelids/anatomy & histology , Prospective Studies , Eye/anatomy & histology , Serbia
14.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 26(3): 140-142, 20200900. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151322

ABSTRACT

Paciente masculino de 68 años con carcinoma basocelular lobulado recidivado en inferior izquierdo con colgajo de Hughes hace 5 años y posterior recidiva al siguiente año con escisión en cuña. Actualmente, con una segunda recidiva, se realiza una resección amplia del 75% del total del párpado cuya congelación informa márgenes libres, reconstruido en el mismo acto quirúrgico: la lamela posterior con colgajo pediculado de periostio y la anterior con un colgajo de Mustardé. El paciente evoluciona con un buen sostén y posición palpebral, sin recurrencia del tumor.


A 68-year-old man with recurrent lobulated basal cell carcinoma of the left lower eyelid. She has a history of reconstruction of the lower left eyelid with Hughes flap 5 year sago and later recurrence the following year with wedge excision. Currently, with a second recurrence, resection was performed under frozen section technique and the defect of 75% width free of tumor, is reconstructed in the same surgical act: the posterior lamella with a pedicled periosteal flap and the anterior with a Mustardé flap. One year follow-up, the patient evolves with good support and eyelid position, without recurrence of the tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Periosteum/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Eyelid Neoplasms/therapy , Eyelids/surgery , Transplants/surgery
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 185-189, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131585

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To perform a long-term comparison of the quantitative efficacy of internal and external browpexy in combination with upper-lid blepharoplasty based on lateral and central eyebrow positions. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated internal and external browpexy with upper-lid blepharoplasty surgeries that were performed during the period between January 2012 and December 2017 in the oculoplastic surgery department of our hospital. Patients who had undergone periorbital and forehead surgery, who had ophthalmologic or neurological diseases, and who were Botox users were not included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative measurements were made on photographs taken in the same position. The distances from the pupil center and from the point of intersection between the horizontal line passing through the pupil and the vertical line passing through the lateral canthus to the upper eyebrow borders were measured. Photogrammetric analysis of eyebrow position was analyzed using Corel Draw software. Results: Preoperative and postoperative photographs of 70 eyelids were analyzed. Measurements were taken 24 months after surgery. Mean elevations of 2.10 and 3.19 mm were observed in the central region and lateral regions, respectively, in the internal browpexy group. These elevations were 2.66 and 3.03 mm in the external browpexy group and 0.48 and 0.55 mm in the control group. Eyebrow elevations in the central and lateral regions were not significantly different from baseline in the control group (p=0.126 and p=0.25). Internal and external browpexy showed statistically similar elevation values in the central and lateral regions (p=0.636 and p=0.342). Conclusions: External and internal browpexy surgery afforded adequate and similar elevations of the central and lateral brow, which were significantly different from those in the standard blepharoplasty group during long-term follow-up.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a comparação, a longo prazo, da eficácia quantitativa da sobrancelha interna e externa em combinação com a blefaroplastia da pálpebra superior com base nas posições lateral e central da sobrancelha. Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo avaliou as cirurgias interna e externa da braquiterapia com blefaroplastia de pálpebra superior realizadas entre janeiro de 2012 e dezembro de 2017 no setor de cirurgia Oculoplástica de nosso hospital. Pacientes submetidos à cirurgia periorbitária e frontal, com doenças oftalmológicas ou neurológicas e usuários de Botox não foram incluídos no estudo. Medidas pré e pós-operatórias foram feitas em fotografias tiradas na mesma posição. Foram medidas as distâncias do centro da pupila e do ponto de intersecção entre a linha horizontal que passa pela pupila e a linha vertical que passa pelo canto lateral do olho até as bordas superiores da sobrancelha. A análise fotogramétrica da posição da sobrancelha foi analisada usando o software Corel Draw. Resultados: Foram analisadas fotografias pré e pós-operatórias de 70 pálpebras. As medidas foram feitas 24 meses após a cirurgia. Elevações médias de 2,10 e 3,19 mm foram observadas na região central e laterais, respectivamente, no grupo de sobrancelha interna. Essas elevações foram de 2,66 e 3,03 mm no grupo da sobrancelha externa e 0,48 e 0,55 mm no grupo controle (p=0,126, p=0,25). A sobrancelha interna e externa apresentou valores de elevação estatisticamente semelhantes nas regiões central e lateral (p=0,636, p=0,342). Conclusões: Cirurgia de sobrancelha externa e interna proporcionam elevações adequadas e semelhantes nas sobrancelhas central e lateral que foram significativamente diferentes daqueles no grupo de blefaroplastia padrão no acompanhamento a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Period , Blepharoplasty , Eyebrows , Eyelids , Retrospective Studies
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 127-131, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Inferior eyelid laxity is classically evaluated using "snap-back" and "distraction" tests. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the technique used to indirectly quantify the horizontal tension in the lower eyelids using digital image processing. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted to assess the reproducibility of a new technique that quantifies the horizontal tension in the lower eyelid. The study was conducted at the Hospital das Clínicas of Porto Alegre. The protocol was established by two trained ophthalmologist examiners, allowing intra- and interobserver agreement analyses. Image acquisition was done in two stages: the first image was captured with the eyelid in primary gaze position and the second with the eyelid in traction position. All images and measurements were processed using Image J 1.33m software from the National Institute of Health. The Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficients, concordance correlation coefficients, and technical measurement error were used to evaluate reproducibility. Results: The study participants comprised healthy individuals with no ophthalmologic pathologies. The measurements obtained in the neutral position showed a slightly higher agreement than those obtained in the traction position. The mean difference between the measurements performed in the traction position was 0.028 ± 0.7 mm and 0.014 ± 0.9 mm in the intra- and interobserver analyses, respectively. The Bland-Altman method demonstrated adequate confidence limits for both measurements. Correlation coefficients for measurements varied between 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.95] and 0.91 (95% CI 0.77-0.97) in the neutral position and between 0.72 (95% CI 0.37-0.89) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.4-0.91) in the traction position. Conclusion: A high intra- and interobserver concordance was observed in the studied method to quantify lower eyelid tension. The proposed method is simple and easily reproducible, and to the best our knowledge, this is the first method that quantifies lower eyelid horizontal tension on the basis of digital image processing. This modified distraction test might be useful in studies quantifying lower eyelid horizontal tension.


RESUMO Objetivo: A frouxidão palpebral inferior é avaliada classicamente por meio de testes de "snap-back" e "distraction test". O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a reprodutibilidade da técnica utilizada para quantificar indiretamente a tensão horizontal nas pálpebras inferiores através do processamento digital de imagens. Métodos: Este estudo longitudinal foi realizado para avaliar a reprodutibilidade de uma nova técnica que quantifica a tensão horizontal na pálpebra inferior. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O protocolo foi estabelecido por dois examinadores oftalmologistas treinados, permitindo análises de concordância intra e interavaliador. A aquisição de imagens foi feita em duas etapas: a primeira imagem foi capturada com a pálpebra na posição primária do olhar e a segunda com pálpebra tracionada. Todas as imagens e medições foram processadas usando o software Image J 1.33m do National Institute of Health. O método de Bland-Altman, os coeficientes de correlação intraclasses, os coeficientes de correlação de concordância e o erro técnico da medida foram utilizados para avaliar a reprodutibilidade. Resultados: Os participantes do estudo foram indivíduos saudáveis e sem patologias oftalmológicas. As medidas obtidas na posição neutra mostraram concordância levemente maior do que as obtidas na posição tracionada. A diferença média entre as medidas realizadas na posição tracionada foi de 0,028 ± 0,7mm e 0,014 ± 0,9mm nas análises intra e interobservadores, respectivamente. O método de Bland-Altman demonstrou limites de confiança adequados para ambas as medidas. Os coeficientes de correlação para as medidas variaram entre 0,87 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) 0,68-0,95) e 0,91 (IC 95% 0,77-0,97) na posição neutra e entre 0,72 (IC 95% 0,37-0,89) e 0,76 (IC 95% 0,46-0,91) na posição tracionada. Conclusão: Observou-se elevada concordância intra e interobservador no método estudado para quantificar a tensão palpebral inferior. O método proposto é simples e facilmente reproduzível, e, do melhor modo possível, este é o primeiro método que quantifica a tensão horizontal da pálpebra inferior com base no processamento digital de imagens. Este teste de distração modificado pode ser útil em estudos que quantifiquem a tensão horizontal da pálpebra inferior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/standards , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Eyelid Diseases/physiopathology , Eyelid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Software , Photography/methods , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Eyelids/physiopathology , Eyelids/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(2): 131-133, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137949

ABSTRACT

Resumo Ectrópio palpebral congênito é o termo utilizado para descrever a ocorrência da eversão das pálpebras, seja ela superior ou inferior, presente ao nascimento. Trata-se de uma afecção rara com reduzido número de casos publicados no meio científico desde 1896, ano em que o primeiro relato foi documentado. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever um caso de abordagem conservadora do Ectrópio Palpebral Congênito, evidenciando as suas principais características, importância do diagnóstico precoce e conduta adequada para o seu tratamento. Este é um estudo transversal, retrospectivo e documental baseado na metodologia de relato de caso que envolve um recém-nascido do sexo feminino que apresentou eversão palpebral unilateral e foi tratada de maneira conservadora, obtendo melhora do quadro com satisfatório resultado estético e funcional.


Abstract Congenital eyelid ectropion is the term used to describe the eversion of the eyelids, be it in the upper or lower lid, present at birth. It is a rare condition with a reduced number of cases published in scientific world since 1896, the year it was first reported. The objective of this work is to describe a case of Congenital Ectropion treated conservatively, emphasizing its main characteristics, importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective and documentary study based on the methodology of case report involving a female newborn who presented unilateral palpebral eversion at birth and was treated conservatively, showing a satisfactory and functional improvement of the condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Ointments , Ophthalmic Solutions , Ectropion/congenital , Ectropion/drug therapy , Eyelids/abnormalities , Conservative Treatment/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 39-42, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088957

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To review the outcomes of frontalis suspension surgeries with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene in patients with blepharoptosis. Methods: A retrospective observational study analyzed the outcomes of frontalis suspension surgeries performed in a single institution from 2003 to 2018. All procedures were performed with closed incision and single pentagon techniques. Outcomes were classified as satisfactory or unsatisfactory, with satisfactory defined as a margin reflex distance of >3 mm and <1 mm between eyelids and unsatisfactory as hypocorrection, surgical complications, and asymmetry. Results: We included a total of 76 eyelids from 52 patients in our study. Within a mean postoperative follow-up of 16.8 ± 18.5 months (range, 3-95), 59 (77.6%) eyelids had a satisfactory outcome, and 17 (22.4%) were unsatisfactory (8 cases of asymmetry, 3 granulomas, 3 suture extrusions, 2 abscesses, and 1 case of cellulitis). Nine eyelids from the unsatisfactory group required reoperation. Among the patients with a follow-up of ³12 months (38 surgeries), lasting results were observed in most eyelids, except for 2 late-onset suture extrusions. Conclusion: The use of polytetrafluoroethylene in frontalis suspension surgery was shown to be predictable, safe, and lasting. Our findings support previous studies that have shown adequate functional results and low complication rates.


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar os resultados de cirurgias de sus pensão ao músculo frontal com o uso de fio de politetrafluoretileno em pacientes com blefaroptose. Métodos: Em um estudo observacional retrospectivo, foram analisados os resultados das cirurgias de músculo frontal de uma instituição, realizadas entre 2003 e 2018. Todos os procedimentos foram realizados com incisão fechada e técnica de pentágono. Os desfechos foram classificados como satisfatórios ou insatisfatórios com definição satisfatória definida como distância margem-reflexo >3mm e <1mm entre as pálpebras e insatisfatória como hipocorreção, complicações cirúrgicas e assimetria. Resultados: Incluímos um total de 76 pálpebras de 52 pacientes em nosso estudo. Com um tempo médio de seguimento pós-operatório de 16,8 ± 18,5 meses (intervalo 3-95), 59 (77,6%) pálpebras apresentaram desfecho satisfatório e 17 (22,4%) insatisfatórios (8 casos de assimetria, 3 granulomas, 3 extrusões de sutura, 2 abscessos e 1 caso de celulite). Nove pálpebras do grupo insatisfatório necessitaram de reoperação. Entre os pacientes com seguimento ³12 meses (38 cirurgias), resultados duradouros foram observados na maioria dos casos, exceto por 2 extrusões de sutura de surgimento tardio. Conclusão: O uso de politetrafluoretileno na cirurgia de músculo frontal mostrou ser previsível, seguro e duradouro, Nossos achados corroboram com estudos prévios que mostraram resultados funcionais adequados e baixos índices de complicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polytetrafluoroethylene/therapeutic use , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Blepharoplasty/methods , Eyelids/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Suture Techniques , Treatment Outcome
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 28-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088952

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of the present work is to measure the interocular upper lid contour symmetry using a new method of lid contour quantification. Methods: The Bézier curve tool of the Image J software was used to extract the right and left upper eyelid contours of 75 normal subjects. Inter-observer variability of 29 right lid contours obtained by two independent observers was estimated using the coefficient of overlap of two curves and an analysis of the differences of the contour peak location. A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the mean value of the coefficient of overlap of the right and left contours in males and females and lid segments. The same analysis was performed to compare the location of the contour peak of the right and left contours. Results: The coefficient of contour overlap obtained by independent observers ranged from 93.5% to 98.8%, with a mean of 96.1% ± 1.6 SD. There was a mean difference of 0.02 mm in the location of the contour peak. Right and left contour symmetry did not differ between females and males and was within the range of the method variability for contour overlap and location of the contour peak. Conclusions: The upper eyelid contour is highly symmetrical. Bézier lines allow a quick and fast quantification of the lid contour, with a mean inter-observer variability of 3.9%.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo é mensurar a simetria interocular do contorno da pálpebra superior por meio de um novo método de quantificação de contorno palpebral com curvas de Bézier. Métodos: A ferramenta de curva de Bézier do software ImageJ foi utilizada para extrair os contornos palpebrais direito e esquerdo de 75 sujeitos normais. A variabilidade interobservador de 29 contornos palpebrais do olho direito obtidos por dois observadores diferentes foi estimada pelo coeficiente de superposição de duas curvas e pela análise das diferenças das posições do pico do contorno. Análise de variância de dois fatores foi empregada para testar a média do coeficiente de superposição entre os contornos direito e esquerdo quanto ao sexo e segmento palpebral. A mesma análise foi utilizada para comparar a localização do pico do contorno dos olhos direito e esquerdo. Resultados: O coeficiente de superposição obtidos por observadores independentes variou ente 93,5% e 98,8% com média de 96,1% ± 1,6 DP. A diferença das médias da localização do pico do contorno palpebral foi de 0,02 mm. A simetria entre os contornos dos olhos direito e esquerdo não diferiu entre o sexo feminino e masculino e esteve na faixa de variabilidade do método para o coeficiente de superposição e localização do pico do contorno. Conclusões: O contorno da pálpebra superior é altamente simétrico. As linhas Bézier permitem uma rápida e prática quantificação do contorno palpebral com uma média de variabilidade interobservador de 3,9%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Eyelids/anatomy & histology , Facial Asymmetry/diagnosis , Reference Values , Computer Simulation , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Software
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 11-18, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088949

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the long-term functional and cosmetic outcomes in patients who underwent modified Hughes procedure with different types of anterior lamellar reconstruction for lower eyelid defects. Methods: This study included 58 patients who had undergone a modified Hughes flap for reconstruction of lower eyelids after tumor excision within a 10-year period. Data regarding patient demographics, size of eyelid defect, tumor pathology, surgical techniques, functional and cosmetic outcomes, and complications were recorded. Postoperative complications were evaluated according to the type of anterior lamella reconstruction (i.e., advancement flap or free skin graft). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors affecting the success of the procedure. Results: The average size of the lower eyelid defect was 22 ± 6.3 mm (range: 11-30 mm). The anterior lamella was reconstructed with advancement flaps and full-thickness skin grafts in 36 (58.6%) and 24 (41.4%) patients, respectively. Mean follow-up time was 23.6 ± 11.9 months. Postoperative complications included trichiasis (three patients; 5.2%), ectropion (two patients; 3.0%), flap necrosis (one patient; 1.7%), flap dehiscence (one patient; 1.7%), infection (one patient; 1.7%), and eyelid margin erythema (one patient; 1.7%). The rates of complication and secondary surgery were similar among the different types of anterior lamellar reconstruction (p=768 and p=0.139, respectively). Success of the modified Hughes procedure was not significantly affected by any of the identified risk factors (p>0.05). Functional and cosmetic outcomes were 96.6% and 94.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Modified Hughes procedure is a safe and effective option for the reconstruction of small and large defects of the lower eyelid, regardless of the type of anterior lamella reconstruction (i.e., advancement flap or skin graft).


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os resultados funcionais e cosméticos a longo prazo de pacientes submetidos ao procedimento de Hughes modificado com diferentes tipos de reconstrução lamelar anterior para defeitos palpebrais inferiores. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 58 pacientes que foram submetidos a um retalho de Hughes modificado para reconstrução das pálpebras inferiores após excisão do tumor durante um intervalo de 10 anos. Dados referentes à demografia dos pacientes, tamanho do defeito palpebral, patologia tumoral, técnicas cirúrgicas, resultados funcionais e cosméticos e complicações foram registrados. As complicações pós-operatórias foram avaliadas de acordo com o tipo de reconstrução da lamela anterior (ou seja, retalho de avanço ou enxerto de pele livre). A análise de regressão logística multivariada foi realizada para identificar os fatores de risco que afetam o sucesso do procedimento. Resultados: O tamanho médio do defeito da pálpebra inferior foi de 22 ± 6,3 mm (11-30 mm). A lamela anterior foi reconstruída com retalhos de avanço e enxertos de pele de espessura total em 36 (58,6%) e 24 (41,4%) pacientes, respectivamente. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 23,6 ± 11,9 meses. Complicações pós-operatórias incluíram triquíase (três pacientes: 5,2%), ectrópio (dois pacientes: 3%), necrose de retalho (um paciente: 1,7%), deiscência de retalho (um paciente: 1,7%), infecção (um paciente: 1,7%) e eritema na margem palpebral (um paciente: 1,7%). As taxas de complicação e de cirurgia secundária foram semelhantes entre os diferentes tipos de reconstrução lamelar anterior (p=768 e p=0,139, respetivamente). O sucesso do procedimento de Hughes modificado não foi significativamente afetado por nenhum dos fatores de risco identificados (p>0,05). Resultados funcionais e cosméticos foram de 96,6% e 94,8%, respetivamente. Conclusão: O procedimento de Hughes modificado é uma opção segura e eficaz para a reconstrução de pequenos e grandes defeitos da pálpebra inferior, independentemente do tipo de reconstrução da lamela anterior (ou seja, retalho de avanço ou enxerto de pele).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Skin Transplantation/methods , Eyelid Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Flaps , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/complications , Retrospective Studies , Blepharoplasty/methods , Ectropion/surgery , Eyelid Neoplasms/complications , Eyelids/surgery
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