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Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 544-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986925


Objective: To explore the diagnosis, surgical management and outcome of jugular foramen chondrosarcoma (CSA). Methods: Fifteen patients with jugular foramen CSA hospitalized in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery of Chinese PLA General Hospital from December 2002 to February 2020 were retrospectively collected,of whom 2 were male and 13 were female, aging from 22 to 61 years old. The clinical symptoms and signs, imaging features, differential diagnosis, surgical approaches, function of facial nerve and cranial nerves IX to XII, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Patients with jugular foramen CSA mainly presented with facial paralysis, hearing loss, hoarseness, cough, tinnitus and local mass. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) could provide important information for diagnosis. CT showed irregular destruction on bone margin of the jugular foramen. MR demonstrated iso or hypointense on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI and heterogeneous contrast-enhancement. Surgical approaches were chosen upon the sizes and scopes of the tumors. Inferior temporal fossa A approach was adopted in 12 cases, inferior temporal fossa B approach in 2 cases and mastoid combined parotid approach in 1 case. Five patients with facial nerve involved received great auricular nerve graft. The House Brackmann (H-B) grading scale was used to evaluate the facial nerve function. Preoperative facial nerve function ranked grade Ⅴ in 4 cases and grade Ⅵ in 1 case. Postoperative facial nerve function improved to grade Ⅲ in 2 cases and grade Ⅵ in 3 cases. Five patients presented with cranial nerves Ⅸ and Ⅹ palsies. Hoarseness and cough of 2 cases improved after operation, while the other 3 cases did not. All the patients were diagnosed CSA by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, with immunohistochemical staining showing vimentin and S-100 positive, but cytokeratin negative in tumor cells. All patients survived during 28 to 234 months' follow-up. Two patients suffered from tumor recurrence 7 years after surgery and received revision surgery. No complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage and intracranial infection occurred after operation. Conclusions: Jugular foramen CSA lacks characteristic symptoms or signs. Imaging is helpful to differential diagnosis. Surgery is the primary treatment of jugular foramen CSA. Patients with facial paralysis should receive surgery in time as to restore the facial nerve. Long-term follow-up is necessary after surgery in case of recurrence.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Jugular Foramina , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Hoarseness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Chondrosarcoma/surgery
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): e54511, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396769


Introdução: A Paralisia Facial é uma das sequelas mais comuns em pacientes pós- Acidente Vascular Cerebral, podendo ocasionar uma série de consequências negativas para autopercepção. Objetivos: Avaliar autopercepção dos pacientes quanto à paralisia facial pós-Acidente Vascular Cerebral na fase aguda e verificar se está relacionada às condições sociodemográficas e clínicas. Método: Trata-se de estudo descritivo observacional com 86 pacientes com paralisia facial pós-Acidente Vascular Cerebral. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade acima de 18 anos, escala de Glasgow maior que 13 e compreensão preservada. Dados sócio-demográficos e clínicos foram extraídos do prontuário. A mímica facial foi avaliada com protocolo House & Brackmann (1985) e a autopercepção quanto aos incômodos físicos e psicossociais pelo questionário de auto-avaliação da condição facial. Foram realizadas análises descritiva e de associação com significância estatística de 5%. Resultados: O grau de comprometimento da paralisia facial variou entre moderado a paralisia total. A maioria dos pacientes avaliou a face em repouso como boa, movimento da face como péssima e ruim, sendo os lábios com pior classificação. Os pacientes relataram muito prejuízo nas atividades sociais, muita insatisfação com a face e médio prejuízo da alimentação. A análise de associação revelou que a autopercepção da face em repouso está associada ao sexo e ao comprometimento neurológico. Conclusão: Os pacientes na fase aguda do Acidente Vascular Cerebral possuem autopercepção de que a paralisia facial impacta no movimento dos lábios e atividades psicossociais, sendo pior para as mulheres e naqueles com o nível de comprometimento neurológico moderado e grave.

Introduction: Facial palsy is one of the most common sequelae in post-stroke patients, bringing a series of negative consequences for self-perception. Objective: To evaluate patients' self-perception regarding facial palsy after acute stroke and verify if it is related to sociodemographic and clinical conditions. Method: This is a descriptive observational study with 86 patients with facial paralysis after acute stroke admitted to a public hospital. The inclusion criteria were age over 18 years, Glasgow scale above 13 and preserved understanding. Socio-demographic and clinical data were extracted from the medical records. Facial mimicry was assessed using the House & Brackmann protocol (1985) and self-perception of physical and psychosocial discomfort using the facial condition self-assessment questionnaire. Descriptive and association analyses were performed with statistical significance of 5%. Results: The degree of impairment of facial paralysis varied from moderate to total paralysis. Most patients rated the resting face as good, face movement as very bad and bad, with the lips being the worst rated. The patients reported a lot of damage in social activities, a lot of dissatisfaction with the face and medium impairment on eating. The association analysis revealed that self-perception of the face at rest is associated with sex and neurological impairment. Conclusion: Patients in the acute phase of stroke have a self-perception that facial paralysis impacts on lip movement and psychosocial activities, being worse for women and those with moderate and severe neurological impairment.

Introducción: La parálisis facial es una de las secuelas más comunes en pacientes post-accidente cerebrovascular, que puede causar una serie de consecuencias negativas para la auto-percepción. Objetivos: Evaluar la auto-percepción de los pacientes con respecto a la parálisis facial después del accidente cerebrovascular en la fase aguda y verificar si está relacionada con condiciones sociodemográficas y clínicas. Método: Este es un estudio descriptivo observacional con 86 pacientes con parálisis facial después del accidente cerebrovascular. Los criterios de inclusión tenían una edad superior a los 18 años, glasgow escalaba más de 13 y se conservaba la comprensión. Los datos sociodemográficos y clínicos se extrajeron de los registros médicos. El mimetismo facial fue evaluado usando el protocolo house &brackmann (1985) y la auto-percepción de las molestias físicas y psicosociales explora la autoevaluación de la condición facial. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y asociativos con una significación estadística del 5%. Resultados: El grado de afectación de la parálisis facial osciló entre la parálisis moderada y total. La mayoría de los pacientes calificaron la cara en reposo como buena, el movimiento facial como malo y malo, siendo los labios los peor valorados. Los pacientes reportaron mucho deterioro en las actividades sociales, mucha insatisfacción con el deterioro facial y medio de los alimentos. El análisis de la asociación reveló que la autopercepción de la cara en reposo se asocia con el sexo y el deterioro neurológico. Conclusión: Los pacientes en la fase aguda del accidente cerebrovascular tienen la autopercepción de que la parálisis facial afecta el movimiento de los labios y las actividades psicosociales, siendo peor para las mujeres y aquellos con el nivel de deterioro neurológico moderado y grave.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Self Concept , Stroke/complications , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Psychosocial Impact , Facial Expression , Sociodemographic Factors
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20220020, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1405508


Peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) has been shown to be a neurological manifestation of COVID-19. The current study presents two cases of PFP after COVID-19, along with a rapid review of known cases in the literature. Both case reports were conducted following CARE guidelines. We also performed a systematic review of PFP cases temporally related to COVID-19 using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases on August 30, 2021, using a rapid review methodology. The two patients experienced PFP 102 and 110 days after COVID-19 symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal samples through reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) testing. Anosmia was the only other neurological manifestation. PFP was treated with steroids in both cases, with complete subsequent recovery. In the rapid review, we identified 764 articles and included 43 studies. From those, 128 patients with PFP were analyzed, of whom 42.1% (54/128) were male, 39.06% (50/128) female, and in 23 cases the gender was not reported. The age range was 18 to 59 (54.68%). The median time between COVID-19 and PFP was three days (ranging from the first symptom of COVID-19 to 40 days after the acute phase of infection). Late PFP associated with COVID-19 presents mild symptoms and improves with time, with no identified predictors. Late PFP should be added to the spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a post COVID-19 condition.

Humans , Facial Paralysis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Neuromuscular Diseases/etiology
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 222-228, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362108


Introduction The side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA) technique is an excellent alternative technique to the classic end-terminal anastomosis, because itmay decrease the symptoms resulting from hypoglossal-nerve transection. Methods Patients with facial nerve palsy (House-Brackmann [HB] grade VI) requiring facial reconstruction from 2014 to 2017were retrospectively included in the study. Results In total, 12 cases were identified, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The causes of facial paralysis were due to resection of posterior-fossa tumors and trauma. There was improvement in 91.6% of the patients (11/12) after the HFA. The rate of improvement according to the HB grade was as follows: HB III - 58.3%; HB IV - 16.6%; and HB II - 16.6%. The first signs of improvement were observed in the patients with the shortest time between the paralysis and the anastomosis surgery (3.5months versus 8.5 months; p » 0.011). The patients with HB II and III had a shorter time between the diagnosis and the anastomosis surgery (mean: 5.22 months), while the patients with HB IV and VI had a longer time of paresis (mean: 9.5 months; p » 0.099). We did not observe lingual atrophy or changes in swallowing. Discussion and Conclusion Hypoglossal-facial anastomosis with the terminolateral technique has good results and low morbidity in relation to tongue motility and swallowing problems. The HB grade and recovery appear to be better in patients operated on with a shorter paralysis time.

Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Anastomosis, Surgical/rehabilitation , Facial Nerve/surgery , Facial Paralysis/rehabilitation , Hypoglossal Nerve/surgery , Medical Records , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Plastic Surgery Procedures/rehabilitation , Recovery of Function , Facial Paralysis/surgery , Facial Paralysis/etiology
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(4): 428-432, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058718


RESUMEN La estenosis del conducto auditivo interno con aplasia/hipoplasia del nervio cocleovestibular es una patología muy infrecuente. Suele ser unilateral y puede acompañarse de aplasia/hipoplasia del nervio facial y otras malformaciones del oído interno. Se presentan aquí dos casos clínicos de pacientes pediátricos con estenosis del conducto auditivo interno unilateral con compromiso del séptimo y octavo par craneal ipsilateral. Se describen las historias y evaluaciones clínicas, hallazgos audiovestibulares, hallazgos imagenológicos, tratamientos indicados y sus resultados.

ABSTRACT Congenital internal auditory canal stenosis associated with aplasia/hypoplasia of the cochleovestibular nerve is a very infrequent pathology. It is usually unilateral and may be accompanied by aplasia/hypoplasia of the facial nerve and other malformations of the inner ear. We hereby present two clinical cases of pediatric patients with congenital internal auditory canal stenosis, with involvement of the seventh and eighth ipsilateral cranial nerve. The medical histories and clinical evaluations, audiovestibular findings, imaging findings, treatments and their results are described.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology , Ear, Inner/abnormalities , Audiometry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnostic imaging
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 460-469, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011372


ABSTRACT Facial nerve injury, affecting mainly the marginal mandibular branch, is the most frequent neurologic complication from parotidectomy. Objective To test a modified Sunnybrook Facial Grading System as a new tool to assess the facial nerve function following parotidectomy, emphasizing the marginal mandibular branch. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 73 post-parotidectomy patients (40 female, 18-84 years old, mean age 53.2 years) with facial nerve sparing, referred to the Department of Physical Therapy. All patients had parotid neoplasms or advanced skin cancer, and were followed by the principal author between 2006 and 2014. Results The muscles innervated by the marginal mandibular branch were the most frequently affected (72.6%), particularly in patients undergoing neck dissection (p = 0.023). The voluntary movement scores obtained with the modified system were significantly lower compared with the original version (p < 0.001). The best and worst scores were observed in patients with benign parotid tumors and skin cancer, respectively. Patients requiring neck dissection (p = 0.031) and resection of other structures (p = 0.021) had the lowest scores, evidenced only with the modified version. Patients with malignant tumors had significantly worse ratings, regardless of the Sunnybrook system version. The post-physiotherapy analysis involved 50 patients. The worst facial rehabilitation outcomes were related to the marginal mandibular branch function. Conclusion The modified Sunnybrook Facial Grading System improved the marginal mandibular branch assessment, preserving the evaluation of other facial nerve branches.

RESUMO A lesão do nervo facial é a principal complicação neurológica relacionada às parotidectomias e, em geral, o ramo marginal mandibular é o mais frequentemente acometido. Objetivo Testar um Sistema Sunnybrook de Graduação Facial modificado (mS-FGS) como uma nova ferramenta para avaliar a função do nervo facial após a parotidectomia, enfatizando o ramo marginal mandibular. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, baseado em prontuários de 73 casos (40 do sexo feminino, 18-84 anos, idade média = 53,2), submetidos à parotidectomia, com preservação do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes apresentavam neoplasias parotídeas ou câncer de pele avançado, e foram tratados pela autora principal entre 2006 e 2014. Resultados Neste estudo, os músculos inervados pelo ramo marginal mandibular foram os mais acometidos (72,6% dos casos), principalmente nos pacientes que realizaram esvaziamento cervical (p = 0,023). Os Escores de Movimento Voluntário obtidos pelo sistema modificado foram inferiores aos obtidos pelo original (p < 0,001). As melhores pontuações foram observadas em pacientes com tumores benignos parotídeos e os piores resultados, naqueles com câncer de pele. Pacientes que necessitaram de esvaziamento cervical e ressecção de outras estruturas, além da parótida, apresentaram escores menores (p = 0,031 e p = 0,021), evidenciados apenas pelo sistema modificado. Os tumores malignos geraram escores significativamente menores, independentemente do instrumento empregado. A análise pós fisioterapia envolveu 50 casos. Os piores resultados, após a intervenção fisioterapêutica, também foram observados nos músculos inervados pelo ramo marginal mandibular. Conclusão A avaliação da disfunção facial pós-parotidectomia, através do Sistema Sunnybrook com a modificação proposta permitiu uma apreciação mais detalhada do ramo marginal mandibular, sem prejuízo à avaliação dos demais ramos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Facial Nerve Injuries/diagnosis , Facial Nerve/surgery , Parotid Gland/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Skin Neoplasms/physiopathology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Parotid Neoplasms/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Facial Nerve Injuries/surgery , Facial Nerve Injuries/etiology , Facial Nerve Injuries/physiopathology , Facial Nerve/physiopathology , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Facial Paralysis/physiopathology , Patient Outcome Assessment
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 133-136, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003576


Resumo A doença de Lyme é uma infecção sistêmica causada pela espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi e transmitida pelo carrapato do gênero Ixodes sp. e espécie Amblyomma cajennense. A doença costuma se manifestar em três estágios clínicos distintos, que podem variar de acordo com as características de cada hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o caso de uma paciente de 33 anos com doença de Lyme que apresentou como manifestações neuroftalmológicas diplopia, lagoftalmo paralítico e ceratite punctata, com exames laboratoriais negativos. Embora a espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi tenha maior tropismo pelos tecidos da pele, sistema nervoso e articulações, o acometimento ocular não deve ter sua importância diminuída, sendo descrito neste relato de caso, que abordou os aspectos mais pertinentes à doença para auxiliar seu diagnóstico e tratamento.

Abstract Lyme disease is a systemic infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the tick of the genus Ixodes sp. and species Amblyomma cajennense. The disease usually manifests itself in three distinct clinical stages, which may vary according to the characteristics of each host. The objective of this paper is to report the case of a 33-year-old patient with Lyme disease who presented as neuro-ophthalmological manifestations diplopia, paralytic lagophthalmos and punctate keratitis, with negative laboratory tests. Although the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has a greater tropism in the tissues of the skin, nervous system and joints, the ocular involvement should not be diminished, being described in this case report, which approached the most pertinent aspects to the disease to aid its diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Female , Adult , Lyme Disease/complications , Diplopia/etiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Borrelia Infections/transmission , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Lyme Disease/diagnosis , Lyme Disease/drug therapy , Borrelia burgdorferi Group/isolation & purification , Ixodes , Lyme Neuroborreliosis/complications , Amblyomma , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(4): 385-391, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985743


RESUMEN Introducción: La glándula parótida es el sitio más común de tumores de glándulas salivales, correspondiendo al 75%-85% de éstos y al 3% de todos los tumores de cabeza y cuello. Ochenta por ciento de ellos corresponden a tumores benignos. Objetivos: Analizar la experiencia quirúrgica en tumores parotídeos operados en el Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente. Material y método: Revisión de todos los pacientes con tumores parotídeos operados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello, del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente entre enero del año 2011 y abril del año 2016. Las cirugías fueron realizadas por el mismo equipo quirúrgico. Se registraron datos demográficos, clínicos, quirúrgicos, histológicos y resultados posoperatorios. Resultados: En el periodo descrito se operó un total de 94 pacientes. 84,3% correspondieron a tumores benignos y 15,7% a tumores malignos. El 62,9% corresponde a pacientes de sexo femenino y 37,1% de sexo masculino, representando una relación de 1,69:1. La incidencia de parálisis facial transitoria fue de 16,1%, y de ellos solo un paciente mantuvo una parálisis permanente. Conclusión: Los tumores malignos representaron el 15,7%, siendo menor a lo reportado en la literatura. Se presenta una gran serie de tumores parotídeos tratados quirúrgicamente a nivel nacional, con una baja tasa de complicaciones.

Abstract Introduction: Parotid gland is the most common site of salivary gland tumors, corresponding to 75-85% of these and 3% of all head and neck tumors. 80% of them correspond to benign tumors. Aim: To analyze the surgical experience in parotid tumors operated in the Guillermo Grant Benavente Hospital. Material and Method: Review of all patients with parotid tumors operated in the Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Unit of Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente between January 2011 and April 2016. All surgeries were performed by the same surgical team. Demographic, clinical, surgical, histological and postoperative results were recorded. Results: In the period described, a total of 94 patients were operated on. 84.3% corresponded to benign tumors and 15.7% to malignant tumors. 62.9% corresponds to female patients and 37.1% male, representing a ratio of 1.69:1. The incidence of transient facial paralysis was 16.1%, and of these, only one patient maintained permanent paralysis. Conclusions: Malignant tumors represented 15.7% of cases, being less than reported in the literature. This article presents a large series of parotid tumors treated surgically in our country, with a low associated complication rate.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Parotid Gland/surgery , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Parotid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adenoma, Pleomorphic , Facial Nerve Injuries/etiology , Facial Paralysis/etiology
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000380


INTRODUCCIÓN: La parálisis facial periférica implica una disfunción del VII par. Predomina la forma idiopática o de Bell. Su tratamiento se basa en el uso de corticoides y en las demás causas depende de la patología de base. El presente estudio describe la incidencia, la etiología y el grado de afectación de la parálisis facial en la población del Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín. MÉTODO: Revisión de historias clínicas de pacientes que concurrieron a la guardia del Servicio de Otorrinolaringología entre enero de 2013 y septiembre de 2017, y revisión bibliográfica...

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral facial paralysis implies a dysfunction of the seventh pair. The idiopathic or Bell form predominates. Its treatment is based on the use of corticosteroids; and in the other causes depends on the underlying pathology. The present study describes the incidence, etiology and degree of involvement of facial paralysis in the population of the Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín. METHOD: Review of medical records of patients who attended the otorhinolaryngology service ward between january 2013 and september 2017, and literature review…

INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial periférica implica uma disfunção do sétimo par. Predomina a forma idiopática ou de Bell. O seu tratamento baseia-se no uso de corticosteróides; e nas outras causas depende da patologia subjacente. O presente estudo descreve a incidência, etiologia e grau de envolvimento da paralisia facial na população do Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín. MÉTODO: Revisão dos registros médicos de pacientes atendidos na sala de atendimento de Otorrinolaringologia entre janeiro de 2013 e setembro de 2017 e revisão da literatura...

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Facial Paralysis/therapy , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Otitis Media/complications , Retrospective Studies , Herpes Zoster Oticus/complications , Bell Palsy/complications
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 619-631, dic. 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950928


Resumen Introducción. El grupo de investigación del Laboratorio de Neurofisiología Comportamental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha descrito modificaciones estructurales y electrofisiológicas en neuronas piramidales de la corteza motora producidas por la lesión del nervio facial contralateral en ratas. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la posibilidad de que dichos cambios neuronales se acompañen también de modificaciones en las células gliales circundantes. Objetivo. Caracterizar el efecto de la lesión unilateral del nervio facial sobre la activación y proliferación de las células de la microglía en la corteza motora primaria contralateral en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se hicieron pruebas de inmunohistoquímica para detectar las células de la microglía en el tejido cerebral de ratas sometidas a lesión del nervio facial, las cuales se sacrificaron en distintos momentos después de la intervención. Se infligieron dos tipos de lesiones: reversible (por compresión, lo cual permite la recuperación de la función) e irreversible (por corte, lo cual provoca parálisis permanente). Los tejidos cerebrales de los animales sin lesión (grupo de control absoluto) y de aquellos sometidos a falsa cirugía se compararon con los de los animales lesionados sacrificados 1, 2, 7, 21 y 35 días después de la lesión. Resultados. Las células de la microglía en la corteza motora de los animales lesionados irreversiblemente mostraron signos de proliferación y activación entre el tercero y séptimo días después de la lesión. La proliferación de las células de la microglía en animales con lesión reversible fue significativa solo a los tres días de infligida la lesión. Conclusiones. La lesión del nervio facial produce modificaciones en las células de la microglía de la corteza motora primaria. Estas modificaciones podrían estar involucradas en los cambios morfológicos y electrofisiológicos descritos en las neuronas piramidales de la corteza motora que comandan los movimientos faciales.

Abstract Introduction: Our research group has described both morphological and electrophysiological changes in motor cortex pyramidal neurons associated with contralateral facial nerve injury in rats. However, little is known about those neural changes, which occur together with changes in surrounding glial cells. Objective: To characterize the effect of the unilateral facial nerve injury on microglial proliferation and activation in the primary motor cortex. Materials and methods: We performed immunohistochemical experiments in order to detect microglial cells in brain tissue of rats with unilateral facial nerve lesion sacrificed at different times after the injury. We caused two types of lesions: reversible (by crushing, which allows functional recovery), and irreversible (by section, which produces permanent paralysis). We compared the brain tissues of control animals (without surgical intervention) and sham-operated animals with animals with lesions sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 21 or 35 days after the injury. Results: In primary motor cortex, the microglial cells of irreversibly injured animals showed proliferation and activation between three and seven days post-lesion. The proliferation of microglial cells in reversibly injured animals was significant only three days after the lesion. Conclusions: Facial nerve injury causes changes in microglial cells in the primary motor cortex. These modifications could be involved in the generation of morphological and electrophysiological changes previously described in the pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex that command facial movements.

Animals , Male , Rats , Microglia/pathology , Facial Nerve Injuries/pathology , Facial Paralysis/physiopathology , Motor Cortex/pathology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Afferent Pathways , Cell Division , Rats, Wistar , Pyramidal Cells/physiology , Pyramidal Cells/pathology , Axotomy , Facial Nerve Injuries/complications , Facial Nerve Injuries/physiopathology , Facial Muscles/innervation , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Facial Paralysis/pathology , Nerve Crush , Nerve Regeneration
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(4): 447-451, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794977


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Salivary gland tumors represent 3-10% of all head and neck neoplasms. These tumors occur predominantly in major salivary glands. The parotid gland is affected most often, ranging from 36.6% to 83%. The pleomorphic adenoma comprises 45-60% of all salivary gland tumors. Several surgical approaches have been described to treat this tumor. Lesion of the facial nerve is one of the most serious complications that can occur after parotid gland surgery. OBJECTIVES: To determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) after superficial parotidectomy in the surgical treatment of the pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland. METHODS: This was a primary, observational, case-control study performed through the revision of patients' charts and histopathological reports. Data was obtained from 1995 to 2014. The analyzed events were: tumor's length and depth; duration of the disease referred by the patient (more than 1, 5 or 10 years); primary or secondary surgical approach. RESULTS: The analysis showed that tumor lengths equal or superior to 3.0 cm were a risk factor of PFP with an odds ratio of 3.98 (p = 0.0310). Tumor depths equal or superior to 2.0 cm were also a risk factor with an odds ratio of 9.5556 (p = 0.0049). When the tested event was secondary surgery to recurrent tumors we have found an odds ratio of 6.7778 (p = 0.0029). CONCLUSION: Tumors with 3.0 cm or more in length and/or 2.0 cm or more in depth have a significant higher risk of facial nerve injury. Secondary surgery to recurrent tumors also has a much higher risk of evolving with facial palsy after superficial parotidectomy.

Resumo Introdução: Os tumores de glândulas salivares representam de 3 a 10% de todas as neoplasias de cabeça e pescoço. Esses tumores ocorrem predominantemente nas glândulas salivares maiores. A glândula parótida é afetada na maioria das vezes, variando de 36,6 a 83%. O adenoma pleomórfico abrange 45-60% de todos os tumores de glândulas salivares. Diversas abordagens cirúrgicas foram descritas para o tratamento desse tumor. A lesão do nervo facial é uma das complicações mais graves que podem ocorrer após cirurgia de glândula parótida. Objetivos: Determinar possíveis fatores preditivos relacionados à ocorrência de paralisia facial periférica (PFP) após parotidectomia superficial no tratamento cirúrgico de adenomas pleomórficos de glândula parótida. Método: Estudo preliminar, observacional, de caso-controle, realizado por meio de revisão dos prontuários de pacientes e laudos histopatológicos. Os dados foram obtidos no período de 1995-2014. Os eventos analisados foram o tamanho do tumor no maior diâmetro e a profundidade, o tempo de doença referido pelo paciente (mais de 1, 5 ou 10 anos) e a abordagem cirúrgica primária ou secundária. Resultados: A análise mostrou que o tamanho do tumor igual ou superior a 3,0 cm foi um fator de risco para PFP, com uma razão de chance de 3,98 (p = 0,0310). A profundidade do tumor igual ou superior a 2,0 cm também foi um fator de risco, com uma razão de chance de 9,5556 (p = 0,0049). Quando o evento testado foi cirurgia secundária para tumores recorrentes, encontramos uma razão de chance de 6,7778 (p = 0,0029). Conclusão: Os tumores de 3,0 cm ou mais de comprimento e/ou 2,0 cm ou mais de profundidade apresentam um risco significativamente maior de lesão do nervo facial. A cirurgia secundária para tumores recorrentes também apresenta um risco maior de evoluir com paralisia facial após parotidectomia superficial.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Postoperative Complications , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/surgery , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 76(2): 201-204, ago. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793966


La parálisis facial asociada a cambios bruscos de presión en el oído medio es un fenómeno poco común que ha sido reportado tanto en actividades de buceo como en aviación. Se produciría una incapacidad, por parte de la tuba auditiva, de equilibrar las presiones entre el oído medio y el ambiente, lo que generaría una neuropraxia del facial en presencia de ciertas condiciones. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que desarrolló un cuadro de parálisis facial recidivante durante vuelos comerciales, se describe la evaluación realizada y la probable fisiopatología involucrada.

Facial paralysis, associated with sudden changes in pressure in the middle ear, is a rare phenomenon that has been reported in both diving and aviation. It occurs because the Eustachian tube is unable to compensate middle ear pressure changes which would lead to a facial neuropraxia in the presence of certain conditions. A case of a patient who developed recurrent facial paralysis during comercial flights. The possible involved pathophysiology is described.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Barotrauma/complications , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Air Travel , Recurrence , Altitude
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(12): 998-1001, Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767616


ABSTRACT Objective Facial diplegia (FD) is a rare neurological manifestation with diverse causes. This article aims to systematically evaluate the etiology, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of FD. Method The study was performed retrospectively and included 17 patients with a diagnosis of FD. Results Patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (11), Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (1), neurosarcoidosis (1), non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (1), tuberculous meningitis (1) herpes simplex reactivation (1) and idiopathic (1). In addition, two patients had developed FD during pregnancy. Conclusion Facial diplegia is an ominous symptom with widely varying causes that requires careful investigation.

RESUMO Objetivo Diplegia facial (DF) é uma manifestação neurológica rara proveniente de diferentes causas. Este artigo visa avaliar sistematicamente a etiologia, avaliação diagnóstica e tratamento de DF. Método O estudo foi retrospectivo e incluiu 17 pacientes com diagnóstico de FD. Resultados Os pacientes foram diagnosticados como casos de síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) (11), encefalite de tronco de Bickerstaff (1), neurosarcoidose (1), linfoma não-Hodgkin’s (1), meningite tuberculosa (1) reativação de herpes simplex (1) e causa idiopática (1). Além disto, duas pacientes haviam desenvolvido DF durante a gestação. Conclusão Diplegia facial é uma manifestação com diversas causas que requer investigação cuidadosa.

Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Facial Paralysis , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/drug therapy , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Retrospective Studies
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(4): 319-324, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768344


Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with amean of 1.55 _ 0.93; the scores fromthe blinded evaluators ranged from1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 _ 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Parathyroid Glands , Sweating, Gustatory , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgical Flaps
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(3): 178-180, June 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757102


El síndrome de Guillain-Barré es una enfermedad desmielinizante aguda con una forma clásica que se presenta con debilidad muscular y ausencia de reflejos. Existen múltiples variantes y formas atípicas de la enfermedad, entre otras la diplejía facial con parestesias. Asimismo, la ausencia de reflejos en este síndrome es característico pero no constante, ya que en un 10% de los pacientes los reflejos están presentes. Se presenta aquí el caso de una mujer de 33 años con paresia facial bilateral, parestesias y debilidad de miembros inferiores e hiperreflexia, una forma de presentación infrecuente de este síndrome.

Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute demyelinating disease which presents in a classic form with muscular weakness and the lack of reflexes. There are multiple variations and atypical forms of the disease, being facial diplegia with paresthesia one of them. Also, the absence of reflexes in this syndrome is typical but not constant, since 10% of patients present reflexes. We describe a case of atypical presentation with bilateral facial palsy, paresthesia, brisk reflexes and weakness in the lower limbs in a 33 year old woman.

Adult , Female , Humans , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Paresthesia/etiology