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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921669

ABSTRACT

In this study, the rhizobacteria and actinomycetes of Polygonum multiflorum were screened for the strains with indole acetic acid(IAA)-producing capacity by Salkowski method, the siderophore-producing strains by Chrome Azurol S(CAS) assay, and the strains with inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing capacity by PKO inorganic phosphorus medium. The strains were identified by morphological identification, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16 S rDNA sequences. Furthermore, the effect of growth-promoting strains on the seed germination and development of P. multiflorum was tested. The results showed that among 196 strains, two strains F17 and F42 were found to be capable of producing IAA and siderophore and solubilizing inorganic phosphorus simulta-neously. For F17 and F42, the results are listed below: 38.65 and 33.64 mg·L~(-1) for IAA production, 0.85 and 0.49 for siderophore-producing capacities(A_s/A_r), and 1.35 and 1.70 for inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing capacities(D/d), respectively. Comprehensive analysis revealed that strains F17 and F42 were identified as Pseudochrobactrum asacharolyticum and Bacillus aryabhattai, respectively, and both could significantly promote the seed germination of P. multiflorum.


Subject(s)
Bacillus , Fallopia multiflora , Germination , Seeds , Soil Microbiology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878914

ABSTRACT

To select suitable references gene of Polygonum multiflorum for gene expression analysis in different tissues, five candidate reference genes like Actin,GAPDH,SAND,PP2A,TIP41 were selected from the transcriptome data of P. multiflorum, then the specific primers were designed. The expression stability of the five reference genes in different tissues of P. multiflorum was analyzed by Real-time quantitative PCR through avilable analysis methods such as geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder, to ensure the reliability of the analysis results. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels and stability of candidate genes in different tissues of P. multiflorum. Ct distribution analysis of the expression levels of candidate genes showed that the expression levels of Actin and GAPDH genes were relatively high in different tissues, while the expression levels of SAND, PP2A and TIP41 were lower. The stability of each candidate gene was analyzed by different methods. The results of geNorm analysis showed that the expression of PP2A and GAPDH was the most stable, the expression stability of SAND was the worst, the stability of PP2A was the highest in both NormFinder and Delta CT, the stability of SAND was the lowest, and the stability of Actin was the most stable in BestKeeper analysis. Through the comprehensive evaluation and analysis of the stability of candidate genes by RefFinder, it is concluded that the stability of PP2A gene is the highest, followed by GAPDH, Actin, TIP41, SAND, and SAND gene is the worst. Therefore, the PP2A gene is an ideal reference gene for the analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. multiflorum.


Subject(s)
Fallopia multiflora , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878780

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Polygonum multiflorum-Andrographis paniculata intercropping system on rhizosphere soil actinomycetes of P. multiflorum, the community structure and diversity of soil actinomycetes were studied by using the original soil as the control group and the rhizosphere soil actinomycetes communities of P. multiflorum under monoculture and intercropping systems as the experimental group. In this study 655 221 effective sequences were obtained with an average length of 408 bp. OTU coverage and rarefaction curve showed that the sequencing could represent the real situation of soil actinomycetes. According to the results of alpha diversity analysis, the diversity soil actinomycetes varied as follows: original soil>intercropping soil>monoculture soil. The soil actinomycetes community structure and the relative abundance of dominant genera were significantly changed by both monoculture and intercropping, especially monoculture. OTU clustering and PCA analysis of soil samples showed that all the soil samples were divided into three distinct groups and the original soil was more similar to intercropping soil. In addition, intercropping increased the relative abundance of some beneficial actinomyces, such as Kitasatospora and Mycobacterium, which was beneficial to maintain soil health and reduce the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. The results show that, P. multiflorum-A. paniculata intercropping reduced the change of community structure and the decrease of diversity of soil actinomycetes caused by P. multiflorum monoculture, and made the actinomycete community in rhizosphere soil of P. multiflorum close to the original soil.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Agriculture , Andrographis , Fallopia multiflora , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828062

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to establish a rat liver micro-tissue evaluation system to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of the main monomers in Polygonum multiflorum. Rat primary hepatocytes were isolated and purified by two-step in situ perfusion method to prepare hepatic parenchymal cells. The ultra-low adsorption plate and the inverted model were used to establish an in vitro hepatotoxicity evaluation system. After the system was established, the main monomer components(monanthone with emodin type, rhein, emodin, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, physcion) of P. multiflorum were selected for in vitro hepatotoxicity evaluation. This study showed that the primary cells of the liver can form liver micro-tissues in the low adsorption plate method and the mold perfusion method, with good liver structure and function, which can be used to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of the drug to be tested after long-term administration. The five monomers to be tested in P. multiflorum can significantly affect the proliferation of primary liver micro-tissues in rats in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The hepatotoxic effects were as follows: monanthone with emodin type > rhein > emodin > emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside > physcion. The results suggested that the emodin-type monoterpene and rhein might be the potential hepatotoxic components, while the metabolites of emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside and emodin methyl ether showed more toxic risks. The rat primary hepatocyte micro-tissue model system established in this experiment could be used to achieve long-term drug administration in vitro, which was consistent with the clinical features of liver injury caused by long-term use of P. multiflorum. The experimental results provided important information and reference on the clinical application and toxic component of P. multiflorum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emodin , Fallopia multiflora , Glucosides , Plant Extracts , Polygonum , Rats
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777471

ABSTRACT

Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum has attracted a great attention in the world. The most toxic part of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity was screened by MTT assay and flow cytometry, which was the 50% ethanol elute by macroporous adsorptive resins from alcohol-extraction of P. multiflorum. The fingerprints were collected by HPLC from 50% ethanol elute of crude and processed P. multiflorum from different habitats, then 14 common peaks were determined. Spectrum-toxicity relationship was analyzed by rough set theory(RST). Two main chemical components were predicted for idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, in which TSG was the greater contributor. Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of TSG was tested in vitro, and the results indicated that TSG was the most important constituent contributed to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of P. multiflorum. The study showed the discovery of the main chemical components for idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, and RST was effective for analyzing the spectrum-toxicity relationship, which could be a new method used in the effective/toxic constituents field of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fallopia multiflora , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phytochemicals
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812095

ABSTRACT

Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been commonly used as a tonic in China for centuries. However, PMR-associated hepatotoxicity is becoming a safety issue. In our previous in vivo study, an interaction between stilbenes and anthraquinones has been discovered and a hypothesis is proposed that the interaction between stilbene glucoside-enriching fraction and emodin may contribute to the side effects of PMR. To further support our previous in vivo results in rats, the present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effects of 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (TSG) on the cellular absorption and human liver microsome metabolism of emodin. The obtained results indicated that the absorption of emodin in Caco-2 cells was enhanced and the metabolism of emodin in human liver microsomes was inhibited after TSG treatment. The effects of the transport inhibitors on the cellular emodin accumulation were also examined. Western blot assay suggested that the depressed metabolism of emodin could be attributed to the down-regulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A8, 1A10, and 2B7. These findings definitively demonstrated the existence of interaction between TSG and emodin, which provide a basis for a better understanding of the underlying mechanism for PMR-induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Caco-2 Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emodin , Metabolism , Fallopia multiflora , Glucosides , Toxicity , Glucuronosyltransferase , Humans , Plant Roots , Stilbenes , Toxicity
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286364

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum and clinical character- istics of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by Polygonum multiflorum and its preparations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study was performed in 158 patients treated at 302 Military Hospital between January 2009 and January 2014. All of them had used Polygonum multiflorum and its preparations before the onset of DILI, and their clinical characteristics and prognoses were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 158 DILI patients who used Polygonum multiflorum or its preparations, 92 (58.2%) combined with Western medicine or Chinese herbal preparations without Polygonum multiflorum; 66 patients (41.8%) used Polygonum mult florum and its preparations alone. In 66 DILI patients induced by Polygonum multiflorum or its preparations alone, 51 cases (77.3%) were induced by Polygonum multiflorum compounds and 22.7% by single Po- lygonum multiflorum; 4 cases (6.1%) were caused by crude Polygonum multiflorum and 62 (93.9%) by processed Polygonum multiflorum and its preparations. Clinical injury patterns were hepatocellular 92.4% (61 cases), cholestatic 1.5% (1 case), and mixed 6.1% (4 cases). Pathological examination was per- formed by liver biopsy in 32 cases (48.15%), manifested as hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, fibroplasia, Kupffer cells with pigment granule, and a large number of eosinophil infiltration, were ob- served. Four patients were developed into liver failure, 4 into cirrhosis, and 1 died.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Polygo- num multiflorum and its preparations could induce DILI, but clinical diagnosis of Polygonum multiflorum induced hepatotoxicity should be cautious.</p>


Subject(s)
Asians , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Diagnosis , Cholestasis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fallopia multiflora , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Failure , Plant Preparations , Polygonum , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284775

ABSTRACT

To study the dynamic change law of bioactive constituents from Polygonum multiflorum, and to explore the optimal harvest period of P. multiflorum. Determination of stilhene glucoside, anthraquinones and catechin from P. multiflorum in different harvest times by MEKC-DAD, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to comprehensive evaluation for bioactive constituents. There are obvious differences among the contents of active ingredients in various collecting periods samples, the content of stilbene glucoside was the highest in November, the total content of combined anthraquinone was the highest in November and December, the content of catechin was the highest in September. The comprehensive evaluation index obtained with principal component analysis showed that the sample collected in November is significantly higher than those with other samples. The optimal harvest period of P. multiflorum is November.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis , Fallopia multiflora , Chemistry , Metabolism , Time Factors
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 973-979, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257039

ABSTRACT

The dosage-efficacy/toxicity relationship of the 50% alcohol extracts of Polygonum multiflorum was comparatively investigated on either normal or CCl4-induced chronic liver injury rats, by determining the general condition, serum biochemical indices and liver histopathology, coupled with the factor analysis. The dosages were 10 and 20 g raw materials per kg body weight. Compared with the normal control group, the normal high dose group showed significant increases of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), as well the frequent incidences of inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatic sinus enlargement and fiber stripes formation in histopathological sections. Compared with the model control group, the model low dose group showed significant declines of serum ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bile acid (TBA) (P < 0.05), as well the alleviation of vacuoles of hepatocytes, but no amelioration of the inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue hyperplasia; moreover, the model high dose group showed significant degeneration declines of serum HMGB-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), as well the evident alleviation of vacuoles degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis degree. The factor analysis showed that the low dosage treatment had almost neither injuring effect on the normal rats nor protective effect on the model rats; while the high dosage treatment showed observable injuring effect on the normal rats, expressed by the significant increases of the factor-1 (HMGB-1, TNF-α and IL-1β as the main contributors) and factor-2 (TBIL, ALT and TBA as the main contributors) relative to the normal control group. The liver protective effect of the high dosage treatment could be observed with the significant reduction of the factor-1, indicating the effective alleviation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, it could illustrated the phenomenon of symptom-based prescription theory of Polygonum multiflorum on rat livers: the high dosage of the herb had either an injuring effect on normal rats, or a therapeutic effect on the rats with chronic liver injury.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bile Acids and Salts , Metabolism , Bilirubin , Blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fallopia multiflora , Chemistry , HMGB1 Protein , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Liver , Pathology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337966

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of aqueous extracts of Polygonum multiflorum (AEPM) on bile acid synthesis, metabolism and transfer-related molecules in rat liver and the hepatotoxicity-related mechanism of P. multiflorum.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with 30, 60 g x kg(-1) APEM once everyday for consecutively 28 days. At the end of the experiment, mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic MRP3, MRP2, BSEP, FXR and CYP7A1 were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with the normal group, the AEPM high dose group showed significant increases in mRNA expressions of hepatic MRP3 and BSEP of male rats (P < 0.05); AEPM high and low dose groups revealed a notable decrease in mRNA expressions of hepatic FXR (P < 0.05) and remarkable rises in mRNA expressions of hepatic MRP3, MRP2, BSEP, CYP7A1 among female rats (P < 0.05). According to the test results of western blot assay, AEPM high and low dose groups showed consistent changes in protein and mRNA expressions hepatic MRP3, MRP2, BSEP, FXR, CYP7A1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The 28 oral administration with AEPM in rats showed a certain effect on expressions of bile acid synthesis, metabolism and transfer-related proteins, as well as cholestatic or choleretic effects in the mRNA expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Metabolism , Cholestasis , Fallopia multiflora , Female , Liver , Male , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337936

ABSTRACT

Toxicity of different processed was evaluated Polygoni Multiflori Radix by determining the hepatotoxic potency for selecting processing technology. Process Polygoni Multiflori Radix using high pressure steamed, Black Bean high pressure steamed, atmospheric steamed for different time. Using normal human hepatocytes (L02) as evaluation model, hepatotoxic potency as index to evaluate hepatotoxic potency of different processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Analysis chemical composition of some processed products by UPLC-MS. Hepatotoxic bioassay method cloud evaluate the toxicity of different Polygoni Multiflori Radix samples. Different processing methods can reduce the toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, high pressure steamed three hours attenuated was better. Different processing methods have different effects on chemical constituents of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Comparing with crude sample, the contents of gallic acid, 2,3,5,4-tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-beta glucoside and emodin were decreased in processed products with 3 kinds of different methods. The change trend of 2,3,5,4-tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside content was similar with hepatotoxic potency. Different processing methods can reduce the toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Processing methods and time attenuated obvious impact on toxicity. Recommended further research on the attehuated standard control of Polygoni Multiflori Radix concocted.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Cell Line , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Fallopia multiflora , Chemistry , Toxicity , Hepatocytes , Humans , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Toxicity
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