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1.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 137-144, Junio 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443590

ABSTRACT

Los informes de laboratorio tienen impacto en las decisiones médicas. El ayuno es un factor preanalítico "controlable" que influye en los distintos parámetros bioquímicos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es poner en discusión la realización en pediatría de análisis clínicos con la indicación de un ayuno fisiológico , analizando resultados obtenidos por diferentes autores y evaluando las diferencias clínicas encontradas según los criterios de calidad establecidos por el laboratorio de Química Clínica. La mayoría de los individuos durante el día se encuentran en estado postprandial. Los resultados del perfil lipídico en ayunas no representan las concentraciones reales promedios de los lípidos plasmáticos de un paciente. El ayuno no sería crítico en la etapa de pesquisa , pero puede ser relevante para establecer un diagnóstico certero o inicio de tratamiento. En el caso de la glucemia si se indica en el control rutinario del paciente, y no hay sospecha de alteraciones en el metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono la glucemia sin ayuno puede ser solicitada comparando la misma con valores de corte adecuado. Las diferentes guías nacionales e internacionales recomiendan que la elección de la métrica para la evaluación, control y seguimiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes se realicen según el objetivo terapéutico. En los trabajos analizados, observamos que varios parámetros bioquímicos presentaron diferencias estadísticas, aunque las diferencias clínicas no fueron relevantes y permanecieron dentro de los intervalos de referencia. El factor limitante para evaluar parámetros bioquímicos sin ayuno es la falta de valores de referencia adecuados. Hay evidencia suficiente para que tanto el perfil lipídico, la glucemia como el resto de los parámetros bioquímicos del laboratorio de química clínica, sean solicitados con la indicación de un ayuno fisiológico de 2, 4 o 6 horas, dependiendo siempre del motivo de consulta y/o la edad del paciente. Es esencial extender la evaluación a otros analitos en población pediátrica, así como evaluar nuevos puntos de corte para parámetros bioquímicos sin ayuno (AU)


Laboratory reports have an impact on medical decision-making. Fasting is a "controllable" preanalytical factor that influences the different biochemical parameters. The aim of this study is to discuss the performance of clinical analyses in pediatrics with the indication of physiological fasting, analyzing results obtained in different disciplines, and evaluating the clinical differences found according to the quality criteria established by the clinical chemistry laboratory. During the day, most patients are in a postprandial state. Fasting lipid profile results do not represent the actual average plasma lipid concentrations of a patient. Fasting would not be critical in the screening stage, but it may be relevant to establish an accurate diagnosis or initiate treatment. Regarding glycemia, if it is indicated in the routine control of the patient and there is no suspicion of alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, non-fasting glycemia can be requested, comparing it with adequate cut-off values. Different national and international guidelines recommend that the choice of metrics for the evaluation, control, and follow-up of patients with diabetes should be made according to the therapeutic objective. In the studies analyzed, we found that several biochemical parameters presented statistical differences, although the clinical differences were not relevant and remained within the reference range. The limiting factor in the evaluation of biochemical parameters without fasting is the lack of adequate reference values. There is sufficient evidence that the lipid profile, glycemia, and the remaining biochemical parameters of the clinical chemistry laboratory should be requested with the indication of a physiological fast of 2, 4, or 6 hours, always depending on the reason for consultation and/or the patient's age. It is essential to extend the evaluation to other analytes in the pediatric population, as well as to evaluate new cut-off points for biochemical parameters without fasting (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Fasting/blood , Clinical Chemistry Tests/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Pediatrics , Postprandial Period , Hyperlipidemias/diagnosis
2.
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1): 2-9, ene.-jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416060

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar el efecto de dos tipos de ayuno sobre parámetros de satisfacción, náuseas, vómito, presión arterial y glucometría en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de intervencionismo percutáneo bajo anestesia local en un servicio de hemodinámica en Medellín, 2019. Metodología: ensayo clínico aleatorizado abierto de dos brazos en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de intervencionismo percutáneo bajo anestesia local durante tres meses. Cada brazo con 153 participantes; se asignó un ayuno de seis horas y al grupo de exposición un ayuno de dos horas para alimentos de fácil digestión; no hubo cega­miento, se realizó cálculo de muestra, y se hizo análisis univariado, bivariado y modelo de regresión logística con la variable satisfacción. Resultados: en el grupo de ayuno de seis horas el 2.6% presentó náuseas y en el grupo de exposición el 1.3%; se observó un caso de vómito. La presión arterial y glucometría mostraron diferencias estadísticas sin relevancia clínica. Se encontró significancia esta­dística para mareo, cefalea, hambre, sed y tipo de ayuno respecto con la satisfacción del paciente. Los pacientes con ayuno tuvieron un puntaje de satisfacción entre 60 y 100 y los de dieta ligera entre 82.5 y 100 puntos. Conclusiones: El ayuno de dos horas en dieta ligera mejora la satisfacción de los pa­cientes, disminuye la sensación de hambre, sed, presencia de cefalea y mareo, compa­rado con un ayuno de seis horas. Este estudio no encontró diferencias en las variables hemodinámicas ni en la frecuencia de náuseas y vómito.


Objective: to determine the effect of two types of fasting on parameters of satisfaction, nausea, vomiting, blood pressure and glucose measurement in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention procedures under local anesthesia in a hemodynamic service in Medellín, 2019. Methodology: Two-arm open-label randomized clinical trial in patients undergoing percutaneous interventional procedures under local anesthesia for three months, each arm with 153 participants, who were assigned a six-hour fast and the exposure group a two-hour fast for easily digestible foods. There was no blinding, sample calculation was performed, and univariate and bivariate analysis and logistic regression model were performed with the satisfaction variable. Results: in the six-hour fasting group, 2.6% presented nausea and in the exposure group, 1.3%; one case of vomiting was observed. Blood pressure and blood glucose showed statistical differences without clinical relevance. Statistical significance was found for dizziness, headache, hunger, thirst, and type of fasting with respect to patient satisfaction. Fasting patients had a satisfaction score between 60 and 100 and those on a light diet between 82.5 and 100 points. Conclusions: Fasting for two hours on a light diet improves patient satisfaction, decreases the sensation of hunger, thirst, headache and dizziness, compared to a six-hour fast. This study found no differences in the hemodynamic variables, nor in the frequency of nausea and vomiting.


Objetivo: determinaro efeito de dois tipos de jejum nos parâmetros de satisfação, náuseas, vômitos, pressão arterial e glicemia em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos de intervenção percutânea sob anestesia local em um serviço de hemodinâmica em Medellín, 2019. Metodologia: Ensaio clínico randomizado aberto de dois braços em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos intervencionistas percutâneos sob anestesia local por três meses. Cada braço com 153 participantes; um jejum de seis horas foi designado e o grupo de desafio um jejum de duas horas para alimentos facilmente digeríveis; não houve cegamento, foi realizado cálculo amostral, análise univariada, bivariada e modelo de regressão logística com a variável satisfação. Resultados: no grupo de jejum de seis horas, 2,6% apresentaram náuseas e no grupo de exposição, 1,3%; foi observado um caso de vômito. A pressão arterial e a glicemia apresentaram diferenças estatísticas sem relevância clínica. Foi encontrada significância estatística para tontura, dor de cabeça, fome, sede e tipo de jejum em relação à satisfação do paciente. Os pacientes em jejum tiveram um escore de satisfação entre 60 e 100 e os em dieta light entre 82,5 e 100 pontos. Conclusões: O jejum de duas horas com dieta leve melhora a satisfação do paciente, diminui a sensação de fome, sede, dor de cabeça e tontura, em comparação com o jejum de seis horas. Este estudo não encontrou diferenças nas variáveis hemodinâmicas ou na frequência de náuseas e vômitos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fasting , Vomiting , Blood Glucose , Patient Satisfaction , Hemodynamics , Anesthesia, Local
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 81-100, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515424

ABSTRACT

Intermittent fasting (IF) has gained increasing scientific and general attention. Most studied forms of IF include alternate-day fasting, modified alternate-day fasting, and time-restricted eating (TRE). Several cardiometabolic effects of IF have been described in animal models and, to a lesser extent, in humans. This review analyzes the impact of IF on weight loss, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and lipid profile in humans. A literature search was conducted in the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Controlled observational or interventional studies in humans, published between January 2000 and June 2021, were included. Studies comparing IF versus religious fasting were not included. Most studies indicate that the different types of IF have significant benefits on body composition, inducing weight loss and reducing fat mass. Changes in cardiometabolic parameters show more divergent results. In general, a decrease in fasting glucose and insulin levels is observed, together with an improved lipid profile associated with cardiovascular risk. High heterogeneity in study designs was observed, particularly in studies with TRE, small sample sizes, and short-term interventions. Current evidence shows that IF confers a range of cardiometabolic benefits in humans. Weight loss, improvement of glucose homeostasis and lipid profile, are observed in the three types of IF protocols evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Intermittent Fasting , Weight Loss , Fasting/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Lipids
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and its changes with age in apparently healthy Chinese elderly population and analyze the differences between TSH levels detected using Roche and Snibe electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzers.@*METHODS@#General clinical data and frozen fasting serum samples were collected from 5451 apparently healthy Chinese elderly individuals (> 60 years) from 10 centers in different geographic regions in China. Thyroid function indexes including TSH level were detected using Roche and Snibe electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, and the median (2.5% and 97.5% quantiles) TSH level was calculated. The variations of TSH level among the participants with geographic regions, gender, and age (with an interval of 5 years) were analyzed to determine the influence of these factors on TSH level.@*RESULTS@#The reference ranges of serum TSH level established using Roche and Snibe electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzers were 0.42-9.47 mU/L and 0.36-7.98 mU/L, respectively, showing significant differences between the two methods (P < 0.001). The TSH levels measured at two centers in Western China were significantly higher than those at the other centers (P < 0.05). In elderly male population, serum TSH level tended to increase with age, which was not observed in elderly female population. At the age of 60-75 years, women generally had higher serum TSH level than men, but this difference was not observed in the population beyond 75 years.@*CONCLUSION@#In elderly population, serum TSH level can vary with geographic region, gender, and age, but there was no need for establishing specific reference ranges for these factors. The differences between different detection methods should be evaluated when interpreting the detection results of TSH level.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asian People , China , Fasting , Health Status , Thyrotropin/blood
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 924-930, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985614

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and dyslipidemia among adults in Beijing and to provide a scientific basis for relevant intervention. Methods: Data were from Beijing Adult Non-communicable and Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program in 2017. A total of 13 240 respondents were selected by multistage cluster stratified sampling method. The monitoring contents include a questionnaire survey, physical measurement, collection of fasting venous blood, and determination of related biochemical indicators. SPSS 20.0 software was used for the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of total dyslipidemia (39.27%), hypertriglyceridemia (22.61%), and high LDL-C (6.03%) were the highest among those exposed to daily secondhand smoke. Among the male respondents, the prevalence of total dyslipidemia (44.42%) and hypertriglyceridemia (26.12%) were the highest among those exposed to secondhand smoke daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors showed that compared with no exposure to secondhand smoke, the population with an average exposure frequency of 1-3 days per week had the highest risk of total dyslipidemia (OR=1.276, 95%CI: 1.023-1.591). Among the patients with hypertriglyceridemia, those exposed to secondhand smoke daily had the highest risk (OR=1.356, 95%CI: 1.107-1.661). Among the male respondents, those exposed to secondhand smoke for 1-3 days per week had a higher risk of total dyslipidemia (OR=1.366, 95%CI: 1.019-1.831), and the highest risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR=1.377, 95%CI: 1.058-1.793). There was no significant correlation between the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure and the risk of dyslipidemia among female respondents. Conclusions: Secondhand smoke exposure in Beijing adults, especially men, will increase the risk of total dyslipidemia, especially hyperlipidemia. Improving personal health awareness and minimizing or avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Beijing , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/epidemiology , Fasting
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1511052

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa busca identificar as causas de interrupção da administração da nutrição enteral em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva do Hospital de Urgências da cidade de Goiânia. Objetivo: Chegar às causas de interrupção da administração da nutrição enteral em pacientes internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTIs). Método: Estudo transversal, prospectivo, realizado com pacientes internados nas UTIs do Hospital de Urgências de Goiás, no período de maio e junho de 2022. Foram coletadas as seguintes variáveis: sexo, idade, peso, altura, IMC, diagnóstico de internação, data de internação, desfecho clínico do paciente, causas de interrupção da dieta enteral, volume prescrito e volume infundido no prontuário. Os dados foram coletados até o sétimo dia de internação e acompanhados até o desfecho clínico (alta, óbito ou transferência). Resultados: Foram obtidos dados de 45 pacientes. As principais causas de interrupção da NE foram instabilidade hemodinâmica (28,2%), jejum para exames (19%) e intolerância gastrointestinal (19%). A adequação de volume prescrito comparado com o infundido foi de 86,4%. Conclusão: Quando agrupadas as causas evitáveis representam 71,4%, enquanto a causa não evitável representa 28,6%. O tempo de retenção é controlável e, portanto, os esforços devem ser direcionados a estratégias eficientes com a equipe multiprofissional, como capacitações quanto às causas das interrupções e soluções para minimizar o tempo da retenção da dieta


This research seeks to identify the causes of interruption in the administration of enteral nutrition in patients hospitalized in intensive care units at Hospital de Urgências in the city of Goiânia. Objective: Get to the causes of interruption of the administration of enteral nutrition in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Method: A cross-sectional, prospective study carried out with patients admitted to the ICUs of the Hospital de Urgências de Goiás, between May and June 2022. The following variables were collected: sex, age, weight, height, BMI, hospitalization diagnosis, date length of stay, clinical outcome of the patient, causes of enteral diet interruption, volume prescribed and volume infused in the medical record. Data were collected up to the seventh day of hospitalization and followed up until the clinical outcome (discharge, death or transfer). Results: Data from 45 patients were obtained. The main causes of EN interruption were hemodynamic instability (28.2%), fasting for exams (19%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (19%). The adequacy of prescribed volume compared to infused volume was 86.4%. Conclusion: The three main causes of diet interruption were hemodynamic instability, gastrointestinal intolerance due to emesis and fasting for exams. The retention time is controllable and, therefore, efforts should be directed towards efficient strategies with the multidisciplinary team, such as training on the causes of interruptions and solutions to minimize the time of diet retention


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Intensive Care Units , Medical Examination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Inpatients
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249104, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339389

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a força da associação da concentração elevada de homocisteína no plasma como um fator de risco para doença cardíaca coronária independente do fator de risco convencional. Foi um estudo de caso-controle realizado no Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Um total de 210 indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 60 anos, compreendendo 105 pacientes recém-admitidos de CHD como casos e 105 indivíduos saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo sem histórico de CHD como controle, foi recrutado para o estudo. Amostras de sangue em jejum foram obtidas de casos e controles. A homocisteína plasmática foi analisada pelo método de imunoensaio de polarização de fluorescência (FPIA) em analisador de imunoensaio automatizado (Abbott IMX). Colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol HDL foram analisados ​​usando métodos de kit calorimétrico. A concentração de colesterol LDL foi calculada pela fórmula de Friedewald. Os pacientes também foram avaliados para fatores de risco tradicionais, como idade, sexo, história familiar de DCV, hipertensão, tabagismo e atividade física, e foram comparados com indivíduos de controle. Os dados coletados foram inseridos no SPSS versão 24 para análise e interpretação. A média de idade nos grupos controles e experimentais foi de 43,00 ± 8,42 anos e 44,72 ± 8,59 anos com distribuição estatisticamente igual (p-valor = 0,144). A homocisteína plasmática média para os casos foi de 22,33 ± 9,22 µmol / L, enquanto no grupo controle foi de 12,59 ± 3,73 µmol / L. Diferença altamente significativa foi observada entre o nível plasmático médio de homocisteína em casos e controles (p ˂ 0,001). A regressão logística simples indica uma forte associação de doença cardíaca coronária com hiper-homocisteinemia (OR 7,45), que permaneceu significativamente associada com doença cardíaca coronária por multivariada regressão logística (OR 7,10, 95% C1 3,12-12,83, p = 0,000). O presente estudo conclui que níveis elevados de homocisteína plasmática são fator de risco independente para doença cardíaca coronária, independentemente dos fatores de risco convencionais, e pode ser usado como um indicador para prever a possibilidade futura de aparecimento de DCV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Coronary Disease/embryology , Hyperhomocysteinemia/diagnosis , Hyperhomocysteinemia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Fasting
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 401-407, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969920

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the associations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with FPG and oral glucose tolerance test 2-hour (OGTT-2 h) in areas at different altitude in China. Methods: Subjects who participated in 2018-2019 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance and had no prior type 2 diabetes diagnosis were included. Subsequently, they were categorized into three groups based on altitude of living area (<2 000, 2 000- and ≥3 000 m). With adjustment for intracluster correlation, multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations of HbA1c with FPG and OGTT-2 h in the context of HbA1c was normal (<5.7%) or abnormal (≥5.7%). Furthermore, the shape of relationships between HbA1c and glucose indicators was examined using restricted cubic spline. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of HbA1c for diabetes. Results: A total of 157 277 subjects were included in the analysis. While FPG and OGTT-2 h levels gradually decreased with increase of altitude, HbA1c level was similar among the three groups. When HbA1c was <5.7%, its association with FPG and OGTT-2 h was weak and no obvious difference was observed among the three groups. When HbA1c was ≥5.7%, the FPG and OGTT-2 h increased by 15.45% (95%CI:14.71%- 16.18%) and 24.54% (95%CI:23.18%-25.91%) respectively per one standard deviation increase in HbA1c in group in area at altitude <2 000 m. However, the FPG and OGTT-2 h increased by 13.08% (95%CI:10.46%-15.76%) and 21.72% (95%CI:16.39%-27.31%), respectively, in group in area at altitude 2 000- m, and increased by 11.41% (95%CI:9.32%-13.53%) and 20.03% (95%CI:15.38%- 24.86%), respectively, in group of altitude ≥3 000 m. The restricted cubic spline indicated that the curve showing the association of HbA1c with FPG and OGTT-2 h was flat when HbA1c was <5.7%, but showed a positive linear relationship when HbA1c was ≥5.7%. The area under curve for detecting diabetes was 0.808 (95%CI:0.803-0.812) in group of altitude <2 000 m and 0.728 (95%CI:0.660-0.796, P=0.022) in group of altitude ≥3 000 m. The relevant optimal cutoff value of HbA1c was 5.7%, with a sensitivity of 65.4% and a specificity of 83.0%, and 6.0%, with a sensitivity of 48.3% and a specificity of 93.7%, respectively. Conclusions: When HbA1c was ≥5.7%, the association between HbA1c and glucose indicators became weaker as the increase of altitude. In the area at altitude ≥3 000 m, it may not be appropriate to use HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glucose , Altitude , Fasting , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e384723, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519880

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate local and systemic effects of 24-hour fasting in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods: Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats (330-390 g) were submitted to 60 minutes of hepatic ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Before the day of the experiment, the animals fasted, but free access to water was allowed. Two groups were constituted: Control: non-fasted, that is, feeding ad libitum before surgical procedure; Fasting: rats underwent previous fasting of 24 hours. Hepatic ischemia was performed using vascular clamp in hepatic pedicle. At 24 hours after liver reperfusion, blood and tissue samples were collected. To analysis, liver lobes submitted to ischemia was identified as ischemic liver and paracaval non-ischemic lobes as non-ischemic liver. We evaluated: malondialdehyde levels, hepatocellular function (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activities, and both ratio), cytokines (interleukins-6, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (histology). Results: Malondialdehyde measured in non-ischemic and ischemic liver samples, hepatocellular function and cytokines were comparable between groups. Histological findings were distinct in three regions evaluated. Microvesicular steatosis was comparable between 24-hour fasting and non-fasted control groups in periportal region of hepatic lobe. In contrast, steatosis was more pronounced in zones 2 and 3 of ischemic liver samples of fasting compared to control groups. Conclusions: These data indicates that fasting does not protect, but it can be also detrimental to liver submitted to ischemia/reperfusion damage. At that time, using long fasting before liver surgery in the real world may be contraindicated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Fasting , Ischemia , Liver
10.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 90 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1518670

ABSTRACT

A prática do jejum tem mostrado resultados benéficos no que diz respeito aos parâmetros metabólicos e perda de peso. Essa prática tem sido frequentemente realizada ao longo do dia, durante as atividades de vida diária dos indivíduos. Dentre os efeitos do jejum sobre o metabolismo intermediário, destaca-se seu potencial em modular a secreção de peptídeos gastrointestinais relacionados ao controle da fome e regulação metabólica. Por outro lado, é desconhecido os efeitos do jejum agudo durante as atividades de vida diária, diferentemente do realizado durante a noite, e ainda se indivíduos eutróficos e com obesidade respondem da mesma forma. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito do jejum agudo realizado durante o período ativo sobre os peptídeos gastrointestinais em mulheres eutróficas e com obesidade. Métodos: Trata-se de ensaio clínico não randomizado, estratificado por estado nutricional em dois grupos de acordo com o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC): (i) grupo eutrófico (IMC > 18,5 kg/m² e < 24,9 kg/m²) e (ii) grupo obesidade (IMC > 35 kg/m²). A amostra foi composta por mulheres adultas, com idade entre 18 a 60 anos. A avaliação inicial foi realizada no período da manhã, após 10h de jejum noturno, em que as seguintes medidas foram aferidas e os dados pessoais foram coletados: antropometria, calorimetria indireta e composição corporal. As participantes foram submetidas à coleta de 5 mL de sangue, para análise dos peptídeos gastrointestinais (GIP, GLP-1, PP, PYY e grelina), adiponectina, insulina (glicose e índices HOMA). Em seguida, foi ofertado desjejum padronizado com valor calórico correspondente a 20% da necessidade energética estimada calculada após a coleta dos dados iniciais. Após, as voluntárias foram dispensadas para realização das atividades diárias habituais e foi orientado a manutenção do jejum por 10h ao longo do dia. As voluntárias retornaram ao final do dia para repetição dos procedimentos realizados na primeira avaliação e coleta de sangue. As análises estatísticas foram efetuadas com o auxílio dos programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows Student Version® (SPSS) versão 20.0 e os gráficos foram criados por meio do programa GraphPad Prism versão 8.0.1, adotando-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: 54 mulheres foram incluídas no estudo, sendo 29 no grupo eutrófico e 25 no grupo com obesidade. O jejum no período ativo promoveu redução nas concentrações de insulina e adiponectina e nos índices HOMA-IR e HOMA-BETA, além de aumento no polipeptídeo pancreático (PP) circulante, tanto nas mulheres eutróficas como nas mulheres com obesidade. Somente o grupo com obesidade teve redução na leptina e aumento no peptídeo-1 semelhante ao glucagon (GLP-1) após o jejum diurno. Entre os grupos, eutrofia versus obesidade, as concentrações de leptina e insulina foram maiores no grupo obesidade após o jejum no período ativo. Já os peptídeos GIP, grelina e peptídeo YY (PYY) não tiveram mudanças após o jejum no período ativo quando comparados ao jejum noturno. Conclusão: O jejum durante as atividades diárias diminui os hormônios anorexígenos insulina e leptina. No entanto, também aumenta o PP e o GLP-1, especialmente em mulheres com obesidade. O jejum durante as atividades diárias pode reorganizar uma intrincada rede de sinais endócrinos que de alguma forma podem modular o comportamento alimentar homeostático e hedônico.


Fasting practice has shown beneficial results concerning metabolic parameters and weight loss. This practice is often performed throughout the day during individuals daily life activities. Among the effects of fasting on intermediary metabolism, its potential to modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides related to hunger control and metabolic regulation stands out. On the other hand, the effects of acute fasting during daily activities, unlike fasting during the night, and whether eutrophic and individuals with obesity respond in the same way are unknown. Objective: To investigate the effect of acute fasting during the active period on gastrointestinal peptides in eutrophic women and with obesity. Methods: This was a non-randomized clinical trial, stratified by nutritional status into two groups according to Body Mass Index (BMI): (i) eutrophic group (BMI > 18.5 kg/m² and < 24.9 kg/m²) and (ii) group with obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m²). The sample consisted of adult women aged 18 to 60 years. The initial evaluation was conducted in the morning after a 10-hour overnight fasting, during which the following measurements were taken, and personal data were collected: anthropometry, indirect calorimetry, and body composition. Participants had 5 mL of blood collected for the analysis of gastrointestinal peptides (GIP, GLP-1, PP, PYY, and ghrelin), adiponectin, insulin (glucose and HOMA indices). Then, a standardized breakfast with a caloric value corresponding to 20% of the estimated energy needs calculated after the initial data collection was provided. Afterward, the participants were released to perform their usual daily activities and were instructed to maintain fasting for 10 hours throughout the day. Participants returned at the end of the day for the repetition of the procedures performed in the initial assessment and blood collection. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows Student Version® (SPSS) version 20.0, and the graphs were created using the GraphPad Prism version 8.0.1 program, adopting a significance level of 5%. Results: 54 women were included in the study, with 29 in the eutrophic group and 25 in the group with obesity. Fasting during the active period led to a reduction in insulin and adiponectin concentrations and in HOMA-IR and HOMA-BETA indices, as well as an increase in circulating pancreatic polypeptide (PP), both in eutrophic women and with obesity. Only the group with obesity experienced a reduction in leptin and an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) after daytime fasting. Between the eutrophic group and with obesity, leptin and insulin concentrations were higher in the group with obesity after fasting during the active period. GIP, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY) did not show changes after fasting during the active period when compared to overnight fasting. Conclusion: Fasting during daily activities reduces anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. However, it also increases PP and GLP-1, especially in women with obesity. Fasting during daily activities may reorganize a complex network of endocrine signals that can somehow modulate homeostatic and hedonic eating behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone , Fasting , Hunger , Adipokines , Obesity
11.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 757-761, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420626

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The traditional infusion of "yerba mate" is widely consumed in South America and exported to countries around the world. Although generally considered a "clear fluid", there is no data to date on the gastric emptying time of yerba mate and safe preoperative fasting intervals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying time of a standardized infusion of yerba mate using bedside ultrasound and compare it with the time confirm of hot and cold tea. Methods This was a prospective, randomized crossover experimental study. Thirty healthy volunteers were evaluated after 8 hours of fasting for both fluids and solids. Gastric antral area and gastric volume were evaluated at baseline and every 20 minutes after drinking 300 mL of randomly assigned infusion of "yerba mate", hot tea, or cold tea. Results The mean gastric emptying time was: 69.7 ± 22.1 min, 63.1 ± 14.5 min, and 64.3 ± 23.5 min for the mate, hot tea, and cold tea respectively. No significant differences were found in emptying time among the infusion groups (p-value = 0.043). When same time measures were compared, the only significant difference detected was between hot teas and mate infusion at 20 minutes (p-value = 0.012) Conclusion Yerba mate infusion has a similar gastric emptying time to that of tea. All subject's gastric volume returned to baseline values by 100 minutes. It is reasonable to recommend a similar fasting period of 2 hours for mate infusion prior to elective surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ilex paraguariensis , Tea , Prospective Studies , Fasting , Gastrointestinal Contents
12.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(2): 43-50, mayo - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395840

ABSTRACT

Introducción: algunos estudios han señalado que valores de glucemia en ayunas entre 100 y 109 mg/dL se asocian con frecuencias elevadas de prediabetes cuando el criterio de clasificación son los valores de HbA1c. La Sociedad Argentina de Diabetes (SAD) sostiene a 110 mg/dL como valor a partir del cual se clasifica a un paciente como portador de glucemia en ayunas alterada; la frecuencia de individuos posiblemente clasificados en forma incorrecta, según este criterio, aún no se conoce en la población argentina. Objetivos: establecer la frecuencia con que se presenta prediabetes según HbA1c en una población sin diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus (DM) con glucemias en ayunas entre 100 y 109 mg/dL; correlacionar las dos variables y cuantificar la probabilidad de que esto ocurra respecto de otros con glucemias en ayunas <100 mg/dL. Materiales y métodos: se incluyeron 1.002 muestras de igual número de sujetos desde 45 laboratorios de análisis clínicos de la Asociación de Laboratorios de Alta Complejidad (ALAC), con procesamiento local de glucemia y centralizado de HbA1c por high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Análisis estadístico: chi cuadrado, odds ratio, coeficiente de correlación y determinación de Pearson, y correlación serial de Durbin-Watson. Resultados: frecuencia de HbA1c ≥5,7% en la población estudiada con glucemias de ayunas entre 100 y 109 mg/dL=29,7%; test de chi cuadrado: p<0,001; odds ratio de tener HbA1c ≥5,7% entre la población con glucemias en ayunas de 100 a 109 mg/dL vs aquella con valores <100 mg/dL=4,328 (IC 95% 2,922-6,411); r=0,852, r2 = 0,727, Durbin-Watson=1,152. Conclusiones: la prediabetes diagnosticada por HbA1c resultó cuatro veces más frecuente en la población estudiada con glucemias en ayunas entre 100 y 109 mg/dL, que en aquella con valores por debajo de 100 mg/dL.


Introduction: some studies have shown that fasting blood glucose values between 100 and 109 mg/dL are associated with high rates of prediabetes when the classification criteria are HbA1c values. The Argentine Diabetes Society still maintains 110 mg/dL as the value from which a patient is classified as having impaired fasting blood glucose; the frequency of individuals possibly incorrectly classified, according to this criterion, is not yet known in any Argentine population. Objectives: to establish the frequency in a population without a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with fasting blood glucose levels between 100 and 109 mg/dL in which prediabetes occurs according to HbA1c, to correlate both variables and to quantify the probability that this predicts with respect to others with fasting blood glucose levels <100 mg/dL. Materials and methods: 1.002 samples from the same number of subjects from 45 clinical laboratories belonging to ALAC, with local processing of blood glucose and centralized processing of HbA1c by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analysis: chi square, odds ratio, Pearson correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination and Durbin-Watson serial correlation. Results: frequency of HbA1c ≥5.7% in the studied population with fasting blood glucose levels between 100 and 109 mg/ dL = 29.7%, chi square test: p<0.001; odds ratio of having HbA1c ≥5.7% between the population with fasting blood glucose levels of 100 to 109 mg/dL vs that one with values <100 mg/dL=4.328 (95% CI 2.922-6.411); r=0.852, r2 =0.727, DurbinWatson=1.152. Conclusions: prediabetes diagnosed by HbA1c was four times more frequent in the studied population with fasting glucose values between 100 and 109 mg/dL than in that one with values below 100 mg/dL.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Fasting , Glucose
13.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1422, abr.2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1387065

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o tempo de jejum e tipo de dieta prescrita para reintrodução alimentar no pós-operatório de diferentes especialidades cirúrgicas. Método: estudo quantitativo, retrospectivo, documental e descritivo dos prontuários de pacientes cirúrgicos, com amostra randomizada e estratificada de 464 pacientes, realizado em hospital universitário público de grande porte no Paraná. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva, apresentando medidas de tendência central e seus intervalos de confiança. Resultados: a média de jejum pós-operatório foi de 9:54h (DP: 6:89), variando de 8 a 30 horas. As clínicas que apresentaram maior tempo de jejum foram cirurgia cardíaca, cirurgia torácica e neurocirurgia, com médias de 18:25h, 14:45h e 12:22h, respectivamente. Quanto à prescrição de dieta no pós-operatório imediato, 51,3% dos pacientes receberam dieta geral, 15,3% dieta leve e 11,9% mantiveram jejum nas primeiras 24 horas após o procedimento cirúrgico. Conclusão: o tempo de jejum encontrado nessa instituição excede as atuais recomendações de protocolos nacionais e internacionais, o que implica aumento de desconfortos para o paciente cirúrgico, como sede, fome e estresse, além da insatisfação com o serviço prestado pela equipe de saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el tiempo de ayuno y tipo de dieta prescrita para la reintroducción alimentaria postoperatoria de diferentes especialidades quirúrgicas. Método: estudio cuantitativo, retrospectivo, documental y descriptivo de historias clínicas de pacientes quirúrgicos, con una muestra aleatorizada y estratificada de 464 pacientes, realizada en un gran hospital universitario público de Paraná. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo, presentando medidas de tendencia central y sus intervalos de confianza. Resultados: el ayuno postoperatorio medio fue de 9: 54h (DP: 6:89), con un rango de 8 a 30 horas. Las clínicas que mostraron mayor tiempo de ayuno fueron cirugía cardíaca, cirugía torácica y neurocirugía, con medias de 18: 25h, 14: 45h y 12: 22h, respectivamente. En cuanto a la prescripción de dieta en el postoperatorio inmediato, el 51,3% de los pacientes recibió dieta general, el 15,3% dieta ligera y el 11,9% ayuno durante las primeras 24 horas posteriores al procedimiento quirúrgico. Conclusión: el tiempo de ayuno encontrado en esta institución supera las recomendaciones vigentes de los protocolos nacionales e internacionales, lo que implica un aumento de las molestias para el paciente quirúrgico, como sed, hambre y estrés, además de insatisfacción con el servicio brindado por el equipo de salud.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the fasting time and type of the diet prescribed for the food reintroduction during the postoperative period of different surgical specialties. Method: this is a quantitative, retrospective, documentary, and descriptive study with medical records of surgical patients. The study had a randomized and stratified sample with 464 patients carried out in a large public university hospital in Paraná. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, presenting measures of central tendency and their confidence intervals. Results: the mean post-operative fasting was 9:54 hours (SD: 6:89), ranging from 8 to 30 hours. The cardiac surgery, thoracic surgery, and neurosurgery were the clinics that presented the longest fasting time with averages of 18:25, 14:45, and 12:22 hours, respectively. Regarding the diet prescription in the immediate postoperative period, 51.3% of the patients received a general diet, 15.3% a light diet, and 11.9% fasted for the first 24 hours after the surgical procedure. Conclusion: the fasting time found in this institution exceeds the current recommendations of national and international protocols, showing an increase in discomfort for the surgical patient such as thirst, hunger, and stress, in addition to dissatisfaction with the service provided by the health team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Fasting , Patient Care Team , Postoperative Period , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 163-171, feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Appetite regulation is integral to food intake and is modulated by complex interactions between internal and external stimuli. Hormonal mechanisms which stimulate or inhibit intake have been characterized, but the physiologic effects of serum levels of such hormones in short-term appetite regulation have received little attention. AIM: To evaluate whether fasting levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic hormones were associated with energy intake at breakfast, served soon after drawing a fasting blood sample, in a group of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometry, body composition and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured in 655 Chilean adolescents aged 16.8 ± 0.3 years (52% males). Energy intake was measured at a semi-standardized breakfast. Associations between hormone levels and energy intake were studied using multivariate linear models. RESULTS: Thirty nine percent of participants were overweight/ obese. After an overnight fast, median values for leptin, insulin, ghrelin and orexin-A were 7.3 ng/mL, 6.7 IU/dL, 200.8 pg/mL, and 16.1 pg/mL, respectively. Participants ate on average 637 ± 239 calories at breakfast. In multivariable models, insulin levels were inversely and independently associated with caloric intake at breakfast (β = −18.65; p < 0.05), whereas leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A levels were positively and independently associated with intake: β= 5.56, β = 0.34 and β = 8.40, respectively, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A were positively associated with energy intake during breakfast provided soon after the blood draw. Insulin was negatively associated with energy intake. Modifiable factors influencing levels of appetite regulating hormones could be a potential target for influencing food intake.


ANTECEDENTES: La regulación del apetito es parte integral de la ingesta alimentaria y es modulada por complejas interacciones entre estímulos internos y externos. Se han caracterizado los mecanismos hormonales que estimulan o inhiben la ingesta, pero los efectos fisiológicos de los niveles séricos de tales hormonas en la regulación del apetito a corto plazo han recibido poca atención. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si los niveles en ayunas de hormonas orexigénicas/ anorexigénicas se asocian con la ingesta energética en el desayuno, entregado inmediatamente después de una muestra de sangre en ayunas, en un grupo de adolescentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se efectuaron mediciones antropométricas, composición corporal y medición de niveles en ayunas de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A en 655 adolescentes de 16,8 ± 0,26 años. La ingesta energética se midió en un desayuno semiestandarizado. Se estudiaron las asociaciones entre los niveles hormonales y la ingesta energética mediante modelos lineales multivariados. RESULTADOS: Los valores de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A fueron 7,3 ng/mL, 6,7 UI/dL, 200,8 pg/mL y 16,1 pg/mL respectivamente. Los participantes comieron un promedio de 637 ± 239 calorías en el desayuno. Los niveles de insulina se asociaron inversa e independientemente con la ingesta del desayuno (β = −18,65; p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles de leptina, grelina y orexina-A se asociaron positiva e independientemente con la ingesta: β = 5,65; β = 0,34; β = 8,40, (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La leptina, grelina y orexina-A en ayunas se asociaron positivamente con la ingesta de energía durante el desayuno proporcionado poco después de la muestra de sangre. La insulina se asoció negativamente con la ingesta de energía. Los factores modificables que influyen en las hormonas reguladoras del apetito podrían ser un objetivo potencial para influir en la ingesta de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Appetite/physiology , Breakfast , Energy Intake/physiology , Chile , Fasting , Leptin , Ghrelin , Orexins , Insulin
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 234-238, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365363

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify whether the parameters of the blood count and the fasting glucose level before treatment are related to prognosis and survival in cervical cancer (IIB-IVB staging). METHODS: Patients with cervical cancer (stages IIB-IVB) were evaluated (n=80). Age, parity, staging, histological grade, histological type, hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, red blood cell distribution width, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, fasting glucose levels, overall survival, and disease-free survival were evaluated. The results of laboratory parameters were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to obtain the area under the curve and determine the best cutoff values for each parameter. Survival was verified by using the Kaplan-Meier method, followed by the log-rank test. The level of significance was ≤0.05. RESULTS: Regarding staging, lower hemoglobin values (p=0.0013), red blood cells (p=0.009), hematocrit (p=0.0016), higher leukocytes (p=0.0432), neutrophils (p=0.0176), platelets (p=0.0140), red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (p=0.0073), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.0039), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.0006), and fasting glucose level (p=0.0278) were found in IIIA-IVB compared with IIB staging. Shorter disease-free survival was associated with hemoglobin ≤12.3 g/dl (p=0.0491), hematocrit ≤38.5% (p=0.05), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio >2.9 (p=0.0478), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio >184.9 (p=0.0207). Shorter overall survival was associated with hemoglobin ≤12.3 g/dl (p=0.0131), hematocrit ≤38.5% (p=0.0376), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio >2.9 (p=0.0258), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio >184.9 (p=0.0038). CONCLUSION: The analysis of these low-cost and easily accessible parameters could be a way to monitor patients in order to predict treatment failures and act as early as possible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Fasting
16.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 177-184, jan./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354485

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: explorar a percepção de um paciente cirúrgico queimado em relação à sede e seu manejo no período pré-operatório e pós-operatório imediato. Relato de caso: trata-se de um estudo com abordagem qualitativa, exploratória, do tipo estudo de caso. Os critérios de inclusão foram: paciente estar internado no centro de tratamento de queimados, ser submetido a procedimento cirúrgico ou balneoterapia, ter experenciado a sede no período pré-operatório ou pós-operatório e ter recebido o manejo da sede. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se entrevista semiestruturada, gravada e transcrita. Paciente do sexo feminino, de 32 anos, admitida com queimaduras de segundo grau em extensão de tórax, membros superiores e pescoço por tentativa de autoextermínio com álcool. Passou por seis procedimentos e esteve internada por 15 dias até o momento da coleta. Experienciou o desconforto sede durante o jejum pré-operatório e pós-operatório, considerado intenso e muito estressante durante sua internação. Conclusão: a partir da identificação do desconforto sede, utilizou-se como estratégia o picolé de gelo, que fez diferença em seu tratamento. O modelo de manejo da sede é pioneiro no cuidado ao paciente queimado e apresenta benefícios para minorar a sede.


Objective: explore thirst perception of a burnt surgical patient and its management in the preoperative and immediate postoperative period. Case report: study with a qualitative and exploratory approach, named as case study. Inclusion criteria were: inpatient at burnt treatment unit, undergone surgical procedure or balneotherapy, experienced thirst in the preoperative or postoperative period and received thirst management. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were performed, recorded and transcribed. Female patient, 32 years old, admitted with second degree burns in extension of thorax, upper limbs and neck due to attempted self-extermination with alcohol. Underwent six procedures and was hospitalized for 15 days until the data collection. Experienced thirst discomfort during preoperative and postoperative fasting, which was considered intense and very stressful during his hospitalization. Conclusion: since the identification of thirst discomfort, the ice popsicle was used as a strategy, which made difference in her treatment. The thirst management model is pioneer in care of burnt patients and has benefits to alleviate thirst.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Patients , Thirst , Balneology , Burns , Ice , Postoperative Period , Therapeutics , Data Collection , Fasting , Preoperative Period , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Neck
17.
Sahel medical journal (Print) ; 25(1): 15-20, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379323

ABSTRACT

Background: Offspring of hypertensive parents have been reported to have alteration on their sympathovagal balance and have exaggerated response to stressful conditions. Many Christians observe a period of fasting at the beginning of every year, which imposes some stress on their bodies. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of 21-day intermittent fasting on some cardiovascular parameters in offspring of hypertensive and normotensive parents. Materials and Methods: Eighty young adults (20­28 years) were divided into equal number of male and female offspring of hypertensive and normotensive parents based on questionnaire. Their body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded 1 week before the fasting period began and then weekly for 3 weeks, in which they fasted. Results: The weight, BMI, and WC reduced during fasting, but the reductions were not significant (P > 0.05). The SBP and DBP were higher in male offspring of hypertensive parents than all other groups. SBP was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in males than females before fast and during fast. Fasting significantly reduced the SBP in the male offspring of both hypertensive and normotensive parents. The HR reduced in the females during fast but increased from a lower level in males to a value not significantly different from prefasting level. Conclusion: Fasting reduces the high SBP and DBP in male offspring of hypertensive parents, which is beneficial to their cardiovascular system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Fasting , Heredity , Young Adult , Hypertension , Heart Rate
18.
Revue de l'Infirmier Congolais ; 6(2): 12-17, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1418280

ABSTRACT

Introduction. L'étude visait évaluer les indicateurs de l'alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant liés à l'état nutritionnel dans la zone de santé de Kapolowe, province du Haut Katanga avant les essais cliniques. Matériel et méthodes. Nous avons conduit une étude descriptive transversale dans la communauté auprès des 568 couples mère-enfant 6-23 mois évalués sur les indicateurs nutritionnels associés à la malnutrition. Résultats. L'allaitement maternel optimal était observé chez 10,7% des couples mère-enfant et l'alimentation complémentaire adéquate bénéficiée par 5,5% des enfants. Presque 25,6% des ménages utilisaient des toilettes améliorées, 98,8% des ménages buvaient l'eau des sources protégées et 12,1% des mères pratiquaient un minimum de lavage de mains. Le premier aliment complémentaire donné à la moitié des enfants (46%) était importé, mais 60,3 % des mères utilisaient le mélange farine de maïs + huile + sucre comme aliment de complément. La prévalence de la malnutrition aiguë, de la malnutrition chronique et de l'insuffisance pondérale était respectivement de 11,9%, 37% et 26,8%. La malnutrition aiguë était associée à l'occupation de la mère, au niveau socio-économique du ménage, à la Religion de la mère, à la consultation prénatale suivie par la mère, au Minimum de Diversité Alimentaire, à l'allaitement maternel non optimal, aux infections récurrentes et au faible poids de naissance. L'insuffisance pondérale était associée au sexe, à l'occupation de la mère, au niveau socio-économique, à la religion de la mère, au minimum de diversité alimentaire, à l'allaitement maternel non optimal, aux infections récurrentes et au faible poids de naissance. La malnutrition chronique était associée au sexe, au niveau socio-économique,


Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess infant and young child feeding indicators related to nutritional status in the Kapolowe health zone, Haut Katanga province prior to the clinical trials. Material and methods. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in the community among568 mother-child pairs 6-23 months of age assessed on nutritional indicators associated with malnutrition. Results. Optimal breastfeeding was observed in 10.7% of the mother-child pairs and adequate complementary feeding in 5.5%. Almost 25.6% of households used improved toilets, 98.8% of households drank water from protected springs and 12.1% of mothers practiced minimal hand washing,12.1% of mothers practiced minimal handwashing. The first supplementary food given to half of the children (46%) was imported food, but 60.3% of mothers used maize flour + oil + sugar as a complementary food. The prevalence of acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and under weight were 11.9%, 37% and26.8% respectively. Acute malnutrition was associated with the mother's occupation, household socio-economic level, mother's religion, prenatal consultation attended by the mother, minimum dietary diversity, non-optimal breastfeeding, recurrent infections, and low birth weigh. Underweight was associated with gender, maternal occupation, socio-economic level, maternal religion, minimum dietary diversity, non-optimal breastfeeding, recurrent infections and low birth weight. Chronic malnutrition was associated with gender, socio-economic level, minimum meal frequency, type of toilet used, non-optimal breastfeeding, recurrent infections, and low birth weight. Conclusion. The prevalence of malnutrition, in all its forms, is still very high and worrying among children aged 6-23 months. The feeding practices are predictors of it.


Subject(s)
Child Nutrition Disorders , Malnutrition , Nutritional Status , Fasting , Feeding Methods , Infant Food
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 101 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416975

ABSTRACT

Os parâmetros de permeabilidade e solubilidade são fundamentais à absorção oral de fármacos e a partir dessas características, foi criado o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica, através do qual os fármacos são divididos em quatro classes. Atualmente, para a determinação da solubilidade de um fármaco, existem diversos métodos padronizados por agências regulatórias, no entanto, para a determinação da permeabilidade, os ensaios são passíveis de diversas variações em sua execução, diminuindo a confiabilidade dos resultados obtidos e impossibilitando a comparação dos mesmos quando realizados com técnicas diferentes umas das outras. O objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar as variáveis experimentais do modelo do saco intestinal que podem influenciar nos resultados de permeabilidade aparente de fármacos e na viabilidade do tecido. O presente estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais da FCF-USP (109.2018-P574). Foram utilizados 33 Rattus norvegicus da linhagem Wistar, machos, jovens adultos, com peso entre 200 g e 300 g. Para realização do procedimento, cada animal permaneceu em jejum por cerca de quatro horas e após adequada anestesia a porção do jejuno do intestino delgado foi retirada e dividida em seis segmentos de aproximadamente 8,5cm cada. Foram realizados experimentos com e sem inversão do saco intestinal, submetidos a diferentes tempos de banho de gelo após sua ressecção, na presença ou ausência de inibidor da glicoproteína-P (verapamil). Os fármacos naproxeno e famotidina foram empregados como marcadores de alta e baixa permeabilidade, respectivamente. A losartana foi utilizada como substrato da glicoproteína P. Cada um dos sacos intestinais foi colocado em um tubo de ensaio contendo tampão Krebs, a 37°C, saturado com gás carbogênio. Para avaliação da integridade e viabilidade dos segmentos intestinais, observou-se a presença de movimentos peristálticos e coletaram-se amostras do meio de incubação nos tempos 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 e 120 minutos para quantificação dos fármacos e de glicose, uma vez que esta é ativamente transportada para a serosa do intestino delgado. Determinou-se a permeabilidade aparente de cada fármaco e as concentrações de glicose nas diferentes condições experimentais, realizou-se planejamento fatorial multinível e os resultados foram analisados por análise variância (ANOVA), seguida de pós-teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as variáveis experimentais interferiram de forma significativa na viabilidade tecidual e na permeabilidade aparente dos fármacos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas da permeabilidade de fármacos nos diferentes segmentos do jejuno. A glicose mostrou-se um bom marcador de viabilidade tecidual e foi constatado que a presença ou ausência de movimentos peristálticos não está relacionada diretamente com a viabilidade do tecido. Uma vez que foram constatadas tantas interferências nos resultados, é imprescindível que os procedimentos experimentais sejam padronizados, para que os resultados apresentem menor variabilidade e possam ser comparados entre si


The permeability and solubility parameters are fundamental to the oral absorption of drugs and from these characteristics, the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was created, through which drugs are divided into four classes. Currently, for the determination of the solubility of a drug, there are several methods standardized by regulatory agencies, however, for the determination of permeability, the tests are subject to several variations in their execution, reducing the reliability of the results obtained and making it impossible to compare the results obtained. same when performed with different techniques. The aim of this study is to evaluate if different experimental conditions can influence the results of apparent drug permeability and tissue viability on gut sac model. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee for the Use of Animals of FCF-USP (109.2018-P574). Thirty-three male, young adult Rattus norvegicus were used, weighing between 200 g and 300 g. To perform the procedure, each animal fasted for about four hours and after adequate anesthesia, the portion of the jejunum of the small intestine was removed and divided into six segments of approximately 8.5 cm each. Experiments were performed with and without inversion of the gut sac, submitted to different times of ice bath after its resection, in the presence or absence of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor (verapamil). The drugs naproxen and famotidine were used as markers of high and low permeability, respectively. Losartan was used as a substrate for P-glycoprotein. Each of the gut sacs was placed in a test tube containing Krebs buffer, at 37°C, saturated with carbogen gas. To evaluate the integrity and viability of the intestinal segments, the presence of peristaltic movements was observed and samples of the incubation medium were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes for quantification of drugs and glucose, as it is actively transported to the serosa of the small intestine. The apparent permeability of each drug and the glucose concentrations were determined under different experimental conditions, multilevel factorial design was performed and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's post-test. It was observed that the experimental variables significantly interfered in the tissue viability and in the apparent permeability of the drugs. No significant differences in drug permeability were observed in the different segments of the jejunum. Glucose proved to be a good marker of tissue viability and it was found that the presence or absence of peristaltic movements is not directly related to tissue viability. Since so many interferences were found in the results, it is essential that the experimental procedures be standardized, so that the results show less variability and can be compared between different authors


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Permeability , Solubility , Biopharmaceutics/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Methods , Reference Standards , Analysis of Variance , Fasting/adverse effects , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/adverse effects , Absorption , Jejunum/abnormalities
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