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1.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 180 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437402

ABSTRACT

Diversas evidências científicas demonstram que o consumo de ácidos graxos trans está associado com mortes por doenças cardiovasculares. A OMS, em 2018, considerando a presença de ácidos graxos trans nos alimentos recomendou a sua total eliminação até o ano de 2023. Sendo assim, no Brasil, em 2019, a RDC 332 aborda que a partir de 01 de janeiro de 2023 estarão proibidas a produção e a importação de ácidos graxos trans em alimentos destinados ao consumo humano. Atualmente, a legislação que está em vigor sobre ácidos graxos trans é a RDC 54, da ANVISA, que estabelece que, somente os alimentos que apresentarem teores de ácidos graxos trans ≤ 0,1 g por porção e somatória de ácidos graxos saturados e ácidos graxos trans até 1,5 g por porção podem alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional. As bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers são importantes representantes de alimentos ultraprocessados, sendo muito consumidas por adultos e principalmente por crianças pelo seu baixo custo e acessibilidade. A partir destas considerações, o objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados por cromatografia gasosa em bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers, comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo, analisando os teores dos ácidos graxos e comparando com a RDC 54. Em 2018 e 2019, foram analisadas 65 bolachas recheadas, e 40 bolachas wafers, as bolachas foram divididas entre as que possuíam ácidos graxos trans nos rótulos, e as que possuíam a ausência dessa gordura. Os teores de ácidos graxos trans encontrados nas bolachas com a presença de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem, variaram de 0,34 a 5,21 g por 100 g e 0,19 e 8,54 g por 100 g nas bolachas recheadas e nas bolachas wafers, respectivamente. Diante disso, constatou-se que algumas marcas de bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers apresentaram grandes quantidades de gordura trans em sua composição. Em relação às bolachas recheadas e wafers com a ausência de gordura trans nos rótulos, todas as bolachas estavam em acordo com a legislação vigente em relação aos valores menores ou iguais a 0,1 g de gordura trans por porção, porém, em relação à somatória de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados de até 1,5 g por porção, todas estavam com valores superiores, dessa maneira, os fabricantes dessas bolachas não poderiam alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional, e por isto, estavam em desacordo com a legislação vigente. Em 2022, foram reanalisadas seis amostras de bolachas recheadas e quatro amostras de bolachas wafers, que em 2018 apresentaram altos teores de ácidos graxos trans. Também foram analisadas três bolachas wafers que em 2022 ainda apresentavam altos teores de gorduras trans nos rótulos. Os resultados dessas amostras demonstraram que em 2022 ainda há em supermercados brasileiros, bolachas com altos teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados em sua composição. Diante disso, ratifica-se a necessidade do cumprimento da legislação vigente e da RDC 332 em 2023 e de fiscalizações mais frequentes pelos órgãos competentes, devido aos malefícios do consumo dos ácidos graxos trans para a saúde da população


There is a lot of scientific evidence showing that consumption of trans fatty acids is associated with deaths from cardiovascular diseases. The WHO in 2018, considering the presence of trans fatty acids in foods, recommended their total elimination by the year 2023. Therefore, in Brazil in 2019, RDC 332 addresses that from January 1, 2023, the production and the importation of trans fatty acids in foods intended for human consumption are prohibited. Currently, the legislation in force on trans fatty acids is ANVISA's RDC 54, this RDC establishes that only foods that have trans fatty acids contents ≤ 0.1 g per serving and the sum of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving can claim zero trans on nutrition labels. Stuffed cookies and wafer cookies are important representatives of ultra-processed foods, being widely consumed by adults and especially children due to their low cost and accessibility. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids by gas chromatography (AOAC method 996.06) in stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, commercialized in the State of São Paulo, analyzing the contents of the fatty acids and comparing with RDC 54. In 2018 and 2019, 65 stuffed cookies and 40 wafers cookies were analyzed, the cookies were divided between those that had trans fatty acids on the labels, and those that had the absence of this fat. The levels of trans fatty acids found in the cookies with the presence of trans fatty acids on the label ranged from 0.34 to 5.21 g per 100 g and 0.19 and 8.54 g per 100 g in the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, respectively. Therefore, it was found that some brands of stuffed cookies and wafers cookies had large amounts of trans fat in their composition. Regarding the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies with the absence of trans fat on the labels, all cookies were in accordance with current legislation in relation to values less than or equal to 0.1 g of trans fat per serving, but in relation to the sum of acids trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving, all had higher values, thus, the manufacturers of these cookies could not claim zero trans on the nutrition label, and therefore, they were in disagreement with the current legislation. In 2022, six samples of stuffed cookies and four samples of wafers were reanalyzed, which in 2018 had high levels of trans fatty acids. Three wafers were also analyzed, which in 2022 still had high levels of trans fats on the labels. The results of these samples showed that in 2022 there are still cookies in brazilian supermarkets with high levels of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in their composition. In view of this, the need to comply with current legislation and RDC 332 in 2023 and more frequent inspections by competent institutions are ratified, due to the harmful effects of the consumption of trans fatty acids on the health of the population


Subject(s)
Brazil/ethnology , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Cookies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Minors/classification , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Nutritional Sciences/classification
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468540

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the biochemical composition of some Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt was investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria scabra. The highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was recorded in Pearsonothuria graeffei while the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was recorded in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of omega-3 fatty acids was recorded in Stichopus hermanni however, the lowest percentage was recorded in Diadema setosum. The highest percentage of omega-6 fatty acids was recorded in Bohadschia vitiensis where, the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. In addition, nonessential amino acid (NEAA) glycine were the highest in all species and serine was the lowest while Essential amino acid (EAA) arginine was the highest and cysteine was the lowest. All of the NEAA recorded highest concentrations in S. hermanni except proline. The recorded essential amino acids were histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and leucine. The latter was high in Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tyrosine, valine, threonine, and arginine were high in Stichopus hermanni. The present study proved that sea cucumbers has great nutritional value.


No presente estudo, investigou-se a composição bioquímica de algumas espécies Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) do Mar Vermelho no Egito. Os resultados mostraram que a maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos saturados (SFA) foi na espécie Holothuria nobilis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria scabra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFA) foi registrada na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei, enquanto a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. O maior percentual de ácidos graxos poli insaturados (PUFA) foi registrado em Holothuria nobilis e o menor percentual foi registrado em Holothuria atra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-3 foi registrada na espécie Stichopus hermanni, entretanto, a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Diadema setosum. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-6 foi registrada em Bohadschia vitiensis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. Além disso, o nível de aminoácido não-essencial (NEAA) glicina foi o mais alto em todas as espécies e o de serina foi o mais baixo, enquanto o nível de aminoácido essencial (EAA) arginina foi o mais alto e a cisteína foi o mais baixo. Todos os NEAA registraram concentrações mais altas em S. hermanni, exceto prolina. Os aminoácidos essenciais registrados foram histidina, isoleucina, fenilalanina e leucina. A leucina apresentou alto nível na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tirosina, valina, treonina e arginina apresentaram níveis elevados em Stichopus hermanni. Assim, o presente estudo comprovou que o pepino-do-mar possui grande valor nutricional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acids/analysis , Echinodermata/chemistry , Biochemical Phenomena , Fatty Acids/analysis , Sea Cucumbers , Stichopus
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-16, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468601

ABSTRACT

Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge fort he end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra, cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Gossypium/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Plant Oils/therapeutic use
4.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136787

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the maternal diet quality and the fatty acid composition of breast milk in the first trimester of lactation. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional epidemiological study of nursing mothers. The data collection instruments were a semi-structured questionnaire for sample characterization and a recall of usual intake. Diet quality was assessed based on the healthy eating index (HEI). Samples of mature breast milk were obtained by hand milking. Milk fat was extracted using the Bligh-Dyer method and methylated with 0.25 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol diethyl ether. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector determined the milk fatty acid profile. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests evaluated association between the variables. Subsequently, a multiple linear regression model was built and multivariate regression analysis was applied. Results: Our findings revealed an inverse relationship between the consumption of total fruits and the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and a direct association of the intake of total fruits and total grains with monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that maternal diet quality affects the fatty acid composition of breast milk.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre a qualidade da dieta materna e a composição do leite humano em ácidos graxos no primeiro trimestre de lactação. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico observacional e transversal com nutrizes. Os instrumentos de coleta dos dados foram questionário semiestruturado para caracterização da amostra e o recordatório de ingestão habitual. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada por meio do índice de alimentação saudável (IAS). Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas por meio de ordenha manual. A extração da gordura do leite ocorreu mediante o método de Bligh-Dyer, e essa gordura foi metilada com metóxido de sódio 0,25 mol/L em metanol dietil éter. O perfil de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinado por um cromatógrafo a gás equipado com detector por ionização de chamas. Realizaram-se teste de correlação de Pearson e teste de Spearman para verificar associação entre as variáveis. Posteriormente se aplicaram o modelo de regressão linear múltiplo e a análise de regressão multivariada. Resultados: Foi possível observar relação inversa entre o consumo de frutas totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e relação direta entre o consumo de frutas totais e cereais totais e os ácidos monoinsaturados e saturados. Conclusões: Sugere-se que a qualidade da dieta reflete na composição de ácidos graxos do leite materno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Fatty Acids/analysis , Diet, Healthy/standards , Milk, Human/chemistry , Diet Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Nutrition Policy , Mothers
5.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344680

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the fatty acid composition and qualitative characteristics of meat from lambs feed in feedlot with increasing levels of canola grain. Meat obtained from 27 lambs fed 0, 8 and 16% inclusion of canola grain were analyzed. There was a reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA): lauric, heptadecanoic, and stearic; and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA): palmitoleic, oleic, and eicosatrienoic, with the increasing levels of canola grain. There was a linear reduction for the ω3 acid and the ω3: ω6 ratio, while the ω6: ω3 ratio increased. But the values observed for this ratio (ω6: ω3) were lower than 4, which is considered a satisfactory value. There was a slight increase (~2%) for the thrombogenicity index and atherogenicity index with the inclusion of canola grain. There was a reduction in the hypocholesterolemic: hypercholesterolemic ratio, with mean values of 2.09 for the diet with 0% inclusion, and 2.06 for 8 and 16% inclusion of canola. Although the inclusion of canola grain for lambs decreased the content of some UFA, reflecting alterations in the correlated nutritional properties, there is a reduction of SFA. The results for instrumental analysis, proximate composition, and sensory acceptance of the lamb meat were similar among the treatments.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a composição dos ácidos graxos e as características qualitativas da carne de cordeiros terminados com níveis crescentes de canola grão na dieta. Foram estudadas amostras de carne provenientes de 27 cordeiros, confinados por 45 dias e alimentados com 00, 08 e 16% de inclusão de canola grão. Houve efeito para os ácidos graxos saturados (AGS): laurico, heptadecanoico e esteárico; ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGMI): palmitoleico e oleico; e ácidos graxos polinsaturados (AGPI): eicosatrienoico. Estes ácidos reduziram à medida que os níveis da canola grão aumentaram. Para os AGMI, houve efeito com maior concentração no músculo dos cordeiros alimentados sem a canola grão (49,80%). Houve uma redução linear para o ácido ω3 e para a relação ω3:ω6, enquanto que a relação ω6:ω3 aumentou. A canola grão influenciou o índice de aterogenicidade, com média de 0,57 para o tratamento com 0% de inclusão e 0,58 para os tratamentos com 8% e 16% de inclusão. Observou-se aumento linear para o índice de trombogenicidade com a inclusão da canola grão, cujas médias foram, respectivamente, 0,16, 0,17 e 0,18 para os tratamentos 0%, 8% e 16% de inclusão. Houve redução para a relação hipocolesterolêmicos-hipercolesterolêmicos, com médias de 2,09 para a dieta com 0% de inclusão, e 2,06 para 8% e 16% de inclusão da canola em grão na dieta. A canola grão não influenciou a análise instrumental, composição centesimal e atributos sensoriais da carne.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Fatty Acids/analysis , Lipids , Meat/analysis , Brassica napus
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 200-208, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115489

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Se desconoce el contenido de grasas saturada (GS) y trans (Gtrans) en panes sin etiqueta y sin vigilancia por entidad regulatoria de Colombia. PROPÓSITO: Comparar el contenido de GS y Gtrans en panes de algunas panaderías de Medellín con lo reglamentado: 0,5 g/50 g de pan, para ambos tipos de grasa según resolución 2508 de 2012 del Ministerio de Salud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se muestrearon 45 panes de tres tipos (aliñado, leche y croissant) en tres niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) según ubicación de la panadería. Se cuantificó grasa total gravimétricamente y GS y Gtrans por cromatografía de gases. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de GS y Gtrans con respecto a la grasa total extraíble fue 43,8% y 0,6% en pan aliñado, 37,4% y 0,6% en pan leche y 32,2% y 0,9% en pan croissant, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (p= 0,155 y 0,184, respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: Comparado con la resolución 2508, el contenido de GS fue mayor al límite establecido en resolución y el contenido de Gtrans fue menor en pan aliñado, leche o croissant. Los panes evaluados en las panaderías del NSE bajo contenían mayor Gtrans que los otros.


BACKGROUND: The content of saturated (GS) and trans (Gtrans) fats in unlabeled and breads that are not regulated by the Colombian government is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare the content of GS and Gtrans in breads of bakeries in Medellín with the following regulation: 0.5 g/50 g of bread, for both types of fat according to the 2012 Ministry of Health resolution #2508. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 breads of three types (seasoned, milk and croissant) were sampled at bakeries from three socioeconomic levels (NSE) according to the location. Total fat was quantified gravimetrically and GS and Gtrans by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The percentage of GS and Gtrans with respect to the total extractable fat was 43.8% and 0.6% in seasoned bread, 37.4% and 0.6% in milk bread and 32.2% and 0.9% in croissant bread, with no significant difference by bread type (p= 0.155 and 0.184, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: GS content of sampled breadswas greater than the limit established in the resolution. Gtrans content was lower in seasoned bread andmilk bread compared to croissant. The breads evaluated in the bakeries of lower NSE contained higher Gtrans than the others.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Colombia , Flame Ionization/methods
7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741

ABSTRACT

It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.


Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 50-56, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092743

ABSTRACT

Using technical procedures, the fatty acid (FA) profile and solid fat content (SFC) of the Peruvian cultivar cacao beans CCN 51 and ICS 6 and the "optimal chocolate", obtained from the mixture of the first two, were determined to assess their quality. These cacao beans were found to have important nutritional values. The FA profile of the cacao beans were similar (p>0.05); however, in the FA profile, the 'optimal chocolate' had significant differences (p≤0.05) in terms of palmitic, arachidic and linolenic acid. The n6:n3 ratio for "optimal chocolate" was 12.0 ± 1.7. Cacao beans had the same SFC, and SFC was highly temperature dependent, as determined using a mathematical model for chocolate. The SFC of chocolate refers to hard cacao butter content at temperatures between 20 and 25°C, and solid fat was heat resistant from 25 to 30°C, which is considered valuable in trade chocolate production. The quality-related properties of these lipid fractions imparted nutritional and physical aspects to the optimal dark chocolate for human consumption.


La composición de ácidos grasos (CAG) y el contenido de sólidos grasos (CSG), de la fracción lipídica de los cultivares peruanos de cacao CCN 51 e ICS 6 así como del "chocolate óptimo", obtenido de las mezclas de las primeras dos, fueron determinados por técnicas analíticas para conocer su calidad. Estas variedades tuvieron valores nutricionales importantes. La CAG de los granos de cacao fueron similares, sin embargo la CAG del "Chocolate óptimo" tuvo diferencias significativas (p<0,05) para los acidos grasos palmitico, araquidico y linoleico. El ratio n6:n3 fue de 12,0 ± 1,7. El CSG de los granos de cacao fueron los mismos y tuvo una fuerte dependencia con la temperatura, también se definió un modelo matematico para el chocolate. El CSG le confiere al chocolate una consistencia dura a temperaturas de 20 a 25°C y resistentes al calor de 25 a 30°C, siendo tales propiedades una ventaja en la comercialización de chocolates. La calidad de estas fracciones lipidicas tuvieron aspectos nutricionales y fisicos en el chocolate oscuro para consumo humano.


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chocolate , Nutritive Value , Peru , Cacao Butter
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 135-140, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092753

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue comparar algunas características nutricionales y de calidad de huevos de tinamou, con huevos de gallina y codorniz. Los huevos de tinamou contienen menos extracto etéreo y proteína en yema, y similar cantidad de proteínas en clara que huevos de gallina y codorniz. La clara del huevo de tinamou contiene más hierro (0,5 mg/100g) que huevos de gallina y codorniz (0,1-0,2 mg/100g). El ácido oleico es el principal ácido graso de la yema de huevos de tinamou, al igual que los otros. El contenido de colesterol en yema de huevo de tinamou (21,2 mg/g) es mayor a los rangos descritos en huevos de gallina (10,9-16,3 mg/g) y codorniz (11,1-15,9 mg/g). El huevo de tinamou tiene un aspecto físico distinto a huevos de gallina y codorniz, la cáscara es de color chocolate oscuro, pesa en promedio 35 g, sus dimensiones son de 50 x 36 mm, y tienen una unidad Haugh inferior a lo registrado para huevos de gallina y codorniz. El huevo de tinamou es una alternativa muy nutritiva como alimento, de características nutricionales similares a huevos de gallina y codorniz, a excepción de su mayor contenido de colesterol en yema y hierro en clara.


The objective of this review was to compare the nutritional characteristics and quality of tinamou eggs. Tinamou eggs have less ether extract and protein in the yolk, they also have a similar quantity of protein in the egg white than hen and quail eggs. The egg white of the tinamou egg has more iron (0,5 mg/100g) compared to hen and quail eggs (0,1-0,2 mg/100g). Oleic acid is the main fatty acid in all three types of eggs. On the other hand, the amount of cholesterol in the tinamou yolk (21,2 mg/g) is higher than the amounts described for hen eggs (10,9-16,3 mg/g) and those of quail (11,1-15,9 mg/g). In terms of the physical characteristics, the tinamou eggshell has a chocolate color, weighs an average of 35g, has a length about 50 x 36 mm and has an inferior Haugh unity than hen and quail eggs. The tinamou egg represents a high nutritive alternative with similar nutritional characteristics compared to hen and quail eggs, with the exception of cholesterol in the yolk and iron in the egg white.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Quality , Palaeognathae , Eggs , Nutritive Value , Chile , Cholesterol/analysis , Oleic Acid/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Iron/analysis
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 243-252, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088938

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG) do leite de vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milho contendo 0% e 8,9% de glicerina bruta (GB) na matéria seca (MS). Foram utilizadas 18 vacas Holandês x Gir com 48±18 dias em lactação, produzindo 19,8±4,9kg/dia de leite. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove vacas/tratamento e duas medidas repetidas no tempo, com os resultados analisados por modelos mistos. A inclusão de GB na dieta não alterou a ingestão de MS, mas reduziu os consumos dos AG oleico, linoleico e α-linolênico. Os teores dos AG mirístico, palmítico, rumênico, vacênico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico, α-linolênico e CLA trans-10 cis-12 na gordura do leite foram semelhantes entre dietas. A inclusão de GB reduziu os teores dos AG elaídico e C18:1 trans-10 e aumentou os teores dos AG de cadeia ímpar linear e do ácido láurico. Não houve efeito da inclusão da GB sobre os índices de aterogenicidade e trombogenicidade da gordura do leite. Concluiu-se que a inclusão de glicerina bruta em dieta à base de silagem de milho não afetou a qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite de vacas Holandês x Gir.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed corn silage-based diets containing 0% and 8.9% of crude glycerin (GB) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Eighteen Holstein x Gyr cows with 48±18 days in milk and producing 19.8±4.9kg milk/day were used in the study. The experimental design was a randomized block with nine cows per treatment and two repeated measures. Results were analyzed using mixed models. The milk fat contents of myristic, palmitic, rumenic, vaccenic, estearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and trans-10 cis-12 CLA were similar between diets. Dietary inclusion of GB decreased elaidic and trans-10 C18:1, and increased lauric acid and odd linear-chain FA contents in milk fat. Both atherogenicity and trombogenicity indices were unaffected by GB inclusion. It was concluded that GB inclusion in corn silage-based diets had no effect on the nutritional quality of milk fat from Holstein x Gyr dairy cows.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Silage , Milk/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Biofuels , Animal Feed
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diatoms are the major group of microalgae which have been utilized by the potential applications as food industries, aquatic feeds, cosmetics, biofuels, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, current approaches were made in order to determine growth rate, biomass productivity, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and fatty acid composition for Nanofrustulum shiloi cultures using both aeration and mixing conditions in flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR). Physical (the intensity of aeration, mixing, light intensity etc.) and chemical (nutritional materials) factors are affecting the growth and bioproduct contents of a diatom. Biomass and lipid productivities of N. shiloi were measured as 31.29 and 36.9622±0.0598 mg L-1 day-1 in flat-plate PBR having the combination of aeration and stirring system, respectively. A slightly higher amount of saturated fatty acids was detected in PBR having only bubbling system while the increase of mono- and poly- unsaturated fatty acids were found in PBR having the combination of aeration and stirring system. Flat-plate PBR design was also investigated for improving not only biomass but also the lipid productivity of N. shiloi.


Subject(s)
Diatoms/physiology , Photobioreactors , Carbohydrates/analysis , Diatoms/growth & development , Diatoms/chemistry , Biomass , Fatty Acids/analysis
12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1256-1260, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of fatty acid composition in human milk with breast milk jaundice (BMJ) in neonates.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 full-term neonates who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from October 2016 to October 2017 and were diagnosed with late-onset BMJ were enrolled as the BMJ group. Thirty healthy neonates without jaundice or pathological jaundice who were admitted to the confinement center during the same period of time were enrolled as the control group. Related clinical data were collected, including sex, mode of birth, feeding pattern, gestational age, birth weight, gravida, parity, and peak level of total serum bilirubin. Breast milk was collected from the mothers, and the MIRIS human milk analyzer was used to measure macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrate) and calorie. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the content of different fatty acids in breast milk.@*RESULTS@#The control group had higher levels of macronutrients in human milk than the BMJ group, with significant differences in fat, dry matter, and calorie (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Some macronutrients and fatty acid composition in human milk may be associated with the pathogenesis of BMJ in neonates.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Case-Control Studies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Jaundice, Neonatal/etiology , Milk, Human/chemistry , Nutrients/analysis
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 657-667, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010545

ABSTRACT

Camellia oil has become an important plant oil in China in recent years, but its effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have not been documented. In this study, the effects of camellia oil, soybean oil, and olive oil on NAFLD were evaluated by analyzing the fatty acid profiles of the plant oils, the serum lipids and lipoproteins of rats fed different oils, and by cytological and ultrastructural observation of the rats' hepatocytes. Analysis of fatty acid profiles showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) n-6/n-3 ratio was 33.33 in camellia oil, 12.50 in olive oil, and 7.69 in soybean oil. Analyses of serum lipids and lipoproteins of rats showed that the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a camellia oil-fed group (COFG) were lower than those in an olive oil-fed group (OOFG) and higher than those in a soybean oil-fed group (SOFG). However, only the difference in total cholesterol between the COFG and SOFG was statistically significant. Cytological observation showed that the degree of lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in the hepatocytes in the COFG was lower than that in the OOFG, but higher than that in the SOFG. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the size and number of the LDs in the hepatocytes of rats fed each of the three types of oil were related to the degree of damage to organelles, including the positions of nuclei and the integrity of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The results revealed that the effect of camellia oil on NAFLD in rats was greater than that of soybean oil, but less than that of olive oil. Although the overall trend was that among the three oil diets, those with a lower n-6/n-3 ratio were associated with a lower risk of NAFLD, and the effect of camellia oil on NAFLD was not entirely related to the n-6/n-3 ratio and may have involved other factors. This provides new insights into the effect of oil diets on NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Camellia/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Lipid Droplets/physiology , Lipids/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(4): 817-825, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the fatty acid composition of mature milk of nursing mothers and its distribution according to some maternal variables. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study based on the eva-luation of the fatty acid profile of mature human milk. Samples of mature breast milk were taken from 106 nursing mothers, by manual milking and who were after the 5th postpartum week. The milk fat extraction was carried out by using the Bligh and Dyer method and methy-lated with 0.25 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol diethyl ether. The fatty acid of the milk profile was determined by a Gas Chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: among the saturated fatty acids, the highest values were observed for palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) fatty acids, respectively. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, there was a higher contribution of oleic (C18:1) and palmi-toleic (C16:1) fatty acids, respectively. The total essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic) was 14.94%. Conclusions: a low content of essential fatty acids in the breast milk of the nursing mothers was observed in the present study, which are important for infant growth and deve-lopment. We suggest the need to implement nutrition education strategies aimed for pregnant women and nursing mothers who should be advised to eat healthier foods.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a composição em ácidos graxos do leite maduro de nutrizes e sua distribuição segundo algumas variáveis maternas. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico observacional, transversal realizado a partir da avaliação do perfil de ácidos graxos do leite humano maduro. Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas de 106 nutrizes, a partir da 5ª semana pós-parto, por meio de ordenha manual. A extração da gordura do leite foi realizada através do método de Bligh e Dyer, e metiladas com metóxido de sódio 0,25 mol/L em metanol dietil - éter. O perfil de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinado por um Cromatógrafo a Gás equipado com detector por ionização de chamas. Resultados: dentre os ácidos graxos saturados, foram observados valores mais elevados para os ácidos graxos palmítico (C16:0), esteárico (C18:0), mirístico (C14:0) e láurico (C12:0), respectivamente. Entre os ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, verificou-se maior contribuição dos ácidos graxos oleico (C18:1) e palmitoleico (C16:1), respectivamente. O total de ácidos graxos essenciais (linoleico e α- linolênico) foi de 14,94%. Conclusões: foi observado baixo teor de ácidos graxos essenciais no leite materno das nutrizes do presente estudo, que são importantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do lactente, sugerindo-se a necessidade de implementação de estratégias de educação nutricional direcionadas a gestantes e nutrizes que devem ser orientadas a consumir alimentos mais saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Food and Nutrition Education , Fatty Acids, Essential/analysis , Infant Nutrition , Fatty Acids/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Lactation , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis , Child Development , Maternal and Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study , Flame Ionization/methods
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 825-833, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019889

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose No comprehensive information is available about uterus fatty acid (FA) change during implantation period and possible effects of the seminal vesicle secretion on it. Materials and Methods In this study, we evaluated FA composition of uterus phospholipids during the implantation period in intact and seminal vesicle-excised (SVX) mated female mice. Forty NMRI female mice were divided into control (mated with intact male) and seminal vesicle excised (SVX)-mated (mated with SVX-male) groups. The phospholipid fatty acids composition was monitored during the first five days of pregnancy using gas chromatography and also implantation rate was evaluated on fifth day of pregnancy. Results We found that levels of linoleic acid (LNA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) showed a decreasing trend from the first to the third day of pregnancy and then started to increase on the fourth day and peaked on the fifth day. In contrast, the level of saturated FA (SFA) increased on the second and third day of pregnancy compared to the first (p<0.05) and then decreased on the fourth and fifth. We also found that the seminal vesicle secretion could affect the levels of LNA, ARA, SFA, and PUFA in uterine phospholipids especially on second and third day. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between ARA level and implantation rate in control but not SVX-mated groups. Conclusions It can be concluded that several uterus FA that have important roles in early pregnancy could be affected by seminal vesicle secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Embryo Implantation/physiology , Seminal Vesicles/metabolism , Uterus/chemistry , Models, Animal , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Organ Size/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Pregnancy/metabolism , Random Allocation , Fatty Acids/analysis , Mice
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 22-29, July. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053216

ABSTRACT

Background: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contains active substances that have desirable properties for industrial and herbal medicine applications, e.g., essential oils (1.5­2.5%), tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, resins, phytosterols, rosmarinic acid and many others. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rosemary extract and 20% rapeseed oil substitution for animal fat on storage changes and inhibition of cholinesterases in liver pâté. Results: Preliminary research showed that rosemary extract exhibited antioxidative activity in the system of accelerated Rancimat and Oxidograph tests. Then, rosemary extract was used as an ingredient in liver pâté. During the experiment, meat samples were refrigerated and tested on days 1, 5, 8, 12 and 15 after production. The study proved that the substitution of 20% of animal fat with rapeseed oil decreased the content of saturated acids and increased the content of monoenic fatty acids by approximately 5% and polyene fatty acids by 40%. Conclusions: In addition to antioxidative activity, the rosemary extract affected the health-promoting value of the samples, which inhibited cholinesterase activity during the entire storage period. The extract inhibited AChE more than BChE.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Meat Products , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peroxides , Oils, Volatile , Fat Substitutes , Principal Component Analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Liver , Meat Products/microbiology
18.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 530-534, abr.-maio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1481990

ABSTRACT

Biossurfactantes são compostos com características tensoativas, produzidos por diversas espécies de microrganismos. Nesse estudo, a composição de ácidos graxos de biossurfactantes produzidos por fungos filamentosos endofíticos foram analisados. Para a produção dos biossurfactantes, empregou-se fontes de carbono (óleo vegetal de milho) e nitrogênio (ureia) de baixo custo no meio de cultivo. A composição de ácidos graxos foi determinada a partir da cromatografia gasosa. Foram identificados seis picos de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos, com predominância do ácido linoleico (C18:2n-6c) e ácido oleico (C18:1n-9c). Tanto os ácidos graxos saturados quanto os insaturados foram encontrados na estrutura dos biossurfactantes. Estes resultados demonstraram a importância destes compostos para potenciais aplicações em várias áreas industriais.


Subject(s)
Fungi , Surface-Active Agents/isolation & purification , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Urea , Corn Oil
19.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 925-929, abr.-maio 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482071

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar o perfil de ácidos graxos de ovos comercializados como enriquecidos com ω3. Para o estudo foram adquiridas cartelas de uma dúzia de ovos de diferentes marcas comerciais. A determinação do perfil lipídico foi realizada a partir do ovo inteiro, sendo realizada a extração dos lipídeos, seguido de esterificação e análise cromatográfica para a identificação dos de ácidos graxos. Ocorreu uma maior variação entre os produtos para os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e poli-insaturados. Para os teores de ácidos graxos ω3 ocorreu variação de 0,77 a 34,51%, principalmente para EPA que variou de 0,01 a 6,50% e, DHA que variou de 0,51 a 27,19%. Para ω6 os valores variaram de 5,35 a 21,91%. A quantidade de ácidos graxos ω3 em ovos enriquecidos é variável nos produtos, o que denota uma necessidade de padronização.


Subject(s)
Food, Fortified/analysis , Eggs/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis
20.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 974-978, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482081

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil lipídico de alguns peixes e derivados de pescado por meio de amostras de produtos comprados em estabelecimentos comerciais. Foram realizadas a extração dos lipídeos, esterificação e análise cromatográfica para a determinação do perfil de ácidos graxos. Houve diferença em relação à composição dos ácidos graxos (C14:0; C16:1; C18:3ω3; C22:0; C20:5ω3 (EPA) e C22:6ω3 (DHA)) e na relação ω6/ω3. Os produtos derivados de pescado possuem relação ω6/ω3 maiores que os peixes, devendo-se ao processo de beneficiamento a que foram submetidos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico (EPA) apresentou maiores concentrações na sardinha, diferentemente do ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA) que está mais presente no atum, evidenciando que ambos os pescados são boas fontes para obtenção destes ácidos graxos ω3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipids/analysis , Lipids/isolation & purification , Fishes , Fish Products , Fatty Acids/analysis
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