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1.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344680

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the fatty acid composition and qualitative characteristics of meat from lambs feed in feedlot with increasing levels of canola grain. Meat obtained from 27 lambs fed 0, 8 and 16% inclusion of canola grain were analyzed. There was a reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA): lauric, heptadecanoic, and stearic; and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA): palmitoleic, oleic, and eicosatrienoic, with the increasing levels of canola grain. There was a linear reduction for the ω3 acid and the ω3: ω6 ratio, while the ω6: ω3 ratio increased. But the values observed for this ratio (ω6: ω3) were lower than 4, which is considered a satisfactory value. There was a slight increase (~2%) for the thrombogenicity index and atherogenicity index with the inclusion of canola grain. There was a reduction in the hypocholesterolemic: hypercholesterolemic ratio, with mean values of 2.09 for the diet with 0% inclusion, and 2.06 for 8 and 16% inclusion of canola. Although the inclusion of canola grain for lambs decreased the content of some UFA, reflecting alterations in the correlated nutritional properties, there is a reduction of SFA. The results for instrumental analysis, proximate composition, and sensory acceptance of the lamb meat were similar among the treatments.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a composição dos ácidos graxos e as características qualitativas da carne de cordeiros terminados com níveis crescentes de canola grão na dieta. Foram estudadas amostras de carne provenientes de 27 cordeiros, confinados por 45 dias e alimentados com 00, 08 e 16% de inclusão de canola grão. Houve efeito para os ácidos graxos saturados (AGS): laurico, heptadecanoico e esteárico; ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGMI): palmitoleico e oleico; e ácidos graxos polinsaturados (AGPI): eicosatrienoico. Estes ácidos reduziram à medida que os níveis da canola grão aumentaram. Para os AGMI, houve efeito com maior concentração no músculo dos cordeiros alimentados sem a canola grão (49,80%). Houve uma redução linear para o ácido ω3 e para a relação ω3:ω6, enquanto que a relação ω6:ω3 aumentou. A canola grão influenciou o índice de aterogenicidade, com média de 0,57 para o tratamento com 0% de inclusão e 0,58 para os tratamentos com 8% e 16% de inclusão. Observou-se aumento linear para o índice de trombogenicidade com a inclusão da canola grão, cujas médias foram, respectivamente, 0,16, 0,17 e 0,18 para os tratamentos 0%, 8% e 16% de inclusão. Houve redução para a relação hipocolesterolêmicos-hipercolesterolêmicos, com médias de 2,09 para a dieta com 0% de inclusão, e 2,06 para 8% e 16% de inclusão da canola em grão na dieta. A canola grão não influenciou a análise instrumental, composição centesimal e atributos sensoriais da carne.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Fatty Acids/analysis , Lipids , Meat/analysis , Brassica napus
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 200-208, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115489

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Se desconoce el contenido de grasas saturada (GS) y trans (Gtrans) en panes sin etiqueta y sin vigilancia por entidad regulatoria de Colombia. PROPÓSITO: Comparar el contenido de GS y Gtrans en panes de algunas panaderías de Medellín con lo reglamentado: 0,5 g/50 g de pan, para ambos tipos de grasa según resolución 2508 de 2012 del Ministerio de Salud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se muestrearon 45 panes de tres tipos (aliñado, leche y croissant) en tres niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) según ubicación de la panadería. Se cuantificó grasa total gravimétricamente y GS y Gtrans por cromatografía de gases. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de GS y Gtrans con respecto a la grasa total extraíble fue 43,8% y 0,6% en pan aliñado, 37,4% y 0,6% en pan leche y 32,2% y 0,9% en pan croissant, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (p= 0,155 y 0,184, respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: Comparado con la resolución 2508, el contenido de GS fue mayor al límite establecido en resolución y el contenido de Gtrans fue menor en pan aliñado, leche o croissant. Los panes evaluados en las panaderías del NSE bajo contenían mayor Gtrans que los otros.


BACKGROUND: The content of saturated (GS) and trans (Gtrans) fats in unlabeled and breads that are not regulated by the Colombian government is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare the content of GS and Gtrans in breads of bakeries in Medellín with the following regulation: 0.5 g/50 g of bread, for both types of fat according to the 2012 Ministry of Health resolution #2508. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 breads of three types (seasoned, milk and croissant) were sampled at bakeries from three socioeconomic levels (NSE) according to the location. Total fat was quantified gravimetrically and GS and Gtrans by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The percentage of GS and Gtrans with respect to the total extractable fat was 43.8% and 0.6% in seasoned bread, 37.4% and 0.6% in milk bread and 32.2% and 0.9% in croissant bread, with no significant difference by bread type (p= 0.155 and 0.184, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: GS content of sampled breadswas greater than the limit established in the resolution. Gtrans content was lower in seasoned bread andmilk bread compared to croissant. The breads evaluated in the bakeries of lower NSE contained higher Gtrans than the others.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Colombia , Flame Ionization/methods
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741

ABSTRACT

It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.


Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 50-56, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092743

ABSTRACT

Using technical procedures, the fatty acid (FA) profile and solid fat content (SFC) of the Peruvian cultivar cacao beans CCN 51 and ICS 6 and the "optimal chocolate", obtained from the mixture of the first two, were determined to assess their quality. These cacao beans were found to have important nutritional values. The FA profile of the cacao beans were similar (p>0.05); however, in the FA profile, the 'optimal chocolate' had significant differences (p≤0.05) in terms of palmitic, arachidic and linolenic acid. The n6:n3 ratio for "optimal chocolate" was 12.0 ± 1.7. Cacao beans had the same SFC, and SFC was highly temperature dependent, as determined using a mathematical model for chocolate. The SFC of chocolate refers to hard cacao butter content at temperatures between 20 and 25°C, and solid fat was heat resistant from 25 to 30°C, which is considered valuable in trade chocolate production. The quality-related properties of these lipid fractions imparted nutritional and physical aspects to the optimal dark chocolate for human consumption.


La composición de ácidos grasos (CAG) y el contenido de sólidos grasos (CSG), de la fracción lipídica de los cultivares peruanos de cacao CCN 51 e ICS 6 así como del "chocolate óptimo", obtenido de las mezclas de las primeras dos, fueron determinados por técnicas analíticas para conocer su calidad. Estas variedades tuvieron valores nutricionales importantes. La CAG de los granos de cacao fueron similares, sin embargo la CAG del "Chocolate óptimo" tuvo diferencias significativas (p<0,05) para los acidos grasos palmitico, araquidico y linoleico. El ratio n6:n3 fue de 12,0 ± 1,7. El CSG de los granos de cacao fueron los mismos y tuvo una fuerte dependencia con la temperatura, también se definió un modelo matematico para el chocolate. El CSG le confiere al chocolate una consistencia dura a temperaturas de 20 a 25°C y resistentes al calor de 25 a 30°C, siendo tales propiedades una ventaja en la comercialización de chocolates. La calidad de estas fracciones lipidicas tuvieron aspectos nutricionales y fisicos en el chocolate oscuro para consumo humano.


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chocolate , Nutritive Value , Peru , Cacao Butter
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 135-140, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092753

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue comparar algunas características nutricionales y de calidad de huevos de tinamou, con huevos de gallina y codorniz. Los huevos de tinamou contienen menos extracto etéreo y proteína en yema, y similar cantidad de proteínas en clara que huevos de gallina y codorniz. La clara del huevo de tinamou contiene más hierro (0,5 mg/100g) que huevos de gallina y codorniz (0,1-0,2 mg/100g). El ácido oleico es el principal ácido graso de la yema de huevos de tinamou, al igual que los otros. El contenido de colesterol en yema de huevo de tinamou (21,2 mg/g) es mayor a los rangos descritos en huevos de gallina (10,9-16,3 mg/g) y codorniz (11,1-15,9 mg/g). El huevo de tinamou tiene un aspecto físico distinto a huevos de gallina y codorniz, la cáscara es de color chocolate oscuro, pesa en promedio 35 g, sus dimensiones son de 50 x 36 mm, y tienen una unidad Haugh inferior a lo registrado para huevos de gallina y codorniz. El huevo de tinamou es una alternativa muy nutritiva como alimento, de características nutricionales similares a huevos de gallina y codorniz, a excepción de su mayor contenido de colesterol en yema y hierro en clara.


The objective of this review was to compare the nutritional characteristics and quality of tinamou eggs. Tinamou eggs have less ether extract and protein in the yolk, they also have a similar quantity of protein in the egg white than hen and quail eggs. The egg white of the tinamou egg has more iron (0,5 mg/100g) compared to hen and quail eggs (0,1-0,2 mg/100g). Oleic acid is the main fatty acid in all three types of eggs. On the other hand, the amount of cholesterol in the tinamou yolk (21,2 mg/g) is higher than the amounts described for hen eggs (10,9-16,3 mg/g) and those of quail (11,1-15,9 mg/g). In terms of the physical characteristics, the tinamou eggshell has a chocolate color, weighs an average of 35g, has a length about 50 x 36 mm and has an inferior Haugh unity than hen and quail eggs. The tinamou egg represents a high nutritive alternative with similar nutritional characteristics compared to hen and quail eggs, with the exception of cholesterol in the yolk and iron in the egg white.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Quality , Palaeognathae , Eggs , Nutritive Value , Chile , Cholesterol/analysis , Oleic Acid/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Iron/analysis
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 243-252, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088938

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG) do leite de vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milho contendo 0% e 8,9% de glicerina bruta (GB) na matéria seca (MS). Foram utilizadas 18 vacas Holandês x Gir com 48±18 dias em lactação, produzindo 19,8±4,9kg/dia de leite. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove vacas/tratamento e duas medidas repetidas no tempo, com os resultados analisados por modelos mistos. A inclusão de GB na dieta não alterou a ingestão de MS, mas reduziu os consumos dos AG oleico, linoleico e α-linolênico. Os teores dos AG mirístico, palmítico, rumênico, vacênico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico, α-linolênico e CLA trans-10 cis-12 na gordura do leite foram semelhantes entre dietas. A inclusão de GB reduziu os teores dos AG elaídico e C18:1 trans-10 e aumentou os teores dos AG de cadeia ímpar linear e do ácido láurico. Não houve efeito da inclusão da GB sobre os índices de aterogenicidade e trombogenicidade da gordura do leite. Concluiu-se que a inclusão de glicerina bruta em dieta à base de silagem de milho não afetou a qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite de vacas Holandês x Gir.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed corn silage-based diets containing 0% and 8.9% of crude glycerin (GB) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Eighteen Holstein x Gyr cows with 48±18 days in milk and producing 19.8±4.9kg milk/day were used in the study. The experimental design was a randomized block with nine cows per treatment and two repeated measures. Results were analyzed using mixed models. The milk fat contents of myristic, palmitic, rumenic, vaccenic, estearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and trans-10 cis-12 CLA were similar between diets. Dietary inclusion of GB decreased elaidic and trans-10 C18:1, and increased lauric acid and odd linear-chain FA contents in milk fat. Both atherogenicity and trombogenicity indices were unaffected by GB inclusion. It was concluded that GB inclusion in corn silage-based diets had no effect on the nutritional quality of milk fat from Holstein x Gyr dairy cows.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Silage , Milk/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Biofuels , Animal Feed
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of fatty acid composition in human milk with breast milk jaundice (BMJ) in neonates.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 full-term neonates who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from October 2016 to October 2017 and were diagnosed with late-onset BMJ were enrolled as the BMJ group. Thirty healthy neonates without jaundice or pathological jaundice who were admitted to the confinement center during the same period of time were enrolled as the control group. Related clinical data were collected, including sex, mode of birth, feeding pattern, gestational age, birth weight, gravida, parity, and peak level of total serum bilirubin. Breast milk was collected from the mothers, and the MIRIS human milk analyzer was used to measure macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrate) and calorie. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the content of different fatty acids in breast milk.@*RESULTS@#The control group had higher levels of macronutrients in human milk than the BMJ group, with significant differences in fat, dry matter, and calorie (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Some macronutrients and fatty acid composition in human milk may be associated with the pathogenesis of BMJ in neonates.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Jaundice, Neonatal/etiology , Milk, Human/chemistry , Nutrients/analysis , Pregnancy
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diatoms are the major group of microalgae which have been utilized by the potential applications as food industries, aquatic feeds, cosmetics, biofuels, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, current approaches were made in order to determine growth rate, biomass productivity, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and fatty acid composition for Nanofrustulum shiloi cultures using both aeration and mixing conditions in flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR). Physical (the intensity of aeration, mixing, light intensity etc.) and chemical (nutritional materials) factors are affecting the growth and bioproduct contents of a diatom. Biomass and lipid productivities of N. shiloi were measured as 31.29 and 36.9622±0.0598 mg L-1 day-1 in flat-plate PBR having the combination of aeration and stirring system, respectively. A slightly higher amount of saturated fatty acids was detected in PBR having only bubbling system while the increase of mono- and poly- unsaturated fatty acids were found in PBR having the combination of aeration and stirring system. Flat-plate PBR design was also investigated for improving not only biomass but also the lipid productivity of N. shiloi.


Subject(s)
Diatoms/physiology , Photobioreactors , Carbohydrates/analysis , Diatoms/growth & development , Diatoms/chemistry , Biomass , Fatty Acids/analysis
9.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(4): 817-825, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the fatty acid composition of mature milk of nursing mothers and its distribution according to some maternal variables. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study based on the eva-luation of the fatty acid profile of mature human milk. Samples of mature breast milk were taken from 106 nursing mothers, by manual milking and who were after the 5th postpartum week. The milk fat extraction was carried out by using the Bligh and Dyer method and methy-lated with 0.25 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol diethyl ether. The fatty acid of the milk profile was determined by a Gas Chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: among the saturated fatty acids, the highest values were observed for palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) fatty acids, respectively. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, there was a higher contribution of oleic (C18:1) and palmi-toleic (C16:1) fatty acids, respectively. The total essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic) was 14.94%. Conclusions: a low content of essential fatty acids in the breast milk of the nursing mothers was observed in the present study, which are important for infant growth and deve-lopment. We suggest the need to implement nutrition education strategies aimed for pregnant women and nursing mothers who should be advised to eat healthier foods.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a composição em ácidos graxos do leite maduro de nutrizes e sua distribuição segundo algumas variáveis maternas. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico observacional, transversal realizado a partir da avaliação do perfil de ácidos graxos do leite humano maduro. Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas de 106 nutrizes, a partir da 5ª semana pós-parto, por meio de ordenha manual. A extração da gordura do leite foi realizada através do método de Bligh e Dyer, e metiladas com metóxido de sódio 0,25 mol/L em metanol dietil - éter. O perfil de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinado por um Cromatógrafo a Gás equipado com detector por ionização de chamas. Resultados: dentre os ácidos graxos saturados, foram observados valores mais elevados para os ácidos graxos palmítico (C16:0), esteárico (C18:0), mirístico (C14:0) e láurico (C12:0), respectivamente. Entre os ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, verificou-se maior contribuição dos ácidos graxos oleico (C18:1) e palmitoleico (C16:1), respectivamente. O total de ácidos graxos essenciais (linoleico e α- linolênico) foi de 14,94%. Conclusões: foi observado baixo teor de ácidos graxos essenciais no leite materno das nutrizes do presente estudo, que são importantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do lactente, sugerindo-se a necessidade de implementação de estratégias de educação nutricional direcionadas a gestantes e nutrizes que devem ser orientadas a consumir alimentos mais saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Food and Nutrition Education , Fatty Acids, Essential/analysis , Infant Nutrition , Fatty Acids/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Lactation , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis , Child Development , Maternal and Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study , Flame Ionization/methods
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 825-833, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019889

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose No comprehensive information is available about uterus fatty acid (FA) change during implantation period and possible effects of the seminal vesicle secretion on it. Materials and Methods In this study, we evaluated FA composition of uterus phospholipids during the implantation period in intact and seminal vesicle-excised (SVX) mated female mice. Forty NMRI female mice were divided into control (mated with intact male) and seminal vesicle excised (SVX)-mated (mated with SVX-male) groups. The phospholipid fatty acids composition was monitored during the first five days of pregnancy using gas chromatography and also implantation rate was evaluated on fifth day of pregnancy. Results We found that levels of linoleic acid (LNA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) showed a decreasing trend from the first to the third day of pregnancy and then started to increase on the fourth day and peaked on the fifth day. In contrast, the level of saturated FA (SFA) increased on the second and third day of pregnancy compared to the first (p<0.05) and then decreased on the fourth and fifth. We also found that the seminal vesicle secretion could affect the levels of LNA, ARA, SFA, and PUFA in uterine phospholipids especially on second and third day. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between ARA level and implantation rate in control but not SVX-mated groups. Conclusions It can be concluded that several uterus FA that have important roles in early pregnancy could be affected by seminal vesicle secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Embryo Implantation/physiology , Seminal Vesicles/metabolism , Uterus/chemistry , Models, Animal , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Organ Size/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Pregnancy/metabolism , Random Allocation , Fatty Acids/analysis , Mice
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 22-29, July. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053216

ABSTRACT

Background: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contains active substances that have desirable properties for industrial and herbal medicine applications, e.g., essential oils (1.5­2.5%), tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, resins, phytosterols, rosmarinic acid and many others. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rosemary extract and 20% rapeseed oil substitution for animal fat on storage changes and inhibition of cholinesterases in liver pâté. Results: Preliminary research showed that rosemary extract exhibited antioxidative activity in the system of accelerated Rancimat and Oxidograph tests. Then, rosemary extract was used as an ingredient in liver pâté. During the experiment, meat samples were refrigerated and tested on days 1, 5, 8, 12 and 15 after production. The study proved that the substitution of 20% of animal fat with rapeseed oil decreased the content of saturated acids and increased the content of monoenic fatty acids by approximately 5% and polyene fatty acids by 40%. Conclusions: In addition to antioxidative activity, the rosemary extract affected the health-promoting value of the samples, which inhibited cholinesterase activity during the entire storage period. The extract inhibited AChE more than BChE.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Meat Products , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peroxides , Oils, Volatile , Fat Substitutes , Principal Component Analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Liver , Meat Products/microbiology
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 677-686, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011282

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o perfil lipídico da carne de frangos de diferentes genótipos. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso (DIC), disposto em esquema fatorial (5x2), sendo cinco genótipos (New Hampshire ˗ NHS; Gigante Negra de Jersey ˗ GNJ; Índio Gigante ˗ IG; cruzamento entre as raças IG e NHS ˗ IG x NHS; e entre as raças IG e GNJ ˗ IG x GNJ) e dois sexos, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma representada por três aves, totalizando 150 aves, abatidas aos 105 dias. As análises de perfil lipídico foram realizadas no peito e na coxa. Foram calculadas as estimativas das atividades enzimáticas, os índices de aterogenicidade e de trombogenicidade. Os genótipos IG e IG x NHS apresentaram maiores teores de ácido araquidônico e DHA. Foram observados maiores teores de ácidos graxos saturados e monoinsaturados no peito para os genótipos IG x NHS e NHS, respectivamente. Maiores médias de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e ômega 3 foram observadas para os genótipos IG e IG x NHS. O genótipo IG x NHS e as fêmeas apresentaram melhores características de qualidade de carne, por oferecerem uma maior fonte de ômega 3.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the lipid profile of chickens from different genotypes. The design was completely randomized arranged in factorial scheme (5x2), being 5 genotypes (New Hampshire - NHS, Gigante Negra de Jersey - GNJ, Índio Gigante - IG; poultry from the cross between IG and NHS breeds - IG x NHS and between IG and GNJ breeds - IG x GNJ) and two genders, with five replicates and three poultry per replicate, totaling 150 birds, slaughtered at 105 days. Lipid profile analyzes were performed on the breast and thigh. Estimates of the enzymatic activities related to lipid metabolism were calculated, in addition to the atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. The IG and IG x NHS genotypes showed higher levels of arachidonic acid and DHA. Higher levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were observed in the breast for IG x NHS and NHS genotypes, respectively. Higher averages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 were observed for the IG and IG x NHS genotypes. The genotype IG x NHS and the females presented better characteristics of meat quality, for offering a greater source of omega 3.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Meat , Chickens , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 303-313, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989383

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of polymorphisms in Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGTA-1 and 2), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) genes and the Thioesterase domain of FASN (TE-FASN) gene that may be related to the lipid profile. In the experiment, a total of 84 sheep from different genetic groups were used. For the evaluation of the polymorphism of the genes, PCR-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique and subsequent sequencing were used. In DGAT-2 gene, four genotypes were identified with the presence of 6 polymorphisms, with two (c.229T> C; c.255T> C) that resulted into the exchange of phenylalanine by leucine. In FASN gene, two genotypes were identified. In TE-FASN gene, three genotypes and 17 polymorphisms were identified. DGAT-1 and SCD genes did not reveal the occurrence of polymorphism. There was difference in relation to C14: 0, C18: 0 fatty acids and Δ9-desaturase C18 for DGAT-2 gene and of C18: 2ω6t for TE-FASN. There were differences among the genetic groups for C10: 0, C12: 0, C17: 0, C18: 2ω6t, C18: 3ω3, C20: 2, total of ω3, ω3/ω6 and atherogenicity index. There is occurrence of polymorphism of DGAT-2 and TE-FASN genes and these should be further studied in sheep since they revealed influence of the genotypes on the fatty acid profile.(AU)


O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a ocorrência de polimorfismos nos genes Diacilglicerol aciltransferase (DGTA1 e 2), Ácido graxo sintase (FASN), Estearoil-CoA dessaturase (SCD) e o Domínio da tioesterase do gene FASN (TE-FASN), que possam estar relacionados ao perfil lipídico. No experimento, foram utilizados um total de 84 ovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos. Para avaliação do polimorfismo dos genes, foi utilizada a técnica de polimorfismo de conformação de cadeia simples (PCR-SSCP) e posterior sequenciamento. No gene DGAT-2, foram identificados quatro genótipos com a presença de seis polimorfismos, com dois (c.229T>C; c.255T>C) que resultaram na troca da fenilalanina por leucina. No gene FASN, foram identificados dois genótipos. No gene TE-FASN, foram identificados três genótipos e 17 polimorfismos. Os genes DGAT-1 e SCD não revelaram a ocorrência de polimorfismo. Houve diferença em relação aos ácidos graxos C14:0, C18:0 e ∆9-desaturaseC18 para o gene DGAT-2 e de C18:2ω6t para TE-FASN. Houve diferença entre os grupos genéticos para C10:0, C12:0, C17:0, C18:2ω6t, C18:3ω3, C20:2, total de ω3, ω3/ω6 e índice de aterogenicidade. Há ocorrência de polimorfismo dos genes DGAT-2 e TE-FASN, e estes devem ser mais estudados em ovinos, pois revelaram influência dos genótipos sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Sheep/metabolism , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/classification
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(1): 16-26, ene. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007454

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single oral doses of D-005 (a lipid extract obtained from the fruit oil of Acrocomia crispa) on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. D-005 batch composition was: lauric (35.8%), oleic (28.4%), myristic (14.2%), palmitic (8.9%), stearic (3.3%), capric (1.9%), caprylic (1.2%), and palmitoleic (0.05%) acids, for a total content of fatty acids of 93.7%. D-005 (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced lung edema (LE) (≈ 28% inhibition) and Lung Weight/Body Weight ratio (LW/BW) (75.8% inhibition). D-005 (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction of Histological score (59.9, 56.1, 53.5 and 73.3% inhibition, respectively). Dexamethasone, as the reference drug, was effective in this experimental model. In conclusion, pretreatment with single oral doses of D-005 significantly prevented the LPS-induced ALI in mice.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de dosis orales únicas de D-005 (extracto lipídico obtenido del aceite de frutos de Acrocomia crispa) sobre el daño pulmonar agudo (DPA) inducido por LPS en ratones. La composición del lote de D-005 fue: ácido láurico (35.8%), oleico (28.4%), mirístico (14.2%), palmítico (8.9%), esteárico (3.3%), cáprico (1.9%), caprílico (1.2%) y palmitoleico (0.05%), con un contenido total de ácidos grasos de 93.7%. D-005 (200 mg/kg) redujo significativamente el edema pulmonar (EP) (≈ 28% de inhibición) y la relación peso pulmón/peso corporal (PP/PC) (75.8% de inhibición). D-005 (25, 50, 100 y 200 mg/kg) produjo una reducción significativa de la puntuación histológica (59.9, 56.1, 53.5 y 73.3% de inhibición, respectivamente). La dexametasona, fármaco de referencia, fue efectiva en este modelo experimental. En conclusión, el pretratamiento con dosis orales únicas de D-005 previno significativamente el DPA inducido por LPS en ratones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Arecaceae , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, Gas , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fruit , Lung/drug effects
16.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(4): e190050, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056795

ABSTRACT

Lophiosilurus alexandri is a carnivorous freshwater fish endemic of São Francisco basin and an endangered species. In this study, we analysed the chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash and lipid), fatty acid profile, and nutritional quality (atherogenic index, thrombogenecity index, ratio between hypocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids and ω6/ω3 = ratio) of L. alexandri in lotic (river), lentic (hydroelectric dams) environments, under natural fed, and in laboratory controlled conditions fed with commercial diets. Cultured and lentic fish had significantly higher lipid levels (1.5 and 1.9- fold, respectively) than lotic fish. Lentic L. alexandri had significantly higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (4×) than cultured or lotic L. alexandri. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were the highest in lentic fish, followed by lotic fish. Lentic fish had greater proportion of fatty acid ω6/ω3 than lotic or cultured fish. The results of this study showed that L. alexandri is a lean fish (1-2% of total lipids) and that the environment has a great influence on the fatty acid profile. These results may be a reference for further studies, primarily as a source of information for conservation L. alexandri through restocking and the development of commercial projects of aquaculture.(AU)


Lophiosilurus alexandri é um peixe de água doce, carnívoro, endêmico da bacia do rio São Francisco e encontra-se vulnerável a extinção. Neste estudo, analisamos a composição química (umidade, cinzas, lipídeos e proteína), o perfil de ácidos graxos e qualidade nutricional (índices de aterogênicidade e trombogenicidade, razão entre ácidos graxos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipercolesterolêmicos e ω6/ω3) de L. alexandri em ambientes lóticos (rio), lênticos (hidrelétricas), sob alimentação natural, e em laboratório, com condições controladas e alimentados com dietas comerciais. Os peixes cultivados e capturados em ambientes lênticos apresentaram níveis lipídicos significativamente mais altos (1,5 e 1,9 vezes, respectivamente) do que os peixes cultivados em ambientes lóticos. Os animais cultivados em ambiente lênticos, apresentaram níveis significativamente mais altos de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) (4×) que os animais cultivados em laboratório e ambiente lóticos. Os níveis de ácido docosaexaenoico (DHA) foram os mais altos em peixes lênticos, seguidos pelos peixes lóticos. Os peixes lênticos apresentaram melhor proporção de ácidos graxos ω6/ω3 que peixes lóticos ou de cativeiro. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que L. alexandri é um peixe magro (1-2% do total de lipídios) e que o ambiente tem uma grande influência no perfil de ácidos graxos. Esses resultados podem ser uma referência para novos estudos, principalmente como fonte de informações para sua conservação por meio do repovoamento e desenvolvimento de projetos para sua criação comercial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Catfishes/metabolism , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Aquaculture
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180178, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001423

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present an improved method of direct transesterification suitable for the quantitative analysis of multiple dry samples for its fatty acid content, using a minimal amount of biomass and reactants. The method features an acid-catalyzed direct alcoholysis of microgram samples of dry biomass; the rationale behind the solvent and reagent proportions chosen is discussed. The method was validated using seven microbial strains with diverse lipid content (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii, Candida tropicalis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Schizochytrium limacinum), and compared with a macroscale direct transesterification method, and with gravimetric analysis of lipids extracted with solvents. The microscale method showed a conversion of 98.06 ± 0.87% of the lipids, using approximately 3 mg of dry biomass, 1mL of 0.2M H2SO4 dissolved in anhydrous ethanol (the acid is the catalyzer and ethanol the reactant)). The mixture was maintained at 70 °C for 20 h with periodic mixing, and then extracted with 2mL n-heptane and analyzed by GC-FID. The lipid content was then calculated considering dilution and sample mass. This method is effective, reliable, and technically attractive for analytical and comparative purposes.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Ethanol/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Triage/methods , Gravimetry/methods
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180420, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil has high diversity of native fruits with high nutritional and biochemical value. Bactris setosa Mart. (tucum-do-Pantanal) stands out by its oil-rich almond. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of tucum-do-Pantanal almond and its by-products: press cake and crude oil. The almond of tucum-do-Pantanal had total weight of 0.81g, lager diameter 10.87mm, small diameter 8.21mm, height 12.50, weight of almond 0.38g, weight of endocarp 0.25g. In relation to the chemical analysis, the cake had higher ash, protein and carbohydrate contents than the almond. On the other hand, the content of moisture, lipids and calories were higher in the almond. The press cake showed 636.80 g kg-1 of total fiber. The fatty acids that predominated in tucum-do-Pantanal oil were lauric (58.48), myristic (12.59) and oleic (10.15%) acids. The oil of tucum-do-Pantanal had an acid index of 3.01 KOH / g, peroxide index of 4.84 meq / kg, saponification index of 140.91 mg KOH / oil g, iodine index of 3.72 gI2 / 100 g, refractive index of 1.46, density of 0.92 g / mL, water content of 493.11 ppm and oxidation stability of 32.01 h. The results suggest that tucum-do-Pantanal almond as an important source of oil, calories and fibers, with potential use in the food industry.


Subject(s)
Arecaceae/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Brazil , Food Analysis/instrumentation
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170757, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011528

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites is a widely used ethnomedicinal plant in Bangladesh. In this study, we investigated phenolic contents, volatile compounds and fatty acids, and essential oil components of extracts prepared from aerial parts of the plant. The main volatile compounds were methyl ester of oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid as determined by GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Six phenolic compounds (syringic acid, morin, gentistic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, and apigenin) were found in the extracts. GC/MS analysis of steam distilled essential oil showed camphor, α-pinene and δ-3-carene as the main constituents. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the highest free radical scavenging activity was observed for the methanol extract with an IC50 value of 0.48 ± 0.04 mg/mL, whereas, in metal chelating activity on ferrous ions (Fe2+) assay, the highest chelating activity was observed for hexane extract (IC50 = 0.55 ± 0.08 mg/mL). The extracts and essential oil were tested against five severe human pathogenic bacteria using disc diffusion assay and subsequent MIC values were also determined. All the extracts (except methanol extract) and the essential oil were found to possess potential antimicrobial activity with corresponding inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 9-23 mm and 62.5-500 µg/mL. This study has been explored the plant Lasia spinosa can be seen as a potential source of biologically active compounds.


Subject(s)
Chelating Agents/analysis , Free Radical Scavengers , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(3): 211-216, sept. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1015922

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sweet potato vines as a source of fiber on the plasma parameters in healthy rabbits. For this, 15 rabbits were allocated into five groups, and each group was fed a different diet for a period of 46 days. The diets were as follows: diet without sweet potato vines (0SPV), and experimental diets with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sweet potato vines in replacement of alfalfa hay respectively (25SPV, 50SPV, 75SPV and 100SPV). Triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations were approximately 53% lower in rabbits fed the 100SPV than in rabbits fed 0SPV. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total-cholesterol concentrations were lower approximately 40% and 14%, respectively, in rabbits fed the 100SPV than in rabbits fed 0SPV. No significant differences were found among HDL-cholesterol, glucose, proteins, albumin and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations of the five groups. These results demonstrate that the consumption of sweet potato vines reduces the triglycerides, VLDLcholesterol and total cholesterol while maintains HDL-cholesterol levels. Therefore, sweet potato vines consumption may be another option to prevent coronary heart diseases in rabbits(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar com base no plasma sanguíneo o efeito do baraço de batata-doce como fonte de fibra. Para tal, dividiuse 15 coelhos em cinco grupos, onde cada grupo foi alimentado com uma dieta diferente por 46 dias. As dietas foram: sem baraço de batata-doce (0SPV), e dietas experimentais com 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de baraço de batata-doce em substituição ao feno de alfafa, respectivamente (25SPV, 50SPV, 75SPV e 100SPV). As concentrações de triglicérides e VLDL-colesterol foram aproximadamente 53% menores em coelhos alimentados com a dieta 100SPV do que os coelhos alimentados com 0SPV. Além disso, as concentrações de aspartato aminotransferase (AST) e colesterol total foram inferiores em aproximadamente 40% e 14%, respectivamente, nos coelhos alimentados com 100 SPV do que em coelhos alimentados com 0SPV. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as concentrações colesterol-HDL, glicose, proteínas, albumina e alanina aminotransferase (ALT) dos cinco grupos. Estes resultados demonstram que o consumo de baraço de batata-doce reduz os triglicerídeos, colesterol VLDL e colesterol total, enquanto mantém os níveis de colesterol HDL. Portanto, o baraço de batata-doce pode ser uma opção viável para prevenir doenças coronarianas(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Cholesterol/analysis , Ipomoea batatas , Fatty Acids/analysis , Medicago sativa , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
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