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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3015-3036, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981246

ABSTRACT

To explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to biosynthesis of active ingredients in wolfberry fruits of different varieties of Lycium barbarum L. and reveal the molecular mechanism of the differences of active ingredients, we utilized Illumina NovaSeq 6000 high-throughput sequencing technology to conduct transcriptome sequencing on the fruits of 'Ningqi No.1' and 'Ningqi No.7' during the green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage. Subsequently, we compared the profiles of related gene expression in the fruits of the two varieties at different development stages. The results showed that a total of 811 818 178 clean reads were obtained, resulting in 121.76 Gb of valid data. There were 2 827, 2 552 and 2 311 DEGs obtained during the green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage of 'Ningqi No. 1' and 'Ningqi No. 7', respectively, among which 2 153, 2 050 and 1 825 genes were annotated in six databases, including gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (KOG). In GO database, 1 307, 865 and 624 DEGs of green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage were found to be enriched in biological processes, cell components and molecular functions, respectively. In the KEGG database, the DEGs at three developmental stages were mainly concentrated in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant-pathogen interaction. In KOG database, 1 775, 1 751 and 1 541 DEGs were annotated at three developmental stages, respectively. Searching the annotated genes against the PubMed database revealed 18, 26 and 24 DEGs related to the synthesis of active ingredients were mined at the green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage, respectively. These genes are involved in carotenoid, flavonoid, terpenoid, alkaloid, vitamin metabolic pathways, etc. Seven DEGs were verified by RT-qPCR, which showed consistent results with transcriptome sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidences for the differences in the content of active ingredients in different Lycium barbarum L. varieties from the transcriptional level. These evidences may facilitate further exploring the key genes for active ingredients biosynthesis in Lycium barbarum L. and analyzing their expression regulation mechanism.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/metabolism , Fruit/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lycium/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Transcriptome
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2806-2817, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981234

ABSTRACT

Polygonum cuspidatum polyketide synthase 1 (PcPKS1) has the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzylidene acetone synthase (BAS), which can catalyze the production of polyketides naringenin chalcone and benzylidene acetone, and then catalyze the synthesis of flavonoids or benzylidene acetone. In this study, three amino acid sites (Thr133, Ser134, Ser33) that may affect the function of PcPKS1 were identified by analyzing the sequences of PcPKS1, the BAS from Rheum palmatum and the CHS from Arabidopsis thaliana, as well as the conformation of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Molecular modification of PcPKS1 was carried out by site-directed mutagenesis, and two mutants were successfully obtained. The in vitro enzymatic reactions were carried out, and the differences in activity were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally, mutants T133LS134A and S339V with bifunctional activity were obtained. In addition to bifunctional activities of BAS and CHS, the modified PcPKS1 had much higher BAS activity than that of the wild type PcPKS1 under the conditions of pH 7.0 and pH 9.0, respectively. It provides a theoretical basis for future use of PcPKS1 in genetic engineering to regulate the biosynthesis of flavonoids and raspberry ketones.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Fallopia japonica/metabolism , Polyketide Synthases/chemistry , Acetone , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Flavonoids/metabolism , Acyltransferases/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 653-669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970398

ABSTRACT

Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of phycocyanidins. In this experiment, the petals of red Rhododendron hybridum Hort. at different developmental stages were used as experimental materials. The R. hybridum flavanone 3-hydroxylase (RhF3H) gene was cloned using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, and bioinformatics analyses were performed. Petal RhF3H gene expression at different developmental stages were analyzed by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A pET-28a-RhF3H prokaryotic expression vector was constructed for the preparation and purification of RhF3H protein. A pCAMBIA1302-RhF3H overexpression vector was constructed for genetic transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The results showed that the R. hybridum Hort. RhF3H gene is 1 245 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1 092 bp, encoding 363 amino acids. It contains a Fe2+ binding motif and a 2-ketoglutarate binding motif of the dioxygenase superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. hybridum RhF3H protein is most closely related to the Vaccinium corymbosum F3H protein. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of the red R. hybridum RhF3H gene tended to increase and then decrease in the petals at different developmental stages, with the highest expression at middle opening stage. The results of the prokaryotic expression showed that the size of the induced protein of the constructed prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-RhF3H was about 40 kDa, which was similar to the theoretical value. Transgenic RhF3H Arabidopsis thaliana plants were successfully obtained, and PCR identification and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining demonstrated that the RhF3H gene was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana plants. qRT-PCR, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contentanalysis showed that RhF3H was significantly higher expressed in the transgenic A. thaliana relative to that of the wild type, and its total flavonoid and anthocyanin content were significantly increased. This study provides a theoretical basis for investigating the function of RhF3H gene, as well as for studying the molecular mechanism of flower color in R. simsiib Planch.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Rhododendron/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Flavonoids/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 425-445, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970383

ABSTRACT

Phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway is one of the most important secondary metabolic pathways in plants. It directly or indirectly plays an antioxidant role in plant resistance to heavy metal stress, and can improve the absorption and stress tolerance of plants to heavy metal ions. In this paper, the core reactions and key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway were summarized, and the biosynthetic processes of key metabolites such as lignin, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins and relevant mechanisms were analyzed. Based on this, the mechanisms of key products of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in response to heavy metal stress were discussed. The perspectives on the involvement of phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant defense against heavy metal stress provides a theoretical basis for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy metal polluted environment.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Antioxidants
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 253-262, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982697

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Qianjin Wenwu decoction (QWD), a well-known traditional Korean medicine, has been used for the treatment of DKD, with satisfactory therapeutic effects. This study was designed to investigate the active components and mechanisms of action of QWD in the treatment of DKD. The results demonstrated that a total of 13 active components in five types were found in QWD, including flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, phenylpropionic acids, saponins, coumarins, and lignins. Two key proteins, TGF-β1 and TIMP-1, were identified as the target proteins through molecular docking. Furthermore, QWD significantly suppressed Scr and BUN levels which increased after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Masson staining results demonstrated that QWD significantly alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis in UUO mice. We also found that QWD promoted ECM degradation by regulating MMP-9/TIMP-1 homeostasis to improve renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and interfere with the expression and activity of TGF- β1 in DKD treatment. These findings explain the underlying mechanism of QWD for the treatment of DKD, and also provide methodological reference for investigating the mechanism of traditional medicine in the treatment of DKD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Ureteral Obstruction/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Fibrosis
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1565-1575, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927801

ABSTRACT

8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a potent estrogen with high medicinal values. It also serves as an important precursor for many prenylated flavonoids. Microbial synthesis of 8-PN is mainly hindered by the low catalytic activity of prenyltransferases (PTS) and insufficient supply of precursors. In this work, a SfN8DT-1 from Sophora flavescens was used to improve the efficiency of (2S)-naringenin prenylation. The predicted structure of SfN8DT-1 showed that its main body is comprised of 9 α-helices and 8 loops, along with a long side chain formed by nearly 120 amino acids. SfN8DT-1 mutants with different side-chain truncated were tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A mutant expressing the truncated enzyme at K62 site, designated as SfND8T-1-t62, produced the highest 8-PN titer. Molecular docking of SfN8DT-1-t62 with (2S)-naringenin and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) showed that K185 was a potentially crucial residue. Alanine scanning within a range of 0.5 nm around these two substrates showed that the mutant K185A may decrease its affinity to substrates, which also indicated K185 was a potentially critical residue. Besides, the mutant K185W enhanced the affinity to ligands implied by the simulated saturation mutation, while the saturated mutation of K185 showed a great decrease in 8-PN production, indicating K185 is vital for the activity of SfN8DT-1. Subsequently, overexpressing the key genes of Mevalonate (MVA) pathway further improved the titer of 8-PN to 31.31 mg/L, which indicated that DMAPP supply is also a limiting factor for 8-PN synthesis. Finally, 44.92 mg/L of 8-PN was produced in a 5 L bioreactor after 120 h, which is the highest 8-PN titer reported to date.


Subject(s)
Dimethylallyltranstransferase/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prenylation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sophora/metabolism
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 241-249, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the relationship of flavonoid intake during pregnancy with maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 785 adult women in singleton pregnancies, and data were collected at the time of the oral glucose tolerance test. For the body mass index (BMI) classification according to the gestational age, the criteria of Atalah was used, and the diagnosis of GDM was based on the World Health Organization of 2014. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained, and the usual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship of the flavonoids with overweight and obesity, and adjusted non-conditional logistic regression for the relationship of the flavonoids with GDM. Results: The mean (SD) age of the women was 28 (5) years, 32.1% were overweight, 24.6% were obese and 17.7% were diagnosed with GDM. The median (P25, P75) of total flavonoid intake was 50 (31,75) mg/day. Considering the eutrophic women as the reference, the pregnant women with a higher total flavonoid intake [OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.38; 0.96)] and anthocyanidin intake [OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.40; 0.99)] were less likely to be obese when compared to the women with lower intakes. No association of the flavonoids intake with overweight or GDM was found. Conclusion: A very low intake of flavonoids was observed. The data suggest that the intake of foods naturally rich in total flavonoids and anthocyanidin has a beneficial role regarding obesity among pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Diet Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucose Tolerance Test
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 9-14, nov. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047978

ABSTRACT

Background: Flavonoids are a kind of important secondary metabolite and are commonly considered to provide protection to plants against stress and UV-B for a long time. Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), which encodes a dioxygenase in the flavonoid pathway, catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidins to anthocyanidins, but there is no direct evidence indicating that it provides tolerance to stress in plants. Results: To investigate whether ANS can increase tolerance to abiotic stress, MaANS was isolated from mulberry fruits and transformed into tobacco. Our results suggested that the bacterially expressed MaANS protein can convert dihydroquercetin to quercetin. Overexpression of MaANS remarkably increased the accumulation of total flavonoids in transgenic lines and anthocyanins in corollas of flowers. Transgenic lines showed higher tolerance to NaCl and mannitol stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that MaANS participates in various dioxygenase activities, and it can protect plants against abiotic stress by improving the ROS-scavenging ability. Thus, this alternative approach in crop breeding can be considered in the improvement of stress tolerance by enriching flavonoid production in plants


Subject(s)
Oxygenases/metabolism , Tobacco , Morus/enzymology , Oxygenases/genetics , Quercetin , Stress, Physiological , Bacteria , Flavonoids/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Ectopic Gene Expression
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 41-46, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888848

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study was evaluated the influence of glutamine supplementation on the endogenous content of amino acids, proteins, total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Bacupari callus. The explants were inoculated in MS medium, MS with half concentration of the nitrogen salts (MS½) and nitrogen-free MS, supplemented with glutamine (5, 10, 30 and 60mM) named as Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and Gln60. Amino acids and proteins were analyzed after 20, 80 and 140 days and the secondary metabolites on the 140th day. There was no difference in the amino acids on the 20th day. On the 80th day the treatments MS and MS½ presented the lowest levels. On the 140th day MS and MS½ presented the lowest amino acid concentration and Gln10 the highest. Concerning proteins, there was difference only on the 140th day, being the highest concentrations observed in Gln5, and the lowest in MS½ treatment. Total phenolics content was higher in the treatment Gln60 and lowest in MS. Treatments Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 and MS½ were statistically equal. For flavonoids, the highest values occurred in the treatments Gln30, Gln60 and MS½ and the lowest in Gln5, Gln10 and MS. Similarly, for the proanthocyanidins the highest concentrations were observed in treatment Gln60 and the lowest in Gln5 and MS. In conclusion, the treatment with 60mM of glutamine favors the protein accumulation and production of secondary metabolites in Bacupari callus.


Resumo Nesse estudo foi avaliado o efeito da suplementação com glutamina no conteúdo endógeno de aminoácidos, proteínas, fenólicos totais, flavonoides e proantocianidinas em calos de Bacupari. Os explantes foram inoculados em meio MS, meio MS com metade da concentração de dos sais de nitrogênio (MS½) e meio MS sem nitrogênio suplementado com glutamina (5, 10, 30 e 60mM) denominados como Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 e Gln60. Os aminoácidos e as proteínas foram analisados após 20, 80 e 140 dias e os metabólitos secundários no 140° dia. Não houve diferença nos aminoácidos no 20° dia. No 80° dia os tratamentos MS e MS½ apresentaram os menores níveis. No 140° dia, MS e MS½ apresentaram as menores concentrações de aminoácidos e o Gln10 as maiores. A respeito das proteínas, houve diferença apenas no 140° dia, sendo as maiores concentrações observadas nos tratamentos Gln, e as menores no MS½. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais foi maior no tratamento Gln60 e menor no MS. Os tratamentos Gln5, Gln10, Gln30 e MS½ foram estatisticamente iguais. Para os flavonóides, os maiores valores ocorreram nos tratamentos Gln30, Gln60 e MS½ e os menores no Gln5, Gln10 e MS. Da mesma forma, para as proantocianidinas, as maiores concentrações foram observadas no tratamento Gln60 os menores no Gln5 e MS. Em conclusão, o tratamento com 60 mM de glutamina favorece o acúmulo de proteínas e a produção de metabólitos secundários em calos de Bacupari.


Subject(s)
Phenols/analysis , Clusiaceae/metabolism , Clusiaceae/chemistry , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/chemistry , Nitrogen/metabolism , Nitrogen/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Proteins/analysis , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Proanthocyanidins/chemistry , Tissue Culture Techniques
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 36-52, ene. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915054

ABSTRACT

A comparative study of antioxidant properties, platelet antiaggregation activity and transcriptional analysis of flavonoid biosynthesis genes were performed in Fragaria x ananassa, F. vesca and F. chiloensis subsp chiloensis f. chiloensis and f. patagonica. Furthermore, differences in flavonoid content were found by UHPLC-MS. The highest free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay was observed in F. chiloensis f. chiloensis, meanwhile, F. vesca presented the highest antioxidant capacity by FRAP. Biosynthetic flavonoids- related transcripts were higher abundant in F. x ananassa and lower in F. vesca. Additionally, all strawberry extracts showed antiaggregant effect (1 mg mL-1), but F. vesca and F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis f. patagonica were still active at lower concentration. This study suggests that platelet antiaggregation effect of different strawberries could be due to isoflavones and flavonoids precursors in addition to anthocyanins. Results could usefully to take decisions in future breeding programs to improve the content of healthy compounds in strawberry fruits.


Se realizó un estudio comparativo de propiedades antioxidantes, actividad de antiagregacion plaquetaria, análisis transcripcional de genes de biosíntesis de flavonoides y contenido de estos en Fragaria x ananassa, F. vesca and F. chiloensis subsp chiloensis f. chiloensis and f. patagonica. La mayor actividad removedora de radicales libres por DPPH se observó en F. chiloensis f. chiloensis, mientras F. vesca presentó la mayor capacidad antioxidante mediante FRAP. Transcritos relacionados con biosíntesis de flavonoides fueron mas abundantes en F. x ananassa y menores en F. vesca. Adicionalmente, todos los extractos de frutillas mostraron efectos antiagregante (1 mg mL-1), pero F. vesca and F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis f. patagonica fueron activos a concentraciones menores. Este estudio sugiere que efectos de antiagregación plaquetaria en distintas frutillas podría deberse a isoflavonas y precursores de flavonoides además de antocianinas. Los resultados podrían ser útiles en programas de mejoramiento genético para mejorar el contenido de compuestos saludables en frutilla.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Fragaria/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/genetics , Flavonoids/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Free Radical Scavengers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 769-776, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755829

ABSTRACT

The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p < 0.05). A relatively high relationship was observed between total phenols and flavonoids or anthocyanins (r2 > 0.60). However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2 < 0.40). In conclusion, comparisons showed that wild isolate 4 and cultivated strains A15 and H1 had higher antioxidant capacity than the others (p < 0.05). This result identifies these mushrooms as good candidates for further investigation.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agaricus/metabolism , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Phenols/metabolism , Picrates/metabolism , Agaricus/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Iran , Oxidation-Reduction , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 183-188, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748262

ABSTRACT

The interaction of the cyanidin, pelargonidin, catechin, myrecetin and kaempferol with casein and gelatin, as proline rich proteins (PRPs), was studied. The binding constants calculated for both flavonoid-casein and flavonoid-gelatin were fairly large (105–107 M−1) indicating strong interaction. Due to higher proline content in gelatin, the binding constants of flavonoid-gelatin (2.5 × 105–6.2 × 107 M−1) were found to be higher than flavonoid-casein (1.2 × 105–5.0 × 107 M−1). All the flavonoids showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Significant loss in activity was observed due to the complexation with PRPs confirming that binding effectively reduced the concentration of the free flavonoids to be available for antibacterial activity. The decline in activity was corresponding to the values of the binding constants. Though the activities of free catechin and myrecetin were higher compared to pelargonidin, cyanidin and kaempferol yet the decline in activity of catechin and myrecetin due to complexation with casein and gelatin was more pronounced.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Caseins/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Gelatin/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Protein Binding
14.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atriplex laciniata L. was investigated for phenolic, flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to explore its effectiveness in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. Plant crude methanolic extract (Al.MeF), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Al.HxF), chloroform (Al.CfF), ethyl acetate (Al.EaF), aqueous (Al.WtF), Saponins (Al.SPF) and Flavonoids (Al.FLVF) were investigated for DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 free radical scavenging activities. Further these extracts were subjected to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's assay. Phenolic and Flavonoid contents were determined and expressed in mg Gallic acid GAE/g and Rutin RTE/g of samples respectively. RESULTS: In DPPH free radicals scavenging assay, Al.FLVF, Al.SPF and Al.MeF showed highest activity causing 89.41 ± 0.55, 83.37 ± 0.34 and 83.37 ± 0.34% inhibition of free radicals respectively at 1 mg/mL concentration. IC50 for these fractions were 33, 83 and 82 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, plant extracts showed high ABTS scavenging potential, i.e. Al.FLVF (90.34 ± 0.55), Al.CfF (83.42 ± 0.57), Al.MeF (81.49 ± 0.60) with IC50 of 30, 190 and 70 µg/ml respectively. further, H2O2 percent scavenging was highly appraised in Al.FLVF (91.29 ±0.53, IC50 75), Al.SPF (85.35 ±0.61, IC50 70) and Al.EaF (83.48 ± 0.67, IC50 270 µg/mL). All fractions exhibited concentration dependent AChE inhibitory activity as; Al.FLVF, 88.31 ± 0.57 (IC50 70 µg/mL), Al.SPF, 84.36 ± 0.64 (IC50 90 µg/mL), Al.MeF, 78.65 ± 0.70 (IC50 280 µg/mL), Al.EaF, 77.45 ± 0.46 (IC50 270 µg/mL) and Al.WtF 72.44 ± 0.58 (IC50 263 µg/mL) at 1 mg/mL. Likewise the percent BChE inhibitory activity was most obvious in Al.FLVF 85.46 ± 0.62 (IC50 100 µg/mL), Al.CfF 83.49 ± 0.46 (IC50 160 µg/mL), Al.MeF 82.68 ± 0.60 (IC50 220 µg/mL) and Al.SPF 80.37 ± 0.54 (IC50 120 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These results stipulate that A. laciniata is enriched with phenolic and flavonoid contents that possess significant antioxidant and anticholinestrase effects. This provide pharmacological basis for the presence of compounds that may be effective in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Saponins/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Atriplex/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Saponins/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
15.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rumex species are traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders including headache, migraine, depression, paralysis etc. Several species have been scientifically validated for antioxidant and anticholinestrase potentials. This study aims to investigate Rumex hastatus D. Don crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, saponins and flavonoids for acetylcholinestrase, butyrylcholinestrase inhibition and diverse antioxidant activities to validate its folkloric uses in neurological disorders. Rumexhastatus crude methanolic extract (Rh. Cr), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Rh. Hex), chloroform (Rh. Chf), ethyl acetate (Rh. EtAc), aqueous fraction (Rh. Aq), crude saponins (Rh. Sp) and flavonoids (Rh. Fl) were investigated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at various concentrations (125, 250, 500,1000 µg/mL) using Ellman's spectrophotometric analysis. Antioxidant potentials of Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl were evaluated using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radical scavenging assays at 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL. RESULTS: All the test samples showed concentration dependent cholinesterase inhibition and radicals scavenging activity. The AChE inhibition potential of Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl were most prominent i.e., 81.67 ± 0.88 and 91.62 ± 1.67 at highest concentration with IC50 135 and 20 µg/mL respectively. All the subsequent fractions exhibited moderate to high AChE inhibition i.e., Rh. Cr, Rh. Hex, Rh. Chf, Rh. EtAc and Rh. Aq showed IC50 218, 1420, 75, 115 and 1210 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, against BChE various plant extracts i.e., Rh. Sp, Rh. Fl, Rh. Cr, Rh. Hex, Rh. Chf, Rh. EtAc and Rh. Aq resulted IC50 165,175, 265, 890, 92, 115 and 220 µg/mL respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl showed comparable results with the positive control i.e., 63.34 ± 0.98 and 76.93 ± 1.13% scavenging at 1 mg/mL concentration (IC50 312 and 104 µg/mL) respectively. The percent ABTS radical scavenging potential exhibited by Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl (1000 µg/mL) were 82.58 ± 0.52 and 88.25 ± 0.67 with IC50 18 and 9 µg/mL respectively. Similarly in H2O2 scavenging assay, the Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl exhibited IC50 175 and 275 µg/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: The strong anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Rh. Sp, Rh. Fl and various fractions of R. hastatus support the purported ethnomedicinal uses and recommend R. hastatus as a possible remedy for the treatment of AD and neurodegenerative disorders.


Subject(s)
Butyrylcholinesterase , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rumex/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pakistan , Saponins/metabolism , Spectrophotometry , Flavonoids/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional
16.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Apr; 49(2): 115-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140227

ABSTRACT

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains or seeds are known to lose much of their nutrient and antioxidant contents, following polishing. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the carbohydrate content and antioxidant parameters in the unpolished and polished seeds of three edible indica rice cultivars, namely Swarna (SW), the most popular indica rice cultivar in India and aromatic or scented cultivars Gobindobhog (GB) and Pusa Basmati (PB). While both the sucrose and starch content was the maximum in PB seeds (both unpolished and polished), the amylose content was the highest in SW polished seeds. SW polished seeds were superior as compared to GB and PB cultivars in terms of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation potential, as well as the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition or H2O2 scavenging potential, probably due to the maximum accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids, the two important antioxidants. The reducing power ability was, however, identical in both SW and GB polished seeds. The PB polished seeds were more potent in superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging, whereas GB in nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. The common observation noted after polishing of seeds was the reduction in the level of carbohydrates and antioxidant potential, though the extent of reduction varied in the three cultivars. The only exception was GB, where there was no alteration in NO scavenging potential even after polishing. Our study showed the better performance of SW polished seeds with respect to higher amylose content and majority of the tested parameters governing antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging potential, thus highlighting the greater dietary significance of SW over the other two cultivars.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Free Radicals/chemistry , Iron Chelating Agents/chemistry , Iron Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/metabolism , Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oryza/chemistry , Oryza/growth & development , Phenols/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Seeds/growth & development
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : S204-S209, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98676

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate whether green tea extract (GTE) has the protective effects on excess L-arginine induced toxicity in human mesangial cell. Human mesangial cells treated with L-arginine were cultured on Dulbecco's modified eagle medium in the presence and absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor and GTE. The cell proliferation was determined by 3 (4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2, 5-diphengltetrqzolium bromide, a tetrazole assay. The iNOS mRNA and its protein expression were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was measured by NO enzyme-linced immuno sorbent assay kit. L-arginine significantly inhibited the proliferation of human mesangial cells, and induced the secretion of NO to the media. NO production by L-arginine was significantly suppressed by GTE and iNOS inhibitor (p<0.01). The expression level of iNOS mRNA and its protein that was significantly increased by L-arginine was decreased by iNOS inhibitor but not by GTE. GTE protected the mesangial cells from the NO-mediated cytotoxicity by scavenging the NO rather than by iNOS gene expression. Therefore, we conclude that GTE has some protective effect for renal cells against oxidative injury possibly by polyphenols contained in GTE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/metabolism , Arginine/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Flavonoids/metabolism , Glomerular Mesangium/cytology , Mesangial Cells/cytology , Nitric Oxide/chemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Phenols/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tea
18.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jul; 28(3): 611-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113318

ABSTRACT

Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.


Subject(s)
Anaerobiosis , Bioreactors , Cocos , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Industrial Waste , Methane/metabolism , Phenols/metabolism , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
19.
Rev. nutr ; 15(1): 45-51, jan.-abr. 2002. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-364776

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de baicaleína, morina, naringenina, naringina, quercetina e rutina no aumento dos níveis de colesterol-HDL e trigliceróis em ratos hiperlipidêmicos. Tais flavonóides foram administrados em 3 doses (5, 10, 15 mg/animal) a ratos machos da raça Wistar, com 30 dias de vida, alimentados com dieta não purificada de fórmula da marca Labina®. A hiperlipidemia foi induzida pela administração de Triton, na dose de 300 mg/kg de peso vivo. Após 24 horas, os flavonóides foram administrados, sendo cada dose aplicada em grupos de 8 animais. Após 48 horas da aplicação do Triton, os animais foram anestesiados e, por punção cardíaca, amostras de sangue foram coletadas para realização das análises de colesterol, colesterol-HDL e triacilgliceróis no soro. Os melhores resultados para a redução do colesterol foram obtidos com os flavonóides quercetina e rutina, na dose de 5 mg, e naringenina, na dose de 10 mg. A baicaleína, nas doses de 5 e 10 mg, foi a que apresentou as menores reduções para colesterol-HDL. Já para as concentrações de triacilgliceróis, a baicaleína foi a que mais reduziu este parâmetro, independentemente da dose utilizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats, Wistar , Hyperlipidemias , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/therapeutic use
20.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 25(2): 149-52, abr.-jun. 2001.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-286813

ABSTRACT

Os flavonóides têm se tornado cada vez mais evidentes devido aos efeitos benéficos à saúde, sendo destacada a sua função nas dislipidemias. São oxidantes polifenólicos encontrados nos alimentos, principalmente nas verduras, frutas, grãos, sementes como o cacau, castanhas, condimentos e ervas e também em bebidas como vinho e chá. Inibem a oxidação do LDL, diminuindo a aterogenicidade e conseqüentemente, o risco de doença coronariana, além de sua ação antioxidante. Este trabalho, elaborado a partir de uma revisão bibliográfica, visa avaliar a eficácia dos flavonóides nas dislipidemias, verificando se é possível diminuir os níveis de concentrações lipídicas plasmáticas e atuar como antioxidante evitando assim a aterogenicidade, aterosclerose. O consumo de flavonóides demonstrou uma diminuição dos triglicerídeos no plasma, da concentração do colesterol total, dos níveis de LDL e aumento ou inalteração do HDL. O mecanismo de ação pode ser explicado por meio da regulação dos receptores de LDL, do aumento do turnover da apolipoproteína B do LDL e da estabilização da membrana tecidual, uma vez que houve uma diminuição da fluidez lipídica dessa membrana. Estudos recentes demonstraram que os flavonóides inibem a atividade da enzima squalene epoxidase, essencial na síntese do colesterol. Concluiu-se que os flavonóides presentes da dieta podem estar envolvidos na prevenção da aterosclerose, mas ainda existem algumas controvérsias, sendo necessários mais estudos para que todo o mecanismo de ação seja esclarecido e sua eficácia comprovada


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Flavonoids/blood , Flavonoids/chemical synthesis , Flavonoids/metabolism , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Hyperlipidemias
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