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1.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 75-83, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345499

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in children and adolescents using fluoridated toothpaste, from areas with and without fluoridated water. Parents of 5-year-old children and 12-year-old adolescents from neighbourhoods that are supplied with and without fluoridated water answered questionnaires for determining socio-economic and demographic characteristics and habits related to oral health. The individuals were examined, and dental caries and fluorosis were measured by dmft/DMFT and TF indexes, respectively. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed (p < 0.05). Of 692 participants, 47.7% were 5-year-olds and 52.3% were 12-year-olds. The mean dmft/DMFT in the 5-year-olds/ 12-year-olds from Exposed and Not Exposed fluoridated water groups was 1.53 (± 2.47) and 3.54 (± 4.10) / 1.53 (± 1.81) and 3.54 (± 3.82), respectively. Children (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.71-4.75) and adolescents (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.24-3.05), who did not consume fluoridated water, had greater caries experience. Among adolescents, there was an association between fluoridated water and the prevalence of very mild/mild fluorosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.23-9.19) and moderate fluorosis (OR = 11.11, 95% CI = 4.43-27.87). Children and adolescents, who consumed fluoridated water, presented lower prevalence and severity of dental caries compared to those who used only fluoridated toothpaste as the source of fluoride. There is an association between water fluoridation and very mild/mild and moderate fluorosis in adolescents.


Resumo Este estudo transversal avaliou a prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária e fluorose em crianças de 5 anos e adolescentes de 12 anos usuários de dentifrício fluoretado, em áreas com e sem água fluoretada. Os responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes responderam questionários para determinação de características socioeconômicas e demográficas e hábitos relacionados à saúde. Os indivíduos foram examinados e a cárie e a fluorose foram mensuradas pelos índices ceo-d / CPOD e TF, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, bivariadas e de regressão logística (p <0,05). Dos 692 participantes, 47,7% tinham 5 anos e 52,3% tinham 12 anos. A média de ceod / CPOD em crianças de 5/12 anos dos grupos de exposto e não exposto à água fluoretada foi 1,53 (± 2,47) e 3,54 (± 4,10) / 1,53 (± 1,81) e 3,54 (± 3,82), respectivamente. Crianças (OR = 2,86, IC 95% = 1,71-4,75) e adolescentes (OR = 1,95, IC 95% = 1,24-3,05) que não consumiram água fluoretada tiveram maior experiência de cárie. Entre os adolescentes, houve associação entre a água fluoretada e a prevalência de fluorose muito leve / leve (OR = 5,45, IC 95%: 3,23-9,19) e fluorose moderada (OR = 11,11, IC 95% = 4,43-27,87). Crianças e adolescentes que consumiram água fluoretada apresentaram menor prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária em comparação com aqueles que usaram apenas dentifrício fluoretado como fonte de flúor. Houve uma associação entre a fluoretação da água e fluorose muito leve / leve e moderada em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentifrices , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , DMF Index , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorides
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(8): 2909-2922, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011878

ABSTRACT

Resumo Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática e metanálise para estimar e comparar as prevalências de fluorose dental em localidades brasileiras abastecidas com água tratada sem suplementação de flúor e em localidades que utilizam de água de origem subterrânea. Em dezembro de 2016 foram buscados estudos transversais em 8 bases de dados incluindo a "literatura cinzenta". As prevalências foram estimadas utilizando modelo misto de efeitos aleatórios considerando as localidades como subgrupo. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi avaliada através da estatística I2 e do teste Q de Cochran. Foram encontrados 1.038 registros, dos quais apenas 18 artigos preencheram os critérios de inclusão, sendo submetidos para análise. O modelo metanalítico estimou em 8,92% (IC95%:5,41% até 14,36%) a prevalência de fluorose dental em municípios com água tratada sem suplementação de flúor e em 51,96% (IC95%: 31,03% até 72,22%) em municípios abastecidos por poços artesianos. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi alta, I2 = 95% (p < 0,01) no primeiro subgrupo de municípios e I2 = 98% (p < 0,01) no segundo subgrupo. A prevalência foi significativamente maior (p < 0,001) em populações expostas à água de poços artesianos, indicando que a presença de flúor natural em concentrações elevadas representa um fator de risco para a ocorrência de fluorose dental.


Abstract This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate and compare the prevalences of dental fluorosis in Brazilian cities supplied with non-fluoridated water and in locations that uses groundwater. In December of 2016, cross-sectional studies were searched in eight databases, including the "grey literature". The prevalences were estimated through a mixed random effects model considering the locations as subgroups. The heterogeneity among the studies was assessed with I2 statistics and the Cochran's Q test. A total of 1038 records were found, from which only 18 articles met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to analysis. The meta-analytic model estimated a prevalence of dental fluorosis of 8.92 % (95 % CI: 5.41 % to 14.36 %) in cities supplied with non-fluoridated water, and of 51.96 % (95 % CI: 31.03 % to 72.22 %) in cities supplied by artesian wells. The heterogeneity among the studies was high: I2 = 95 % (p < 0.01) in the first subgroup of cities and I2 = 98 % (p < 0.01) in the second subgroup. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in populations exposed to artesian well water, indicating that the presence of natural fluoride at high concentrations represents a risk factor for the occurrence of dental fluorosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Groundwater/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cities
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 46-50, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990063

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: One of the most effective and studied measures in the prevention of caries is the use of fluoride, which has the property to reduce their incidence and severity. In Chile, 75 % of the population receives it the drinking water. In 1984, WHO recommended the use of milk as an alternative vehicle. In Chile, the Fluoridated School Feeding Program (FSFP) was introduced in 1994, using this alternative in rural areas without fluoride in water. The objective of the study was to compare prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis in 8-year-old children of four state schools: two with fluoride supplementation in drinking water or milk and two without any fluoride program. Epidemiological, descriptive, comparative, observational and cross-sectional study with a sample of 140 8-year-old children, with no systemic diseases and who had lived in the same place since birth: 50 schoolchildren from an area with fluoridated water; 40 from an area with fluoridated milk and 50 from a zone without supplementation of F. The percentage of caries-free children was obtained with the methodology described by the WHO, for severity the dmft and DMFT indexes were used. To quantify the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis, Dean Index was used. 38 % of the children were caries-free in the community with fluoridated water (CFW); 0 % in the community with fluoridated milk (FSFP) and 10 % in the community with no fluoride program established (CNF). The difference between CFW with CNF is statistically significant (p<0.05). The prevalence of fluorosis is significantly higher for CFW (48.8 %) than FSFP (35 %) and CNF (16 %). Conclusion: The contribution of fluoride in drinking water causes a decrease in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in children of 8 years of age, and an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis.


RESUMEN: Una de las medidas más efectivas y estudiadas en la prevención de caries es el uso de fluoruros, que tiene la propiedad de reducir su incidencia y severidad. 75 % de la población chilena lo recibe al incluirlo en el agua potable. La OMS en 1984 recomendó el uso de leche como un vehículo alternativo. En Chile, el Programa de Alimentación Escolar con leche fluorada fue implementado en 1994 como alternativa en zonas rurales sin fluoruro en el agua. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la prevalencia y severidad de la caries dental y la fluorosis dental en niños de 8 años en tres escuelas públicas, con suplementación de fluoruro en el agua potable o en la leche y con aquella que no tiene ningún programa de fluoración. Estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, comparativo, observacional y de corte transversal con una muestra de 140 niños de 8 años, sin enfermedades sistémicas y que han vivido en el mismo lugar desde su nacimiento: 50 escolares en el área con agua fluorada, 40 en el área con leche fluorada y 50 en la zona sin suplementación de fluoruro. El porcentaje de niños libres de caries fue obtenido con la metodología descrita por la OMS, usando índices ceo-d y CPO-D para evaluar severidad. Para cuantificar la prevalencia y severidad de la fluorosis dental se ocupó el índice de Dean. Niños libres de caries fueron 38 % en la comunidad con agua fluorada (CWF); 0 % en la comunidad con leche fluorada (FSFP) y 10 % en la comunidad sin programa de fluoración (CNF). La diferencia entre CWF y CNF es estadísticamente significativa (p<0,05). La prevalencia de fluorosis es significativamente mayor en CWF (48,8 %) que FSFP (35 %) y CNF (16 %). La contribución del fluoruro en el agua potable causa una disminución en la prevalencia y severidad de la caries dental en niños de 8 años, y un aumento en la prevalencia de fluorosis dental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Chile/epidemiology , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/pathology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/pathology , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 475-482, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974182

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research aimed to determine the influence of fluoridated groundwater and 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice on biomarkers of exposure to fluoride in preschoolers. A cross-sectional study was performed on thirty preschoolers recruited from naturally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (n=15). Total Daily Fluoride Intake (TDFI) from diet and dentifrice, and Daily Urinary Fluoride Excretion (DUFE) was measured over 24 h. Nails samples were collected twice during 30 days. Fluoride analyses were performed using a fluoride-ion-specific electrode. Data were evaluated using the Student and paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis (α≤0.05). Fluoridated groundwater and dentifrice were the dominant sources (r2 > 0.83) of TDFI in children from a naturally fluoridated and a non-fluoridated area, respectively. A positive correlation between TDFI and DUFE (r=0.50), and between [F] in fingernails and toenails (r=0.60) were found in children from a naturally fluoridated area. The [F] in nails of finger and toe were not correlated to TDFI. The consumption of fluoridated groundwater influenced the fluoride concentration in urine. In addition, the use of 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice did not influence the fluoride concentration in urine and fingernails.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a influência de águas fluoretadas subterrâneas e do dentifrício com 1.100 ppm de fluoreto nos biomarcadores de exposição ao flúor em pré-escolares. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em trinta pré-escolares recrutados em áreas naturalmente fluoretadas e não fluoretadas (n = 15). A ingestão diária total de flúor (TDFI) a partir da dieta e do dentifrício, assim como a excreção urinária diária de flúor (DUFE), foram medidas ao longo de 24 horas. Amostras de unhas foram coletadas duas vezes durante 30 dias. As análises de flúor foram realizadas usando um eletrodo específico para íon flúor. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t de Student e pareado, a análise de correlação de Pearson, e a análise de regressão linear múltipla (a≤0,05). As águas subterrâneas e dentifrícios fluoretados foram as fontes dominantes (r2>0,83) do TDFI em crianças da área naturalmente fluoretada e não fluoretada, respectivamente. Uma correlação positiva entre TDFI e DUFE (r=0,50) e entre [F] nas unhas das mãos e dos pés (r=0,60) foi encontrada em crianças da área naturalmente fluoretada. A [F] nas unhas das mãos e dos pés não foi correlacionada com TDFI. O consumo de águas subterrâneas fluoretadas influenciou a concentração de flúor na urina. Além disso, o uso de dentifrício com 1.100 ppm de fluoreto não influenciou a concentração de fluoreto na urina e nas unhas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Biomarkers/analysis , Fluoridation , Dentifrices/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Groundwater , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinalysis , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Nails/chemistry
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 1045-1054, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952637

ABSTRACT

Resumo Há uma preocupação com o aumento da prevalência de fluorose dentária, que depende da dose de fluoreto (F) a que as crianças são submetidas durante a formação dos dentes. A temperatura ambiental afeta a ingestão de água e, portanto, seria importante avaliar se as crianças que vivem em uma região de clima semiárido estão expostas a uma dose excessiva de F. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a dose total de F a que as crianças são expostas durante a idade crítica para a fluorose dentária, tendo dieta (água e alimentos) e dentifrício como fontes de F, em uma região de clima semiárido no Brasil. Metodologia: foram selecionadas 26 crianças com idade de 25,2 ± 9,1 meses, residentes em Feira de Santana-BA. Foram coletadas amostras de dieta-duplicada, água, produtos de escovação e dentifrícios. A concentração de F foi determinada após o devido preparo das amostras, utilizando um eletrodo específico. Resultados: a média e o desvio padrão de dose (mg F / kg / dia) em função da dieta, dentifrício e total foram, respectivamente: 0,016 ± 0,010; 0,030 ± 0,039 e 0,047 ± 0,043. Conclusões: as crianças avaliadas, residentes em uma região de clima semiárido, não estão expostas a uma dose de risco de fluorose dentária.


Abstract There is a concern about the increasing prevalence of dental fluorosis, which depends on the dose of fluoride (F) to which children are subjected during tooth formation. Environmental temperature affects water intake and therefore it would be important to assess whether children living in the semiarid region are exposed to an excessive dose of F. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the total dose of F to which children are exposed during the critical age for dental fluorosis, with diet (water and food) and toothpaste as F sources, in the semiarid region of Brazil. Methodology: 26 children aged 25.2 ± 9.1 months, residents in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia (with F in the public water supply) were selected. Duplicate-diet, water, products from toothbrushing and toothpaste samples were collected. F concentration was determined using an ion-specific electrode, after proper sample preparation. Results: the mean and standard deviation of dose (mg F/kg/day) from diet, toothpaste and total were respectively: 0.016 ± 0.010; 0.030 ± 0.039 and 0.047 ± 0.043. Conclusions: the children evaluated living in the semiarid region are not exposed to a risk dose for dental fluorosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Toothpastes/chemistry , Drinking , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Temperature , Toothbrushing , Water Supply , Brazil/epidemiology , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Diet
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 109-116, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951533

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of two treatment protocols for dental fluorosis in individuals enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Seventy volunteers, who lived in a fluorosis endemic area in Brazil, and had at least four maxillary anterior teeth showing fluorosis with a Thylstrup and Fejerskov index from 1 to 7, were randomized into two treatment groups (n= 35): GI- enamel microabrasion; or GII- microabrasion associated with at-home bleaching. Microabrasion was performed using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice, and at-home tooth bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide in a tray. Volunteers completed a questionnaire at baseline and 1-month post treatment to assess changes in OHRQoL, using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP). Differences in overall impact scores between and within treatment groups were analyzed with Wilcoxon (within) and Mann-Whitney (between) tests. Changes in performance scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon tests (a< 0.05). One month after treatment, subjects reported improvement in OHRQoL. Both groups showed lower OIDP scores (p< 0.001), but there was no difference between them. Eating, cleaning teeth, smiling and emotional state performance scores were lower after treatment for the whole sample. In conclusion, the treatment with microabrasion improved the OHRQoL in this sample of individuals living in a fluorosis endemic area regardless of the addition of at-home bleaching.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal (QVRSB) de dois protocolos de tratamento para fluorose dentária, em indivíduos incluídos em um ensaio clínico randomizado. Setenta voluntários, os quais viviam em uma área de fluorose endêmica no Brasil, e que possuíam pelo menos quatro dentes ântero-superiores com índice de Thylstrup e Fejerskov de 1 a 7, foram randomizados em dois grupos de tratamento (n= 35): GI- microabrasão de esmalte; ou GII- microabrasão associada com clareamento caseiro. A microabrasão foi realizada com ácido fosfórico 37% e pedra pomes e, o clareamento caseiro com peróxido de carbamida 10% e uso de moldeira. Os voluntários responderam um questionário antes e 1 mês após o tratamento, visando avaliar mudanças na QVRSB através do instrumento Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP). Diferenças nos escores de impacto geral entre e nos mesmos grupos de tratamento foram analisadas através dos testes Wilcoxon (mesmo grupo) e Mann-Whitney (entre grupos), respectivamente. Alterações no escores dos domínios foram analisadas usando o teste Wilcoxon (a<0.05). Um mês após o tratamento, os indivíduos relataram melhora na QVRSB. Ambos os grupos apresentaram menores escores do OIDP (p<0,001), sem diferença entre eles. Os escores dos domínios comer, limpar os dentes, sorrir e estado emocioal diminuíram após o tratamento para toda a amostra. Concluiu-se que o tratamento com microabrasão melhorou a QVRSB de indivíduos vivendo em uma área de fluorose endêmica independentemente da associação com o clareamento caseiro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phosphoric Acids/administration & dosage , Quality of Life , Oral Health , Enamel Microabrasion/methods , Carbamide Peroxide/administration & dosage , Fluorosis, Dental/drug therapy , Phosphoric Acids/therapeutic use , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Silicates , Endemic Diseases , Carbamide Peroxide/therapeutic use , Fluorosis, Dental/psychology , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(3): 306-313, may.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903769

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To perform a literature review regarding current dental fluorosis prevalence in Mexico reported from 2005 to 2015. Materials and methods: A comprehensive scientific literature review, in both English and Spanish, was performed in four databases up to June 2015. Search terms: fluorosis or dental fluorosis (mesh), prevalence (mesh), distribution (mesh), cases (mesh), epidemiology (mesh), Mexico. Results: 17 publications were included. Reported prevalence of dental fluorosis in Mexico ranged from 15.5 to 100%. Most of the studies were conducted in areas where water fluoride levels are low or optimal (≤1.5ppmF) and in which a prevalence of 15.5 to 81.7% was observed. In areas with higher levels of naturally fluoridated water (>1.5ppmF), prevalence ranged from 92 to 100%. Fluorosis severity ranged from questionable to severe. Conclusion: High prevalence of dental fluorosis was observed even in areas where fluoride concentration in water was low or optimal. In addition to fluoride in groundwater, there are multiple risk factors that should be controlled.


Resumen: Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en México reportada durante 2005-2015. Material y métodos: Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva hasta junio de 2015 en cuatro bases de datos de literatura científica en inglés y español. Términos de búsqueda: fluorosis o fluorosis dental (mesh), prevalencia (mesh), distribución (mesh), casos (mesh), epidemiología (mesh), México. Resultados: Se incluyeron 17 publicaciones. La prevalencia reportada en México fue de 15.5 a 100%. La mayoría de los estudios se realizaron en áreas donde el nivel de flúor en agua es bajo u óptimo (≤1.5ppmF), en las cuales se observó una prevalencia de 15.5 a 81.7%. En las zonas con mayor nivel de flúor (>1.5ppmF) en agua natural fue de 92 a 100%. La gravedad de fluorosis varió de dudosa a severa. Conclusión: Existe una alta prevalencia de fluorosis dental incluso en zonas donde la concentración de fluoruro en el agua es baja u óptima. Además de fluoruro en el agua, existen múltiples factores de riesgo que deben ser controlados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Time Factors , Prevalence , Mexico/epidemiology
9.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(6): 963-975, nov.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962038

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar en un área con fluorización sistémica, la prevalencia de defectos de desarrollo del esmalte en dentición temporal de niños/niñas entre 4 y 6 años de un colegio público de Bogotá, Colombia. Método En 153 escolares se realizó muestreo aleatorio simple obteniendo 62 niños sistémicamente sanos en quienes se valoraron clínica y detalladamente los dientes. La examinadora fue calibrada con una experta en el índice modificado de Defectos de Desarrollo del Esmalte de la Federación Dental Internacional obteniendo Kappa interexaminador de 0,9 e intraexaminador de 0,8. Se contó con consentimiento informado y aprobación del estudio por parte del Comité de Ética de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional. Resultados La prevalencia de DDE fue de 74,2 % (IC 95 % 62,1-83,4) distribuidos en: opacidades demarcadas 86,9 % (IC 95 % 74,3-93,3), opacidades difusas 76,1 % (IC 95 % 62,4-85,7) e hipoplasias 2,2 % (IC 95 % 0,4-11,1). La combinación de defectos más frecuente en un mismo individuo fue opacidades demarcadas y difusas. El maxilar más afectado fue el superior 54,6 % y los dientes más comprometidos fueron los segundos molares 56 %. El promedio de dientes afectados con DDE por individuo fue de 4,7 ± DE 2,6. Conclusiones La alta prevalencia de defectos de desarrollo del esmalte encontrada, así la severidad haya sido baja, debe alertar a órganos decisores en salud para ejercer controles orientados a prevenirlos. Se deben realizar más estudios con metodologías estandarizadas para llegar a conocer la prevalencia global de los defectos.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To determine in an area with systemic fluoridation, the prevalence of development of enamel defects in children's primary teeth between 4-6 years old from a public school in Bogota, Colombia. Method A simple random sample was conducted in 153 students, obtaining 62 healthy children, detailed dental clinical assesment were performed in them. The examiner was calibrated by an expert in the modified index of Dental Enamel Defects from the International Dental Federation obtaining a kappa inter-examiner and intra-examiner measures of 0.9 and 0.8, respectively. An informed consent and approval of the study by the Ethical Committee of the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia were obtained. Results The prevalence of dental enamel defects was 74.2 % (62.1 - 83.4) 95 % CI, distributed in: demarcated opacities 86.9 % (74.3-93.3) 95 % CI, diffuse opacities 76.1 % (62.4-85.7) 95 % CI and hypoplasia 2.2 % (0.4-11.1) 95 % CI. The most frequent combination of defects in an individual was demarcated and diffuse opacities. The most affected maxilla was the superior 54.6 % and the most compromised teeth were the second molar 56 %. The average teeth affected with dental enamel defects per individual was 4.7 ± SD 2.6. Conclusions The high prevalence of dental enamel defects found, despite low severity, suggests more attention of the health authorities leading preventive programs. More studies should be done with standardized methodologies in order to estimate the overall prevalence of the defects.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/epidemiology , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Tooth, Deciduous/abnormalities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Colombia/epidemiology
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 21(4): 1247-1254, Abr. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-778567

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e a severidade de fluorose dentária em escolares de 11 a 14 anos de idade em Teresina (PI) Brasil, município de clima tropical com água de abastecimento público fluoretada. Estudo do tipo observacional transversal no qual foram avaliadas 571 crianças distribuídas nas redes pública e particular de ensino. A coleta de dados foi realizada nas unidades escolares, após recolhimento do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE) e questionário respondido pelos pais referentes às condições socioeconômicas e demográficas e aos hábitos de higiene bucal. O exame dentário foi realizado por um cirurgião-dentista calibrado. O índice aplicado foi o Thylstrup e Fejerskov (TF). A prevalência de fluorose foi de 77,9%, e apenas 12,5% das crianças acometidas apresentaram TF ≥ 3, grau com comprometimento estético. Os pré-molares foram os dentes mais afetados pela fluorose. Dentre os escolares com maior severidade de fluorose, 98,6% dos pertenciam à classe social mais baixa (>B2), 91,5% nasceram e sempre moraram em Teresina, 94,4% consumiam água de abastecimento fluoretada, 76% usaram dentifrício infantil e 64% as mães relataram que engoliam dentifrício. A prevalência de fluorose foi elevada, mas com baixa severidade, em indivíduos expostos à fluoretação desde o nascimento.


Abstract The scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, which is a tropical city with a fluoridated public drinking water supply. It involved a cross-sectional observational study on a sample of 571 students in public and private schools. Informed Consent forms were approved for the data collection and the exams were conducted at the schools. Data were recorded on a questionnaire answered by the parents, regarding the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits of the sample. The dental exam was performed qualified dental sugeons. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index was used. The prevalence of fluorosis was 77.9%, and only 12.5% of the affected children had TF ≥ grade 3 (with aesthetic damage). The premolars were the teeth most affected by fluorosis. Among the students with the highest severity of fluorosis, 98.6% belonged to the lowest social bracket (> B2), 91.5% were born and had always lived in Teresina, 94.4% consumed water from the fluoridated public supply, 76% used toothpaste for children and 64% of mothers reported that they swallowed toothpaste. The prevalence of fluorosis was high, though the severity was low in individuals exposed to fluoridation since birth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tropical Climate , Water Supply , Fluoridation , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Drinking Water , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorides
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 21(3): 967-976, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775776

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar se diferentes graus de fluorose dentária estão associados à presença de traumatismo dentário entre escolares. Trata-se de um estudo transversal conduzido entre escolares de 12 anos. Os exames foram realizados por 24 cirurgiões-dentistas treinados e calibrados. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 36 escolas públicas sorteadas entre as 89 do município. Adotou-se como critério de diagnóstico para fluorose dentária o Índice de Dean e para o traumatismo dentário considerou-se sinais clínicos de fraturas coronárias e avulsão dentária. Foram conduzidas análises descritivas, bivariadas e múltiplas. Entre os 2755 escolares incluídos, 1089 (39,6%) foram diagnosticados com fluorose dentária e 106 (3,8%) possuíam um dente ou mais com traumatismo. Identificou-se maior prevalência da fluorose dentária, independente do grau de severidade, entre indivíduos com um dente ou mais com traumatismo dentário. Essa associação foi mais forte com os graus mais severos de fluorose. Além disso, constatou-se que a presença de fluorose foi maior entre aqueles com autopercepção da presença de manchas nos dentes e que recebiam assistência odontológica na escola. Portanto, a fluorose dentária foi associada à presença de traumatismo dentário, independente de sua severidade.


Abstract Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean’s fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tooth Diseases/epidemiology , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Schools , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(3): 568-577, Jul.-Sep. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.

METHODS:

This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075), and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling) and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index). The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program) and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%), mild (4.4%), moderate (2.6%), and severe (0.5%). No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

.

OBJETIVO:

Descrever a prevalência de fluorose dentária e investigar sua associação com fatores individuais e contextuais entre escolares de 12 anos, além de verificar se houve mudanças na prevalência dessa condição no período de 2003 a 2010.

MÉTODOS:

Estudo observacional com análise transversal utilizando dados do levantamento de saúde bucal realizado em Goiânia, Goiás, em 2010 (n = 2.075) e dados secundários obtidos da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Os dados foram coletados através de exames bucais em escolas públicas e privadas. A variável dependente foi a presença de fluorose dentária, avaliada pelo índice de Dean. As variáveis independentes individuais foram sociodemográficas (sexo e raça do escolar e grau de escolaridade da mãe) e clínicas (experiência de cárie: índice de dentes cariados, perdidos e obturados; e presença de cálculo e/ou sangramento gengival: índice periodontal comunitário). As variáveis contextuais foram relacionadas à escola (tipo e existência de programa de escovação dentária) e sua localização geográfica nos distritos sanitários do município. Foram realizados o teste de Rao-Scott e o cálculo da diferença percentual das prevalências no período de 2003 a 2010.

RESULTADOS:

A prevalência de fluorose dentária em 2010 foi de 18,7%, distribuída nos graus: muito leve (11,2%), leve (4,4%), moderada (2,6%) e grave (0,5%). Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre prevalência de fluorose dentária e as variáveis investigadas. No período de 2003 a 2010, a prevalência de fluorose dentária aumentou 230% e essa diferença foi significativa.

CONCLUSÕES:

A prevalência de fluorose dentária foi baixa, com predomínio do grau muito leve, aumentou num período de sete anos e não esteve associada aos fatores individuais e contextuais investigados.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Toothbrushing
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777232

ABSTRACT

This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9%) children; from these, 220 (44.4%) children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9%) with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4%) with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2%) child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004) was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluoridation , Fluorides/adverse effects , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology , Fluorosis, Dental/psychology , Prevalence , Public Sector , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156547

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of corticotomy versus prostaglandin E1 injection in human subjects on rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss and their effect on crest bone height and root length. Settings and Design: Clinical interventional study. Split mouth design was used. Materials and Methods: Study was done on 32 regular orthodontic patients. A volume of 100 mcg of prostaglandin E1 was injected on the right side once in 2 weeks and on the left side corticotomy was performed, and canine retraction was started on both sides simultaneously. The rate of space closure and anchorage loss was assessed with casts. The root length and crestal bone height changes were assed with IOPAs. The comparison of rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss, crestal bone height and root length changes between the sides were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. Results: The average rate of space closure on right side was 0.36 mm/week with a standard deviation of 0.05 mm/week and on the left side average rate of space closure was 0.40 mm/week with a standard deviation of 0.04 mm/week. The difference between the rate of closure between the right side and left where found to be statistically significant (P = 0.003). The anchorage loss, the crestal bone height changes and root length changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The rate of tooth movement was significantly more with corticotomies when compared with given dose of prostaglandin injection.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Dental Caries/chemically induced , Fluorides/adverse effects , Fluorosis, Dental/chemically induced , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology , Humans , India , Periodontal Diseases/chemically induced , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Periodontal Diseases/etiology
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 7(3): 447-454, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-696577

ABSTRACT

La fluoruración del agua potable comenzó a implementarse en Chile en la década de 1950 para prevenir el principal problema de salud oral en la población, la caries dental. Se ha aplicado sistemáticamente en el país, y en Temuco desde el año 2004. Sin embargo, la ingesta de fluoruros en periodos críticos del desarrollo dentario de manera excesiva produce fluorosis dental. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y severidad de la fluorosis dental en escolares de segundo básico que consumen agua potable fluorurada en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile y asociarla con la historia de caries. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo y explicativo con un muestreo aleatorio estratificado de la población escolar de 7 años que cursaba segundo básico durante el año 2012 en colegios particulares, subvencionados y municipales de Temuco. Sobre una muestra de 317 niños, se determinó el índice Dean y la historia de caries. La prevalencia de fluorosis dental fue 53,31 por ciento (169 niños), y la severidad fue de tipo cuestionable, muy leve y leve en el 31,36 por ciento, 42,6 por ciento y 22,4 por ciento de los casos, respectivamente. El 3,5 por ciento fue moderado. No se observó asociación significativa entre fluorosis e historia de caries. En Temuco, la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en niños de 7 años es alta, con una severidad de tipo cuestionable, muy leve y leve en más del 50 por ciento de los casos. Luego de 8 años de implementar la fluoruración del agua potable, hubo una disminución del daño acumulado por caries, pero la fluorosis dental aumentó en la población.


Fluoridation of drinking water, began to be implemented in 1950's in Chile to prevent the main problem of oral health in the population, dental caries. It has been consistently applied in the country and Temuco city since 2004. However, intake of fluorides in critical periods of tooth development excessively produces dental fluorosis. The aim was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in elementary schoolchildren consuming fluoridated drinking water in the city of Temuco, Chile and its association with the history of dental caries. A descriptive and explanatory epidemiological study with a stratified random sample of 7-years schoolchildren of private, subsidized and municipal elementary schools in Temuco city was performed. On a sample of 317 children, Dean's index and history of caries was determined. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 53.31 percent (169 children), and severity rate was questionable, very mild and mild in 31.36 percent, 42.6 percent and 22.4 percent of cases, respectively. In 3.5 percent was moderate. No significant association between fluorosis and history of dental caries was observed. In Temuco, the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 7-years children is high, with severity of questionable, very mild and mild type in 50 percent of cases. After 8 years of implementing the fluoridation of drinking water, there was a decrease of dental caries damage but increased dental fluorosis in the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Drinking Water , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , DMF Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 16(4): 1021-1028, dez. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702095

ABSTRACT

It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF < 4 and TF > 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p < 0.001). This association was not found among adolescents and adults (p > 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.


Trata-se de estudo transversal e analítico cujo objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre a prevalência e a gravidade da fluorose e da cárie dentária em municípios rurais com fluorose endêmica no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com concentração de flúor nas águas de até 4,8 mg/L. Os dados foram coletados por um examinador (Kappa intra examinador, 0,96 para fluorose e 0,95 para cárie) após escovação dentária. Participaram do estudo 511 indivíduos, com idades de 7 a 22 anos, categorizados conforme faixa etária: 7 a 9 anos (n = 227), 10 a 12 anos (n = 153), 13 a 15 anos (n = 92), 16 a 22 anos (n = 39). Para o diagnóstico da cárie dentária, utilizaram-se os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para a mensuração do índice de Dentes Cariados, Perdidos e Obturados (CPO-D). Para a fluorose utilizou-se o índice de Thylstrup e Fejerskov (TF), dicotomizado segundo a prevalência (TF = 0 e TF > 0) e gravidade (TF < 4 e TF > 5).Nos dois grupos mais jovens, o CPO-D e seu componente cariado foram maiores no grupo com fluorose mais grave (p < 0,001). Essa associação não foi identificada entre os adolescentes e adultos (p > 0,05). A associação mais grave entre as condições cárie e fluorose foi encontrada em indivíduos com até 12 anos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Young Adult , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Rural Health , Rural Population
17.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(supl.3): 138-147, dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702122

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar limitações do estudo de fluorose dentária em inquéritos transversais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados dos estudos Condições de Saúde Bucal da População Brasileira (SBBrasil 2003) e da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal (SBBrasil 2010). A estimativa de tendência epidemiológica da fluorose na população de 12 anos, aspectos da confiabilidade dos dados, bem como a precisão das estimativas, foram avaliadas nessas duas pesquisas. A distribuição da prevalência de fluorose foi feita segundo os domínios de estudo (capitais e regiões) e o ano estudado. Foram expressos também os intervalos de confiança (IC95%) para a prevalência simples (sem considerar os estágios de gravidade). RESULTADOS: A prevalência da fluorose dentária apresentou uma variação considerável, de 0% a 61% em 2003 e de 0% e 59% em 2010. Foram observadas inconsistências nos dados em termos individuais (por ano e por domínio) e no comportamento da tendência. Considerando a expectativa de prevalência e os dados disponíveis nas duas pesquisas, o tamanho mínimo da amostra deveria ser de 1.500 indivíduos para se obterem intervalos de 3,4% e 6,6% de confiança, considerando um coeficiente de variação mínimo de 15%. Dada a subjetividade na natureza de sua classificação, exames de fluorose dentária podem apresentar mais variação do que aqueles realizados para outras condições de saúde bucal. O poder para estabelecer diferenças entre os domínios do estudo com a amostra do SBBrasil 2010 é bastante limitado. CONCLUSÕES: Não foi possível analisar a tendência da fluorose dentária no Brasil com base nos estudos de 2003 e 2010; esses dados são apenas indicadores exploratórios da p...


OBJETIVO: Analizar limitaciones del estudio de fluorosis dentaria en pesquisas transversales. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de estudios de de Condiciones de Salud Bucal de la Población Brasileña (SBBrasil 2003) y de la Investigación Nacional de la Salud Bucal (SBBrasil 2010). La estimativa de tendencia epidemiológica de la fluorosis en la población de 12 años, aspectos de la confiabilidad de los datos, así como la precisión de las estimativas, fueron evaluadas en estas dos investigaciones. La distribución de la prevalencia de la fluorosis fue hecha de acuerdo con los dominios de estudio (capitales y regiones) y el año estudiado. Se expresaron también los intervalos de confianza (IC95%) para la prevalencia simple (sin considerar las fases de la gravedad). RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de la fluorosis dentaria presentó una variación considerable, de 0 a 61% en 2003 y de 0 a 59% en 2010. Se observaron inconsistencias en los datos en términos individuales (por año y por dominio) y en el comportamiento de la tendencia. Considerando la expectativa de prevalencia y los datos disponibles en las dos investigaciones, el tamaño mínimo de la muestra debería ser de 1.500 individuos para obtener intervalos de 3,4% y 6,6% de confianza, considerando un coeficiente de variación mínimo de 15%. Dada la subjetividad en la naturaleza de su clasificación, exámenes de fluorosis dentaria pueden presentar más variación de los realizados para otras condiciones de salud bucal. El poder para establecer diferencias entre los dominios del estudio con la muestra de SBBrasil 2010 es bastante limitado. CONCLUSIONES: No fue posible analizar la tendencia de la fluorosis dentaria en Brasil con base en los estudios de 2003 y 2010; esos datos son sólo indicadores exploratorios de la prevalencia de la fluorosis. La comparación se hace imposible ...


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of social inequalities of individual and contextual nature on untreated dental caries in Brazilian children. METHODS: The data on the prevalence of dental caries were obtained from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) Project, an epidemiological survey of oral health with a representative sample for the country and each of the geographical micro-regions. Children aged five (n = 7,217) in 177 municipalities were examined and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire. Contextual characteristics referring to the municipalities in 2010 (mean income, fluorodized water and proportion of residences with water supply) were supplied by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística . Multilevel Poisson regression analysis models were used to assess associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-treated dental caries was 48.2%; more than half of the sample had at least one deciduous tooth affected by dental caries. The index of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 2.41, with higher figures in the North and North East. Black and brown children and those from lower income families had a higher prevalence of untreated dental caries. With regards context, the mean income in the municipality and the addition of fluoride to the water supply were inversely associated with the prevalence of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in the prevalence of untreated dental caries remain, affecting deciduous teeth of children in Brazil. Planning public policies to promote oral health should consider the effect of contextual factors as a determinant of individual risk. .


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Research Design , Brazil/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Fluoridation/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Residence Characteristics , Socioeconomic Factors , Tooth, Deciduous
18.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(supl.3): 148-153, dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702135

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência de prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças de 12 anos em contexto de exposição a múltiplas fontes de flúor. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise de tendência da prevalência de fluorose dentária no período de 1998 a 2010 na cidade de São Paulo, SP. As prevalências foram calculadas para diferentes anos (1998, 2002, 2008 e 2010), a partir de dados secundários obtidos em levantamentos epidemiológicos com amostras representativas da população de 12 anos de idade. A ocorrência de fluorose foi avaliada sob luz natural utilizando o índice de Dean, preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e categorizada em normal, questionável, muito leve, leve, moderada e severa. Em 1998 foram examinadas 125 crianças; 249 em 2002; 4.085 em 2008; e 231 em 2010. RESULTADOS: Em 1998 a prevalência de fluorose foi de 43,8% (IC95%35,6;52,8), em 2002 de 33,7% (IC95% 28,2;39,8), de 40,3% (IC95% 38,8;41,8) em 2008 e de 38,1% (IC95% 32,1;44,5) em 2010. As categorias muito leve + leve registraram 38,4% (IC95%30,3;47,6) em 1998, 32,1% (IC95% 26,6;38,2) em 2002, 38,0% (IC95% 36,5;39,5) em 2008 e 36,4% (IC95%30,4;42,7) em 2010. Não se observou fluorose severa com significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças paulistanas pode ser classificada como estacionária no período de 1998 a 2010, tanto em geral quanto ao se considerarem apenas as categorias muito leve + leve. .


OBJETIVO: Analizar la tendencia de prevalencia de fluorosis dentaria en niños de 12 años en contexto de exposición a múltiples fuentes de flúor. MÉTODOS: Se realizó análisis de tendencia de la prevalencia de fluorosis dentaria en el período de 1998 a 2010 en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil. Las prevalencias fueron calculadas para diferentes años (1998, 2002, 2008 y 2010), a partir de datos secundarios obtenidos en pesquisas epidemiológicas con muestras representativas de la población de 12 años de edad. La ocurrencia de fluorosis fue evaluada bajo la luz natural utilizando el índice de Dean, recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y, categorizada como normal, cuestionable, muy leve, leve, moderada y severa. En 1998 fueron examinadas 125 niños; 249 en 2002; 4.085 en 2008 y 231 en 2010. RESULTADOS: En 1998 la prevalencia de fluorosis fue de 43,8% (IC95%35,6;52,8), en 2002 de 33,7% (IC95% 28,2;39,8), de 40,3% (IC95% 38,8;41,8) en 2008 y de 38,1% (IC95% 32,1;44,5), en 2010. Las categorías muy leve+leve registraron 38,4% (IC95%30,3;47,6) en 1998, 32,1% (IC95% 26,6;38,2) en 2002, 38,0% (IC95% 36,5;39,5) en 2008 y 36,4% (IC95%30,4;42,7) en 2010. No se observo fluorosis severa con significancia estadística. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de fluorosis dentaria en niños paulistanos pudo ser clasificada como estacionaria en el período de 1998 a 2010, tanto en general como al considerar sólo las categorías muy leve+leve. .


OBJECTIVE: To assess the trend of dental fluorosis prevalence in 12-year-old children, in the context of exposure to multiple sources of fluoride. METHODS: An analysis was carried out of the trends in prevalence of dental fluorosis in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2010. The rates of prevalence were calculated for different years (1998, 2002, 2008 and 2010) using secondary data obtained from epidemiological surveys of representative samples of 12-year-old children. Occurrence of fluorosis was assessed in natural light using the Dean index, recommended by the World Health Organization and categorized into normal, questionable, very mild, mild, moderate and severe. In 1998, 125 children were examined, 249 in 2002, 4,085 in 2008 and 231 in 2010. RESULTS: In 1998 the prevalence of fluorosis was 43.8% (95%CI 35.6;52.8) in 2002 it was 33.7% (95%CI 28.2;39.8), it was 40.3% (95%CI 38.8;41.8) in 2008 and 38.1% (95%CI 32.1;44.5) in 2010.The categories very mild + mild totaled 38.4% (95%CI 30.3;47.6) in 1998, 32.1% (95%CI 26.6;38.2) in 2002, 38.0% (95%CI 36.5;39.5) in 2008 and 36.4% (95%CI 30.4;42.7) in 2010. Severe fluorosis was not observed, with statistical significance, in the analyzed period. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children from São Paulo can be classified as stationary between 1998 and 2010, both when considering all categories, and when considering only the categories very mild + mild. .


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Fluoridation/adverse effects , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Toothpastes/adverse effects
19.
Braz. oral res ; 27(2): 91-96, Mar-Apr/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667998

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Parents , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Esthetics, Dental , Fluorosis, Dental/diagnosis , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values
20.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2013. 87 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-715915

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Altas concentrações de flúor são encontradas, naturalmente, na água em todo o mundo. Este estudo avaliou se um novo sistema de filtro domiciliar, com base em microesferas adsorventes do composto alumina-carvão ativado, é apropriado para reduzir altas concentrações de flúor na água de abastecimento, de uma zona endêmica para fluorose dentária. Métodos: um estudo de intervenção foi conduzido em uma comunidade rural, durante 22 semanas, em 4 municípios com 20 residentes, entre crianças, adolescentes e adultos, em zona endêmica para fluorose dentária, no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Fluoridation , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Domestic Filters/prevention & control , Fluorine/analysis , Halogenation
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