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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19094, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345458

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, can migrate from packaging material into food stuff. This research was designed to measure BPA levels in makdous, a traditional Syrian food. Forty three samples of makdous stored in different plastic containers (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and unspecified plastic containers) were analyzed every 3 months for one year beginning July 2017. Quantification of BPA was carried out by an RP-HPLC system equipped with fluorescence detector after solid phase extraction. Migration was found in PE and PP plastic containers with slight differences. Statistically significant differences in BPA levels were observed between samples assayed after two weeks of preparation and samples assayed after 12 months (mean 16.32 vs. 38.26 µg/kg, p value=0.003). According to these amounts, BPA levels were all under the specific migration limit of 0.05 mg/kg as newly referred in Regulation (EU) No 2018/213. These levels of exposure would only contribute to 2.15% and 2.75% of the EFSA t-TDI in both men and women respectively based on mean dietary exposure estimates derived from a 24-h dietary information study from 875 participants. Hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from makdous consumption


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Endocrine Disruptors/classification , Solid Phase Extraction/instrumentation , Food/classification , Plastics/adverse effects , Polypropylenes , Weights and Measures , Product Packaging/classification , Health Risk , Dietary Exposure/adverse effects
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 484-492, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126148

ABSTRACT

El sistema de porciones de intercambio es una metodología sencilla y rápida que se utiliza para entregar indicaciones alimentarias a usuarios sanos y con patologías. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para actualizar conceptos y evaluar la vigencia de su uso y sus aplicaciones. El sistema es ampliamente usado en diferentes países, incluyendo Chile, existiendo distintos tipos de listas de alimentos y preparaciones según la metodología de la definición de las porciones, o bien según diversidad y número de alimentos presentes. Su uso es mayormente con fines asistenciales, siendo también útil en educación comunitaria y docencia. En Chile, los listados de porciones intercambiables fueron publicados el año 1999 y no se han actualizado hasta la fecha. Razones como el cambio en el perfil epidemiológico, mayor acceso a la información y la diversificación de alimentos en la dieta, hace necesario una revisión in extenso de los listados nacionales, con el fin de incorporar mayor diversidad de alimentos y preparaciones típicas a tan masiva y necesaria herramienta técnica, que es fundamental para el profesional Nutricionista y un aporte a la salud y a la cultura de los países.


The food portion exchange list is a simple and fast methodology that is used to give dietary indications to healthy and sick users. A review was carried out to update concepts and evaluate the current state of the exchange list used and their application. The system is widely used in different countries, including Chile, there are different types of foods or preparations exchange lists that use different methodologies for the definition of portions, according to the diversity and number of foods present. Its use is mainly for healthcare purposes, being also useful in community education and college teaching. In Chile, the food portion exchange lists were published in 1999 and have not been updated since. Reasons such as the change in the epidemiological profile, greater access to information and the diversification of foods in the diet, make necessary an in-depth review of the national lists, in order to incorporate a greater diversity of foods and typical preparations. Exchange lists are a necessary technical tool fundamental for nutrition professionals and contribute to the health and culture of countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet , Food/classification , Food Analysis/methods , Menu Planning/methods , Food and Nutrition Education , Chile , Global Health , Patient Education as Topic , Nutritional Requirements
3.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): 48711, jan.- mar.2020. graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361826

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A segunda edição do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira utiliza a classificação NOVA de alimentos nas recomendações para uma alimentação saudável. Essa classificação, portanto, desempenha importante papel na formação de nutricionistas. Objetivo: Comparar o conhecimento da classificação NOVA de alimentos entre estudantes ingressantes e concluintes de Nutrição. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em 2016 com estudantes ingressantes e concluintes de um curso de Nutrição do Mato Grosso do Sul. Questionário contendo 30 alimentos foi aplicado com estudantes que os classificaram em: in natura ou minimamente processado, ingrediente culinário processado, processado ou ultraprocessado. O conhecimento foi avaliado por meio de escore de classificações corretas, global e por grupo alimentar. Para análise comparativa, foi utilizado teste U de Mann-Whitney (significância p≤0,05). Resultados: Participaram 69 estudantes (64% ingressantes). O escore global de classificações corretas foi significativamente maior (p=0,000) nos concluintes (mediana=17) comparado aos ingressantes (mediana=14). O escore de classificações corretas entre ingressantes e concluintes apresentou diferenças significativas para todos os grupos alimentares, excetuando ingredientes culinários (p=0,117). Entre todos estudantes, o grupo ingrediente culinário obteve o menor percentual de acertos (24,1%), e ultraprocessado, obteve o maior percentual (77,8%). Conclusão: Apesar do maior conhecimento dos concluintes em relação aos ingressantes, identificou-se um conhecimento insatisfatório sobre a classificação NOVA em ambos. É importante garantir o aprendizado de estudantes de Nutrição quanto à NOVA, uma vez que esta classificação é central na orientação nutricional da população brasileira e, portanto, passa a ser ferramenta fundamental na atuação do profissional nutricionista. (AU)


Introduction: The second edition of the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian population uses the NOVA food classification for healthy diet recommendations. Therefore, this classification plays an important role in the training of nutritionists. Objective: To compare the knowledge of the NOVA food classification among incoming and outgoing Nutrition students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 involving the incoming and outgoing students of an undergraduate Nutrition course in Mato Grosso do Sul. A questionnaire containing 30 food items was administered to the students, who classified them into: unprocessed or minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed food. The students' knowledge was then evaluated using a score of correct classifications, overall and by food group. The Mann­Whitney U test was used for comparative analysis (significant when p≤0,05). Results: A total of 69 students participated (64% were incoming). The overall score of correct classifications was significantly higher (p=0.000) in outgoing students (median=17) than in incoming students (median=14). The score difference of correct classifications between the incoming and outgoing student groups showed significant differences for all food groups, except culinary ingredients (p=0.117). The culinary ingredient group obtained the lowest percentage of correct answers (24.1%), and the ultra-processed food group obtained the highest percentage (77.8%) among all students. Conclusion: Although outgoing students had greater knowledge than incoming students, unsatisfactory knowledge was identified on the NOVA classification in both groups. It is important to assure that the Nutrition students learn about the NOVA classification, since this classification is central to the nutritional guidance of the Brazilian population and, therefore, becomes a fundamental tool in the work of the professional nutritionist. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food Guide , Food/classification , Students, Health Occupations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Knowledge , Nutritional Sciences/education
4.
CoDAS ; 32(1): e20180216, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039630

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os achados videoendoscópicos da deglutição orofaríngea em distintas consistências de alimento na Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA). Método Estudo clínico retrospectivo com amostra de conveniência. Foram incluídos 20 indivíduos com diagnóstico de ELA e disfagia orofaríngea confirmada por avaliação clínica e objetiva de deglutição, independentemente do tipo, bulbar ou esquelética, e tempo de diagnóstico neurológico, 13 do sexo masculino e sete do sexo feminino, faixa etária variando de 34 a 78 anos, média de 57 anos. Foram analisados os achados da videoendoscopia de deglutição (VED) nas consistências líquida (N=18), líquida espessada (N=19) e pastosa (N=20) no volume de cinco ml. Os achados sobre escape oral posterior, resíduos faríngeos, penetração laríngea e/ou aspiração foram comparados nas três consistências de alimento e a análise estatística utilizou o teste ANOVA de Friedman. Resultados Não foi encontrada alteração na sensibilidade laríngea nessa população. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as consistências de alimento na presença de escape oral posterior, penetração e/ou aspiração. Houve diferença estatística significativa somente com resíduos faríngeos na consistência líquida espessada e pastosa na ELA. Conclusão Dentre os achados videoendoscópicos da deglutição na ELA, somente o resíduo faríngeo teve maior frequência na dependência da consistência de alimento.


ABSTRACT Purpose This study aimed to compare the fiberoptic endoscopic findings of oropharyngeal swallowing of distinct food consistencies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Methods This was a retrospective clinical study of a convenience sample of 20 individuals (13 males and seven females aged 34 to 78 years old) with a diagnosis of ALS and oropharyngeal dysphagia confirmed by clinical and objective evaluation of swallowing, regardless of the bulbar or skeletal type and of the time of neurological diagnosis. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) of the liquid (N = 18), thickened liquid (N = 19) and pureed samples (N = 20) in a volume of 5 ml were analyzed. Data related to posterior oral spillage, pharyngeal residues, laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration after swallowing the three food consistencies were analyzed statistically by the Friedman ANOVA test. Results No impairment of laryngeal sensitivity was found in this population. There was no statistically significant difference in posterior oral spillage, penetration and/or aspiration between food consistencies. There was a statistically significant difference only related to pharyngeal residues of the thickened liquid and pureed consistency. Conclusion Among the fiberoptic endoscopic findings of swallowing in ALS, only pharyngeal residues had a higher frequency depending on the consistency of food.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Oropharynx , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Deglutition , Food/classification , Laryngoscopy/methods , Larynx , Middle Aged
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 619-628, sep.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127325

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Evaluate association of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers. Materials and methods: 654 adolescents from Guadalajara, Jalisco, participated in a cross-sectional study. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire; 24 food groups were integrated, and dietary patterns were derived using cluster analysis. MetS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), Cook and colleagues, Ford and colleagues, and de Ferranti and colleagues criteria. Results: Dietary patterns identified were: "DP1", "DP2", and "DP3". Among males, "DP3" was associated with MetS (Cook and collaborators) (OR, 12.14; 95%CI, 1.66-89.05), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 3.89; 95%CI, 1.01-15.07), and insulin resistance (OR, 6.66; 95%CI, 1.12-39.70). "DP2" was associated with abdominal obesity (OR, 5.11; 95%CI, 1.57-16.66). Conclusions: "DP3" entertained a greater risk of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance, while "DP2" possessed a greater risk of abdominal obesity among adolescent males.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación de patrones dietarios (PD) con síndrome metabólico (SM) y marcadores metabólicos. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal con 654 adolescentes. Dieta evaluada con el cuestionario "frecuencia de consumos de alimentos"; se identificaron 24 grupos de alimentos, para obtener PD mediante análisis de conglomerados. SM se definió según los criterios: Federación de Diabetes Internacional (IDF), Cook y colaboradores, Ford y colaboradores y Ferranti y colaboradores. Resultados: Se identificaron tres PD: "PD1", "PD2" y "PD3". En hombres, "PD3" se asoció con SM (Cook y colaboradores) (RM, 12.14; IC95%, 1.66-89.05), hipertrigliceridemia (RM, 3.89; IC95%, 1.01-15.07) y resistencia a insulina (RM, 6.66; IC95%, 1.12-39.70). El patrón "PD2" se asoció con obesidad abdominal (RM, 5.11; IC95%, 1.57-16.66). Conclusiones: El patrón "PD3" aumenta el riesgo de SM, hipertrigliceridemia y resistencia a insulina y el "PD2" el riesgo de obesidad abdominal en adolescentes hombres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Feeding Behavior , Energy Intake , Insulin Resistance , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Portion Size , Food/classification
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 609-618, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127324

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la comprensión objetiva de cinco tipos de etiquetados frontales de paquetes (EFP) (Sistema de Clasificación de Estrellas de Salud, Semáforo Múltiple, Nutri-Score, Ingestas de Referencia y Símbolo de Advertencia) en México. Material y métodos: Se reclutaron 1 001 consumidores mexicanos para clasificar tres productos de tres categorías de alimentos sin EFP, según su calidad nutricional. Se les asignó al azar uno de los cinco EFP para clasificar los mismos productos, esta vez con un EFP en el empaque. El cambio en la capacidad para clasificar correctamente los productos en las dos tareas fue evaluado por EFP, utilizando un modelo de regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Nutri-Score y Semáforo Múltiple obtuvieron un mejor desempeño, seguidos del Símbolo de Advertencia, Sistema de Clasificación de Estrellas de Salud e Ingestas de Referencia. Conclusión: Nutri-Score y el Semáforo Múltiple surgen como esquemas eficientes para informar a los consumidores sobre la calidad nutricional de los alimentos en México, donde podrían ser una herramienta útil para los consumidores en situación de compra.


Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to compare consumers' objective understanding of five FoPLs [Health Star Rating system (HSR), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, Reference Intakes (RIs), Warning Symbol] in Mexico. Materials and methods: 1 001 Mexican consumers were recruited and asked to rank three sets of label-free products according to their nutritional quality, via a survey. Upon completion of this task, participants were randomized to one of five FoPL conditions and were again asked to rank the same sets of products, this time with a FoPL displayed on pack. Change in ability to correctly rank products across the two tasks was assessed by FoPL using ordinal logistic regression. Results: Nutri-Score and MTL performed best, followed Warning Symbol, HSR and RIs. Conclusion: Nutri-Score and MTL appear as efficient schemes to inform consumers on the nutritional quality of foods, in particular in Mexico, where it would be a helpful tool for consumers in purchasing situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Consumer Behavior , Food Labeling/methods , Nutritive Value , Socioeconomic Factors , Random Allocation , Logistic Models , Food/classification , Food Labeling/classification , Mexico , Nutritional Requirements
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 155-165, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058968

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the contribution of natural, processed and ultra-processed foods to energy and nutrient supply in Mexican households. Materials and methods: The database of the National Household Expenditure Survey 2013 was analyzed (n=58 001), which is a cross-sectional survey. Food supply (g/adult equivalent/day) and energy, macro- and micro-nutrient supplies were estimated. Foods were classified following the Nova system. Households sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed as covariates. Results: Natural foods (NF) contributed with more energy (55.0%) followed by ultra-processed foods (UPF, 21.2%). NF were the main source of most nutrients. Processed culinary ingredients (PCI) and processed foods (PF) had high content of energy, total fats, and saturated fats, but low content of certain micronutrients. Sodium was mainly available in PF (34.6%) and UPF (31.4%). Sugar-sweetened beverages, fast foods, and biscuits and cookies were the main UPF in terms of energy supply. Conclusions; In Mexican households, the PCI, PF and UPF had low nutritional quality.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la contribución de los alimentos naturales, procesados y ultraprocesados a la disponibilidad de energía y nutrientes en los hogares mexicanos. Material y métodos: Se analizó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gasto de los Hogares 2013 (n= 58 001), la cual es una encuesta transversal. Se estimó la disponibilidad de alimentos (g/adulto equivalente/día), energía y nutrientes. Los alimentos fueron clasificados siguiendo el sistema Nova. Resultados: Los alimentos naturales (AN) y los ultraprocesados (AUP) contribuyeron con más energía. Los AN fueron la principal fuente de la mayoría de los nutrimentos. Los ingredientes culinarios procesados (ICP) y los alimentos procesados (AP) tenían alto contenido de energía, grasas totales y grasas saturadas pero bajo contenido de ciertos micronutrientes. El sodio estaba disponible principalmente en AP y AUP. Las bebidas azucaradas, comidas rápidas, galletas y panes fueron los principales AUP. Conclusión: En México, los ICP, AP y AUP tienen baja calidad nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Energy Intake , Food/classification , Nutritive Value , Socioeconomic Factors , Sodium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Nutrients , Family Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Micronutrients , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage , Fast Foods , Food Handling , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Mexico
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(1): 72-77, ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043360

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Conocer opiniones sobre el Plato del Bien Comer Maya de adolescentes de Cholul, Yucatán, para mejorar la herramienta comunicativa y utilizarla en actividades de promoción de la salud. Material y métodos: Estudio cualitativo, de investigación formativa. Se realizaron tres grupos focales, participaron 28 adolescentes de secundaria: 12-16 años. Criterios de inclusión: pertenecer a alguno de los tres grados de la escuela y tener familias originarias del poblado. El análisis de los datos se realizó manualmente. Resultados: En comparación con el Plato del Bien Comer nacional, el Plato Maya fue mejor identificado por tener elementos locales a los que pueden acceder fácilmente y con costos menores. Se identificó la palabra fruto como una variación lingüística que representa en ese contexto tanto a las frutas como a las verduras. Conclusiones: Para tener mejores resultados en intervenciones nutricionales es necesario diseñar estrategias educativo-comunicativas acordes con la cultura local.


Abstract : Objective: To know opinions of adolescents from Cholul, Yucatán, about Plato del Bien Comer Maya in order to improve it as health promotion tool. Materials and methods: Qualitative study, formative research. Three focus groups were carried out, participating 28 adolescents: 12-16 years old. Criteria of inclusion: studying middle school; to have native family from the town. Analysis of the data made manually. Results: Comparatively with the national Plato del Bien Comer, the Plato Maya was better identified because have local food products easier to obtain and cheaper. The principal finding was to understand Fruto is a linguistic variation word which represents in Maya context both fruits and vegetables. This might be an important key to improve health promotion activities with that population. Conclusions: In order to have better results in nutritional interventions, it is necessary to design educational-communicative strategies in accordance with the local culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attitude , Psychology, Adolescent , Nutrition Policy , Rural Population , Data Display , Ethnicity/psychology , Indians, North American , Choice Behavior , Focus Groups , Culture , Feeding Behavior , Food/classification , Food Supply , Health Promotion/methods
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 105 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996861

ABSTRACT

Quitosana é um biopolímero encontrado principalmente na parede celular de crustáceos e é obtida pela desacetilação da quitina. Como biopolímero a quitosana é utilizada como excipiente para medicamentos e composição de alimentos. No entanto a quitosana devidamente purificada para uso farmacêutico ou alimentício tem custo financeiro elevado. Outro fator que contribui para o uso limitado é a falta de procedimento padronizado para desacetilação, o que resulta em materiais com diferentes graus de qualidade, dificultando suas aplicações e controle de qualidade de matéria prima e produto. Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo estabelecer procedimento reprodutível para a extração da quitina e da quitosana, por meio da aplicação dos conceitos de Quality by Design e planejamento de experimentos. A quitosana foi obtida pela desacetilação da quitina de crustáceos pelas etapas de desmineralização, desproteinização e despigmentação. O procedimento técnico para purificação da quitosana foi definido a partir de planejamento fatorial com ponto central para as etapas otimizadas, por meio da aplicação dos conceitos de Quality by Design e planejamento de experimentos. O projeto definiu um procedimento padronizado para purificação da quitosana que pode ser empregado em escala industrial, e financeiramente vantajoso para produção de medicamentos ou alimentos


Chitosan is a biopolymer found mainly in the cell wall of crustaceans and is obtained by the deacetylation of chitin. As biopolymer chitosan is used as excipient for medicaments and food composition. However, chitosan duly purified for pharmaceutical or food use has a high financial cost. Another factor that contributes to the limited use is the lack of standardized procedure for deacetylation, which results in materials with different grades of quality, hindering their applications and quality control of raw material and product. This work has as main objective to establish a reproducible procedure for the extraction of chitin and chitosan, through the application of the concepts of Quality by Design and planning of experiments. Chitosan was obtained by the deacetylation of chitin from crustaceans through the demineralization, deproteinization and depigmentation stages. The technical procedure for purification of chitosan was defined from a factorial planning with a central point for the optimized steps, through the application of the concepts of Quality by Design and planning of experiments. The project defined a standard procedure for the purification of chitosan that can be used on industrial scale and financially advantageous for the production of medicines or foods


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Chitosan/isolation & purification , Chitosan/analysis , Process Optimization , Food/classification , Chitin/isolation & purification
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190026, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990744

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Padrões alimentares parecem predizer melhor o risco de doenças do que nutrientes ou alimentos isoladamente. Objetivo: Identificar padrões alimentares e fatores associados em mulheres adultas. Método: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com 1.128mulheres, de 20 a 69 anos de idade, de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de um questionário de frequência. Utilizou-se análise de componentes principais para identificação dos padrões alimentares. Razõesde prevalências brutas e ajustadas foram estimadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: Foram identificados três padrões alimentares que explicaram 25,8% da variância total: saudável (frutas, vegetais e alimentos integrais); de risco (alimentos ultraprocessados); e brasileiro (arroz e feijão). Opadrão saudável apresentou o maior percentual de variância explicada (11,62%). A probabilidade de adesão ao padrão saudável aumentou linearmente com a idade e a escolaridade e foi maior em ex-fumantes (razão de prevalência - RP = 1,22; intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%) 1,04 - 1,42). Já mulheres mais jovens e com maior escolaridade tinham maior probabilidade de aderir ao padrão de risco. A probabilidade de adesão ao padrão brasileiro aumentou à medida que diminuiu a escolaridade e foi maior em mulheres de cor de pele não branca (RP = 1,29; IC95% 1,04 - 1,59). Conclusões: Enquanto a adesão aos padrões saudável e de risco comportou-se distintamente segundo a idade das mulheres, ela foi semelhante para a escolaridade. Já a adesão ao padrão brasileiro foi definida pelas condições socioeconômicas.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Dietary patterns may be more predictive of disease risk than individual nutrients or foods. Objective: To identify dietary patterns and associated factors among adult women. Method: Population-based cross-sectional study with 1,128 women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. Food intake was assessed with a frequency questionnaire. The principal component analysis identified dietary patterns. We estimated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Threedietary patterns - responsible for 25.8% of the total variance - were identified: healthy (fruits, vegetables, and whole foods); risk (ultra-processed foods); and Brazilian (rice and beans). The healthy pattern showed the largest percentage of explained variation (11.62%). The probability of adherence to the healthy pattern increased linearly with age and schooling and was higher among ex-smokers [prevalence ratio (PR)=1.22; confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) 1.04 - 1.42]. Younger women and those with better schooling had more chances of adhering to the risk pattern. The probability of adherence to the Brazilian pattern increased as schooling decreased and was higher among non-white women (PR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.04- 1.59). Conclusions: While adherence to healthy and risk patterns behaved differently according to women's age, it was similar regarding schooling. Socioeconomic conditions defined adherence to the Brazilian pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Epidemiologic Methods , Women's Health , Food/classification , Middle Aged
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(12): 4165-4176, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974781

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo desse trabalho foi expor a teoria, propor a prática e avaliar as dificuldades da nova classificação dos alimentos, apresentada na segunda edição do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira. Foi utilizado um questionário com uma lista de 30 alimentos divididos em quatro grupos: alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados (I), ingredientes culinários (C), processados (P) e ultraprocessados (U). Os participantes classificaram os alimentos antes e depois de um minicurso. O escore de classificações corretas na avaliação Global (C, I, U, P) foi significativamente maior depois (Mediana = 23) que antes do minicurso (Mediana = 13) (Teste dos Sinais de Wilcoxon; z = -7,33; p = 0,000; Delta de Cliff δ = 0,96). O baixo percentual de acertos antes do minicurso entre os participantes justifica ampla divulgação do tema e mais ações como essa para estudantes, profissionais e para a população em geral.


Abstract The objective of this work was to present the theory, propose the practice and evaluate the difficulties of the new food classification system that was presented in the second edition of the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. The questionnaire used included a list of 30 foods divided into four groups: in natura or minimally processed foods (I), culinary ingredients (C), processed foods (P) and ultra-processed foods (U). The participants categorized the foods before and after a mini-course. The correct classification score in the Global Assessment (C, I, U, P) was significantly higher after the mini-course (Median = 23) than before the mini-course (Median = 13) (Wilcoxon Signal Test; z = -7.33; p = 0.000; Cliff's Delta δ = 0.96). The low percentage of correct answers before the mini-course justifies the wide dissemination of the theme and the need for more similar courses for students, professionals and the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nutrition Policy , Nutritional Sciences/education , Food/classification , Students , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(3): 272-282, may.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979150

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar el consumo de alimentos recomendables y no recomendables para consumo cotidiano, por características sociodemográficas en la población mexicana. Material y métodos: Se utilizó información del cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (de siete días), de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino 2016. Se estimó el porcentaje de consumidores en preescolares, escolares, adolescentes y adultos, por área, región y nivel socioeconómico (NSE). Resultados: Menos de 50% de la población consumió de verduras diariamente. Alrededor de 80% de la población consumió agua sola diariamente y bebidas endulzadas al menos tres días a la semana. Las regiones Centro y Ciudad de México tuvieron el mayor porcentaje de consumidores de frutas y verduras (p<0.012). El NSE alto presentó el mayor porcentaje de consumidores de grupos de alimentos recomendables y no recomendables. Conclusiones. Un porcentaje importante de la población no consume frutas, verduras, ni agua sola diariamente.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the recommendable and non-recommendable food groups for usual consumption by sociodemographic characteristics in Mexican population. Materials and methods: Through a 7-day, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, we estimated the proportions of population (preschool and school children, adolescents and adults) who consumed food groups that are relevant for public health by area, region and socioeconomic status (SES). Results: Less than 50% of population consumed vegetables daily; almost 80% of the population consumed plain water daily and sweetened beverages (3 d/week). Center and Mexico City regions had the highest percentage of fruits and vegetables consumers (p<0.012). High SES had the highest consumer´s percentage of recommendable and non-recommendable food groups. Conclusions: A high percentage of the population do not consume fruits, vegetables and plain water daily.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Food/classification , Social Class , Nutrition Surveys , Mexico
13.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 39(1): 121-139, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910551

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O processamento artificial de alimentos tem sido considerado um fator de risco importante na saúde. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura científica quanto à definição da classificação dos alimentos referente ao seu grau de processamento industrial. Métodos: revisão narrativa de artigos publicados nas bases de dados indexadas MEDLINE (PubMed) e LILACS e guias alimentares disponíveis na página online da Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). A estratégia de busca utilizada compreendeu os seguintes descritores: Processed food OR Unprocessed food OR Artisanal food OR Minimally processed food OR Highly processed OR Ultra-processed food OR Industrial food processing. Não houve restrição quanto ao idioma utilizado nas publicações. Resultados: foram identificados 1301 artigos nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS e 35 na página da FAO. Definições de alimentos processados ou ultraprocessados foram encontradas em diretrizes de apenas 8 dos 34 países avaliados nessa revisão. Apenas três diretrizes eram baseadas na classificação NOVA, utilizada no Brasil. Os demais países que utilizam classificações baseadas no grau de processamento industrial se pautam em definições variadas, baseadas na quantidade de aditivos, açucares, gorduras e outras substâncias. Além disso, apenas quatro países utilizam a classificação de ultraprocessados para alimentos altamente industrializados. Conclusões: apesar dos riscos já evidenciados em relação ao consumo destes alimentos, as evidências demonstram que o conceito em relação ao grau de processamento industrial de alimentos não apresenta uma definição padronizada.


Introduction: artificial food processing has been considered a major health risk factor. The objective of this study is to review the scientific literature regarding the definition of food classification related to its degree of industrial processing. Methods: narrative review. Articles published in MEDLINE (PubMed) and LILACS indexed databases and food guides available on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) website were evaluated. The search strategy used included the following descriptors: Processed food OR Unprocessed food OR Artisanal food OR Minimally processed food OR Highly processed OR Ultra-processed food OR Industrial food processing. There was no restriction on the language used in the publications. Results: 1301 articles in the PubMed and LILACS databases and 35 on the FAO website were identified. Food classifications based on the degree of industrial processing were found in only 8 of 34 countries included in this review. Of those, only three guidelines were based on the NOVA classification, currently used in Brazil. Other countries with food classifications based on industrial processing used definitions characterized by the addition of sugars, chemical additives, fats and other substances. Furthermore, only four countries used definitions for ultraprocessed foods specifically. Conclusion: the evidence demonstrates the concept in relation to industrial processing does not present a standard definition, despite the risks already evidenced in relation to the consumption of these.


Subject(s)
Food Handling/classification , Food/classification , Industrialized Foods , Health
14.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(6): 1771-1780, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-840006

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar o impacto do Programa Bolsa Família no consumo de alimentos nas regiões Nordeste e Sudeste. A base de dados procedeu do módulo sobre o consumo alimentar individual da Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada em 2008-09. O consumo foi avaliado por meio de dois registros alimentares. Os alimentos foram classificados em quatro grupos: in natura ou minimamente processados, ingredientes culinários, processados, e ultraprocessados. Para análise da medida de impacto utilizou-se o método Propensity Score Matching que assemelha os indivíduos beneficiários e não beneficiários em relação ao conjunto de características socioeconômicas. Após cálculo do propensity score estimou-se o impacto do programa através do algoritmo de pareamento do vizinho mais próximo. Mais de 60% do total calórico diário consumido pelos beneficiários do programa, em ambas as regiões, provém de alimentos que não sofreram processamento industrial. Os participantes do programa apresentaram menor consumo de alimentos processados e ultraprocessados, em ambas as regiões, e maior consumo de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados na região Nordeste. Os resultados ratificam a importância da adoção de políticas intersetoriais, em paralelo ao programa, para o fortalecimento de práticas alimentares saudáveis.


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (PBF) on food consumption in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil. The database was obtained from the individual food consumption module of the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008-09. Consumption was assessed through two food records. The food was categorized into four groups: fresh or minimally processed food; culinary ingredients; processed food; and ultra-processed food. To analyze the impact, the propensity score matching method was used, which compares the individual recipients and non-recipients of the PBF in relation to a group of socioeconomic characteristics. After the propensity score was calculated, the impact of the PBF was estimated through the nearest-neighbor matching algorithm. In both regions, more than 60% of the daily total calories consumed by PBF recipients came from foods that had not undergone industrial processing. The recipients of PBF had a low level of consumption of processed and ultra-processed food in both regions, and an increased level of consumption of fresh or minimally processed food in the northeast. The results indicate the importance of adopting intersectoral policies in parallel to the PBF in order to strengthen healthy eating practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Energy Intake , Feeding Behavior , Food/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , Brazil , Databases, Factual , Diet Surveys , Diet/economics , Food Supply/economics , Food/classification , Propensity Score , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(1): 85-95, ene. 2017. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845507

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a healthy dietary pattern. It includes a great variety of foods, which are eaten in moderation and within a positive social environment. The generic term “Mediterranean diet” was born after the “Seven Countries Study” led by Ancel Keys around 1960. This dietary pattern is characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats and olive oil. It also includes moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, low intake of red meat and drinking wine with moderation during meals. Nutritionally, this diet is low in saturated fats and animal protein, high in antioxidants, fiber and monounsaturated fats, and exhibits an adequate omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid balance. The main bioactive compounds, which explain the health benefits of this dietary pattern, are antioxidants, fiber, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and probiotics. This diet is not exclusively confined to the Mediterranean Basin. Central Chile has a Mediterranean climate and our agriculture and culinary traditions are similar to those found in Mediterranean countries. Therefore, it is fundamental to increase awareness about the richness of our natural produce as well as our culinary culture, which may bring many health benefits and improve the quality of life in our population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet, Mediterranean , Diet Therapy/methods , Quality of Life , Chile , Food/classification
16.
In. Pereira, Pablo; Aispuro, Mariana; Gribov Novogrebelsky, Débora; Meerhoff, Gabriela; Natero, Virginia; Olivetti, Miguel; Risso, Fernanda; Santín, Viviana; Valdés, Federico. Los alimentos y la infancia desde una mirada interdisciplinar. Montevideo, UdelaR. Ediciones Universitarias, 2017. p.19-29.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1372833

Subject(s)
Food/classification
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(6): 608-616, nov.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846031

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods: A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analysis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results: Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) and 0.29 (P=0.193) respectively. Conclusions: Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using factor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la validez de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (CFA) para derivar patrones dietarios en población adulta mexicana. Material y métodos: Un CFA de 140-alimentos y dos recordatorios de 24-horas (24DRs) fueron obtenidos. Los alimentos fueron categorizados en 29 grupos para derivar los patrones dietarios mediante análisis factorial. La validez se evaluó mediante coeficientes de correlación intraclase y de Pearson (CCP) entre los puntajes de los patrones dietarios identificados con CFA y 24DRs. Resultados: El patrón 1 fue alto en bocadillos, carnes procesadas, comida rápida, refrescos y granos refinados; el patrón 2 estuvo caracterizado por vegetales, frutas y lácteos; y el patrón 3 se caracterizó por leguminosas, huevo, azucares, y alimentos dulces. Los CCP entre estos patrones fueron 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) y 0.29 (P=0.193) respectivamente. Conclusión: Los datos sugieren razonable validez del CFA, utilizando análisis factorial, para derivar patrones dietarios en comparación con el 24DRs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diet Surveys , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Food/classification , Reproducibility of Results , Mexico
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(2): 261-273, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-793019

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for cancer. Adequate diet modification may play a key role in reducing the incidence of some cancers. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggested links of some nutritional exposures with individual cancers. This review updates and summarises the existing data on diet related factors for cancer prevention, evaluated in 2007 by World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and identifies the areas where more research is needed. Mechanisms of action of nutrients are discussed. For cancer prevention, more apparent association pertains to the role of foods from plant origin, processed meat products and alcohol. There is a lack of evidence to clarify the relationship of dairy and cereal products, different types of carbohydrates, micronutrients naturally found in foods vs supplements, industrial trans-fats, food preparation and handling techniques and dietary patterns and cancer, in order to implement safe cancer prevention strategies.


Resumen La dieta es un factor de riesgo modificable importante para el cáncer. Una modificación adecuada puede jugar un papel clave en la reducción de la incidencia de algunos cánceres. La evidencia epidemiológica sugiere enlaces de algunas exposiciones nutricionales con cánceres específicos. Esta revisión actualiza y resume los datos existentes sobre factores de la dieta que se relacionan con la prevención del cáncer, que fueron evaluados en 2007 por el World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research, e identifica áreas para profundizar en investigación. Se discuten mecanismos de acción de los nutrientes. Para la prevención del cáncer, la evidencia epidemiológica se relaciona con los alimentos de origen vegetal, carnes procesadas y alcohol. Se necesita más investigación para aclarar la relación que tienen con el cáncer ciertos alimentos como lácteos, granos, diferentes tipos de carbohidratos, y otros factores que podrían intervenir: micronutrientes presentes en los alimentos contra suplementos, grasas industriales trans, preparación de alimentos y hábitos alimentarios. Esto facilitaría la creación de estrategias seguras de prevención de cáncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Diet/adverse effects , Neoplasms/etiology , Beverages/adverse effects , Risk , Cooking , Feeding Behavior , Carnivory , Food/classification , Food/adverse effects , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/epidemiology
19.
Rev. saúde pública ; 50(supl.1): 5s, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774646

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o perfil de consumo alimentar e de macronutrientes, e estimar a prevalência de inadequação da ingestão de micronutrientes em adolescentes brasileiros. MÉTODOS Foram avaliados dados de 71.791 adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos que participaram do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (ERICA), realizado em 2013-2014. O consumo alimentar foi estimado por meio de recordatório alimentar de 24h; em uma subamostra dos adolescentes foi coletado um segundo R24h para a estimativa da variância intrapessoal e o cálculo de ingestão alimentar usual. Estimou-se prevalência de consumo de alimentos ou grupos de alimentos referidos pelos adolescentes. Para ingestão inadequada de sódio considerou-se valores acima do nível de ingestão máxima tolerável. Prevalências de inadequação foram calculadas pelo método da Necessidade Média Estimada (Estimated Average Requirement –EAR) como ponto de corte. Todas as análises foram estratificadas segundo sexo, faixa etária e macrorregiões do País, e levaram em consideração o peso amostral e a complexidade do desenho do estudo. RESULTADOS Os alimentos mais consumidos pelos adolescentes foram arroz, feijão e outras leguminosas, sucos e refrescos, pães, e carne bovina. A ingestão média de energia dos adolescentes variou de 2.036 kcal (meninas de 12 a 13 anos) a 2.582 kcal (meninos de 14 a 17 anos). O consumo de ácidos graxos saturados e de açúcar livre ultrapassaram limites máximos recomendados da ingestão energética total (< 10,0%). Maiores prevalências de inadequação (> 50,0%) foram para cálcio e vitaminas A e E. O consumo de sódio foi acima dos limites máximos recomendados em mais de 80,0% dos adolescentes. CONCLUSÕES A dieta dos adolescentes brasileiros é caracterizada pelo consumo de alimentos tradicionais, como arroz e feijão, e ingestão elevada de bebidas açucaradas e alimentos ultraprocessados. Esse padrão associa-se à elevada inadequação da ingestão de cálcio, vitaminas A e E e ao consumo excessivo de ácidos graxos saturados, sódio e açúcar livre.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Diet Surveys , Eating , Energy Intake , Feeding Behavior , Micronutrients , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food/classification
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(8): e00104715, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952302

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Estudo com objetivo de descrever o preço dos grupos de alimentos consumidos no Brasil considerando a natureza, a extensão e o propósito de seu processamento. Dados provenientes da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2008-2009 foram utilizados. O preço médio dos grupos (in natura, ingredientes culinários, processados e ultraprocessados) e seus respectivos subgrupos de alimentos foram estimados para o Brasil segundo renda, região e área. Os produtos in natura e ingredientes culinários apresentaram menor preço por caloria quando comparado aos demais grupos, sugerindo uma vantagem econômica no preparo de refeições no lar em comparação a sua substituição por ultraprocessados. As famílias de maior nível econômico pagaram preço mais elevado por suas aquisições, enquanto as regiões Nordeste, Norte e a área rural pagaram os menores preços. Enquanto alimentos frescos (como carnes, leite, frutas e hortaliças) tendem a custar mais caro que alimentos ultraprocessados, grãos secos (como o arroz e o feijão) despontam como uma alternativa mais econômica para adoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis.


Abstract: This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices.


Resumen: El estudio tuvo como objetivo describir el precio de los grupos de alimentos consumidos en Brasil, considerando la naturaleza, la extensión y el propósito de su procesamiento. Se utilizaron datos provenientes de la Investigación de Presupuestos Familiares de 2008-2009. Se estimó el precio medio de los grupos (in natura, ingredientes culinarios, procesados y ultraprocesados) y sus respectivos subgrupos de alimentos para Brasil según renta, región y área. Los productos in natura e ingredientes culinarios presentaron menor precio por caloría, cuando se comparan con los demás grupos, sugiriendo una ventaja económica en la preparación de comidas en el hogar, en comparación a su sustitución por alimentos ultraprocesados. Las familias de mayor nivel económico pagaron un precio más elevado por sus adquisiciones, mientras que las regiones Nordeste, Norte y el área rural pagaron menores precios. En lo referente a los alimentos frescos (como carnes, leche, frutas y hortalizas) tienden a costar más caro que los alimentos ultraprocesados, legumbres (como el arroz y los frijoles) despuntan como una alternativa más económica para adopción de prácticas alimentarias saludables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cooking/economics , Diet/economics , Food/classification , Food/economics , Food Handling/economics , Brazil , Energy Intake , Family Characteristics , Cooking/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Food Handling/classification , Income
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