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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21972, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439532

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazilian green propolis has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical products due to its valuable source of phenolic compounds and versatile biological activities. The development and validation of analytical methods are extremely useful for the characterization and quality control of products containing propolis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to optimize, validate and investigate the applicability of a reversed-phase HPLC method for analysis of different types of Brazilian green propolis extracts (glycolic and ethanolic). The method showed to be selective for the propolis phenolic markers. The analysis of variance and residues demonstrated that the method had significant linear regression, without lack of fit. It was also a precise, accurate and robust method, which was of utmost importance to analyze both glycolic and ethanolic extracts and at different concentrations. Moreover, as these products can display most complex matrices to analyze, a valid HPLC method can also prove to be specific and versatile.


Subject(s)
Propolis/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Phytochemicals/analysis , Food/classification
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 107 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437843

ABSTRACT

Atualmente a agricultura ocupa um papel de extrema importância na conjuntura global e nacional e está inserida em um contexto de enormes desafios devido ao aumento da população mundial e maior demanda por alimentos. Ao mesmo tempo, é o setor mais afetado pelos impactos negativos das mudanças climáticas, que têm espalhado suas consequências de maneira cada vez mais frequente e intensa. Um dos principais efeitos é a alteração do regime de chuvas ao redor do globo, ocasionando estiagens intensas e duradouras, capazes de reduzir a produtividade de safras e comprometer a produção alimentícia. As abordagens atualmente existentes no mercado para mitigar as consequências negativas da escassez hídrica demandam alto investimento de implementação e manutenção, ou possuem um perfil ecotoxicológico insatisfatório. Polímeros de origem natural modificados quimicamente foram avaliados em termos de desempenho e capacidade de prover às plantas uma maior disponibilidade de água através de retenção hídrica. Os resultados alcançados demonstraram que os polímeros modificados com grupos iônicos foram capazes de promover um melhor gerenciamento hídrico no microambiente ao redor de sementes e entregar ganhos de produtividade a lavouras de soja. O mecanismo de ação da tecnologia estudada foi elucidado através de ensaios de determinação de capacidade de campo, análise de elipsometria, microscopia de força atômica, ensaios de germinação de soja sob estresse hídrico e implementação de áreas de soja a céu aberto a partir da aplicação em tratamento de sementes e sulco de plantio. As interações intra e intermoleculares entre as partículas de solo, moléculas de polímero e de água se mostraram ponto chave para a mudança de patamar de desempenho de polímeros naturais modificados utilizados na agricultura, quando comparados com os grupos controle. A tecnologia aqui estudada é, portanto, recomendada para utilização na agricultura, com capacidade de potencializar o efeito de tecnologias dependentes de água, resultando em maior produtividade na colheita


Nowadays agriculture occupies an extremely important role both in the global and national scenarios. Its included in a very challenging context due to the forecast of increased world population and consequent higher demand for food. At the same time, it is the most affected economic sector by the climate change effects, which have been causing frequent and harsh impacts. One of the main effects is the change in the rainfall pattern worldwide, which causes severe and long-lasting droughts, responsible for causing crops to fail and therefore putting food production at risk. The current available mitigation measures to address hydric scarcity require a huge investment for implementation and maintenance or do not present a satisfactory and safe ecotoxicological profile. Chemically modified natural polymers have been evaluated in terms of performance and ability to provide the plants with higher water availability through hydric retention. The results obtained show that such ionic group modified polymers are able to promote better water management in a given microenvironment surrounding the seeds and ultimately delivery a higher yield to soy crops. The technology's mode of action has been elucidated through field capacity determination trials, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, soy germination trials under hydric stress and, finally, implementation of soy areas under actual field conditions by applying the polymers via seed treatment and in-furrow methods. Both intra- and intermolecular interaction between soil particles, polymer and water molecules have been proven as key to understanding the agricultural performance improvement of the modified polymers when compared to the control. The technology is recommended for agricultural applications due to its ability to boost the effect of water-dependent technologies, promoting higher yields


Subject(s)
Polymers/analysis , Dehydration/complications , Agriculture/classification , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Soil , Glycine max/growth & development , Water , Efficiency/classification , Food/classification
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22452, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections of oral cavity in humans, causing great oral discomfort, pain and aversion to food. To develop more effective antifungal systems for the treatment of oral candidiasis, an oral mucoadhesive wafer containing sertaconazole solid dispersion (STZ-SD) was developed in this study. Dispersion of STZ in Soluplus® as a solubility enhancement excipient was done by melting, solvent evaporation and freeze drying method at various STZ to Soluplus® ratios. The optimized STZ-SD was then incorporated in the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) gel, xanthan gum gel, or their combination to prepare the lyophilized wafers. The swelling capacity, porosity, and mechanical, release and mucoadhesive properties of the wafers, together with their antifungal activity, were then evaluated. The melting method sample with the ratio of 8:1 showed the best results in terms of saturation solubility and dissolution rate. The STZ-SD-composite wafer exhibited higher hardness and mucoadhesion, as compared to those made of the SCMC polymer. The STZ-SD-wafer also exhibited a greater antifungal effect when compared to the STZ-wafer. The present study, thus, suggested that the STZ-SD-wafer could serve as a novel effective delivery system for oral candidiasis treatment.


Subject(s)
Mouth/pathology , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Food/classification , Freeze Drying/classification , Gingiva/abnormalities
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 109-124, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1382064

ABSTRACT

Em 2009, foi proposta uma classificação de alimentos, denominada classificação NOVA. Países da América Latina tem se destacado em seu uso nas recomendações nutricionais e agenda regulatória. Objetivo. Avaliar como a produção científica em alimentação e nutrição na América Latina tem incorporado a classificação NOVA. Materiais e métodos. A análise da produção científica foi realizada a partir de trabalhos apresentados no Congresso Latinoamericano de Nutrição (SLAN) nos anos de 2012, 2015 e 2018. Os termos utilizados para a busca foram: NOVA, ultraprocessado, processado, processamento e guia alimentar, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Após a busca, foram aplicados os critérios de exclusão e inclusão e os resumos selecionados foram descritos de acordo com variáveis analíticas previamente definidas. Resultados. Foram analisados 153, sendo 24 publicados em 2012, 20 em 2015 e 109 em 2018. A maioria dos estudos foram desenvolvidos no Brasil (56,2%) e no México (12,4%) e envolvia adolescentes (28,8%), adultos (21,6%) e alimentos (19,6%) como sujeito/unidade de análise. A maioria dos trabalhos foi classificada na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública (88,9%), era de natureza observacional (82,3%) e empregava método quantitativo (76,5%). A venda e/ou consumo de alimentos (46,4%) e o ambiente alimentar (24,2%) foram os objetos de estudo mais frequentes. Conclusão. A produção científica que considera a classificação NOVA na América Latina aumentou em 2018, com Brasil e México liderando o desenvolvimento dos estudos. Estudos que explorem a relação da classificação NOVA com o preço dos alimentos, habilidades culinárias e políticas públicas são oportunidades de pesquisa(AU)


In 2009, a food classification was proposed, called NOVA classification. Latin American countries have stood out in their use in nutritional recommendations and regulatory agenda. Objective. To evaluate how scientific production in food and nutrition in Latin America has incorporated the NOVA classification. Materials and methods. The analysis of scientific production was carried out from annals at the Latin American Congress of Nutrition (SLAN) in 2012, 2015 and 2018. The terms used for the search were: NOVA, ultra-processed, processed, processing and food guide, in Portuguese, English and Spanish. After the search, the exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied and the selected abstracts were described according to previously defined analytical variables. Results. A total of 153 were analyzed, 24 of which were published in 2012, 20 in 2015 and 109 in 2018. Most studies were carried out in Brazil (56,2%), followed by Mexico (12,4%) and involved adolescents (28,8%), adults (21,6%) and food (19,6%) as subject or unit of analysis. Most of the works were classified in the area of Public Health Nutrition (88,9%), were observational (82,3%) and used a quantitative method (76,5%). The sale and/or consumption of food (46,4%) and the food environment (24,2%) were the most common objects of study. Conclusion. The scientific production that considers the NOVA classification in Latin America increased in 2018, with Brazil and Mexico leading the development of studies. Studies that explore the relationship of NOVA classification to food price, culinary skills and public policy analysis are research opportunities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Eating , Scientific and Technical Publications , Food/classification , Food Handling , Congresses as Topic , Food Guide , Latin America , Obesity
5.
Rio de Janeiro; IMS/UERJ; 2022/05/18. 68 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1438225

ABSTRACT

A proposta de Categorização dos serviços de alimentação foi baseada no Projeto Piloto da Copa do Mundo FIFA®2014 que por sua vez inspirou-se nas experiências bem-sucedidas de cidades como Los Angeles, Nova York e Londres (BRASIL, 2013). A Categorização é uma proposta para classificar os serviços de alimentação com base em um instrumento de avaliação, pontuado, segundo critérios de risco sanitário, com base na Resolução de Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) nº 216/2004 (BRASIL, 2004). A classificação ou Categorização do serviço de alimentação fica visível ao consumidor, dando a oportunidade de que este conheça a qualidade sanitária do local que utiliza. A metodologia preconiza o uso de uma lista de avaliação reduzida e com foco nos itens de maior risco sanitário para DTA. Além de melhorar a qualidade sanitária dos estabelecimentos, conscientiza o cidadão e compromete os responsáveis legais pela garantia do cumprimento das Boas Práticas de Manipulação (BPM). Este Guia é um documento não normativo, de caráter recomendatório, norteador para Categorização dos serviços de alimentação no estado do Rio de Janeiro e outros locais interessados. Tem como objetivo orientar as equipes e gestores das Visa estaduais e municipais na implantação da Categorização e nas inspeções sanitárias, bem como orientar os responsáveis legais dos serviços de alimentação na realização da autoavaliação, etapa fundamental da Categorização.


Subject(s)
Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Foodborne Diseases , Food Services/classification , Health Risk , Sanitary Inspection , Food/classification
6.
Rio de Janeiro; IMS/UERJ; 2022/05/18. 24 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1442804

ABSTRACT

Este documento traz o detalhamento sobre a utilização da planilha em Microsoft Excel®, Versão 2017, elaborada para facilitar o cálculo da pontuação de risco, da lista de avaliação para a Categorização dos serviços de alimentação.


Subject(s)
Health Surveillance , Public Health , Health Risk , Food/classification , Food Inspection , Sanitary Inspection , Food Preservation
7.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210184, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387495

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the development and update of an instrument for food categorisation according to the extension and purpose of industrial processing, and to test its practical application. Methods After updating the instrument based on a recent publication on the NOVA classification, it was applied by five researchers to a database of 108 food items. These items are part of a database of foods announced in the health-related sections of supermarket promotional circulars. The Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient was calculated to determine intra-rater agreement; Fleiss' kappa and Kendall's coefficient were applied to determine inter-rater agreement. Results In the updated version, two classes of additives and eight substances considered by the most recent publication as specific to ultra-processed foods were added. The intra-rater agreement was 100% (p<0.001), indicating an "almost perfect" agreement; Fleiss' agreement among all raters ranged from 74% to 97% (p<0.001), which represents an agreement that ranged from "strong" to "almost perfect"; Kendall's W was higher than 0.93 (p<0.001) among all raters. Conclusion The updated instrument showed high agreement and proved to be a methodologically sound and applicable tool for the purpose of classifying foods by the extension and purpose of industrial processing.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o desenvolvimento e atualização de um instrumento para categorização dos alimentos de acordo com a extensão e propósito de seu processamento industrial e avaliar sua aplicação prática. Métodos Após a atualização do instrumento com base em publicação recente sobre o tema, ele foi aplicado por cinco pesquisadores em um banco de dados de 108 alimentos. Esses alimentos são parte de um banco de dados de alimentos anunciados em seções relacionadas à saúde de panfletos promocionais de supermercado. Para avaliar a concordância intra-avaliador foi calculado o kappa ponderado de Cohen e para a concordância interavaliadores foram calculados o kappa de Fleiss e o coeficiente de concordância de Kendall. Resultados Na versão atualizada foram adicionadas duas classes de aditivos e oito substâncias, consideradas pela publicação mais recente como específicas de alimentos ultraprocessados. A concordância intra-avaliador foi de 100% (p<0,001), o que indica uma concordância "quase perfeita"; a concordância de Fleiss entre todos os avaliadores variou de 74% a 97% (p<0,001), o que representa uma concordância que variou de "forte" a "quase perfeita"; a concordância de Kendall foi W >0,93 (p<0,001) entre todos os avaliadores. Conclusão O instrumento atualizado apresentou uma elevada concordância e mostrou-se uma ferramenta metodologicamente útil e aplicável quando se tem por objetivo classificar alimentos pela extensão e propósito do processamento industrial.


Subject(s)
Workflow , Food/classification , Food Handling/classification , /methods
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18837, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recently, the acetate wheat starch (AWS) has been prepared by acetylation with an acetyl content of 2.42%, containing of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) with 25.0%; 22.9% and 34.5%, respectively. In this study, this kind of starch was continuously evaluated with the postprandial blood glucose response and determined short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolized from AWS in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy mice by HPLC. The result showed that the mice fed with AWS exhibited a very limited increase in blood glucose level and remained stable for 2 hours after meals efficiently comparing with the control group fed with natural wheat starch (NWS). Simultaneously, the content of SCFAs produced in the caecum of the mice fed with AWS was significantly higher than mice fed with NWS, especially with acetic and propionic acids by 28% and 26%, respectively. Thus, AWS has shown to limit the postprandial hyperglycemia in mice effectively through the resistance to amylase hydrolysis in the small intestine. When going into the caecum, it is fermented to form SCFAs providing a part of energy for the body's activities, avoiding rotten fermentation causing digestive disorders which are inherent restrictions of normal high cellulose and fiber food.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Starch/adverse effects , Triticum/classification , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Acetates/agonists , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Food/classification , Glucose/pharmacology
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 101 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415567

ABSTRACT

O queijo Minas Artesanal da Canastra é produzido na Serra da Canastra (MG), utilizando leite cru, coalho e pingo, que é uma cultura endógena natural de cada queijaria. Devido ao uso de leite cru, o produto pode veicular microrganismos causadores de doenças veiculadas por alimentos, como Staphylococcus aureus. A caracterização molecular é uma ferramenta importante para avaliar a população microbiana do alimento e direcionar a aplicação de medidas de controle na produção. Este estudo caracterizou a diversidade genética, o potencial de virulência e determinou o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de S. aureus isolados de queijos produzidos na Serra da Canastra. Para o estudo transversal foram analisados 248 isolados de queijos que tinham um tempo de maturação de 22 dias, provenientes de 83 propriedades. Por outro lado, no estudo longitudinal foram analisados outros 197 isolados coletados ao longo do processo de maturação, provenientes de três propriedades. Os isolados foram submetidos a testes bioquímicos para confirmação do gênero e para a confirmação da espécie de S. aureus, foi identificado o gene nuc por meio da técnica de PCR. Além disso, foi pesquisado o gene mecA para a detecção de S. aureus Resistente a Meticilina (MRSA). Após os testes de confirmação, 144 isolados do estudo transversal e 159 do estudo longitudinal foram positivos para o gene nuc, específico para S. aureus. Posteriormente, o perfil clonal foi determinado por Eletroforese de Campo Pulsado (PFGE) utilizando a enzima SmaI e tipagem do locus agr por PCR multiplex. A análise por PFGE foi realizada no programa BioNumerics. A técnica PCR foi realizada para identificar a presença de genes que codificam a produção de hemolisinas, toxina TSST-1, enterotoxinas SEs (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEO, SEM), formação de biofilme e Componentes Microbianos de Superfície que Reconhecem a Matriz de Moléculas Adesivas (MSCRAMMs). Os isolados foram submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos por disco de difusão. Por último, a formação de biofilme em microplaca de 96 poços, em caldo TSB a 37°C, foi verificada pela metodologia de Cristal Violeta. O gene mecA foi detectado em 1,9% dos 445 isolados. A tipagem agrrevelou que 83 (27,4%) dos isolados são do tipo agr-I, 95 (31,4%) agr-II e 43 (14,2%) agr-III, sendo que não foram detectados isolados classificados como agr-IV. A tipagem por PFGE revelou um total de 54 perfis. Assim, um isolado representativo de cada perfil foi utilizado nos demais testes que mostraram a presença dos genótipos spa mais frequentes t127 e t605 (20,58%); t002 (14,70%), seguidos pelos tipos t267 (8,82%); t1234 e t693 (5,8%) e t021, t177, t306, t321, t359, t442, t521, t693 e t5493 (2,9%). Além disso, encontramos a presença dos genes do grupo SEs, sea 1 (1,8%), seh 11 (20,3%), sei 10 (18,5%), sej 7 (12,9%), seg e seo 14 (25,9%), sem 8 (14,8%), e os genes seb, sec, sed, see e tst não foram detectados. Para os genes das hemolisinas, hla foi positivo em todos os isolados e hlb foi positivo em 53 (98,1%) isolados. Os genes positivos para MSCRAMMS foram fnbA, fnbB 18 (33,3%), clfA, clfB e eno 53 (98,1%), fib 44 (81,4%), bbp 4 (7,4%), cna 17 (31,4%) e ebps 10 (18,5%). Por último, os genes de formação de biofilme icaA e icaD estiveram presentes em 38 (70,3%) e 25 (46,2%) dos isolados, respectivamente. Na avaliação de susceptibilidade a antibióticos dos 54 isolados escolhidos, 25 (46,3%) apresentaram maior resistência a penicilina e 13 (24,0%) a tetraciclina. Em menor porcentagem (1,8%), 1 isolado cada foi resistente a eritromicina, cefoxitina, clindamicina, gentamicina, cotrimazol, azitromicina e trimetropim. Além disso, 8 isolados (14,8%) apresentaram resistência intermediaria a tetraciclina, 3 (5,5%) a gentamicina e 1 (1,8%) a tobramicina. No teste para a determinação da formação de biofilme por cristal violeta, 13,7%, foram classificados em isolados não formadores, 60,8% em fracamente formadores, 25,5% moderadamente formadores e nenhum como fortemente formador. A alta diversidade de cepas de S. aureus observada neste estudo mostrou que existem vários tipos de linhagens circulando na região da Canastra. A caracterização revelou uma elevada frequência de genes de virulência e que mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o potencial de produção de enterotoxinas nos queijos artesanais. A melhora dos procedimentos de higienização durante todas as etapas de produção pode ser uma solução para a redução dos níveis de contaminação por S. aureus


Canastra Minas Artesanal cheese is produced in Serra da Canastra (MG), using raw milk, rennet and a natural endogenous culture called pingo. Due to the use of raw milk, the product can carry microorganisms that cause foodborne diseases, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular characterization is an important tool to assess the microbial population of food and guide the application of control measures in production. This study characterized the genetic diversity, virulence potential and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of S. aureus isolated from cheeses produced in Serra da Canastra. A total of 248 isolates from 22 days ripened cheeses were obtained from 83 properties (cross sectional study). Another 197 isolates were collected during maturation (longitudinal study), in three properties. The isolates were submitted to biochemical tests to confirm the genus and to confirm the S. aureus species, the nuc gene was identified by PCR. In addition, the detection of mecA gene was performed for the detection of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). After confirmation tests, 144 isolates from the cross-sectional study and 159 from the longitudinal study were positive for the nuc gene, specific for S. aureus. Subsequently, the clonal profile of the isolates was determined by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) using the SmaI enzyme and typing of the agr locus by multiplex PCR. PFGE analysis was performed using the BioNumerics program. PCR was performed to identify the presence of genes encoding the production of hemolysins, TSST-1 toxin, enterotoxins SEs (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEO, SEM), biofilm formation and microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). The isolates were submitted to the antimicrobial susceptibility test by disc diffusion. Finally, biofilm formation in a 96-well microplate in TSB broth at 37°C was verified by the Cristal Violeta method. The mecA gene was detected in 1.9% of the 445 isolates. Agr typing revealed that 83 (27.4%) of the isolates are agr-I, 95 (31.4%) agr-II and 43 (14.2%) agr-III, and no isolate was classified as agr-IV. PFGE typing revealed a total of 54 profiles. Thus, a representative isolate of each profile was used in the other tests that showed the presence of the most frequent spagenotypes t127, t605 (20.58%); t002 (14.70%), followed by types t267 (8.82%); t1234, t693 (5.8%) e t021, t177, t306, t321, t359, t442, t521, t693 and t5493 (2.9%). In addition, we found the presence of the genes of the SEs group: sea 1 (1.8%), seh 11 (20.3%), sei 10 (18.5%), sej 7 (12.9%), seg and seo 14 (25.9%), sem 8 (14.8%), while seb, sec, sed, see and tst genes were not detected. For hemolysin genes, hla was positive in all isolates and hlb was positive in 53 (98.1%) isolates. The positive genes for MSCRAMMS were: fnbA, fnbB 18 (33.3%), clfA, clfB e eno 53 (98.1%), fib 44 (81.4%), bbp 4 (7.4%), cna 17 (31.4%) and ebps 10 (18.5%). Finally, the biofilm formation genes icaA and icaD were present in 38 (70.3%) and 25 (46.2%) of the isolates, respectively. In the evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility of the 54 isolates, 25 (46.3%) showed greater resistance to penicillin and 13 (24.0%) to tetracycline. In a lower percentage (1.8%), 1 isolate each was resistant to erythromycin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, gentamicin, contrimazole, azithromycin and trimethoprim. In addition, 8 isolates (14.8%) showed intermediate resistance to tetracycline, 3 (5.5%) to gentamicin and 1 (1.8%) to tobramycin. In the test for the determination of biofilm formation by crystal violet, 13.7% were classified as non-forming isolates, 60.8% as weakly forming, 25.5% moderately forming and none as strongly forming. The high diversity of S. aureus strains observed in this study showed that there are several types of strains circulating in the Canastra region. The characterization revealed a high frequency of virulence genes and that further studies are needed to assess the potential for enterotoxin production in artisanal cheeses. The improvement of hygiene procedures during all stages of production can be a solution for reducing the levels of contamination by S. aureus


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Cheese/analysis , Food/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Hygiene/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/methods , Milk/adverse effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e190800, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383964

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flavonoids display various beneficial biological properties, such as antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity, which make them useful ingredients in foods, pharmaceuticals, and functional cosmetics. In particular, dihydroquercetin (DHQ) is found in various forms, and its derivatives exhibit interesting biological properties. Herein, we report the synthesis of acetylated and butyrylated dihydroquercetin derivatives and their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The DHQ derivatives were identified using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies and high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The chemical stabilities of the acetylated dihydroquercetin derivatives were found to depend on the number of acetate groups, with 3,3',4',4,7-pentaacetyldihydroquercetin found to be the most stable acetylated dihydroquercetin. Furthermore, 7,3',4'-triacetyl- dihydroquercetin exhibited potent antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 56.67 ± 4.79 µg/mL in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, with DHQ exhibiting a value of 32.41 ± 3.35 µg/mL. The reactive-oxygen-species-scavenging activity of 7,3',4'-triacetyldihydroquercetin was highest among the esters in the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, but lower than that of DHQ. Overall, both DHQ and 7,3',4'-triacetyldihydroquercetin exhibited antimicrobial behavior against S. aureus and P. acnes using the paper disc assay. DHQ displayed a higher antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 625 µg/mL (P. acnes), 2,500 µg/mL (S. aureus), and 5,000 µg/mL (E. coli). DHQ and acetylated dihydroquercetins are potentially useful as complex antioxidant and antimicrobial materials


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cosmetics/classification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Research Report , Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Food/classification , Acetates/administration & dosage
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191133, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394030

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study is aimed at investigating the functional physicochemical and solid state characteristics of food-grade Tetracarpidium conophorum (T. conophorum) oil for possible application in the pharmaceutical industry for drug delivery. The oil was obtained by cold hexane extraction and its physicochemical properties including viscosity, pH, peroxide, acid, and thiobarbituric acid values, nutrient content, and fatty acid profile were determined. Admixtures of the oil with Softisan®154, a hydrogenated solid lipid from palm oil, were prepared to obtain matrices which were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. Data from the study showed that T. conophorum oil had Newtonian flow behaviour, acidic pH, insignificant presence of hyperperoxides and malondialdehyde, contains minerals including calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, iron, selenium, and potassium, vitamins including niacin (B3), thiamine (B1), cyanocobalamine (B12), ascorbic acid (C), and tocopherol (E), and long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids including n-hexadecanoic acid, 9(Z)-octadecenoic acid, and cis-13-octadecenoic acid. The lipid matrices had low crystallinity and enthalpy values with increased amorphicity, and showed no destructive intermolecular interaction or incompatibility between T. conophorum oil and Softisan® 154. In conclusion, the results have shown that, in addition to T. conophorum oil being useful as food, it will also be an important excipient for the development of novel, safe, and effective lipid-based drug delivery systems.


Subject(s)
Oils/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chemistry, Physical/instrumentation , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Food/classification
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19094, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345458

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, can migrate from packaging material into food stuff. This research was designed to measure BPA levels in makdous, a traditional Syrian food. Forty three samples of makdous stored in different plastic containers (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and unspecified plastic containers) were analyzed every 3 months for one year beginning July 2017. Quantification of BPA was carried out by an RP-HPLC system equipped with fluorescence detector after solid phase extraction. Migration was found in PE and PP plastic containers with slight differences. Statistically significant differences in BPA levels were observed between samples assayed after two weeks of preparation and samples assayed after 12 months (mean 16.32 vs. 38.26 µg/kg, p value=0.003). According to these amounts, BPA levels were all under the specific migration limit of 0.05 mg/kg as newly referred in Regulation (EU) No 2018/213. These levels of exposure would only contribute to 2.15% and 2.75% of the EFSA t-TDI in both men and women respectively based on mean dietary exposure estimates derived from a 24-h dietary information study from 875 participants. Hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from makdous consumption


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Endocrine Disruptors/classification , Solid Phase Extraction/instrumentation , Food/classification , Plastics/adverse effects , Polypropylenes , Weights and Measures , Product Packaging/classification , Health Risk , Dietary Exposure/adverse effects
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 484-492, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126148

ABSTRACT

El sistema de porciones de intercambio es una metodología sencilla y rápida que se utiliza para entregar indicaciones alimentarias a usuarios sanos y con patologías. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para actualizar conceptos y evaluar la vigencia de su uso y sus aplicaciones. El sistema es ampliamente usado en diferentes países, incluyendo Chile, existiendo distintos tipos de listas de alimentos y preparaciones según la metodología de la definición de las porciones, o bien según diversidad y número de alimentos presentes. Su uso es mayormente con fines asistenciales, siendo también útil en educación comunitaria y docencia. En Chile, los listados de porciones intercambiables fueron publicados el año 1999 y no se han actualizado hasta la fecha. Razones como el cambio en el perfil epidemiológico, mayor acceso a la información y la diversificación de alimentos en la dieta, hace necesario una revisión in extenso de los listados nacionales, con el fin de incorporar mayor diversidad de alimentos y preparaciones típicas a tan masiva y necesaria herramienta técnica, que es fundamental para el profesional Nutricionista y un aporte a la salud y a la cultura de los países.


The food portion exchange list is a simple and fast methodology that is used to give dietary indications to healthy and sick users. A review was carried out to update concepts and evaluate the current state of the exchange list used and their application. The system is widely used in different countries, including Chile, there are different types of foods or preparations exchange lists that use different methodologies for the definition of portions, according to the diversity and number of foods present. Its use is mainly for healthcare purposes, being also useful in community education and college teaching. In Chile, the food portion exchange lists were published in 1999 and have not been updated since. Reasons such as the change in the epidemiological profile, greater access to information and the diversification of foods in the diet, make necessary an in-depth review of the national lists, in order to incorporate a greater diversity of foods and typical preparations. Exchange lists are a necessary technical tool fundamental for nutrition professionals and contribute to the health and culture of countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet , Food/classification , Food Analysis/methods , Menu Planning/methods , Food and Nutrition Education , Chile , Global Health , Patient Education as Topic , Nutritional Requirements
14.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): 48711, jan.- mar.2020. graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361826

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A segunda edição do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira utiliza a classificação NOVA de alimentos nas recomendações para uma alimentação saudável. Essa classificação, portanto, desempenha importante papel na formação de nutricionistas. Objetivo: Comparar o conhecimento da classificação NOVA de alimentos entre estudantes ingressantes e concluintes de Nutrição. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em 2016 com estudantes ingressantes e concluintes de um curso de Nutrição do Mato Grosso do Sul. Questionário contendo 30 alimentos foi aplicado com estudantes que os classificaram em: in natura ou minimamente processado, ingrediente culinário processado, processado ou ultraprocessado. O conhecimento foi avaliado por meio de escore de classificações corretas, global e por grupo alimentar. Para análise comparativa, foi utilizado teste U de Mann-Whitney (significância p≤0,05). Resultados: Participaram 69 estudantes (64% ingressantes). O escore global de classificações corretas foi significativamente maior (p=0,000) nos concluintes (mediana=17) comparado aos ingressantes (mediana=14). O escore de classificações corretas entre ingressantes e concluintes apresentou diferenças significativas para todos os grupos alimentares, excetuando ingredientes culinários (p=0,117). Entre todos estudantes, o grupo ingrediente culinário obteve o menor percentual de acertos (24,1%), e ultraprocessado, obteve o maior percentual (77,8%). Conclusão: Apesar do maior conhecimento dos concluintes em relação aos ingressantes, identificou-se um conhecimento insatisfatório sobre a classificação NOVA em ambos. É importante garantir o aprendizado de estudantes de Nutrição quanto à NOVA, uma vez que esta classificação é central na orientação nutricional da população brasileira e, portanto, passa a ser ferramenta fundamental na atuação do profissional nutricionista. (AU)


Introduction: The second edition of the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian population uses the NOVA food classification for healthy diet recommendations. Therefore, this classification plays an important role in the training of nutritionists. Objective: To compare the knowledge of the NOVA food classification among incoming and outgoing Nutrition students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 involving the incoming and outgoing students of an undergraduate Nutrition course in Mato Grosso do Sul. A questionnaire containing 30 food items was administered to the students, who classified them into: unprocessed or minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed food. The students' knowledge was then evaluated using a score of correct classifications, overall and by food group. The Mann­Whitney U test was used for comparative analysis (significant when p≤0,05). Results: A total of 69 students participated (64% were incoming). The overall score of correct classifications was significantly higher (p=0.000) in outgoing students (median=17) than in incoming students (median=14). The score difference of correct classifications between the incoming and outgoing student groups showed significant differences for all food groups, except culinary ingredients (p=0.117). The culinary ingredient group obtained the lowest percentage of correct answers (24.1%), and the ultra-processed food group obtained the highest percentage (77.8%) among all students. Conclusion: Although outgoing students had greater knowledge than incoming students, unsatisfactory knowledge was identified on the NOVA classification in both groups. It is important to assure that the Nutrition students learn about the NOVA classification, since this classification is central to the nutritional guidance of the Brazilian population and, therefore, becomes a fundamental tool in the work of the professional nutritionist. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food Guide , Food/classification , Students, Health Occupations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Knowledge , Nutritional Sciences/education
15.
CoDAS ; 32(1): e20180216, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039630

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os achados videoendoscópicos da deglutição orofaríngea em distintas consistências de alimento na Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA). Método Estudo clínico retrospectivo com amostra de conveniência. Foram incluídos 20 indivíduos com diagnóstico de ELA e disfagia orofaríngea confirmada por avaliação clínica e objetiva de deglutição, independentemente do tipo, bulbar ou esquelética, e tempo de diagnóstico neurológico, 13 do sexo masculino e sete do sexo feminino, faixa etária variando de 34 a 78 anos, média de 57 anos. Foram analisados os achados da videoendoscopia de deglutição (VED) nas consistências líquida (N=18), líquida espessada (N=19) e pastosa (N=20) no volume de cinco ml. Os achados sobre escape oral posterior, resíduos faríngeos, penetração laríngea e/ou aspiração foram comparados nas três consistências de alimento e a análise estatística utilizou o teste ANOVA de Friedman. Resultados Não foi encontrada alteração na sensibilidade laríngea nessa população. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as consistências de alimento na presença de escape oral posterior, penetração e/ou aspiração. Houve diferença estatística significativa somente com resíduos faríngeos na consistência líquida espessada e pastosa na ELA. Conclusão Dentre os achados videoendoscópicos da deglutição na ELA, somente o resíduo faríngeo teve maior frequência na dependência da consistência de alimento.


ABSTRACT Purpose This study aimed to compare the fiberoptic endoscopic findings of oropharyngeal swallowing of distinct food consistencies in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Methods This was a retrospective clinical study of a convenience sample of 20 individuals (13 males and seven females aged 34 to 78 years old) with a diagnosis of ALS and oropharyngeal dysphagia confirmed by clinical and objective evaluation of swallowing, regardless of the bulbar or skeletal type and of the time of neurological diagnosis. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) of the liquid (N = 18), thickened liquid (N = 19) and pureed samples (N = 20) in a volume of 5 ml were analyzed. Data related to posterior oral spillage, pharyngeal residues, laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration after swallowing the three food consistencies were analyzed statistically by the Friedman ANOVA test. Results No impairment of laryngeal sensitivity was found in this population. There was no statistically significant difference in posterior oral spillage, penetration and/or aspiration between food consistencies. There was a statistically significant difference only related to pharyngeal residues of the thickened liquid and pureed consistency. Conclusion Among the fiberoptic endoscopic findings of swallowing in ALS, only pharyngeal residues had a higher frequency depending on the consistency of food.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Oropharynx , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Deglutition , Food/classification , Laryngoscopy/methods , Larynx , Middle Aged
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 609-618, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127324

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la comprensión objetiva de cinco tipos de etiquetados frontales de paquetes (EFP) (Sistema de Clasificación de Estrellas de Salud, Semáforo Múltiple, Nutri-Score, Ingestas de Referencia y Símbolo de Advertencia) en México. Material y métodos: Se reclutaron 1 001 consumidores mexicanos para clasificar tres productos de tres categorías de alimentos sin EFP, según su calidad nutricional. Se les asignó al azar uno de los cinco EFP para clasificar los mismos productos, esta vez con un EFP en el empaque. El cambio en la capacidad para clasificar correctamente los productos en las dos tareas fue evaluado por EFP, utilizando un modelo de regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Nutri-Score y Semáforo Múltiple obtuvieron un mejor desempeño, seguidos del Símbolo de Advertencia, Sistema de Clasificación de Estrellas de Salud e Ingestas de Referencia. Conclusión: Nutri-Score y el Semáforo Múltiple surgen como esquemas eficientes para informar a los consumidores sobre la calidad nutricional de los alimentos en México, donde podrían ser una herramienta útil para los consumidores en situación de compra.


Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to compare consumers' objective understanding of five FoPLs [Health Star Rating system (HSR), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, Reference Intakes (RIs), Warning Symbol] in Mexico. Materials and methods: 1 001 Mexican consumers were recruited and asked to rank three sets of label-free products according to their nutritional quality, via a survey. Upon completion of this task, participants were randomized to one of five FoPL conditions and were again asked to rank the same sets of products, this time with a FoPL displayed on pack. Change in ability to correctly rank products across the two tasks was assessed by FoPL using ordinal logistic regression. Results: Nutri-Score and MTL performed best, followed Warning Symbol, HSR and RIs. Conclusion: Nutri-Score and MTL appear as efficient schemes to inform consumers on the nutritional quality of foods, in particular in Mexico, where it would be a helpful tool for consumers in purchasing situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Consumer Behavior , Food Labeling/methods , Nutritive Value , Socioeconomic Factors , Random Allocation , Logistic Models , Food/classification , Food Labeling/classification , Mexico , Nutritional Requirements
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 619-628, sep.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127325

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Evaluate association of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers. Materials and methods: 654 adolescents from Guadalajara, Jalisco, participated in a cross-sectional study. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire; 24 food groups were integrated, and dietary patterns were derived using cluster analysis. MetS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), Cook and colleagues, Ford and colleagues, and de Ferranti and colleagues criteria. Results: Dietary patterns identified were: "DP1", "DP2", and "DP3". Among males, "DP3" was associated with MetS (Cook and collaborators) (OR, 12.14; 95%CI, 1.66-89.05), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 3.89; 95%CI, 1.01-15.07), and insulin resistance (OR, 6.66; 95%CI, 1.12-39.70). "DP2" was associated with abdominal obesity (OR, 5.11; 95%CI, 1.57-16.66). Conclusions: "DP3" entertained a greater risk of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance, while "DP2" possessed a greater risk of abdominal obesity among adolescent males.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación de patrones dietarios (PD) con síndrome metabólico (SM) y marcadores metabólicos. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal con 654 adolescentes. Dieta evaluada con el cuestionario "frecuencia de consumos de alimentos"; se identificaron 24 grupos de alimentos, para obtener PD mediante análisis de conglomerados. SM se definió según los criterios: Federación de Diabetes Internacional (IDF), Cook y colaboradores, Ford y colaboradores y Ferranti y colaboradores. Resultados: Se identificaron tres PD: "PD1", "PD2" y "PD3". En hombres, "PD3" se asoció con SM (Cook y colaboradores) (RM, 12.14; IC95%, 1.66-89.05), hipertrigliceridemia (RM, 3.89; IC95%, 1.01-15.07) y resistencia a insulina (RM, 6.66; IC95%, 1.12-39.70). El patrón "PD2" se asoció con obesidad abdominal (RM, 5.11; IC95%, 1.57-16.66). Conclusiones: El patrón "PD3" aumenta el riesgo de SM, hipertrigliceridemia y resistencia a insulina y el "PD2" el riesgo de obesidad abdominal en adolescentes hombres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Feeding Behavior , Energy Intake , Insulin Resistance , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Portion Size , Food/classification
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 155-165, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058968

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the contribution of natural, processed and ultra-processed foods to energy and nutrient supply in Mexican households. Materials and methods: The database of the National Household Expenditure Survey 2013 was analyzed (n=58 001), which is a cross-sectional survey. Food supply (g/adult equivalent/day) and energy, macro- and micro-nutrient supplies were estimated. Foods were classified following the Nova system. Households sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed as covariates. Results: Natural foods (NF) contributed with more energy (55.0%) followed by ultra-processed foods (UPF, 21.2%). NF were the main source of most nutrients. Processed culinary ingredients (PCI) and processed foods (PF) had high content of energy, total fats, and saturated fats, but low content of certain micronutrients. Sodium was mainly available in PF (34.6%) and UPF (31.4%). Sugar-sweetened beverages, fast foods, and biscuits and cookies were the main UPF in terms of energy supply. Conclusions; In Mexican households, the PCI, PF and UPF had low nutritional quality.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la contribución de los alimentos naturales, procesados y ultraprocesados a la disponibilidad de energía y nutrientes en los hogares mexicanos. Material y métodos: Se analizó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gasto de los Hogares 2013 (n= 58 001), la cual es una encuesta transversal. Se estimó la disponibilidad de alimentos (g/adulto equivalente/día), energía y nutrientes. Los alimentos fueron clasificados siguiendo el sistema Nova. Resultados: Los alimentos naturales (AN) y los ultraprocesados (AUP) contribuyeron con más energía. Los AN fueron la principal fuente de la mayoría de los nutrimentos. Los ingredientes culinarios procesados (ICP) y los alimentos procesados (AP) tenían alto contenido de energía, grasas totales y grasas saturadas pero bajo contenido de ciertos micronutrientes. El sodio estaba disponible principalmente en AP y AUP. Las bebidas azucaradas, comidas rápidas, galletas y panes fueron los principales AUP. Conclusión: En México, los ICP, AP y AUP tienen baja calidad nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Energy Intake , Food/classification , Nutritive Value , Socioeconomic Factors , Sodium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Nutrients , Family Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Micronutrients , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage , Fast Foods , Food Handling , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Mexico
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(1): 72-77, ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043360

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Conocer opiniones sobre el Plato del Bien Comer Maya de adolescentes de Cholul, Yucatán, para mejorar la herramienta comunicativa y utilizarla en actividades de promoción de la salud. Material y métodos: Estudio cualitativo, de investigación formativa. Se realizaron tres grupos focales, participaron 28 adolescentes de secundaria: 12-16 años. Criterios de inclusión: pertenecer a alguno de los tres grados de la escuela y tener familias originarias del poblado. El análisis de los datos se realizó manualmente. Resultados: En comparación con el Plato del Bien Comer nacional, el Plato Maya fue mejor identificado por tener elementos locales a los que pueden acceder fácilmente y con costos menores. Se identificó la palabra fruto como una variación lingüística que representa en ese contexto tanto a las frutas como a las verduras. Conclusiones: Para tener mejores resultados en intervenciones nutricionales es necesario diseñar estrategias educativo-comunicativas acordes con la cultura local.


Abstract : Objective: To know opinions of adolescents from Cholul, Yucatán, about Plato del Bien Comer Maya in order to improve it as health promotion tool. Materials and methods: Qualitative study, formative research. Three focus groups were carried out, participating 28 adolescents: 12-16 years old. Criteria of inclusion: studying middle school; to have native family from the town. Analysis of the data made manually. Results: Comparatively with the national Plato del Bien Comer, the Plato Maya was better identified because have local food products easier to obtain and cheaper. The principal finding was to understand Fruto is a linguistic variation word which represents in Maya context both fruits and vegetables. This might be an important key to improve health promotion activities with that population. Conclusions: In order to have better results in nutritional interventions, it is necessary to design educational-communicative strategies in accordance with the local culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attitude , Psychology, Adolescent , Nutrition Policy , Rural Population , Data Display , Ethnicity/psychology , Indians, North American , Choice Behavior , Focus Groups , Culture , Feeding Behavior , Food/classification , Food Supply , Health Promotion/methods
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190026, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990744

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Padrões alimentares parecem predizer melhor o risco de doenças do que nutrientes ou alimentos isoladamente. Objetivo: Identificar padrões alimentares e fatores associados em mulheres adultas. Método: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com 1.128mulheres, de 20 a 69 anos de idade, de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de um questionário de frequência. Utilizou-se análise de componentes principais para identificação dos padrões alimentares. Razõesde prevalências brutas e ajustadas foram estimadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: Foram identificados três padrões alimentares que explicaram 25,8% da variância total: saudável (frutas, vegetais e alimentos integrais); de risco (alimentos ultraprocessados); e brasileiro (arroz e feijão). Opadrão saudável apresentou o maior percentual de variância explicada (11,62%). A probabilidade de adesão ao padrão saudável aumentou linearmente com a idade e a escolaridade e foi maior em ex-fumantes (razão de prevalência - RP = 1,22; intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%) 1,04 - 1,42). Já mulheres mais jovens e com maior escolaridade tinham maior probabilidade de aderir ao padrão de risco. A probabilidade de adesão ao padrão brasileiro aumentou à medida que diminuiu a escolaridade e foi maior em mulheres de cor de pele não branca (RP = 1,29; IC95% 1,04 - 1,59). Conclusões: Enquanto a adesão aos padrões saudável e de risco comportou-se distintamente segundo a idade das mulheres, ela foi semelhante para a escolaridade. Já a adesão ao padrão brasileiro foi definida pelas condições socioeconômicas.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Dietary patterns may be more predictive of disease risk than individual nutrients or foods. Objective: To identify dietary patterns and associated factors among adult women. Method: Population-based cross-sectional study with 1,128 women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. Food intake was assessed with a frequency questionnaire. The principal component analysis identified dietary patterns. We estimated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Threedietary patterns - responsible for 25.8% of the total variance - were identified: healthy (fruits, vegetables, and whole foods); risk (ultra-processed foods); and Brazilian (rice and beans). The healthy pattern showed the largest percentage of explained variation (11.62%). The probability of adherence to the healthy pattern increased linearly with age and schooling and was higher among ex-smokers [prevalence ratio (PR)=1.22; confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) 1.04 - 1.42]. Younger women and those with better schooling had more chances of adhering to the risk pattern. The probability of adherence to the Brazilian pattern increased as schooling decreased and was higher among non-white women (PR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.04- 1.59). Conclusions: While adherence to healthy and risk patterns behaved differently according to women's age, it was similar regarding schooling. Socioeconomic conditions defined adherence to the Brazilian pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Epidemiologic Methods , Women's Health , Food/classification , Middle Aged
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