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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525


Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.

Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.

Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flour/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1546-1552, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970626


Ten alkaloids(1-10) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Lycium chinense var. potaninii by silica gel, ODS, and preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and identified by NMR and MS as methyl(2S)-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(phenyl)propanoate(1), methyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(phenyl)propanoate(2), 3-hydroxy-4-ethyl ketone pyridine(3), indolyl-3-carbaldehyde(4),(R)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde(5),(R)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-car-baldehyde(6), methyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate(7), dimethyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanedioate(8), 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate(9), 4-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid(10). All the compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Among them, compounds 1-3 were new compounds. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in vitro with the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. At 10 μmol·L~(-1), compounds 4, 6, 7, and 9 can promote the glucose consumption of HepG2 cells with insulin resistance.

Lycium/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Propionates , Alkaloids/pharmacology
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 966-977, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970568


The present study optimized the ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair by network pharmacology and Box-Behnken method. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to screen out and verify the potential active components of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus, and the process evaluation indexes were determined in light of the components of the content determination under Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The analytic hierarchy process(AHP) was used to determine the weight coefficient of each component, and the comprehensive score was calculated as the process evaluation index. The ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus was optimized by the Box-Behnken method. The core components of the Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair were screened out as spinosin, jujuboside A, jujuboside B, schisandrin, schisandrol, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B. The optimal extraction conditions obtained by using the Box-Behnken method were listed below: extraction time of 90 min, ethanol volume fraction of 85%, and two times of extraction. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation indexes were determined, and the optimized process was stable, which could provide an experimental basis for the production of preparations containing Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus.

Ethanol , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Ziziphus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Schisandra/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 265-272, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970522


The present study explored the consistency of the content proportions of active components of Aurantii Fructus and analyzed the influencing factors based on three-dimensional multi-component analysis. A total of 839 Aurantii Fructus samples in 65 research articles were analyzed using the three-dimensional multi-component analysis mode. The content data of flavonoid components(naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, narirutin, and nobiletin), coumarin components(meranzin and gluconolactone), and alkaloid(synephrine) in 386 samples which met the criteria of 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were extracted and adjusted to percentages, and the content ratios between components were calculated. The influencing factors of Aurantii Fructus quality were analyzed. The results showed content ratios of components as follows: neohesperidin∶naringin in the range of 0.4-1.2; narirutin∶naringin in the range of 0.02-0.16; hesperidin∶naringin in the range of 0.01-0.3; nobiletin∶naringin in the range of 0.000 588 3-0.069 68; synephrine∶naringin in the range of 0.02-0.042; gluconolactone∶naringin in the range of 0.001-0.01; meranzin∶naringin in the range of 0.000 4-0.035. The quality of Aurantii Fructus was closely related to the origin, variety, harvesting time, and processing method of medicinal materials. Harvesting time had a greater impact on the quality of Aurantii Fructus, and the origin and variety had a certain impact on the quality of Aurantii Fructus. The findings of this study indicated that the ratios between flavonoid components, flavonoids and coumarin components, and flavonoids and alkaloids fluctuated. The production base should optimize the varieties, harvesting period, and processing methods of Aurantii Fructus to provide a scientific basis for the production of high-quality Aurantii Fructus.

Citrus , Flavonoids/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit/chemistry , Coumarins/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 105-113, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970506


The chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia were systematically explored by chromatographic fractionation methods including silica gel, octadecylsilyl(ODS) gel, Sephadex LH-20 gel, and preparative high performance liquid chromatography(pre-HPLC). The chemical structures of all isolated compounds were identified on the basis of their physicochemical properties, spectroscopic analyses, as well as the comparisons of their physicochemical and spectroscopic data with the reported data in literature. As a result, 22 isolated compounds from the 90% ethanol extract of the fruits of M. citrifolia were identified, which were moricitritone(1), 2'-deoxythymidine(2), cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Tyr)(3), methyl-5-hydroxy-2-pyridinecarboxylate(4), methyl pyroglutamate(5), bisbenzopyran(6), epipinoresinol(7), 3, 3'-bisdemethyl pinoresinol(8), 3, 3'-bisdemethyltanegool(9), trimesic acid(10), crypticin B(11), kojic acid(12), vanillic acid(13), protocatechoic acid(14), 5-hydroxymethyl furfural(15), blumenol A(16), 1-O-(9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoyl) glycerol(17), mucic acid dimethylester(18), methyl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzoate(19), 2-phenylethyl-O-β-D-glucoside(20), scopoletin(21), and quercetin(22). Among them, compound 1 was a new pyrone derivative, compounds 2, 4-7, 10-12, and 17 were isolated from the plants belonging to Morinda genus for the first time, and compound 18 was obtained from M. citrifolia for the first time. Moreover, on the basis of testing the activities of all isolated compounds on inhibiting the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in vitro by MTS assay, the anti-rheumatoid arthritis activities of all isolated compounds were initially evaluated. The results showed that compounds 1-6, 9, 19, and 20 exhibited remarkable anti-rheumatoid arthritis activities, which displayed the inhibitory effects on the proliferation of MH7A synovial fibroblast cells with the IC_(50) values in the range of(3.69±0.08) to(168.96±0.98) μmol·L~(-1).

Fruit/chemistry , Morinda/chemistry , Synoviocytes , Cell Proliferation , Arthritis
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3753-3764, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981508


Prunus mume is an edible and medicinal material, and Mume Fructus is its processed product, which was first recorded in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing). It is an effective drug for stopping diarrhea with astringents and promoting fluid production to quiet ascaris. By consulting the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties, modern codes, and other rela-ted literature, this paper sorted out the medicinal evolution of Mume Fructus, examined the ancient efficacy of Mume Fructus and the main indications, and summarized the inclusion of Mume Fructus in national and provincial standards. It is recorded in the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties that Mume Fructus can be processed by various methods such as roasting, stir-frying or micro-frying, stir-frying with charcoal, single steaming, steaming with wine, and steaming after soaking in wine or vinegar, and prepared into pills, powders, and ointments, which are used in the treatment of fatigue, diabetes, malaria, dysentery, ascariasis, and other diseases. Mume Fructus has been included in nine editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and 19 provincial and municipal preparation specifications. The processing method of Mume Fructus is determined, namely, clean P. mume should be softened by moistening in water or steaming and pitted. By reviewing the effects of processing on its chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and its modern clinical application, this paper identified the following issues. The ancient application methods of Mume Fructus are diverse but less commonly used in modern times, there is a lack of standardized research on the processing, and the research on the changes caused by the difference in Mume Fructus before and after processing is not deep. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the change pattern of its chemical composition before and after processing and its correlation between its medicinal activity to standardize the processing technology and provide a solid basis for the use of Mume Fructus in parts and its quality control.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Materia Medica/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Quality Control , Prunus/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2471-2479, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981323


In order to comprehensively evaluate the quality of Viticis Fructus, this study established HPLC fingerprints and evaluated the quality of 24 batches of Viticis Fructus samples from different species by similarity evaluation and multivariate statistical analysis(PCA, HCA, PLS-DA). On this basis, an HPLC method was established to compare the content differences of the main components, including casticin, agnuside, homoorientin, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The analysis was performed on the chromatographic column(Waters Symmetry C_(18)) with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile(A)-0.05% phosphoric acid solution(B) at the flow rate of 1 mL·min~(-1) and detection wavelength of 258 nm. The column temperature was 30 ℃ and the injection volume was 10 μL. The HPLC fingerprint of 24 batches of Viticis Fructus samples was established with 21 common peaks, and nine peaks were identified. Similarity analysis was carried out based on chromatographic data of 24 batches of chromatographic data of Viticis Fructus, and the results showed that except for DYMJ-16, the similarity of Vitex trifolia var. simplicifolia was ≥0.900, while that of V. trifolia was ≤0.864. In addition, the similarity analysis of two different species showed that the similarity of 16 batches of V. trifolia var. simplicifolia was 0.894-0.997 and that of the eight batches of V. trifolia was between 0.990 and 0.997. The results showed that the similarity of fingerprints of these two species was different, but the similarity between the same species was good. The results of the three multivariate statistical analyses were consistent, which could distinguish the two different species. The VIP analysis results of PLS-DA showed that casticin and agnuside contributed the most to the distinction. The content determination results showed that there was no significant difference in the content of homoorientin and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in Viticis Fructus from different species, but the content of casticin and agnuside was significantly different in different species(P<0.01). The content of casticin was higher in V. trifolia var. simplicifolia, while agnuside was higher in V. trifolia. The findings of this study show that there are differences in fingerprint similarity and component content of Viticis Fructus from different species, which can provide references for the in-depth study of the quality and clinical application of Viticis Fructus.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Fruit/chemistry , Vitex/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 343-351, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396913


Leaf and fruit decoctions of Schinus areira L. from northwest Argentina were investigated here. Phenolic compounds and organic acids were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition were determined by using in vitro tests. The general toxicity was assessed against Artemia salina nauplii. Hyperoside and 3 O-caffeoylquinic acid in leaf decoctions; gallic acid and catechin in fruit decoction were the major phenolic compounds. Malic and citric acids were the main organic acid quantified in the leaf and fruit decoctions, respectively. Fruit decoction had a relatively important content of shikimic acid, precursor of Tamiflu. Leaf decoction presents a greater richness in bioactive compounds with antiradical activity against DPPH●, O2●-and ●NO radicals. S. areira leaves and fruits had α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to hyperoside and acarbose. Fruit decoction was not eco-toxic; leaf decoction showed significant eco-toxic activity and could be chosen for the search of other bioactive compounds with pharmacological activity.

Se investigaron decocciones de hojas y frutos de Schinus areira L. del noroeste de Argentina. Compuestos fenólicos y ácidos orgánicos se analizaron mediante HPLC. Capacidad antioxidante e inhibición de α-glucosidasa se determinaron in vitro. Se evaluó toxicidad general con Artemia salina. Los principales compuestos fenólicos fueron hiperósido y ácido 3 O-cafeoilquínico en hojas y ácido gálico y catequina en frutos. Los principales ácidos orgánicos cuantificados fueron málico en hojas y cítrico en frutos. Ácido shikímico, precursor del Tamiflu está presente en decocción de frutos con un contenido relativamente importante. La de hojas presenta una mayor riqueza en compuestos bioactivos con actividad antirradicalaria frente a DPPH●, O2●-y ●NO. Las hojas y frutos de S. areira tenían una actividad inhibidora de la α-glucosidasa comparable a la de hiperósido y acarbosa. La decocción de frutas no fue eco-tóxica, pero sí la de hojas que podría ser fuente de compuestos bioactivos con actividad farmacológica.

Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Organic Acids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Fruit/chemistry
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236471, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249254


Date fruit is known to be the staple food in the Arab countries. It provides a lot of potential health benefits and can be the essential source of nutrients. The majority of Moroccan varieties are not characterized for their chemical, biochemical and quality properties. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition of 17 varieties of Moroccan date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and to determine their nutritive components. The analysis showed that the dates are rich in sugars (51.80-87.98%), they contain low concentration of proteins (1.09-2.80%) and lipids (0.16-0.39%). The predominant mineral is potassium (1055.26-1604.10 mg/100 g DW). Moreover, they contain high concentrations of malic acid (69.48-495.58 mg/100 g (DW)), oxalic acid (18.47-233.35 mg/100 g DW) and tartaric acid (115.70-484.168 mg/100 g DW). These results suggest that the date fruit are nutritious and can be an excellent source for human nutrition and health benefits.

A fruta da tâmara é conhecida por ser o alimento básico nos países árabes. Oferece muitos benefícios potenciais à saúde e pode ser a fonte essencial de nutrientes. A maioria das variedades marroquinas não se caracteriza por suas propriedades químicas, bioquímicas nem de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química de 17 variedades de frutos de tâmara marroquina (Phoenix dactylifera L.) e determinar seu valor nutritivo. A análise mostrou que as tâmaras são ricas em açúcares (51,80-87,98%) e contêm baixa concentração de proteínas (1,09-2,80%) e lipídios (0,16-0,39%). O mineral predominante é o potássio (1.055,26-1.604,10 mg/100 g DW). Além disso, contêm altas concentrações de ácido málico (69,48-495,58 mg/100 g DW), ácido oxálico (18,47-233,35 mg/100 g DW) e ácido tartárico (115,70-484,168 mg/100 g DW). Esses resultados sugerem que o fruto da tamareira é nutritivo e pode ser uma excelente fonte de nutrição humana e conferir benefícios à saúde.

Humans , Phoeniceae , Clone Cells/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210068, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1286060


This research valorized Pachira aquatica Aubl.'s fruit shells (PAS) through its energetic characterization and flash pyrolysis for biofuels or chemicals production. The characterization was performed through proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, higher heating value (HHV), hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content, thermogravimetric analysis and absorption spectra in the infrared region obtained by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR). The analytical flash pyrolysis was performed at 500°C in a Py-5200 HP-R coupled to a gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The PAS biomass presents potential for thermochemical energy conversion processes due to its low moisture and ash content, 76.90% of volatile matter, bulk density of 252.6 kg/m3 and HHV of 16.24 MJ/kg. Flash pyrolysis products are mostly phenols or light organic acids derived from the decomposition of polysaccharides. Results confirmed the potential of PAS to produce bio-phenolics, such as 4-methoxyphenol which is an important active ingredient for skin depigmentation used in drugs and cosmetics, and as phenolic extract that can be used as a precursor to resins, applications that convert this forest waste into bio products for industry into a green circular economy.

Este trabalho teve como objetivo a valorização das cascas dos frutos da Pachira aquatica Aubl. (PAC) através da sua caracterização energética e pirólise flash para produção de biocombustíveis ou produtos químicos. A caracterização foi realizada através de análises imediata e final, densidade aparente, poder calorífico superior (PCS), conteúdos de hemicelulose, celulose e lignina, análise termogravimétrica e espectros de absorção na região do infravermelho obtidos pela técnica de espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR). A pirólise flash analítica foi realizada a 500 °C em equipamento Py-5200 HP-R acoplado a um cromatógrafo à gás (Py-GC/MS). A biomassa das PAC apresenta potencial para processos de conversão termoquímica de energia devido ao seu baixo teor de umidade e cinzas, além de 76,90% de materiais voláteis, densidade aparente de 252,6 kg/m3 e PCS igual a 16,24 MJ / kg. Os produtos da pirólise rápida são principalmente fenóis ou ácidos orgânicos leves derivados da decomposição de polissacarídeos. Os resultados confirmam o potencial das PAC para produzir bio-fenólicos, como o 4-metoxifenol que é um importante ingrediente ativo para despigmentação da pele usado em medicamentos e cosméticos, e como extrato fenólico que pode ser usado como precursor de resinas. Estas aplicações convertem esses resíduos florestais em produtos biológicos para a indústria em uma economia circular verde.

Pyrolysis , Biomass , Bombacaceae , Fruit/chemistry , Lignin , Polysaccharides , Biofuels
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2392-2399, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928118


With the rise of incidence, fatality rate, and number of young cases, diabetes mellitus has been one of the seven major diseases threatening human health. Although many antidiabetic drugs(oral or for injection) are available, the majority have serious side effects during the long-term use. Thus, it is of particularly vital to develop new drugs with low risk and definite effect. Psoraleae Fructus, a traditional medicinal widely used in the folk, has hypoglycemic, anti-osteoporosis, antitumor, estrogen-like, and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, it has great clinical application potential. Chinese medicine and the active ingredients, characterized by multiple targets, multiple pathways, and multiple effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, have distinct advantages in clinical application. However, the safety of Chinese medicine remains to be a challenge, and one of keys is to clarifying the mechanism of a single Chinese medicinal and its active ingredients. With the method of literature research, this study summarized and analyzed the hypoglycemic mechanisms of Psoraleae Fructus and its main active ingredients over the last decade: regulating glucose metabolism, improving insulin resistance, and directly acting on pancreatic β-cells. The result is expected to serve as a reference for further research on the effects of Psoraleae Fructus and its main chemical constituents in lowering blood glucose and preventing diabetes mellitus and the clinical application.

Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Psoralea/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 611-637, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369862


The objective of the work was to determine the antioxidant potential in vitro of freeze-dried peel extracts of 20 fruits from the northern region of Peru through five tests (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH., ABTS+., FRAP and CUPRAC). According to multivariate statistical analyzes, five groups were found: (i.) peel extracts with the highest values of antioxidant capacity (AC) from custard apple, and star fruit; (ii.) rind extracts with high AC values from quince, sweet granadilla, guava, and black grape; (iii.) husk extracts with middle values of AC from passion fruit, and red mombin; (iv.) shell extracts with low AC values from tangerine, mandarine, and bitter orange; and, (v.) coating extracts with the lowest AC values from pawpaw, red pawpaw, muskmelon, dragon fruit, yellow and red indian figs, pear, apple, and green grape. To conclude, the fruit lyophilized-husk extracts of custard apple, star fruit, quince, sweet granadilla, guava, and black grape obtained the best AC.

El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el potencial antioxidante in vitro de extractos de cáscara liofilizada de 20 frutos de la región norte del Perú mediante cinco pruebas (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH., ABTS+., FRAP y CUPRAC). Según análisis estadísticos multivariados, se encontraron cinco grupos: (i.) Extractos de piel con los valores más altos de capacidad antioxidante (CA) de chirimoya y carambola; (ii.) extractos de cáscara con altos valores de CA de membrillo, granadilla dulce, guayaba y uva negra; (iii.) extractos de cáscara con valores medios de CA de maracuyá y mombina roja; (iv.) extractos de cáscara con valores bajos de CA de mandarina, mandarina y naranja amarga; y (v.) recubrir extractos con los valores de CA más bajos de papaya, papaya roja, melón, fruta del dragón, higos indios amarillos y rojos, pera, manzana y uva verde. Para concluir, los extractos de cáscara liofilizada de chirimoya, carambola, membrillo, granadilla dulce, guayaba y uva negra obtuvieron el mejor CA.

Humans , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peru , Phenols/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Free Radical Scavengers , Colorimetry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405


This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.

Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2245-2253, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879184


Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus in six growth stages was taken as materials to study the species and content changes of material basis, which were detected by UPLC, GC and MS chromatography, including lignans, nucleosides, aroma components and fatty acids. The results showed that the texture, color and taste of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus in six growth stages were different. On the material basis, 12 lignans were detected by UPLC-MS, and the content of total lignans was higher in the samples from late August to early September, among which the highest content of schisandrin was 0.67%±0.01%, followed by schizandrol B, angeloylgomisin H and schisandrin B, and the total content increased with the maturity of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus. Thirteen kinds of nucleosides were detected by UPLC. The total nucleoside content was the highest in late July samples, in which the contents of uridine and guanosine were higher and decreased after maturity. Aroma components and fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. A total of 53 aroma components were detected and the highest total content was appeared in late August samples, of which ylangene was higher and bergamotene was followed. A total of 24 kinds of fatty acids were detected. The fruits matured basically in August, and the content of fatty acids in the samples was the highest, among which linoleic acid content was top the list and oleic acid was the second. To sum up, the maturity of Schisandra chinensis fruit is related to the content and variety of various material bases, and the growth period has different influences on the quality of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus. Therefore, the appropriate harvesting time should be determined according to the change law of target components. The results of this study can provide reference for the quality evaluation of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus material basis.

Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit/chemistry , Lignans/analysis , Schisandra , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80: e37172, dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489625


Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização nutricional (umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas e açúcares totais), quantificação do Valor Energético Total (VET) e determinação do teor de carotenoides totais dos frutos de cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile A.St.-Hil.), curriola (Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk) e inharé (Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul), do Cerrado mato grossense. No intuito de oferecer uma alternativa de dieta nutritiva e incentivar o reaproveitamento de alimentos, foram analisadas polpas e cascas destes frutos. O cajuzinho do cerrado apresentou expressiva quantidade de carotenoides totais nas polpas (5,95 mg/100g) e cascas (6,55 mg/100g). Já a curriola apresentou um valor considerável de cinzas (0,66%) nas polpas e mostraram quantidade significativa de Valor Energético Total (80,96 Kcal/100g). O inharé destacou-se por apresentar elevado teor de proteínas nas cascas (3,76%) e polpas (3,19%). Estes resultados mostraram que polpas e cascas dos frutos analisados, podem ser utilizadas como fonte de nutrientes ou como ingredientes na elaboração de novos alimentos com potencial funcional. Este é o primeiro estudo que avalia o potencial nutricional e carotenoides totais nas cascas destes frutos do Cerrado mato grossense.

This study aimed at performing the nutritional characterization (moisture, protein, lipid, ashes and total sugar), quantification of the Total Energy Value (TEV) and determination of carotenoid content of cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile A.St.-Hil.), curriola (Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk) and inharé (Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul), of the Midwestern Cerrado. Aiming at offering a nutritious alternative of diet and motivating the reuse of foods, the pulps and peels of fruits were analyzed. Cajuzinho do cerrado showed expressive amount of total carotenoids in the pulps (5.95 mg/100g) and peels (6.55 mg/100g). The curriola presented a considerable amount of ash (0.66%) in the pulps and a significant amount of Total Energy Value (80.96 Kcal/100g). On the other hand, the inharé had a high amount of protein in the peels (3.76%) and pulps (3.19%). These results showed that pulps and peels of the analyzed fruits can be used as source of nutrients or as ingredients in the manufacture of new functional foods. This is the first report which evaluates the nutritional potential and total carotenoids in peels of fruits from Midwestern Cerrado.

Anacardium/chemistry , Food Composition , Fruit/chemistry , Moraceae/chemistry , Pouteria/chemistry , Nutritive Value , Brazil , Grassland
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741


It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.

Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP

Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 77-125, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103089


This contribution includes the registration of 70 fresh fruit species and their derivative products marketed in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Data on fruits and derived products were obtained from ethnobotanical fieldwork, where usual qualitative ethnobotanical methodologies were used: participant observation, free listings, open and semi-structured interviews. A bibliographic review was made on the biological activity and effects studied in order to evaluate their correspondence with the assigned local uses. The situation of invisibility/visibility of the treated species was analyzed, according to their circulation in the restricted commercial circuits (Chinese and Bolivian immigrants) and the general commercial circuit. Of the total of 70 recorded species, 62 are visible (89%) and 8 invisible (11%). These last, only found in the Barrio Chino. The registration of marketed fruits, together with their associated knowledge, represents a contribution to the study of local biocultural diversity.

Esta contribución incluye el registro de 70 especies de frutas frescas y sus productos derivados comercializadasen el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Los datos sobre las frutas y productos derivados se obtuvieron del trabajo de campo etnobotánico, en donde se emplearon metodologías etnobotánicas cualitativas habituales: observación participante, listados libres, entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la actividad biológica y efectos estudiados a fin de evaluar su correspondencia con los usos locales asignados. Se analizó la situación de invisibilidad/visibilidad de las especies tratadas, según su circulación en los circuitos comerciales restringidos (inmigrantes chinos y bolivianos) y el circuito comercial general. Del total de 70 especies registradas, 62 son visibles (89%) y 8 invisibles (11%). Estas últimas se encuentran solamente en el Barrio Chino. El registro de las frutas comercializadas, junto a sus saberes asociados representa un aporte al estudio de la diversidad biocultural local.

Humans , Ethnobotany , Functional Food , Fruit/classification , Fruit/chemistry , Argentina , Metropolitan Zones , Commerce
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: e1778, dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489599


Originária da América Tropical, provavelmente do Brasil, a Sicana odorifera Naudin (Cucurbitaceae) é uma planta herbácea anual, vigorosa, rasteira ou trepadeira, cujos frutos exalam um odor intenso e agradável quando maduros. O presente trabalho visou caracterizar os metabólitos secundários em extratos obtidos das folhas, sementes, polpa e casca do fruto, e avaliar a atividade antioxidante do fruto. Diferentes classes de metabólitos secundários foram identificadas nas análises qualitativas e quantitativas, realizadas nos diferentes extratos obtidos. A atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso da polpa do fruto foi determinada pela habilidade de sequestrar o radical estável 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH). Os carotenoides foram extraídos com acetona, separados com éter de petróleo e quantificados em espectrofotômetro UV. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos indicou a presença de compostos como açúcares redutores, depsídeos e depsidonas, esteroides e triterpenoides, polissacarídeos, proteínas e aminoácidos, saponinas, taninos, alcaloides e carotenoides, além de atividade antioxidante na polpa do fruto. De acordo com os resultados obtidos constata-se que S. odorifera possui propriedades de interesse farmacológico. O estudo serve como subsídio preliminar sobre o conhecimento da composição química e viabilidade de emprego dessa planta para fins medicinais.

Being native of Tropical America, probably from Brazil, the Sicana odorifera Naudin (Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant, vigorous, creeping or climbing, whose fruits exude an intense and pleasant odor when ripe. This study aimed at characterizing the secondary metabolites in the extracts obtained from the leaves, seeds, pulp and fruit peel, and to evaluate the fruit antioxidant activity. Different classes of secondary metabolites were identified by the qualitative and quantitative analyzes in the varied extracts. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the fruit pulp was determined by the ability to sequester the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The carotenoids were extracted with acetone, separated with the petroleum ether, and quantified by UV spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening of extracts indicated the occurrence of compounds as the reducing sugars, depsids and depsidones, steroids and triterpenoids, polysaccharides, proteins and amino acids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and carotenoids, besides the antioxidant activity in the fruit pulp. According to the obtained results, S. odorifera possesses properties of pharmacological interest. This study provides a preliminary subsidy on the knowledge concerning the chemical composition and the feasibility of using this plant for medicinal purposes.

Antioxidants , Phytochemicals , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 510-515, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001461


Abstract The aim of this study was to know the physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of Rubus sellowii (Rosaceae) fruits, known as blackberry, native plant mainly to Rio Grande do Sul State (RS), Brazil. For this, three different populations of this plant were selected and the fruits were analyzed through moisture, ash, titratable acidity, pH, lipids, fibers, carbohydrates, proteins, carotenoids, lycopene, ascorbic acid, aminogram and in vitro digestibility. Fruits showed high acidity (3.28 percent), ash and protein (1.02 and 0.93 percent) and higher ascorbic acid (38.43 mg per 100 g) if compared to Rubus cultivars. Due to Rubus sellowii nutritional properties, they provide benefits to human health.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer as características físicas, químicas e nutricionais de frutos de Rubus sellowii (Rosáceas), conhecida como amora-preta, planta nativa principalmente do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Para isso, foram selecionadas três populações diferentes desta planta e frutas foram analisadas por meio de umidade, cinza, acidez titulável, pH, lipídios, fibras, carboidratos, proteínas, carotenóides, licopeno, ácido ascórbico, aminograma e digestibilidade in vitro. As frutas apresentaram alta acidez (3,28 g por cento), cinzas e proteínas (1,02 e 0,93 g por cento) e maior ácido ascórbico (38,43 mg por 100 g) em comparação com as cultivares Rubus. Devido às propriedades nutricionais de Rubus sellowii , elas proporcionam benefícios para a saúde humana.

Humans , Rubus/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Nutritive Value , Brazil
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1420-1424, abr.-maio 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482174


O trabalho objetivou verificar se a presença de compostos como vitamina C e açúcares redutores, interfere nos resultados dos métodos de determinação de capacidade antioxidante (CA) de compostos fenólicos. Para este experimento foram utilizadas dez polpas de frutas regionais comprovadamente ricas em compostos fenólicos. Foram preparados extratos brutos e lavados (isentos de interferentes) os quais em quintuplicata tiveram suas atividades antioxidantes determinadas pelos métodos ABTS e DPPH. Os extratos lavado e bruto das polpas de frutas apresentaram valores de CA distintos, comprovando por ambos os métodos que há interferência desses compostos em relação à CA total das amostras.

Antioxidants/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Water-Soluble Vitamins , Fruit/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid