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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698

ABSTRACT

Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200430, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135256

ABSTRACT

Despite the medical advances and interventions to improve the quality of life of those in intensive care, people with cancer or severely immunocompromised or other susceptible hosts, invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain severe and underappreciated causes of illness and death worldwide. Therefore, IFD continue to be a public health threat and a major hindrance to the success of otherwise life-saving treatments and procedures. Globally, hundreds of thousands of people are affected every year with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, endemic dimorphic fungi and Mucormycetes, the most common fungal species causing invasive diseases in humans. These infections result in morbidity and mortality rates that are unacceptable and represent a considerable socioeconomic burden. Raising the general awareness of the significance and impact of IFD in human health, in both the hospital and the community, is hence critical to understand the scale of the problem and to raise interest to help fighting these devastating diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Quality of Life , Immunocompromised Host , Cost of Illness , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/mortality , Intensive Care Units
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 512-516, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. They are able to grow in water and many of them may be opportunistic pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to identify fungi in registered wells (RWs) and nonregistered wells (NRWs) that tap into groundwater; and to correlate the results from physicochemical assays on this water (free residual chlorine and pH) with the presence of fungi. DATA AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional quantitative study on groundwater wells in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 52 samples of 500 ml of water were collected from RWs and 107 from NRWs. These were sent to a microbiology laboratory to identify any fungi that were present. In addition, free residual chlorine and pH were measured immediately after sample collection. Several statistical analysis tests were used. RESULTS: Fungal contamination was present in 78.8% of the samples from RWs and 81.3% from NRWs. Filamentous fungi were more prevalent than yeast in both types of wells. There was no significant difference in presence of fungi according to whether chloride and pH were within recommended levels in RWs; or according to whether pH was within recommended levels in NRWs. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the levels of fungal contamination between RWs and NRWs. CONCLUSION: Both RWs and NRWs are potential reservoirs for many types of fungi. Many of these may become opportunistic pathogens if they infect immunosuppressed individuals. Furthermore, this study confirms that fungi are able to grow even when chlorine and pH parameters are within the standards recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water/microbiology , Water Wells , Fungi/isolation & purification , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Drinking Water/chemistry , Groundwater/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Chlorine/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 414-422, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001449

ABSTRACT

Abstract Birds of prey and from Psittacidae family are host to fungal microbiota and play an important role in the epidemiology of zoonoses. Few studies in the literature have characterized mycelial and yeast fungi in the droppings of these birds and correlated the isolates with the zoonotic potential of the microorganisms. Droppings from 149 birds were evaluated and divided into two groups: captive: Rhea americana araneipes, Primolius maracana, Ara ararauna, Ara chloropterus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Amazona aestiva, Ara macao macao, Ramphastos toco, Sarcoramphus papa, Busarellus nigricollis, Bubo virginianus nacurutu, Buteogallus coronatus, Buteogallus urubitinga urubitinga, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Spizaetus ornatus ornatus, Buteo albonotatus, Geranoaetus albicaudatus albicaudatus, Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris and Harpia harpyja, and quarantined birds: Amazona aestiva and Eupsitulla aurea. The fungal isolates were identified according to macroscopic (gross colony appearance), micromorphological and biochemical characteristics. Among birds displayed in enclosures, Aspergillus niger (41.1%) and Candida kefyr (63.8%) were the fungi most frequently isolated in Harpia harpyja and Ramphastos toco, respectively. For quarantined birds, the following percentages were observed in Eupsittula aurea , (76.6%) C. krusei, (84.4%) C. kefyr and (15.2%) C. famata, while in Amazona aestiva, (76.2%) C. krusei was observed. These findings indicate potentially pathogenic species in the bird droppings assessed, which constitute a risk of exposure for keepers and individuals who visit the zoo. Birds of the Cerrado and Pantanal of Mato Grosso (Central Western region of Brazil) could act in the epidemiological chain of important zoonoses.


Resumo Aves de rapina e psitacídeos são hospedeiras de uma rica microbiota fúngica e desempenham um papel importante na epidemiologia de zoonoses. Poucos estudos na literatura têm caracterizado fungos micelianos e leveduras nos excrementos de pássaros e correlacionados estes isolados com o potencial zoonótico dos microrganismos isolados. Excrementos de 149 aves foram divididas e avaliados em dois grupos: Em cativeiro: Rhea americana araneipes, Primolius maracana, Ara ararauna, Ara chloropterus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Amazona aestiva, Ara macao macao, Ramphastos toco, Sarcoramphus papa, Busarellus nigricollis , Bubo virginianus nacurutu, Buteogallus coronatus, Buteogallus urubutinga urubitinga, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Spizaetus ornatus ornatus, Buteo albonotatus, Geranoaetus albicaudatus albicaudatus, Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris e Harpia harpyja e aves em quarentena: Amazona aestiva e Eupsittula aurea). Os isolados de leveduras e de fungos micelianos foram identificados em observações macroscópicas (aspectos das colônias), características micromorfológicas e bioquímicas. Entre as aves indicadas em compartimentos, Aspergillus niger (41,1%) e Candida kefyr (63,8%) foram os fungos mais isolada em Harpia harpyja e Ramphastos toco, respectivamente. Para as aves em quarentena, os seguintes percentuais foram observados em Eupsittula aurea (76,6%) C. krusei, (84,4%) C. kefyr e (15,2%) C. famata, enquanto em Amazona aestiva (76,2%) de C. krusei foi observada. Estes resultados indicam a presença de espécies potencialmente patogênicos nas excretas das aves avaliadas, constituem um risco a exposição para os criadores e pessoas que visitam o zoológico. Aves do Pantanal e do Cerrado de Mato Grosso (região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) poderia atuar na cadeia epidemiológica das zoonoses importantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Raptors/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Risk Assessment , Rheiformes , Feces/microbiology , Animals, Zoo
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 191-200, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989448

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hygienic and sanitary control in Food and Nutrition Units (FNU) is considered a standard procedure to produce adequate meals and reduce the risk of foodborne diseases and hospital infections. This study aimed to evaluate the isolation and identification of bacteria from equipment and food contact surfaces in a hospital FNU as well as to evaluate the sanitary condition. Likewise, it was analyzed the adhesion of the microorganisms on polyethylene cutting boards. The presence of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts, molds, coagulase-positive staphylococci, coliform and fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were analyzed on eating tables, countertop surfaces and cutting boards used for meat or vegetable handling, and equipment such as microwaves and refrigerators. The molecular identification it was done by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The adhesion of the microorganisms (biofilm formation) on meat and vegetable cutting boards was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed high numbers of all microorganisms, except for E. coli , which was not observed in the samples. The molecular analysis identified species of the Enterobacteriaceae family and species of the Pseudomonadaceae family. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed bacterial adhesion on the cutting board surfaces. The results obtained in this study indicated that the hygienic conditions of surfaces like plastic cutting boards and equipment in this hospital FNU were inadequate. The achievement and application of standard operating procedures could positively help in the standardization of sanitary control, reducing the microbial contamination and providing a safe food to hospitalized patients.


Resumo O controle higiênico e sanitário nas Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição (UAN) é considerado um procedimento padrão para produzir refeições adequadas e reduzir o risco de doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos e infecções hospitalares. Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar bactérias de equipamentos e superfícies de contato com alimentos em uma UAN hospitalar, bem como avaliar a condição sanitária. Do mesmo modo, analisou-se a adesão dos micro-organismos em tábuas de corte de polietileno. A presença de micro-organismos aeróbios mesófilos, leveduras, fungos, Sthapylococcus coagulase-positivos, coliformes, coliformes fecais e Escherichia coli foi analisadas na superfície de mesas do refeitório, superfícies de bancada e tábuas de corte usadas para manuseio de carne ou vegetais e, em equipamentos como micro-ondas e refrigeradores. A identificação molecular foi feita pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. A adesão dos micro-organismos (formação de biofilmes) em tábuas de corte de carne e de vegetais também foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram elevada contagem para todos os micro-organismos analisados, exceto para E. coli, a qual não foi observada nas amostras. A análise molecular identificou espécies da família Enterobacteriaceae e Pseudomonadaceae. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram adesão bacteriana nas superfícies das placsa de corte. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicaram que as condições higiênicas das superfícies e de equipamentos nesta UAN hospitalar estavam inadequadas. A aplicação de procedimentos operacionais padrão poderia auxiliar positivamente na padronização do controle higiênico-sanitário, reduzindo a contaminação microbiana e fornecendo um alimento seguro para pacientes hospitalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Microbiology , Molecular Typing , Food Microbiology , Food Service, Hospital/trends , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Biofilms , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180152, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041546

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Introducing new antibiotics to the clinic is critical. METHODS: We adapted a plate method described by Kawaguchi and coworkers in 20131 for detecting inhibitory airborne microorganisms. RESULTS: We obtained 51 microbial colonies antagonist to Chromobacterium violaceum, purified and retested them, and of these, 39 (76.5%) were confirmed. They comprised 24 bacteria, 13 fungi, and 2 yeasts. Among the fungi, eight (61.5%) produced active extracts. Among the bacterial, yeast, and fungal strains, 17 (44.7%) and 12 (31.6%) were active against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed screening method is a rapid strategy for discovering potential antibiotic producers.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Candida/drug effects , Chromobacterium/drug effects , Air Microbiology , Quorum Sensing , Fungi/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Colony Count, Microbial , Fungi/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 929-935, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare), both in vitro and after application on Minas Padrão cheese. Nanodispersions were obtained by the phase inversion temperature method. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. genera were isolated from cheese samples and used to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of non-encapsulated and encapsulated oregano essential oil were determined, and they were influenced by the encapsulation of the essential oil depending on the type of fungus. The antifungal activity of the nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil in cheese slices showed no evidence of an effect of the MICs, when applied in the matrix. On the other hand, an influence of contact time of the nanoemulsion with the cheese was observed, due to the increase in water activity. It was concluded that nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil presented an inhibitory effect against the three genera of fungi evaluated. If environmental parameters, such as storage temperature and water activity, were controlled, the inhibitory effect of nanoemulsions of oregano oil could possibly be greatly improved, and they could be presented as a potential alternative for the preservation of Minas Padrão cheese against fungal contamination.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cheese/microbiology , Origanum/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/analysis , Food Preservatives/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Archaea/enzymology , Archaeal Proteins/genetics , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development , Brazil , Archaea/isolation & purification , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Zea mays/growth & development , Agriculture , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 400-403, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common problem in otolaryngology practice. However, we usually encounter some difficulties in its treatment because many patients show resistance to antifungal agents, and present high recurrence rate. Objectives To determine the fungal pathogens that cause otomycosis as well as their susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal agents. Additionally, to discover the main reasons for antifungal resistance. Methods We conducted an experimental descriptive study on 122 patients clinically diagnosed with otomycosis from April 2016 to April 2017. Aural discharge specimens were collected for direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against the commonly used antifungal drugs. We tested the isolated fungi for their enzymatic activity. Results Positive fungal infection was found in 102 samples. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus and Candida species, with Aspergillus niger being the predominant isolate (51%). The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that mold isolates had the highest sensitivity to voriconazole (93.48%), while the highest resistance was to fluconazole (100%). For yeast, the highest sensitivity was to nystatin (88.24%), followed by amphotericin B (82.35%), and the highest resistance was to terbinafine (100%), followed by Itraconazole (94.12%). Filamentous fungi expressed a high enzymatic ability, making them more virulent. Conclusion The Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal isolates in otomycosis. Voriconazole and Nystatin are the medications of choice for the treatment of otomycosis in our community. The high virulence of fungal pathogens is owed to their high enzymatic activity. Empirical use of antifungals should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Otomycosis/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology, Experimental , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , /pharmacology
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 371-375, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the bacterial and fungal microbiota found in contact lens cases among two groups of patients to correlate the data on the habits of contact lens users and to evaluate whether there is a difference in the culture results between users of ridged and nonridged contact lens cases. Methods: Two groups (35 patients per group) were included, consisting of hospital workers and those who had not visited a hospital in the past 30 days, and a questionnaire regarding epidemiological data and habits related to contact lens and lens case use was administered. In addition, 140 samples collected from the right and left compartments of each lens case by swabbing the bottom of the wells were tested using bacterioscopy as well as fungal and bacterial cultures via computerized identification of the species. Results: No fungal growth was identified in any of the 70 contact lens cases; however, bacteria were found in 39 cases, and there was no statistical difference between the groups. Most bacteria (>85%) were gram-negative bacilli. Contamination inone compartment of the contact lens case elevated the risk of contamination of the other side (>80%). Moreover, contamination was statistically higher in the ridged cases than in nonridged cases (p=0.0149). Conclusion: The types of bacteria contaminating the cases are generally not seen in eye diseases associated with contact lens use, suggesting that other decisive variables are involved in eye infection from a contaminated lens or case. Fungal contamination of contact lens cases appears to be an exception. Ridged cases are commonly used by contact lens wearers and present a potential risk to eye health. In addition, the results of bacterial tests between hospital workers and those who did not visit a hospital were not significantly different.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a microbiota bacteriana e fúngica encontrada em estojos de lentes de contato em dois grupos, correlacionar os dados sobre os hábitos de uso de lentes de contato e avaliar se há diferença na positividade das culturas entre os usuários estojos de lentes de contato com ranhuras e sem ranhuras. Métodos: Dois grupos foram formados, trabalhadores do hospital e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital (35 indivíduos por grupo), e um questionário foi aplicado sobre dados epidemiológicos e hábitos relacionados ao uso de lentes de contato e estojos de lentes. Além disso, 140 amostras, coletadas do compartimento direito e esquerdo de cada estojo de lente, esfregando o fundo dos mesmos, foram testadas por bacterioscopia e por culturas de fungos e bactérias, com identificação computadorizada da espécie. Resultados: Não houve crescimento fúngico em nenhum dos 70 estojos de lentes de contato, porém bactérias foram encontradas em 39; não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A maioria das bactérias (>85%) eram bacilos gram-negativos. Quando um compartimento estava contaminado, o risco de contaminação do outro compartimento era elevado (>80%). A contaminação foi estatisticamente maior nos estojos com ranhuras (p=0,0149). Conclusão: A contaminação dos estojos parece ocorrer por bactérias que, em geral, não são encontradas em doenças oculares associadas ao uso de lentes de contato, sugerindo que existem outras variáveis decisivas nas infecções oculares de uma lente ou estojo contaminado. Contaminação de estojos de lentes de contato com fungos parece ser uma exceção. O uso de estojos com ranhuras é uma prática comum e apresenta um risco potencial à saúde ocular. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos resultados dos testes bacterianos entre trabalhadores hospitalares e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Contact Lenses/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 463-470, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p = 1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p = 2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p = 0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p = 0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p = 0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p = 0.012), iron metabolism (p = 2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p = 7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p = 7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p = 2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p = 3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Trichoderma/growth & development , Viruses/growth & development , Piper nigrum/microbiology , Biodiversity , Fungi/growth & development , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichoderma/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Piper nigrum/growth & development , Rhizosphere , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 462-464, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038269

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The number of new cases of emerging fungal infections has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the large number of immunocompromised individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of emerging fungi to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B by disk diffusion method. In 2015, 82 emerging fungi were evaluated in IPB-LACEN/RS and 13 (15.8%) were resistant: 10/52 were from superficial mycoses and 3/30 from systemic mycoses. The data from the study point to the need for permanent vigilance regarding the careful evaluation in the prescription and clinical and laboratory follow-up of patients affected by fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
13.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 1-8, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-904956

ABSTRACT

Los líquenes son producto de una asociación simbiótica entre un hongo y alga y/o cianobacteria; esta simbiosis produce una serie de metabolitos secundarios o sustancias liquénicas únicas, las mismas que son aisladas a partir de sus extractos y que han presentado una marcada actividad antibiótica y antifúngica. Considerando que en el Ecuador no se tienen antecedentes acerca de este tipo de estudios, el objetivo planteado fue el evaluar la actividad antifúngica del extracto liquénico de Usnea laevis frente a hongos fitopatógenos. En el presente estudio las sustancias liquénicas almacenadas en el talo de Usnea laevis fueron extraídas con metanol y etanol. La actividad antifúngica in vitro de estos extractos fue probado frente a géneros de hongos fitopatógenos previamente aislados (Aspergillus, Penicillium y Rhizopus stolonifer); añadiéndolo al medio de cultivo Agar Papa Dextrosa (PDA) a una concentración de 0,5%; determinándose el porcentaje de inhibición. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente y se realizó la clasificación del extracto en base a su porcentaje de inhibición según la OILB. El extracto metanólico y etanólico de Usnea laevis mostró una mayor efectividad frente a Rhizopus stolonifer, inhibiendo más del 50% de su crecimiento, a diferencia de Penicillium y Aspergillus cuyo porcentaje de inhibición fue mucho menor y mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. El extracto liquénico fue moderadamente tóxico para Rhizopus stolonifer, ligeramente tóxico para Aspergillus sp 1 y Penicillium sp e inocuo para Aspergillus sp 2.


A lichen is an organism product of a symbiotic association between a fungus and algae and / or cyanobacteria; this symbiosis produces many secondary metabolites or unique lichen substances, which are isolated from their extracts and show a marked antibiotic and antifungal activity. Considering there is no background on this type of studies in Ecuador, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal in vitro activity of Usnea laevis extract on phytopathogenic fungi. The lichenic substances stored in the thallus of Usnea laevis were extracted with methanol and ethanol. The in vitro antifungal activity of these extracts was tested against phytopathogenic fungal genera previously isolated (Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus stolonifer) . They were adding to Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) culture medium at a concentration of 0.5%, and the inhibition percentage was determined. Data were statistically analyzed and the extract was classified based on its inhibition percentage according to the OILB. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Usnea laevis showed greater effectiveness against Rhizopus stolonifer, inhibiting more than 50% of its growth, unlike Penicillium and Aspergillus, whose inhibition percentage was lower and showed significant differences. The liquid extract was also moderately toxic to Rhizopus stolonifer, slightly toxic to Aspergillus sp 1 and Penicillium sp and harmless to Aspergillus sp 2.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Fungi/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Usnea/chemistry , Ecuador , Fungi/isolation & purification , Lichens/chemistry
14.
Hig. aliment ; 32(278/279): 74-78, 30/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909979

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as características higienicossanitárias dos refrescos armazenados em garrafas tipo PET e em refresqueiras comercializados em estabelecimentos de um município do Recôncavo da Bahia. Foram analisadas, quanto à presença de bolores, leveduras e coliformes termotolerantes, 10 amostras de refrescos, acondicionadas em garrafas PET e refresqueiras. Das cinco amostras analisadas, duas (40%) armazenadas em garrafas PET, e uma (20%) armazenada em refresqueiras, apresentou-se em desacordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. Na análise de bolores e leveduras, encontrou-se elevado crescimento destes micro- -organismos em quatro amostras (80%) armazenadas em garrafas PET e em cinco amostras (100%) armazenadas em refresqueiras. As informações obtidas nessa pesquisa demonstraram que os refrescos coletados estavam em condições higienicossanitárias insatisfatórias, podendo representar causas de infecções de origem alimentar aos consumidores.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary characteristics of refreshment stored in PET bottles and in refreshments marketed in establishments in a municipality in the Recôncavo da Bahia. For the presence of molds, yeasts and thermotolerant coliforms, 10 samples of refreshment, packed in PET bottles and coolers, were analyzed. Of the five samples analyzed, two (40%) stored in PET bottles, and one (20%) stored in refrigerators, were in disagreement with the standards established by current legislation. When analyzing molds and yeasts, a high growth of these microorganisms was found in four samples (80%) stored in PET bottles and in five samples (100%) stored in coolants. The information obtained in this research showed that the refreshments collected were in unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions, and may represent causes of food-borne infections to consumers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Juices , Food Microbiology , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Food Packaging , Food Storage/standards , Coliforms , Multiple Tube Method/methods , Fungi/isolation & purification , Legislation, Food
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.


Subject(s)
Fungi/physiology , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/physiology , Biomass , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphates/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Potassium/metabolism
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.


Subject(s)
Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/metabolism , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gold/analysis , Gold/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Mining , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 45-53, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium), and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa). Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g) and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa), as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water/metabolism , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biomass , Cucurbita/growth & development , Cucurbita/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Desert Climate , Salinity , Droughts , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mexico
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 205-212, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974346

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study compares patients with and without non-viral microbial keratitis in relation to sociodemographic variables, clinical aspects, and involved causative agent. Clinical aspects, etiology and therapeutic procedures were assessed in patients with and without keratitis that were diagnosed in an Eye Care Center in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: (a) cases: 64 patients with non-viral microbial keratitis diagnosed at biomicroscopy; and (b) controls: 47 patients with other eye disorders that were not keratitis. Labor activity related to agriculture, cattle raising, and contact lens use were all linked to keratitis occurrence (p < 0.005). In patients with keratitis, the most common symptoms were pain and photophobia, and the most frequently used medicines were fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (34.4%), amphotericin B (31.3%), and natamycin (28.1%). Microbial keratitis evolved to corneal perforation in 15.6% of cases; transplant was indicated in 10.9% of cases. Regarding the etiology of this condition, 23 (42.2%) keratitis cases were caused by bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12.5%), 17 (39.1%) by fungi (Fusarium spp., 14.1% and Aspergillus spp., 4.7%), and 4 (6.3%) by Acanthamoeba. Patients with keratitis present with a poorer prognosis. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent is indispensable and depends on appropriate ophthalmological collection and microbiological techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Keratitis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 47-58, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974328

ABSTRACT

Abstract To know more about the potential roles of endophytic fungi in the formation mechanism of Daodi medicinal material, diversity and communities of culturable endophytic fungi in three types of tree peonies were investigated. Endophytic fungi of three types of tree peonies were isolated and identified. The diversity was analyzed. Bayesian trees constructed by MrBayes 3.2.6 after phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences. The endophytic fungi potential for synthesis of natural products was assessed by means of detecting NRPS and PKS gene sequences. In total, 364 endophytic fungi isolates representing 26 genera were recovered from Paeonia ostii 'Feng Dan', Paeonia ostii 'Luoyang Feng Dan', and Paeonia suffruticosa 'Luoyang Hong'. More culturable endophytic fungi appeared in P. suffruticosa 'Luoyang Hong' (206) compared with P. ostii 'Feng Dan' (60) and P. ostii 'Luoyang Feng Dan' (98). The fungal community of P. ostii 'Feng Dan' had the highest richness and diversity. PKSs and NRPS detection rates of endophytic fungi from P. ostii 'Feng Dan' are both the highest among the three types of tree peonies. Results indicate that endophytic fungus is an important factor of Daodi Cortex Moutan forming, and endophytic fungi in peony are related to genuineness of Cortex Moutan.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Paeonia/microbiology , Biodiversity , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/metabolism , Paeonia/classification , Paeonia/growth & development , Paeonia/metabolism , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/genetics
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 648-655, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889169

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides. Due to the presence of residual partially degraded lignocellulose in the gut, the dung of herbivores can be considered as a natural source of pre-treated lignocellulose. A total of 101 fungi were isolated (36 yeast and 65 mould isolates). Six yeast isolates produced ethanol during growth on xylose while three were able to grow at 42 °C. This is a desirable growth temperature as it is closer to that which is used during the cellulose hydrolysis process. From the yeast isolates, six isolates were able to tolerate 2 g/L acetic acid and one tolerated 2 g/L furfural in the growth media. These inhibitors are normally generated during the pre-treatment step. When grown on pre-treated thatch grass, Aspergillus species were dominant in secretion of endo-glucanase, xylanase and mannanase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Manure/microbiology , Biofuels/analysis , Biofuels/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Herbivory , Lignin/metabolism , Manure/analysis , Plants/metabolism , Xylose/metabolism
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