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1.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 427-433, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1356952

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: la litiasis biliar tiene una prevalencia actual en Occidente del 10-20%. El 7-16% de los pacientes presentan también coledocolitiasis. El diagnóstico preoperatorio de coledocolitiasis es difícil de establecer. Objetivo: establecer nuestra experiencia en el estudio de la patología biliar complicada y el manejo de la coledocolitiasis en dos tiempos, como terapéutica de elección. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional. Pacientes con patología biliar sometidos a procedimientos en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Vidal, desde el 30/06/2019 al 30/12/2019. Resultados: la ecografía hepato-bilio-pancreática (HPB) es específica, con exactitud del 80,9% y sensibilidad del 50%. La colangio resonancia magnética (CRNM) es 100% específica, tiene exactitud del 84,6% y sensibilidad de 67%. La colangio pancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (ERCP -por sus siglas en inglés-), durante la primera colangiografía mostró en el 100% litiasis coledociana, pero, luego del tratamiento, la colangiografía de "control" muestra 0% de sensibilidad, 100% especificidad, con exactitud del 15,4%. En los hallazgos intraoperatorios, el cístico dilatado en asociación con alteraciones humorales ha demostrado una sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad del 90% y tasa de exactitud de 93,6%. Conclusión: la colangiografía intraoperatoria (CIO) es el procedimiento de referencia ("gold standard") en el abordaje de la patología biliar complicada, siendo su uso sistemático. La asociación entre alteraciones de parámetros humorales y el cístico dilatado resulta un parámetro con alto valor predictivo para la presencia de litiasis coledociana.


ABSTRACT Background: Nowadays, the prevalence of gallstones ranges between 10 and 20% in Western world, and 7-16% of the patients also present choledocholithiasis. The preoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis is difficult. Objective: To establish our experience in the evaluation of complicated gallstone disease and two-stage management of choledochal lithiasis as standard or care. Material and methods: This prospective and observational study included patients hospitalized with gallstone disease undergoing procedures in the Department of General Surgery of Hospital Vidal from June 30, 2019, to December 30, 2019. Results: Ultrasound of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas was specific, with accuracy of 80.9% and sensitivity of 50%. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) had a sensitivity of 100%, accuracy of 84.6% and sensitivity of 67%. As for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was made in 100% of the cases during the first cholangiography while "control" cholangiography had a sensitivity of 0%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 15.4%. The presence of a dilated cystic duct intraoperatively in association with abnormal biochemical parameters had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 90%, and accuracy of 93.6%. Conclusion: Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is the gold standard procedure for the management of complicated gallstone disease. The association of biochemical parameters and a dilated cystic duct has high predictive value for choledochal lithiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biliary Tract , Cholangiography , Lithiasis , Pancreas , Pathology , General Surgery , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Cholelithiasis , Gallstones , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Cystic Duct , Choledocholithiasis/complications , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Liver , Methods
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 101-108, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178954

ABSTRACT

La litiasis vesicular sintomática puede presentarse asociada a litiasis de la vía biliar principal, siendo necesaria la utilización de medios diagnósticos adecuados para su posterior tratamiento. En este trabajo, se sugiere la evaluación mediante las guías de la Sociedad Americana para Endoscopia Gastrointestinal (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ASGE), usando factores como la edad, pruebas hepáticas y hallazgos ecográficos, categorizando a los pacientes en baja, intermedia y alta probabilidad de coledocolitiasis. Estudio de diseño retrospectivo, observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos, sobre pacientes con diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular sintomática y sospecha de litiasis de la via biliar principal internados en la II Cátedra de Clínica Quirúrgica, del Hospital de Clínicas de San Lorenzo, entre los años 2017 a 2019. Con los siguientes resultados, de un total de 339 pacientes con diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular sintomática, el 6,64% tuvo el diagnóstico de coledocolitiasis asociada. En cuanto a los predictores muy fuertes de coledocolitiasis el más frecuentemente (68,6%,) encontrado fue el nivel de la bilirrubina total ≥ 4mg/dl; de los predictores fuertes el 70,6% presentaba la vía biliar principal dilatada; de los predictores moderados, el 84,3% presentó las enzimas hepáticas alteradas. En conclusión, se pudo identificar que la mayoría de los pacientes presentó alta probabilidad de coledocolitiasis y la conducta tomada fue realizar en primer lugar una colangiografía retrógrada endoscópica, con fines terapéuticos y luego colecistectomía, correspondiente al manejo correcto establecido por las guías actuales internacionales.


Symptomatic gallstones can occur associated with lithiasis of the main bile duct, requiring the use of adequate diagnostic tools for subsequent treatment. In this paper, we suggest using the guidelines of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), that uses factors such as age, liver tests, and ultrasound findings, categorizing patients as those with low, intermediate, and high probability. of choledocholithiasis. A Retrospective, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional design study, with a non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases, on patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones and suspected stones of the main bile duct admitted to the the 2nd Surgical Department and Service of Clinica´s Hospital of San Lorenzo, between the years 2017 to 2019. With the following results; of a total of 339 patients with the diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones, 6.64% had associated choledocholithiasis. Regarding the very strong predictors of choledocholithiasis, the most frequent (68.6%) was the total bilirubin level ≥ 4mg / dl; 70.6% had a dilated main bile duct as a strong predictor; as a moderate predictor, 84.3% had altered liver enzymes. In conclusion, it was possible to identify that most of the patients presented a high probability of choledocholithiasis and the action taken was to first perform an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, for therapeutic purposes, and then cholecystectomy, corresponding to the correct management established by current international guidelines.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Bilirubin , Cholangiography , Cholecystectomy , Gallstones , Lithiasis , Liver , Sampling Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Endoscopy
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1093-1100, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although osteopontin (OPN) is expressed in the liver and pigment gallstones of patients with hepatolithiasis, its role in pigment gallstone formation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the function of OPN in pigment gallstone formation.@*METHODS@#Rats were fed a chow diet (CD) or lithogenic diet (LD) for 10 consecutive weeks; blocking tests were then performed using an OPN antibody (OPN-Ab). Incidence of gallstones and levels of several bile components, OPN, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) were analyzed. To determine TNF-α expression in hepatic macrophages and both CYP7A1 and bile acid (BA) expression in liver cells, recombinant rat OPN and recombinant rat TNF-α were used to treat rat hepatic macrophages and rat liver cells, respectively. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used to analyze qualitative data, Student t-test or one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze qualitative data.@*RESULTS@#Incidence of gallstones was higher in LD-fed rats than in CD-fed rats (80% vs. 10%, P < 0.05). BA content significantly decreased in bile (t = -36.08, P < 0.01) and liver tissue (t = -16.16, P < 0.01) of LD-fed rats. Both hepatic OPN protein expression (t = 9.78, P < 0.01) and TNF-α level (t = 8.83, P < 0.01) distinctly increased in the LD group; what's more, CYP7A1 mRNA and protein levels (t = -12.35, P < 0.01) were markedly down-regulated in the LD group. Following OPN-Ab pretreatment, gallstone formation decreased (85% vs. 25%, χ2 = 14.55, P < 0.01), liver TNF-α expression (F = 20.36, P < 0.01) was down-regulated in the LD group, and CYP7A1 expression (F = 17.51, P < 0.01) was up-regulated. Through CD44 and integrin receptors, OPN promoted TNF-α production in macrophage (F = 1041, P < 0.01), which suppressed CYP7A1 expression (F = 48.08, P < 0.01) and reduced liver BA synthesis (F = 119.4, P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#We provide novel evidence of OPN involvement in pigmented gallstone pathogenesis in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet/adverse effects , Gallstones/etiology , Lithiasis , Liver , Liver Diseases , Osteopontin/genetics , Rats
5.
Rev. venez. cir ; 74(2): 51-54, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1369845

ABSTRACT

El íleo biliar es una complicación poco frecuente de la colelitiasis o colecistitis litiásica, aparece en menos del 1-3% de los pacientes con estas enfermedades, se define como una obstrucción intestinal mecánica debido a la impactación de uno o más cálculos biliares dentro del tracto gastrointestinal. Ubicaciones menos comunes incluyen estómago y duodeno (síndrome de Bouveret) y el colon. El diagnóstico del síndrome de Bouveret (SB) suele iniciar con una radiografía simple de abdomen; la ecografía abdominal confirma el síndrome de Bouveret si revela neumobilia y ubicación ectópica del cálculo biliar, sin embargo, en la mayoría de los casos se necesita una tomografía computarizada que permite una evaluación completa.Caso Clínico : Se presenta caso de masculino de 57 años de edad quien 8 días previo a su ingreso presenta dolor abdominal en epigastrio de moderada intensidad acompañado de pirosis, halitosis, náuseas, vómitos, intolerancia a la vía oral y ausencia de evacuaciones; acude inicialmente a gastroenterólogo que realiza endoscopia digestiva superior encontrando una imagen de obstrucción a nivel de primera porción de duodeno, motivo por el cual refiere a servicio de cirugía general donde es intervenido quirúrgicamente, se diagnostica el SB realizando gastrotomía, extracción del lito y piloroplastia, presentando adecuada evolución postoperatoria.Conclusión : El SB es un diagnóstico raro que afecta a <0,5% de los pacientes con cálculos biliares por lo que requiere un grado extremadamente alto de sospecha para el diagnóstico y puede observarse de manera incidental en estudios de imágenes en pacientes que presentan síntomas de obstrucción del vaciamiento gástrico(AU)


Biliary ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis or lithiasic cholecystitis, appearing in less than 1 to 3% of patients with these diseases, it is a mechanical intestinal obstruction due to the impaction of one or more gallstones within the gastrointestinal tract. Less common locations include the stomach and duodenum (Bouveret syndrome) and the colon. For the diagnosis of Bouveret's syndrome (BS) the initial step is usually a simple abdominal X-ray, while an abdominal ultrasound confirms Bouveret's syndrome if it reveals pneumobilia and ectopic location of the gallstone, in most cases a computed tomography (CT) scan is needed for diagnosis and full evaluation.Clinical Case: We present the clinical case of a 57-year-old male who 8 days prior to his admission presented with moderate intensity abdominal pain in the epigastrium accompanied by heartburn, halitosis, nausea, vomiting, intolerance to oral intake, and absence of evacuations; initially went to a gastroenterologist who performed upper digestive endoscopy, finding an image of obstruction at the level of the first portion of the duodenum, which is why he refers to the general surgery department where he underwent surgery, diagnosing BS by performing gastrotomy, stone extraction, and pyloroplasty, presenting adequate postoperative evolution.Conclusion : BS is a rare diagnosis that affects <0.5% of patients with gallstones and therefore requires an extremely high degree of suspicion for the diagnosis and can be seen incidentally on imaging studies in patients with symptoms of obstruction of gastric emptying(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholelithiasis , Gallstones , Abdominal Pain , Cholecystitis , General Surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 25-32, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177367

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La litiasis biliar es una patología considerada como poco frecuente en la infancia; sin embargo, el 50% de los adultos jóvenes con enfermedad vesicular presentaron sus primeros síntomas a edades tempranas. Existen pocos estudios en población pediátrica con esta patología en el Paraguay. Objetivos: Determinar los síntomas más frecuentes y la presencia de factores asociados a litiasis biliar en niños y adolescentes en un hospital de referencia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal, observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, realizado con datos secundarios de fichas clínicas de pacientes internados entre los meses de enero del 2014 y enero del 2019. Muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 58 pacientes con diagnóstico de litiasis biliar, 3 (5,2%) en edad pre-escolar, 9 (15,5%) escolares y 46 (79,3%) adolescentes. Fueron del sexo femenino 39/58 (67,2%). En cuanto a las manifestaciones clínicas, 57 (98%) pacientes refirieron dolor abdominal, 30 (51%) presentaron vómitos y el resto en menor proporción cursaron con ictericia, coluria o hipocolia. Con respecto a la situación nutricional, 1 (1,7%) paciente presentó desnutrición y 29 (50%) pacientes sobrepeso u obesidad. En relación con la evaluación de la talla, 5 (8,6%) tenían talla baja. En 4 (6,8%) pacientes hubo antecedentes familiares de litiasis biliar. Ninguno presentó complicaciones. No se observaron casos asociados a uso de nutrición parenteral. 2 pacientes habían recibido antibiótico de amplio espectro. Conclusión: La litiasis biliar fue más frecuente en niñas y en la etapa de la adolescencia, en la mayoría fue idiopática y el dolor abdominal fue la manifestación más frecuente. Conclusión: La litiasis biliar fue más frecuente en niñas y en la etapa de la adolescencia, en la mayoría fue idiopática y el dolor abdominal fue la manifestación más frecuente.


Introduction: Gallstones are considered infrequent in childhood; however, 50% of young adults with gallbladder disease had their first symptoms during this period. There are few studies in the pediatric population about this pathology in Paraguay. Objectives: To determine the prevalent symptoms and the presence of predisposing factors in children and adolescents with gallstones at a referral hospital. Materials and methods: it is a cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive, observational study; based on clinical records of patients hospitalized between January 2014 and January 2019, non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases of patients who meet the inclusion criteria. Results: 58 patients with the diagnosis of gallstones were found, of which 3 (5.2%) were preschool children, 9 (15.5%) children and 46 (79.3%) adolescents. There was a predominance of females 67.2% (39/58) over males 33% (19/58). As for clinical manifestations, 57 patients (98%) reported abdominal pain, 30 (51%) vomiting and a lesser extent coursed with jaundice, dark urine or hypocolia. Regarding the nutritional profile, 1 patient (8,6%) presented malnutrition and 29 (50%) were overweight or obese. In relation to height, 5 (8.6%) were short stature. Only 4 patients (6.8%) had a family history of gallstones. None of them had complications or were associated to parenteral nutrition. 2 patients had received broad spectrum antibiotics. Conclusion: Gallstones occurred mainly in female adolescents. In most cases was idiopathic and, abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom.


Subject(s)
Vomiting , Gallstones , Lithiasis , Overweight , Jaundice , Obesity , Population , Women , Disease , Gallbladder Diseases
7.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 7(2): 63-64, jun.-dic. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1343967

ABSTRACT

Imagen: Signo de la Cobra (flecha #1) hallazgo compatible con ureterocele, y en su interior imagen hiperecoica con sombra acústica posterior en relación con cálculo (flecha #2)...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Ureterocele/diagnostic imaging , Gallstones , Ureter , Urinary Tract
8.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 468-471, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138741

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El íleo biliar es una causa poco frecuente de obstrucción intestinal mecánica, siendo más frecuente en pacientes mayores de 65 años y sexo femenino. Casos Clínicos: Se exponen cuatro casos clínicos diagnosticados de íleo biliar, intervenidos en nuestro centro. Discusión: El íleo biliar es una enfermedad que se produce a consecuencia del paso de un cálculo al lumen intestinal. Esto se produce por la presencia de una fístula entre la vesícula y el intestino, localizada mayormente a nivel duodenal. Se manifiesta con una clínica muy inespecífica, lo que condiciona un retraso en su diagnóstico. La tomografía computarizada es actualmente el examen de elección. El tratamiento consiste en la enterotomía con extracción del cálculo, realizándose la reparación de la fístula en un primer o segundo tiempo. Tiene un mal pronóstico debido a comorbilidad de los pacientes y la demora diagnóstica y terapéutica.


Introduction: Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of mechanical intestinal obstruction, being more frequent in patients over 65 years and females. Clinical Cases: Four clinical cases diagnosed with gallstone ileus, operated on in our center, are reported. Discussion: Gallstone ileus frequently occurs as a result of a fistula that communicates the digestive tract with the gallbladder. Their clinic is very unspecific, which determines a delay in its diagnosis. Computed tomography is currently the gold standard. The treatment is enterolithotomy and fistula repair in a first or second stage. Prognosis is poor due to patient comorbidities and diagnostic and therapeutic delay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Gallstones/diagnostic imaging , Ileal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Biliary Fistula
9.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(3): e912, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144441

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El íleo biliar representa el 4 por ciento de las causas de obstrucción intestinal en la población general. Objetivo: Mostrar un paciente con cuadro de oclusión intestinal por íleo biliar que fue diagnosticado y tratado en el transoperatorio. Caso clínico: Paciente de 78 años de edad con un cuadro oclusivo por un íleo biliar, al cual se le realizó enterolitotomía como tratamiento definitivo. Conclusiones: El íleo biliar es una causa de oclusión intestinal que todo cirujano general debe tener presente ante un anciano con elementos clínicos e imaginológicos de oclusión y sin intervenciones quirúrgicas previas o hernias de la pared abdominal(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Gallstone ileus represents 4 percent of the causes of intestinal obstruction in the general population. Objective: To present a patient with intestinal obstruction due to gallstone ileus and who was diagnosed and treated during the intraoperative period. Clinical case: The is presented of a 78-year-old patient with an occlusive condition due to gallstone ileus, who underwent enterolithotomy as definitive management procedure. Conclusions: Gallstone ileus is a cause of intestinal occlusion that every general surgeon should be aware of in the presence of an elderly with clinical and imaging elements of occlusion and without previous surgical interventions or hernias of the abdominal wall(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Cholelithiasis/complications , Gallstones/surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(5): 313-315, 20200000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367299

ABSTRACT

Gallstone ileus is defined as a mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to the presence of a gallstone. Less than 1% of cases of intestinal obstruction are derived from this etiology. The most frequent cause is the impaction of the stone in the ileum, after passing through a bilioenteric fistula. It is a rare and potentially serious complication of cholelithiasis. This pathology occurs more in the elderly, the average age at which it occurs is between 60 and 84 years, mainly affecting the female sex, attributed to the higher frequency of biliary pathology in said sex. It presents a high morbidity and mortality, mainly due to the difficulty and the diagnostic delay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Gallstones , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Abdomen/surgery , Ileum/pathology , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery
11.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30(supl.5): S22-S26, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223731

ABSTRACT

Com exceção dos casos decorrentes de doença hemolítica crônica, a colelitíase biliar é pouco comum na infância e adolescência quando comparada aos adultos. No entanto, nas últimas décadas observou-se importante aumento da incidência da doença na pediatria, principalmente em adolescentes do sexo feminino. Os fatores de risco associados à colelitíase têm se assemelhado àqueles encontrados nos adultos e o cálculo de colesterol é o principal responsável pelo aumento da prevalência. Acredita-se que a maioria dos pacientes pediátricos com colelitíase biliar apresente sintomas inespecíficos; a cólica biliar típica é encontrada mais frequentemente em crianças mais velhas. O tratamento padrão para a colelitíase sintomática é o tratamento cirúrgico com retirada da vesícula biliar, sendo a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica preferível à cirurgia aberta devido ao menor tempo de recuperação e de internação hospitalar. Contudo, na colelitíase assintomática o tratamento deve ser individualizado, sendo indicada a cirurgia em casos selecionados. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os principais aspectos da doença calculosa biliar na infância e contribuir para maior suspeição clínica da doença entre os pediatras, aprimorando a abordagem diagnóstica e a definição terapêutica adequada.


Excluding the cases resulting from chronic hemolytic disease, cholelithiasis is uncommon in childhood and adolescence when compared to adults. However, in recent decades there has been noted an increased incidence of the disease in pediatrics, especially in female adolescents. The risk factors associated with cholelithiasis have been similar to those found in adults and cholesterol stones are the main responsible for the increase of the prevalence. The majority of pediatric patients with cholelithiasis have no specific symptoms; typical biliary colic is found more often among older children. The standard treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis is surgery to remove the gallbladder; the laparoscopic cholecystectomy is preferable to open surgery because of the shorter recovery time and hospital stay. However, in asymptomatic cholelithiasis treatment must be individualized and surgery is indicated in selected cases. The aim of this review is to present the main aspects of gallstone disease in childhood and contribute to greater clinical suspicion of the disease among pediatricians, improving the diagnostic approach and the appropriate therapeutic definition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cholelithiasis , Pediatrics , Cholecystectomy , Cholelithiasis/diagnosis , Gallstones , Incidence
12.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(1): e1491, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130506

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Endoscopic removal of common bile duct stones has a high success rate ranging from 85% to 95%. Bile duct stones >15 mm are difficult and frequently require lithotripsy. Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) allows lithotripsy with similar success rates. Aim: To determine the efficacy and safety of cholangioscopy-guided lithotripsy used in the treatment of difficult to remove bile duct stones vs. conventional therapy. Methods: Search was based in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, Lilacs/Bireme. Studies enrolling patients referred for the removal of difficult bile duct stones via POC were considered eligible. Two analyses were carried out separately, one included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and another observational studies. Results: Forty-six studies were selected (3 RTC and 43 observational). In the analysis there was no statistical significant difference between successful endoscopic clearance (RD=-0.02 CI: -0.17, 0.12/I²=0%), mean fluoroscopy time (MD=-0.14 CI -1.60, 1.32/I²=21%) and adverse events rates (RD=-0.06 CI: -0.14, 0.02/I²=0%), by contrast, the mean procedure time favored conventional therapy with statistical significance (MD=27.89 CI: 16.68, 39.10/I²=0%). In observational studies, the successful endoscopic clearance rate was 88.29% (CI95: 86.9%-90.7%), the first session successful endoscopic clearance rate was 72.7 % (CI95: 69.9%-75.3%), the mean procedure time was 47.50±6 min for session and the number of sessions to clear bile duct was 1.5±0.18. The adverse event rate was 8.7% (CI95: 7%-10.9%). Conclusions: For complex common bile duct stones, cholangioscopy-guided lithotripsy has a success rate that is similar to traditional ERCP techniques in terms of therapeutic success, adverse event rate and means fluoroscopy time. Conventional ERCP methods have a shorter mean procedure time.


RESUMO Introdução: A remoção endoscópica das litíases do ducto biliar comum tem alta taxa de sucesso variando de 85% a 95%. Litíases do ducto biliar >15 mm são difíceis e frequentemente requerem litotripsia. A colangioscopia peroral permite litotripsia com taxas de sucesso semelhantes. Objetivo: Determinar a eficácia e segurança da litotripsia guiada por colangioscopia no tratamento de litíases biliares difíceis em comparação à terapias convencionais guiadas por colangiopancreatografia retrógrada endoscópica. Método: Pesquisa na Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, Lilacs/Bireme de estudos avaliando a eficácia da colangioscopia na remoção de cálculos biliares difíceis. Duas análises foram realizadas separadamente, uma incluiu ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) e outros estudos observacionais. Resultados: Quarenta e seis estudos foram selecionados (3 ECR e 43 observacionais). Na análise, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na taxa de extração litiásica total (RD=-0,02 IC: -0,17,0,12/I²=0%), tempo médio de fluoroscopia (MD=-0,14 CI -1,60, 1,32/I²=21%) e na taxa de eventos adversos (RD=-0,06 IC: -0,14, 0,02/I²=0%).Por outro lado, o tempo médio do procedimento favoreceu terapêuticas convencionais guiadas por CPRE com significância estatística (MD=27,89 IC: 16,68, 39,10/I²=0%). Nos estudos observacionais, a taxa do tratamento completo por endoscopia foi de 88,29% (IC95: 86,9% a 90,7%), a taxa de sucesso na primeira sessão foi de 72,7% (IC95: 69,9% a 75,3%), o tempo médio do procedimento foi de 47,50±6 min por sessão e o número de procedimentos necessários para remoção total da litíase foi de 1,5±0,18. A taxa de eventos adversos foi de 8,7% (IC95: 7% a 10,9%), com 0,5% considerado como severo. Conclusão: Para litíases biliares difíceis, a litotripsia guiada por colangioscopia tem taxa de sucesso semelhante às terapêuticas convencionais guiadas CPRE em termos de sucesso terapêutico, taxa de eventos adversos e tempo de fluoroscopia. As terapêuticas convencionais guiadas por CPRE têm tempo médio de procedimento menor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lithotripsy , Gallstones , Lithotripsy, Laser , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Treatment Outcome
13.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 11(2): 170-188, Agosto/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1021187

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia, segurança e custo-efetividade da colangiopancreatografia retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) comparada à exploração laparoscópica do ducto biliar comum (ELDBC) para coledocolitíase. Métodos: Foi realizada uma busca eletrônica nas bases de dados Medline, The Cochrane Library, Lilacs e Center for Reviews and Dissemination por revisões sistemáticas e estudos econômicos que reportassem dados sobre a comparação entre a CPRE e a ELDBC em pacientes com coledocolitíase. Uma busca complementar foi realizada nas referências dos estudos incluídos, periódicos, resumos de congresso e Google Acadêmico. A seleção foi realizada por dois pesquisadores independentes. Além da síntese qualitativa, uma ressíntese quantitativa para os desfechos primários foi conduzida em Review Manager® 5.3 utilizando um modelo de efeitos randômicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 estudos (9 revisões sistemáticas e 6 estudos econômicos). Não foi demonstrada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a colecistectomia laparoscópica (CL)+CPRE e a CL+ELDBC em termos de remoção dos cálculos do colédoco (88,5% vs. 92,8%; RR = 0,97, valor-p = 0,08; N = 1.881), morbidade pós-operatória (14,1% vs. 13,8%; RR = 0,98, valor-p = 0,88; N = 1.469), mortalidade (0,8% vs. 0,2%; RR = 2,13, valor-p = 0,33; N = 1.471), cálculos retidos (7,3% vs. 5,8%; RR = 1,17, valor-p = 0,40; N = 1.731), conversão para outros procedimentos (8,7% vs. 6,7%; RR = 1,20, valor-p = 0,55; N = 1.287), duração do procedimento (MD = 10,91, valor-p = 0,61; N = 717) ou tempo de hospitalização (MD = 1,31, valor-p = 0,10; N = 757). A literatura de custo-efetividade é dividida, com alguns estudos favorecendo a CL+CPRE e outros, a CL+ELDBC. Conclusão: Não é possível concluir sobre a superioridade da ELDBC sobre a CPRE ou vice-versa para a remoção de cálculos no colédoco.


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) compared to laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for choledocholithiasis. Methods: An electronic search was conducted in the Medline, The Cochrane Library, Lilacs and Center for Reviews and Dissemination databases for systematic reviews and economic studies that reported data on the comparison between ERCP and LCBDE in patients with choledocholithiasis. A complementary search was conducted on references of included studies, journals, conference abstracts and Google Scholar. The selection was performed by two independent reviewers. In addition to the qualitative synthesis, a quantitative re-synthesis for primary outcomes was conducted in Review Manager® 5.3 using a random effects model. Results: Fifteen studies (9 systematic reviews and 6 economic studies) were included. There was no statistically significant difference between laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)+ERCP and LC+LCBDE in terms of removal of choledochal stones (88.5% vs. 92.8%, RR = 0.97, p-value = 0.08; N = 1,881), morbidity (14.1% vs. 13.8%, RR = 0.98, p-value = 0.88; N = 1,469), mortality (0.8% vs. 0,2%; RR = 2.13, p-value = 0.33, N = 1,471), retained stones (7.3% vs. 5.8%, RR = 1.17, p-value = 0.40; N = 1,731), conversion to other procedures (8.7% vs. 6.7%, RR = 1.20, p-value = 0.55, N = 1,287), duration of the procedure (MD = 10.91, p = 0.61, N = 717) or hospital stay (MD = 1.31, p-value = 0.10, N = 757). The cost-effectiveness literature is divided. Some studies favor LC+ERCP and others LC+LCBDE. Conclusion: It is not possible to conclude on the superiority of the LCBDE on ERCP or vice-versa for choledocholithiasis


Subject(s)
Humans , Gallstones , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Laparoscopy , Common Bile Duct
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 965-970, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013017

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an important clinical event with an increased frequency due to increased life expectancy, obesity, and alcohol use. There are some data about the elevation of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels in benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary events in the literature, but in AP they are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CA 19-9 level in patients with AP and determine its relationship according to the cause. METHODS Between 2010-2018, 173 patients evaluated with CA 19-9 levels as well as by standard laboratory tests were included in the study. CA 1 9-9 levels and laboratory findings were compared in patients with pancreatitis due to gallstone (group 1) and metabolic/toxic reasons such as hyperlipidemia, alcohol, or drug use (group 2). RESULTS There were 114 (66%) patients in the group 1 and 59 (34%) patients in the group 2. The majority of patients with high CA 19-9 level were in group 1 (92.1% vs 6.8%). CA 19-9 level, as well as amylase, lipase, AST, ALT and bilirubin levels were found to be statistically higher in patients with AP due to gallstone compared to patients with metabolic/toxic AP. CONCLUSIONS Patients with AP due to gallstone, were found to have a high level of CA 19-9 at admission. Early stage CA 19-9 levels may contribute to standard laboratory tests in the etiology of the disease in patients diagnosed with AP.


RESUMO OBJETIVO A pancreatite aguda (PA) é um evento clínico importante e cada vez mais frequente devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida, obesidade e do consumo de álcool. Existem alguns dados na literatura sobre a elevação dos níveis do antígeno carboidrato (CA) 19-9 em eventos pancreato-biliares benignos e malignos, mas eles são limitados em relação à PA. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o nível de CA 19-9 em pacientes com PA e determinar sua relação com a causa da doença. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS Entre 2010 e 2018, 173 pacientes submetidos a uma avaliação dos níveis de CA 19-9, bem como testes laboratoriais padrão, foram incluídos no estudo. Os níveis de CA 19-9 e os achados laboratoriais foram comparados em pacientes com pancreatite devido a cálculos biliares (grupo 1) e razões metabólicas/tóxicas, como hiperlipidemia, álcool, ou uso de drogas (grupo 2). RESULTADOS Um total de 114 (66%) pacientes foi incluído no grupo 1 e 59 (34%) no grupo 2. A maioria dos pacientes com alto nível de CA 19-9 estavam no grupo 1 (92,1% versus 6,8%). O CA 19-9, bem como os níveis de amilase, lipase, AST, ALT e bilirrubina foram estatisticamente mais altos em pacientes com PA devido a cálculos biliares em comparação àqueles com PA devido a alterações metabólicas/tóxicas. CONCLUSÃO Pacientes com PA devido a cálculos biliares apresentaram um alto nível de CA 19-9 no momento da internação. O nível de CA 19-9 na fase inicial pode contribuir para testes laboratoriais padrão na etiologia da doença em pacientes com diagnóstico de PA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Gallstones/complications , Gallstones/metabolism , CA-19-9 Antigen/blood , Reference Values , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric , Middle Aged
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(3): 106-109, may 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025200

ABSTRACT

Contexto: La litiasis vesicular asintomática es un cuadro clínico cuyo abordaje terapéutico resulta controversial. Objetivos: Definir qué pacientes con litiasis vesicular son asintomáticos, identificar riesgos y beneficios de la conducta expectante en pacientes asintomáticos, mencionar qué grupos de pacientes asintomáticos se beneficia con la cirugía preventiva. Material y métodos: Se realizó una revisión de trabajos publicados en la plataforma. Pubmed para identificar y analizar aquellos que consideramos más representativos sobre litiasis vesicular asintomática, y así describir la conducta más apropiada ante dicha situación. Resultados: Al realizar la revisión de artículos con bajo nivel de evidencia (C-D) observamos que par la litiasis vesicular asintomática la conducta expectante es la más recomendada. Sin embargo varios trabajos hacen referencia a grupos de pacientes seleccionados que debido a su condición de base se beneficiarían con la cirugía. Conclusiones: Con la información obtenida de los artículos analizados se concluye que No está recomendada de forma rutinaria la colecistectomía profiláctica en los pacientes con litiasis asintomática; los pacientes que se benefician de la cirugía y en los cuales la indicación de colecistectomía es clara son: pacientes con riesgo elevado de desarrollar cáncer de vesícula (existencia de pólipos vesiculares con crecimiento rápido o mayor de 1 cm, vesícula en porcelana, cáculo mayor de 3 cm, mujer joven de origen ameroindio) y pacientes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar coplicaciones como son los jóvenes con anemia hemolítica crónica. El procedimiento quirúrgico iindicado es la colecistectomía por vía laparoscópica, siendo éste el procedimiento quirúrgico con menor tasa de morbimortalidad y mejor recuperarción postoperatoria disponibe (AU)


The presence of stones in the gallbladder is a condition relatively common in many parts of the world, being present in 10% to 15% of the adult population, and the presence of stones in the gallbladder afficts more than 21.9 % of the population of the city of Buenos Aires. When patients present with symptoms of biliary lithiasis, there is consense toward the surgical removal. But in the patients with asymptomatic gallstones that have no pain and do not have compications, the management of these silent gallstones is somewhat controversial. Data coupled with results suggesting that persons's life expectancy is not increased by prophylactic cholecystectomy, have discouraged surgical tratment of gallstones unless symptoms are present. The aim of this report was to determine which patients with biliary lithiasis should be considered as asymptomatic patients, and to consider which group of the expectant management in asymptomatic patients, and to consider which group of these patients can be beneficiated with a preventive cholecystectomy. A revision of the literature was performed, considering the management of the asymptomatic gallstone disease, whether if it should be preferable the expectant management or instead an active treatment. The expectant management was the mos recommended procedure fot these patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gallstones/therapy , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Asymptomatic Diseases/therapy , Watchful Waiting
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(3): 138-139, may 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025433

ABSTRACT

The term choledocholithiasis refers to a condition when a gallstone or gallstones become lodged within any duct of the bile system. We can find pigment gallstones, cholesterol gallstones and mixed. During surgery to remove the gallbladder you may have a procedure called intraoperative cholangiogram to look for gallstones that may be in the common bileduct. Stones in the bile ducts are classified as either primary (arising the novo), secondary (migrating from the gallbladder), recurrent (reforming after biliary tract surgery) or retained (overlooked at the time of surgery). The prevalence of choledocholithiasis in patients with simptomatic gallbladder lithiasis can be a reason for enlargement of the hospital stay, and eventually in the complexity on the prevented surgical procedure. Our aim was to investigate its prevalence in our Hospital, and the results with the empoyement of the intraoperative cholangiography accordin to our surgical protoco, and the recognized guideliness from other Centers. The results obtained are discused


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangiography/instrumentation , Gallstones/complications , Retrospective Studies , Choledocholithiasis/complications , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
18.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(2): e2019102, Abr.-Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015113

ABSTRACT

Gallstone ileus is a rare (1%­4%) complication of gallstone disease. Gallstones entering the gastrointestinal tract by penetration may cause obstruction at any point along their course through the tract; however, they have a predilection to obstruct the smaller-caliber lumen of the small intestine (80.1%) or stomach (14.2%). The condition is seen more commonly in the elderly who often have significant co-morbidities. Gallstone ileus causing large bowel obstruction is rare. We report the case of a 95-year-old woman who presented with a history of abdominal pain without fever, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with oral contrast revealed a high-density structure within the lumen of the distal sigmoid colon, initially suspected to be a foreign body. Medical management failed and surgical intervention was not possible. Autopsy revealed peritonitis and a rupture of the sigmoid colon at the site of a cylindrical stone found impacted in an area of fibrotic narrowing with multiple diverticula. A necrotic, thick-walled gallbladder had an irregular stone in its lumen that was a fracture match with the stone in the sigmoid. Adhesions, but no discrete fistula, were identified between the gallbladder and the adjacent transverse colon. The immediate cause of death was peritonitis caused by colonic perforation by the gallstone impacted at an area of diverticular narrowing. To our knowledge, such autopsy findings have not been previously reported.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Colon, Sigmoid/injuries , Gallstones/pathology , Peritonitis/pathology , Autopsy , Diverticulum , Intestinal Perforation/complications
19.
Rev. chil. cir ; 71(1): 47-54, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985378

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existe una tendencia global al envejecimiento y con ello un aumento de patologías asociadas. En Chile la prevalencia de la colelitiasis o colecistolitiasis aumenta con la edad, siendo la cole-cistectomía una de las cirugías más frecuentes. Existen escasos estudios latinoamericanos referentes a la realidad de la población octogenaria expuesta a este problema. Objetivo: Estudiar la morbimortalidad posoperatoria en pacientes octogenarios operados de colecistectomía. Definir la precisión de distintas herramientas diagnósticas preoperatorias, estudiar variables operatorias y precisar costos hospitalarios. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de la ficha clínica electrónica del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, entre enero de 2012 y mayo de 2017. Se incluyeron pacientes con edad igual o mayor a 80 años, en quienes se realizó una colecistectomía electiva o de urgencia por patología benigna. Resultados: Se incluyeron 145 pacientes, 51,7% fueron mujeres, el promedio de edad fue de 84,1 años y un 74,5% presentaba comorbilidades. El 62,1% de los casos ingresó por urgencia. 26,2% de toda la muestra presentó coledocolitiasis. La colecistectomía fue laparoscópica en 73,8% de la muestra global, la tasa de conversión fue de 14,5% en población de urgencia y 1,8% en población electiva (p = 0,009). La población operada totalmente por vía laparoscópica con coledocolitiasis fue resuelta en un 95,2% a través de Rendez-vous, con una tasa de éxito del 100%. La tasa de complicaciones fue de 17,9% siendo en su mayoría médicas, la mortalidad quirúrgica fue de 2,1%, siendo todos casos de urgencia. El costo promedio de atención en salud hospitalaria fue de $5.888.104 pesos chilenos (U$9.000). Conclusión: El paciente octogenario con colecistolitiasis representa un desafío quirúrgico, dado un mayor número de comorbilidades, un cuadro clínico más agresivo y una elevada tasa de coledocolitiasis. Es aconsejable valorar el abordaje mínimamente invasivo y realizar una colangiografía intraoperatoria de rutina.


Introduction: There is a global tendency to aging and associated pathologies. In Chile, the prevalence of cholecystolithiasis increases with age, cholecystectomy is one of the most frequent surgeries in the contry. There are few latinamerican studies regarding the reality of the elderly exposed to this problem. Objective: Study postoperative morbimortality in octogenarian patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Define the accuracy of different preoperative diagnostic tools, study operative variables and specify hospital costs. Materials and Method: Retrospective observational study of the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile, between January 2012 and May 2017. Patients with age equal to or greater than 80 years were included, in whom an elective or emergency cholecystectomy was performed for benign pathology. Results: A total of 145 patients were included, 51.7% were women, the average age was 84.1 years, and 74.5% had comorbidities. The admission was throw the emergency department in 62.1% of the cases. Choledocholithiasis was diagnosed in 26.2% of the entire sample. Cholecystectomy was fully laparoscopic in 73.8% of the overall sample, the conversion rate was 14.5% in the emergency population and 1.8% in the elective population (p = 0.009). The population operated fully laparoscopically, that had choledocholithiasis, was resolved in 95.2% through Rendezvous technique, with a 100% clearance rate of common bile duct. The complication rate was 17.9%, most being medical. The surgical mortality was 2.1%, all cases operated from emergency. The average cost of hospital health care was $5,888,104.3 Chilean pesos (U$9.000). Conclusion: The octogenarian patient with cholecystolithiasis represents a surgical challenge, given a greater number of comorbidities, a more aggressive clinical setting and a high rate of choledocolithiasis. It is advisable to assess the minimally invasive approach and perform routine intraoperative cholangiography. In the postoperative period, the cardiopulmonary status and the infectious complications of the surgical site should be monitored closely.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Choledocholithiasis/surgery , Choledocholithiasis/diagnosis , Choledocholithiasis/etiology , Gallstones/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Laparoscopy/methods
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760174

ABSTRACT

A 51-year-old woman visited the emergency room with severe abdominal pain of acute onset. She had undergone a breast cancer operation one year previously and had been taking a half-dose (10 mg per day) of tamoxifen for 6 months. She was diagnosed with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. She had no other specific underlying disease or medical history. She did not drink alcohol and showed no gallstones on endoscopic ultrasound examination. Her blood triglyceride level had been normal before tamoxifen but had gradually increased to 2,534 mg/dL 6 months after beginning tamoxifen. Tamoxifen was regarded as a very likely causative factor for her necrotizing pancreatitis. After discontinuing the drug and receiving supportive care, she eventually recovered, and her blood triglyceride levels dropped to a normal range. Tamoxifen may be a useful drug for treating breast cancer, but doctors should pay attention to the patient's blood triglyceride level during the medication regimen.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Breast Neoplasms , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Gallstones , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Reference Values , Tamoxifen , Triglycerides , Ultrasonography
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