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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-9, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284417

ABSTRACT

Background:Lumbar sympathectomy through radio ablation is a useful treatment of peripheral ischemia. However, clinical efficacy with respect to lower limb ulcers is not adequately established in the Indian population. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia in healing of ischemic ulcers of the lower limb.Method:The prospective study with 63 patients registered in the General surgery department with lower limb ischemic ulcers between December 2017­ July2019 were treated with RFA. Patients with cardiopulmonary disease, pregnant, congenital malformation, or skin infection at the site of intervention, or suffering from bleeding disorders, were excluded from the study. Clinical investigation of the wound was performed, and demographic data was collected. Comparative reduction in wound size was assessed through Friedman`s ANOVA (P<0.001). Difference in pain score, hospital stay, and walking distance were evaluated using Wilcoxon matched pair test (P<0.001), Unpaired t-test, and Paired t-test (P<0.05).Result:Majority of the patients were male (n=40) with a mean age of 60.93 SD14.34 years. Significant reduction in wound size, pain scores and hospital stay were observed post procedure(P<0.001). Number of RFA sessions was significantly associated with the size of the ulcer and Fontaine's classification 2 and 3 (P<0.0001).Conclusion:RFA of lumbar sympathetic ganglia is a potential treatment modality for lower limb ischemic ulcers.


Antecedentes: La simpatectomía lumbar a través de la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un tratamiento útil de la isquemia periférica. Sin embargo, la eficacia clínica con respecto a las úlceras en las extremidades inferiores no está adecuadamente establecida en la población india. El estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el papel de la ablación por radiofrecuencia (RFA) de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares en la curación de las úlceras isquémicas de la extremidad inferior. Método: El estudio prospectivo con 63 pacientes registrados en el departamento de cirugía general con úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de 2019 fueron tratados con RFA. Los pacientes con enfermedad cardiopulmonar, malformación embarazada, congénita o infección de la piel en el lugar de la intervención, o que sufren de trastornos hemorrágicos, fueron excluidos del estudio. Se realizó una investigación clínica de la herida y se recopilaron datos demográficos. La reducción comparativa en el tamaño de la herida se evaluó a través del ANOVA de Friedman (P<0.001).Resultado: La diferencia en la puntuación del dolor, la estancia en el hospital y la distancia a pie se evaluaron mediante la prueba de par coincidente de Wilcoxon (P<0.001), la prueba t no emparejada y la prueba t emparejada (P<0.05). La mayoría de los pacientes eran varones (n-40) con una edad media de 60,93 SD14,34 años. Se observó una reducción significativa en el tamaño de la herida, las puntuaciones de dolor y la estancia hospitalaria (P<0.001). El número de sesiones de RFA se asoció significativamente con el tamaño de la úlcera y las clasificaciones 2 y 3 de Fontaine (P<0.0001).Conclusión: LA RFA de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares puede constituir una opción terapéutica para las úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ulcer/therapy , Lower Extremity , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Ischemia/therapy , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , India
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of bilateral superior cervical sympathetic ganglion occlusion (SCG) on aortic dissection and its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty-five SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with 15 in each:blank control group, sham operation group and SCG group. β-aminopropione (666 mg·kg·d) was given by subcutaneous injection for 4 weeks to establish the aortic dissection model. Rats in SCG group were given SCG before the injection of β-aminopropione. Blood pressure and heart rate of the rats were monitored using noninvasive tail artery blood pressure measuring instrument; sympathetic activity was monitored using drug block method; the structure of aortic wall was observed using HE staining; collagen fibers in aortic wall was observed using Sirius red staining; protein expression of Apelin was detected by immunohistochemistry; and the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, 9 was detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#During the experiment, the body mass of the sham operation group and SCG group was smaller than that of the blank control group (all <0.05), and the body mass of the SCG group was larger than that of the sham operation group (all <0.05). The heart rate and sympathetic activity of the sham operation group were higher than those of the blank control group (all <0.05), while the SCG group were lower (all <0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the aortic wall in the sham operation group was thickening, while that in the SCG group was improved. A large number of collagen-1 in the aortic wall of the blank control group was stained brown by Sirius red, which was lighter in SCG group, and the staining in the sham operation group was the lightest. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of Apelin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein in the sham operation group increased (all <0.05), while those in the SCG group decreased (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCG can effectively reduce the incidence and mortality of aortic dissection in rats, which may be related to the inhibition of sympathetic activity and the decrease of collagen-1, Apelin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting , Pathology , General Surgery , Animals , Aorta , Pathology , Collagen Type I , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 85-97, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777073

ABSTRACT

Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy. Both models resulted in neuroinflammatory changes in the sympathetic ganglia, as indicated by macrophage responses, satellite glia activation, and increased numbers of T cells, along with very modest increases in sympathetic neuron excitability (but not spontaneous activity) measured in ex vivo recordings. The spinal nerve ligation model generally caused larger responses than DRG inflammation. Plasticity of the sympathetic system should be recognized in studies of sympathetic effects on pain.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Hyperalgesia , Ligation , Macrophages , Pathology , Male , Neurogenic Inflammation , Pain , Pathology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771016

ABSTRACT

Although methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide, it is different from the other organophosphates in terms of toxicity. Because of its relatively high fat solubility, the apparent volume of methidathion distribution throughout the body is very high, indicating that hemoperfusion is not effective in removing this organophosphate from the body. Redistribution of methidathion from fat to blood can also occur when plasma levels diminish. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase aging, which is the loss of an alkyl side chain that prevents reactivation by oximes, is very rapid so that the effective reactivation by oximes is thwarted. Thus, methidathion's effect on acetylcholinesterase inhibition is long lasting, particularly with a high dose. In addition to its parasympatholytic effect and ability to induce muscle paralysis, methidathion poisoning is associated with a profound and long-lasting circulatory collapse due to sympathetic ganglion blockade. This report presents the case of a 55-year-old man who accidentally ingested a high dose of methidathion. He later developed enteroinvasive aspergillosis infection-induced multiple bowel perforations on two separate occasions while on mechanical ventilator support, resulting in a fatal outcome. The renin-angiotensin axis activated by sympathetic ganglion blockade may have reduced the patient's splanchnic blood flow, contributing to translocation of endotoxin. Also, the effect of excessive acetylcholine on non-neuronal acetylcholine receptors may have contributed to the development of fatal enteroinvasive aspergillosis in this patient.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Aging , Aspergillosis , Fatal Outcome , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Hemoperfusion , Humans , Middle Aged , Organophosphate Poisoning , Organophosphates , Oximes , Paralysis , Parasympatholytics , Plasma , Poisoning , Receptors, Cholinergic , Shock , Solubility , Ventilators, Mechanical
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208826

ABSTRACT

The neck has intricately connected neural structures, including cervical and brachial plexi, the sympathetic system, lower cranial nerves, and their branches. Except for brachial plexus, there has been little research regarding the normal imaging appearance or corresponding pathologies of neural structures in the neck. The development in imaging techniques with better spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio has made it possible to see many tiny nerves to predict complications related to image-guided procedures and to better assess treatment response, especially in the management of oncology patients. The purposes of this review is to present imaging-based anatomy of major nerves in the neck and explain their relevant clinical significance according to representative pathologies of regarded nerves in the neck.


Subject(s)
Accessory Nerve , Brachial Plexus , Cervical Plexus , Cervical Vertebrae , Cranial Nerves , Female , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Pathology , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Vagus Nerve
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200200

ABSTRACT

The lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB) is widely used for diagnosing and treating sympathetically maintained pain disorders. The LSGB has been conventionally carried out under fluoroscopy or computed tomography guidance. However, as ultrasound technology improved, ultrasound-guided interventions have been expanding their territory to deeper structures. Ultrasound guidance provides many benefits including protecting vascular injection, shortening procedure time in some cases, and reducing the emission of radiation. In this report, we describe a successful case of a US-guided LSGB without major complications. We expect that US-guided LSGBs can be implemented and furnished in the daily outpatient clinical setting by highly trained pain physicians.


Subject(s)
Fluoroscopy , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Humans , Neuralgia , Outpatients , Psoas Muscles , Ultrasonography
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115251

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after colorectal cancer surgery can prevent local recurrence, but has several side effects. Precise injection of drugs into the affected areas is complicated by radiation-induced fibrosis of soft or connective tissue. A 48-year-old woman experienced severe intractable perineal pain, dysuria, urinary urgency, and frequent urination after rectal cancer surgery and adjuvant RT, and was diagnosed with radiation-induced cystitis and vulvodynia. Her symptoms persisted despite two fluoroscopy-guided ganglion impar blocks. Fluoroscopy revealed atypical needle tip positioning and radiolucent dye distribution, presumably due to radiation-induced fibrosis in the target region. We performed two computed tomography (CT)-guided ganglion impar blocks by using a lateral approach, which allowed more accurate po-sitioning of the needle tip. Her pain visual analog score decreased from 9 to 3, and she recently resumed sexual intimacy. CT guidance is a viable alternative to fluoroscopy guidance when performing ganglion impar blocks in fibrotic areas.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Connective Tissue , Cystitis , Dysuria , Female , Fibrosis , Fluoroscopy , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Middle Aged , Needles , Nerve Block , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Urination , Vulvodynia
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20754

ABSTRACT

Although methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide, it is different from the other organophosphates in terms of toxicity. Because of its relatively high fat solubility, the apparent volume of methidathion distribution throughout the body is very high, indicating that hemoperfusion is not effective in removing this organophosphate from the body. Redistribution of methidathion from fat to blood can also occur when plasma levels diminish. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase aging, which is the loss of an alkyl side chain that prevents reactivation by oximes, is very rapid so that the effective reactivation by oximes is thwarted. Thus, methidathion's effect on acetylcholinesterase inhibition is long lasting, particularly with a high dose. In addition to its parasympatholytic effect and ability to induce muscle paralysis, methidathion poisoning is associated with a profound and long-lasting circulatory collapse due to sympathetic ganglion blockade. This report presents the case of a 55-year-old man who accidentally ingested a high dose of methidathion. He later developed enteroinvasive aspergillosis infection-induced multiple bowel perforations on two separate occasions while on mechanical ventilator support, resulting in a fatal outcome. The renin-angiotensin axis activated by sympathetic ganglion blockade may have reduced the patient's splanchnic blood flow, contributing to translocation of endotoxin. Also, the effect of excessive acetylcholine on non-neuronal acetylcholine receptors may have contributed to the development of fatal enteroinvasive aspergillosis in this patient.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Aging , Aspergillosis , Fatal Outcome , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Hemoperfusion , Humans , Middle Aged , Organophosphate Poisoning , Organophosphates , Oximes , Paralysis , Parasympatholytics , Plasma , Poisoning , Receptors, Cholinergic , Shock , Solubility , Ventilators, Mechanical
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(3): e5011, Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771943

ABSTRACT

There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antipyrine/administration & dosage , Ganglionectomy , Gastric Emptying/drug effects , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Ampyrone/pharmacology , Atenolol/pharmacology , Butoxamine/pharmacology , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ganglia, Sympathetic/surgery , Models, Animal , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217987

ABSTRACT

Orofacial pain is a common complaint of patients that causes distress and compromises the quality of life. It has many etiologies including trauma, interventional procedures, nerve injury, varicella-zoster (shingles), tumor, and vascular and idiopathic factors. It has been demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system is usually involved in various orofacial pain disorders such as postherpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes, and atypical facial pain. The stellate sympathetic ganglion innervates the head, neck, and upper extremity. In this review article, the effect of stellate ganglion block and its mechanism of action in orofacial pain disorders are discussed.


Subject(s)
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes , Facial Pain , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Head , Humans , Neck , Neuralgia, Postherpetic , Quality of Life , Stellate Ganglion , Sympathetic Nervous System , Upper Extremity
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227113

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old man complained of continuous pain in the right foot that began 6 months after undergoing surgery on the right calcaneus bone. The patient was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I and was treated with medication, lumbar sympathetic ganglion blocks, epidural nerve blocks, and spinal cord stimulation. However, all treatments were halted because they were ineffective or complications developed. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) was planned after confirming the analgesic effects of a sciatic nerve block, and the patient received PNS via minimally invasive ultrasound-guided electrode placement. PNS reduced the pain intensity and the incidence of paroxysmal pain. Other than discomfort at the battery insertion site (resolved with re-implantation), the patient developed no complications. These results suggest that ultrasound-guided minimally invasive PNS is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CRPS in the lower extremities.


Subject(s)
Calcaneus , Complex Regional Pain Syndromes , Electrodes , Foot , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Humans , Implantable Neurostimulators , Incidence , Lower Extremity , Middle Aged , Nerve Block , Neuralgia , Pain Management , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. RESULTS: Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749-1.000). CONCLUSION: 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal , Consensus , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Pathology , Prospective Studies
14.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 103-109, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The location and the number of lumbar sympathetic ganglia (LSG) vary between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate level for a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB), corresponding to the level at which the LSG principally aggregate. METHODS: Seventy-four consecutive subjects, including 31 women and 31 men, underwent LSGB either on the left (n = 31) or the right side (n = 43). The primary site of needle entry was randomly selected at the L3 or L4 vertebra. A total of less than 1 ml of radio opaque dye with 4% lidocaine was injected, taking caution not to traverse beyond the level of one vertebral body. The procedure was considered responsive when the skin temperature increased by more than 1℃ within 5 minutes. RESULTS: The median responsive level was significantly different between the left (lower third of the L4 body) and right (lower margin of the L3 body) sides (P = 0.021). However, there was no significant difference in the values between men and women. The overall median responsive level was the upper third of the L4 body. The mean responsive level did not correlate with height or BMI. There were no complications on short-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Selection of the primary target in the left lower third of the L4 vertebral body and the right lower margin of the L3 vertebral body may reduce the number of needle insertions and the volume of agents used in conventional or neurolytic LSGB and radiofrequency thermocoagulation.


Subject(s)
Electrocoagulation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Humans , Lidocaine , Male , Needles , Skin Temperature , Spine
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14668

ABSTRACT

Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) is different with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) possesses an intrinsic nervous plexus that allows the LES to have a considerable degree of independent neural control. Sympathetic control of the LES and stomach stems from cholinergic preganglionic neurons in the intermediolateral column of the thoracic spinal cord (T6 through T9 divisions), which impinge on postganglionic neurons in the celiac ganglion, of which the catecholaminergic neurons provide the LES and stomach with most of its sympathetic supply. Sympathetic regulation of motility primarily involves inhibitory presynaptic modulation of vagal cholinergic input to postganglionic neurons in the enteric plexus. The magnitude of sympathetic inhibition of motility is directly proportional to the level of background vagal efferent input. Recognizing that the LES is under the dual control of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, we refer the reader to other comprehensive reviews on the role of the sympathetic and parasympatetic control of LES and gastric function. The present review focuses on the functionally dominant parasympathetic control of the LES and stomach via the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Neurons , Neurophysiology , Parasympathetic Nervous System , Reflex , Spinal Cord , Stomach
16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 156-161, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726948

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that is usually derived from adrenal medulla or chromaffin cells along with sympathetic ganglia. In Western countries, the prevalence of pheochromocytoma is estimated to be between 1:6,500 and 1:2,500, compared with an incidence in the United States of 500 to 1,100 cases per year. Despite this low incidence, pheochromocytoma should always be considered for differential diagnoses because previous studies have shown that this condition can be cured in approximately 90% of cases. However, an untreated tumor is likely to be fatal due to catecholamine-induced malignant hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, ventricular arrhythmias or metastatic disease. Symptoms that result primarily from excess circulating catecholamines and hypertension include severe headaches, generalized inappropriate sweating and palpitations (with tachycardia or occasionally bradycardia). Pheochromocytoma, however, has highly variable and heterogeneous clinical manifestations, including fever, general weakness and dyspepsia, and can be observed in patients who are suffering from infectious diseases. Several of such case reports have been presented, but most of these included infectious patients with high blood pressure and severe fluctuations. In this study, we presented the case of a 53-year-old male who showed normal blood pressure, but had a sustained fever. He was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, infective endocarditis and asymptomatic adrenal incidentaloma. Despite treatment with antibiotics and valve replacement, the fever persisted. After the patient underwent evaluation for the fever, adrenal incidentaloma was identified as pheochromocytoma. After removal of the abdominal mass, his fever improved.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Adrenal Medulla , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Blood Pressure , Catecholamines , Chromaffin Cells , Communicable Diseases , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspepsia , Endocarditis , Fever , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Headache , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Malignant , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Stress, Psychological , Stroke , Sweat , Sweating , Tachycardia , United States
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(4): 1569-1576, dic. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670181

ABSTRACT

The cardiac plexus is formed by sympathetic nerves originating from the superior, middle, inferior cervical or cervicothoracic ganglia as well as from the first to the fifth thoracic ganglia. Furthermore, the vagus nerve and its counterpart, the recurrent laryngeal nerve supply the cardiac plexus with parasympathetic cardiac nerves. This investigation aimed to review and record the medial contributions of the cervical ganglia, first to fifth thoracic ganglia and medial contributions of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves to the cardiac plexus. The study involved bilateral micro-dissection of forty cadaveric fetal specimens (n=80). The origins of sympathetic contributions to the cardiac plexus were described as either ganglionic, inter-ganglionic or from both the ganglion and the inter-ganglionic sympathetic chain. The number of cervical sympathetic ganglia varied from two to five in this study; the superior cervical ganglion was constant while the middle cervical, vertebral, inferior cervical or cervicothoracic ganglia were variable. The prevalence of cardiac nerves were as follows: superior cervical cardiac nerve (95%); middle cervical cardiac nerve (73%); vertebral cardiac nerve (41%); inferior cervical cardiac nerve (21%) and cervicothoracic cardiac nerve (24%). This investigation records the thoracic caudal limit of the thoracic sympathetic contributions to the cardiac plexus as the T5 ganglion. The findings of this study highlight the importance of understanding the medial sympathetic contributions and their variations to the cardiac plexus as this may assist surgeons during minimal access surgical procedures, sympathectomies, pericardiectomies and in the management of diseases like Raynaud's Phenomenon and angina pectoris.


El plexo cardíaco está formado por los nervios simpáticos procedentes de los ganglios cervicales superior, medio e inferior o cervicotorácico, así como los ganglios torácicos desde el primero al quinto. Por otra parte, el nervio vago y su contraparte, el nervio laríngeo recurrente suministra al plexo cardíaco nervios cardíacos parasimpático. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo revisar y registrar las contribuciones mediales de los ganglios cervicales, ganglios torácicos del primero al quinto ganglios y contribuciones mediales de los nervios laríngeos recurrentes y vagos en el plexo cardíaco. Se realizó la micro-disección bilateral de cuarenta especímenes cadavéricos fetales (n = 80). Los orígenes de las contribuciones simpáticas hacia el plexo cardíaco se describen de forma independiente como ganglionar o inter-ganglionar, o desde ambos ganglios y la cadena simpática interganglionar. El número de ganglios simpáticos cervicales varió de dos a cinco; el ganglio cervical superior fue constante, mientras que los ganglios medio-cervical, vertebral, cervical inferior o cervicotorácico fueron variables. La prevalencia de los nervios cardíacos fueron: nervio cardíaco cervical superior (95%); nervio cardíaco cervical medio (73%); nervio cardiaco vertebral (41%); nervio cardíaco cervical inferior (21%) y nervio cardíaco cervicotorácico (24% ). La investigación registró el límite torácico caudal de las contribuciones torácicas simpáticos al plexo cardíaco como el ganglio T5. Los resultados de este estudio muestran la importancia de comprender las contribuciones simpáticas mediales y sus variaciones en el plexo cardíaco, ya que podrían ayudar a los cirujanos durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos mínimanente invasivos, simpatectomías, pericardiectomías y en el manejo de enfermedades como el fenómeno de Raynaud y la angina de pecho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Heart/innervation , Ganglia, Parasympathetic/embryology , Ganglia, Sympathetic/embryology , Cadaver , Fetus , Ganglia, Parasympathetic/anatomy & histology , Ganglia, Sympathetic/anatomy & histology
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 92 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-655529

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hiperidrose primária (HP) é uma desordem que afeta negativamente a qualidade de vida de seus portadores. A fisiopatologia da HP não é bem compreendida e acredita-se que uma complexa disfunção do sistema nervoso simpático esteja relacionada com sua etiologia. A ressecção de um ou mais gânglios da cadeia simpática torácica constitui-se como o método mais eficiente de controle da HP; apesar disso, pouco se sabe sobre o funcionamento dos gânglios simpáticos em indivíduos normais e em portadores de HP. Objetivos: Analisar a expressão de acetilcolina e das subunidades 3 e 7 de seu receptor nicotínico neuronal em gânglios da cadeia simpática torácica de portadores de HP palmar e comparar estes resultados com os obtidos de não portadores; avaliar se existe diferença de tamanho entre esses gânglios. Métodos: Estudo transversal, no qual foram analisados dois grupos de 20 participantes: no grupo Hiperidrose, portadores de HP palmar, candidatos a simpatectomia torácica; no grupo Controle, doadores falecidos de órgãos sem história prévia de sudorese excessiva. Em todos os indivíduos foram realizados: ressecção do 3º gânglio simpático esquerdo; aferição do maior diâmetro do gânglio; avaliação imunohistoquímica pela quantificação das áreas de expressão forte e fraca de anticorpos primários contra acetilcolina e contra as subunidades 3 e 7 de seu receptor nicotínico neuronal. Resultados: A mediana da idade dos participantes foi menor no grupo Hiperidrose em relação ao Controle; a proporção de homens e mulheres foi de 3:17 no grupo Hiperidrose e 9:11 no Controle. A expressão da subunidade 3 foi semelhante em ambos os grupos (p = 0,78 para expressão forte e p = 0,31 para expressão fraca). A área de expressão forte da subunidade 7 correspondeu a 4,85% da área total em portadores de HP e a 2,34% nos controles (p < 0,001), enquanto a área de expressão fraca foi de 11,48% no grupo Hiperidrose e de 4,59% no Controle (p < 0,001). Expressão forte da acetilcolina...


Introduction: Primary hyperhidrosis (PH) is a disorder that impairs the quality of life of its bearers. The PH physiopathology is not well understood and a complex sympathetic nervous system dysfunction seems to be related with its etiology. The resection of one or more thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia is the most effective PH treatment; however sympathetic ganglia function in normal subjects and in PH patients is unknown. Objectives: Analyzing the immunohistochemical expression of acetylcholine and its neuronal nicotinic receptors 3 and 7 subunits in thoracic sympathetic ganglia of PH patients and compare the results with those obtained from subjects without this disorder; identifying possible differences in size of these ganglia. Methods: Cross-sectional study, in which two groups of 20 subjects were analyzed: the Hyperhidrosis group, with palmar PH patients eligible to thoracic sympathectomy and the Control group, with organ donators after brain death without hyperhidrosis historical. For each subject it were performed: resection of the third left sympathetic ganglion; measurement of the ganglions diameter; immunohistochemical evaluation by quantification of intense and mild expression areas of primary antibodies against acetylcholine and its neuronal nicotinic receptors 3 and 7 subunits. Results: The median of participants age was smaller in Hyperhidrosis group than in Control; the male/female ratio was 3:17 in Hyperhidrosis group and 9:11 in Control. The 3 subunit expression was similar in both groups (p = 0.78 for intense expression and p = 0.31 for mild expression). Intense 7 subunit expression area was 4.85% in PH patients and 2.34% in controls (p < 0.001) whereas mild expression area was 11.48% in Hyperhidrosis group and 4.59% in Control (p < 0.001). Intense acetylcholine expression was found in 4.95% of total area in Hyperhidrosis group and in 1.19% in Control (p < 0.001)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcholine , Brain Death , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Hyperhidrosis/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Nicotinic
19.
Bogotá; s.n; 2012. 90 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-876980

ABSTRACT

La terapia neural es un sistema médico complejo, el cual presenta una estructura teórica coherente constituida por una morfología, una fisiología, un corpus doctrinario, un sistema diagnóstico y un sistema terapéutico, La terapia neural, por su origen relativamente reciente, se encuentra aún en fortalecimiento de su plataforma teórica y conceptual. De tal manera, que en este trabajo se pretende indagar sobre todas las posibles interconexiones anatómicas de los ganglios simpáticos cervicales y celiacos que puedan enriquecer las fundamentaciones explicativas de muchos de los fenómenos encontrados en la práctica diaria de la terapia neural. Los ganglios simpáticos cervicales y celiacos presentan interconexiones importantes con nervios parasimpáticos, plexos nerviosos, glándulas, vasos sanguíneos y órganos de la región craneal, cervical , torácica y abdominal, estas conexiones nerviosas sustentan teóricamente los efectos segmentarios o a distancia que se puede manifestar al aplicar procaína en uno de estos ganglios, además estos estímulos aplicados en un punto del sistema nervioso se pueden extender a través de reflejos axonales, ganglionares y neuroaxiales, los cuales pueden modificar el trofísmo y función de los tejidos locales y a distancia del sitio de aplicación. Uno de los reflejos de más interés en la terapia neural son los reflejos vísceros cutáneos y los somáticos viscerales, en los cuales demuestran que al aplicar un estímulo o lesión visceral puede tener un efecto a distancia a nivel cutáneo o somático, este reflejo se sustenta anatómicamente por la asociación de la información sensitiva visceral y somática a nivel medular en la lámina V de Rexed del asta posterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Complementary Therapies , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Review Literature as Topic
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727562

ABSTRACT

Under some pathological conditions as bile flow obstruction or liver diseases with the enterohepatic circulation being disrupted, regurgitation of bile acids into the systemic circulation occurs and the plasma level of bile acids increases. Bile acids in circulation may affect the nervous system. We examined this possibility by studying the effects of bile acids on gating of neuronal (N)-type Ca2+ channel that is essential for neurotransmitter release at synapses of the peripheral and central nervous system. N-type Ca2+ channel currents were recorded from bullfrog sympathetic neuron under a cell-attached mode using 100 mM Ba2+ as a charge carrier. Cholic acid (CA, 10(-6) M) that is relatively hydrophilic thus less cytotoxic was included in the pipette solution. CA suppressed the open probability of N-type Ca2+ channel, which appeared to be due to an increase in null (no activity) sweeps. For example, the proportion of null sweep in the presence of CA was ~40% at +40 mV as compared with ~8% in the control recorded without CA. Other single channel properties including slope conductance, single channel current amplitude, open and shut times were not significantly affected by CA being present. The results suggest that CA could modulate N-type Ca2+ channel gating at a concentration as low as 10(-6) M. Bile acids have been shown to activate nonselective cation conductance and depolarize the cell membrane. Under pathological conditions with increased circulating bile acids, CA suppression of N-type Ca2+ channel function may be beneficial against overexcitation of the synapses.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Calcium Channels, N-Type , Cell Membrane , Central Nervous System , Cholic Acid , Enterohepatic Circulation , Fees and Charges , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Liver Diseases , Nervous System , Neurons , Neurotransmitter Agents , Plasma , Rana catesbeiana , Synapses
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