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1.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386941

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Costa Rica has among the highest mortality rates from gastric cancer in the world, largely due to late detection. It is therefore important that economically and logistically sustainable screening is implemented in order to detect risk of developing cancer. We have previously shown that low pepsinogen (PG) values and infection with Helicobacter pylori-CagA+ are associated with risk of gastric atrophy and cancer in Costa Rican populations. OBJECTIVES: To determine how markers for gastric cancer risk are distributed in an elderly population representative of Costa Rica in order to design a screening strategy. METHODS: The population studied consists of 2,652 participants in a nationally representative survey of ageing. Information concerning epidemiologic, demographic, nutritional and life style factors is available. Serum PG concentrations as well as H. pylori and CagA status were determined by serology. Possible associations were determined by regression analyses. RESULTS: Antibodies to H. pylori were present in 72% of the population and of those, 58% were CagA positive. Infection with H. pylori was associated with higher PGI concentrations (p=0.000) and infection with H. pylori-CagA. with lower PGI concentrations (p=0.025). Both showed association with lower PGI/PGII (p=0.006 and p=0.000). Higher age was associated with lower prevalence of H. pylori infection (OR=0.98; p=0.000) and CagA. (OR=0.98; p=0.000) but not with PG values. Regions with high risk of gastric cancer showed lower PGI (p=0.004) and PGI/PGII values (p=0.021) as well as higher prevalence of H. pylori infection (OR=1.39; p=0.013) but not CagA.. Using cut-off values of PGI<100 µg/L and PGI/PGII<2.0, 2.5 and 3.0, 7-15% of the population would be considered at risk. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylorialone is not a useful marker for risk of gastric cancer. Screening using serum pepsinogen concentrations and infection with H. pylori-CagA. is feasible in the general elderly population of Costa Rica but appropriate cut-off values have to be determined based on more clinical data and follow up capacity.


Resumen Introducción: Costa Rica tiene una de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer gástrico más altas del mundo, en gran parte debido a la detección tardía. Por lo tanto, es importante que se implemente un tamizaje económico y logísticamente sostenible para detectar el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer. En estudios anteriores demostramos, que valores bajos de pepsinógeno (PG) y la infección por Helicobacter pylori-CagA+ están asociados con el riesgo de atrofia gástrica y cáncer en poblaciones costarricenses. OBJETIVO: Determinar cómo se distribuyen los marcadores de riesgo de cáncer gástrico en una población representativa de adultos de Costa Rica para diseñar una estrategia de tamizaje. MÉTODOS: Se estudió una población representativa a nivel nacional de 2.652 adultos, que formaron parte de un estudio longitudinal sobre envejecimiento. Se dispone de información sobre factores epidemiológicos, demográficos, nutricionales y de estilo de vida. Las concentraciones séricas de PG, así como el estado de H. pylori y CagA se determinaron mediante serología. Las posibles asociaciones se determinaron mediante modelos de regresión (logística y lineal múltiple). RESULTADOS: El 72% de la población presenta anticuerpos contra H. pylori, de ellos, el 58% fueron positivos para CagA. La infección por H. pylori se asoció con altas concentraciones de PGI (p = 0,000) y la infección por H. pylori-CagA+ con bajas concentraciones de PGI (p = 0,025). Ambas pruebas mostraron asociación con una baja razón PGI/PGII (p = 0,006 y p = 0,000). El rango de mayor edad se asoció con una menor prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori (OR = 0,98; p = 0,000) y de CagA+ (OR = 0,98; p = 0,000) pero no se asoció con los valores de PG. Las regiones con alto riesgo de CG mostraron valores bajos de PGI (p = 0,004) y de PGI/PGII (p = 0,021) así como una alta prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori (OR = 1,39; p = 0,013), no así con CagA+. Utilizando valores de corte de PGI<100 µg/L y de PGI/PGII <2,0, 2,5 y 3,0, se consideraría en riesgo de cáncer entre 7-15% de la población. CONCLUSIONES: La infección por H. pylori, por sí sola, no es un marcador de riesgo de CG útil. Es factible realizar el tamizaje de adultos de la población general de Costa Rica, utilizando como marcadores las concentraciones séricas de pepsinógenos y la infección por H. pylori-CagA+, sin embargo, los valores de corte apropiados deben determinarse con base en una mayor cantidad de datos clínicos y la capacidad de seguimiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms , Helicobacter pylori , Costa Rica , Gastritis, Atrophic
2.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386956

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this work is to describe and analyze the association of PGI/PGII ratio (indicator of gastric atrophy) with H. pylori-CagA and life style factors such as caloric intake, obesity, and harmful habits amongst H. pylori-positive elderly people infected in Costa Rica using an exploratory multigroup structural equations model (SEM). Using a sample of 1748 H. pylori-positive elderly people from CRELES first wave study, a SEM was employed analyze if the relationships between PGI/PGII ratio with levels of H. pylori-CagA, caloric intake, obesity, and harmful habits, differs by sex, age and risk areas subgroups. The proposed SEMs exhibited a good fit in males (RMSEA = 0.039), females (RMSEA = 0.000), low-risk area (RMSEA = 0.038), middle-risk area (RMSEA = 0.042), individuals under 80 years (RMSEA = 0.038) and individuals aged 80 and over (RMSEA = 0.042), while an acceptable fit was observed for the high-risk area (RMSEA = 0.061). Fitted SEMs showed that CagA predicted PG-ratio as expected, with effects increasing with the risk area, but similar between sex and age groups. All indicators measuring obesity (BMI, arms, and waist) showed significant standardized coefficients, with similar effects between sex, age and risk area groups. No other significant effects or differences between groups were identified. We propose a good-fitted SEM model for the possible relationships between CagA and PG ratio and the geographical risk area level for elderly people. No differences were observed on measured parameters between male and female population, or between under 80 years and older individuals.


Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y analizar la asociación entre PGI/PGII (indicador de atrofia gástrica con H. pylori-CagA y factores asociados a estilo de vida como ingesta calórica, obesidad y hábitos nocivos entre adultos mayores positivos por H. pylori en Costa Rica utilizando modelos de ecuaciones estructurales multigrupo (SEM). Con una muestra de 1748 adultos mayores del estudio CRELES, se utilizó un SEM para analizar las relaciones entre PGI/PGII, CagA, ingesta calórica, obesidad y hábitos nocivos difieren por sexo, edad y áreas de riesgo. Los SEMs propuestos exhibieron un buen ajuste en hombres (RMSEA = 0.039), mujeres (RMSEA = 0.000), área de bajo riesgo (RMSEA = 0.038), áreas de riesgo medio (RMSEA = 0.042), individuos menores de 80 años (RMSEA = 0.038) e individuos de 80 años o más (RMSEA = 0.042), mientras que hubo un ajuste aceptable en áreas de alto riesgo (RMSEA = 0.061). Los SEMs ajustados mostraron que CagA predice la relación PGI/II en la dirección esperada con efectos proporcionales al área de riesgo, pero no por sexo y edad. Todos los indicadores medibles de obesidad (IMC, brazos y cintura) mostraron coeficientes estandarizados significativos con efectos similares entre los grupos por sexo, edad y área de riesgo. No se encontraron otros efectos o diferencias significativas. Proponemos un modelo SEM bien ajustado para las posibles relaciones entre CagA y PGI/II y el nivel de riesgo del área geográfica en adultos mayores. No se encontraron diferencias en las variables analizadas entre hombres y mujeres ni entre los grupos de edad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Helicobacter pylori , Energy Intake , Gastritis, Atrophic , Obesity
3.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 18-28, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352923

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori es un microrganismo que se considera que afecta al 50% de la población. Se realizó un estudio con diseño no experimental, correlacional y transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la asociación de los resultados de pruebas diagnósticas de infección por H. pylori a través de biopsia obtenida por endoscopía superior y prueba de antígeno de la superficie en mues-tras de heces en 100 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Centro Clínico Quirúrgico Ambulatorio (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (IESS), en la ciudad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, durante 2019. La media de la edad en la muestra de estudio fue 37,5 años, con un predominio del género femenino (78%). El 65% de las pruebas de antígeno para la detección de H. pylori en heces resultaron negativas. Los repor-tes de las pruebas de antígeno en heces e histopatología permitieron apreciar diferencias entre estos, pero con predominio de las coincidencias en los diagnósticos positivos. Existió una asocia-ción estadísticamente significativa entre las lesiones inflamatorias de la mucosa gástrica producto de la gastritis crónica atrófica y la infección por H. pylori. Los resultados de las dos pruebas diag-nósticas tuvieron una correlación lineal positiva y débil con significación estadística.


Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism that affects 50% of the population worldwide. A study with a non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional design was carried out in order to determine the association of the results of diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection through biopsy obtained by upper endoscopy and surface antigen test in samples of feces in 100 patients. These ones were treated at the Gastroenterology Service of the Ambulatory Surgical Clinic Center (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS), in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, during 2019. The mean age in the study sample was 37.5 years old, with a predominance of the female gender (78%). 65% of stool antigen tests for H. pyloriwere negative. The reports of the stool antigen test and histopathology allowed to appreciate differences between them, but with a predominance of the coincidences in the positive diagno-ses. There was a statistically significant association between the inflammatory lesions of the gastric mucosa because of chronic atrophic gastritis and the infection by H. pylori. The results of the two diagnostic tests had a positive and weak linear correlation with statistical significance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Helicobacter pylori , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis, Atrophic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gastritis , Infections
4.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 44-51, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928243

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the gastric microbiome in patients with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) and investigate the influence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) on the gastric microbiome. Methods Gastric mucosa tissue samples were collected from 54 patients with CSG and IM, and the patients were classified into the following four groups based on the state of H. pylori infection and histology: H. pylori-negative CSG (n=24), H. pylori-positive CSG (n=14), H. pylori-negative IM (n=11), and H. pylori-positive IM (n=5). The gastric microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results H. pylori strongly influenced the bacterial abundance and diversity regardless of CSG and IM. In H. pylori-positive subjects, the bacterial abundance and diversity were significantly lower than in H. pylori-negative subjects. The H. pylori-negative groups had similar bacterial composition and bacterial abundance. The H. pylori-positive groups also had similar bacterial composition but different bacterial relative abundance. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Veillonella were richer in the I-HP group than in G-HP group, especially Neisseria (t=175.1, P<0.001). Conclusions The gastric microbial abundance and diversity are lower in H. pylori- infected patients regardless of CSG and IM. Compared to H. pylori-positive CSG group and H. pylori-positive IM, the relative abundance of Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Veillonella is higher in H. pylori-positive patients with IM than in H. pylori-positive patients with CSG, especially Neisseria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastric Mucosa/microbiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Metaplasia , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 777-781, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878940

ABSTRACT

Based on the clinical characteristics of chronic atrophic gastritis in traditional Chinese and Western medicine, the domestic and foreign relevant literature reports and animal models of chronic atrophic as well as the clinical diagnostic indicators of traditional Chinese and western medicine, chronic atrophic gastritis evaluation standard was summarized to evaluate and analyze the coincidence degree of clinical symptoms of the existing chronic atrophic gastritis animal models. The statistical results found that modeling methods with a higher coincidence degree with the existing chronic atrophic gastritis animal models are disease and syndrome combination mode-ling, surgical modeling, multifactor comprehensive modeling and MNNG modeling. Although the animal models were reproduced by such methods as etiology, pathogenesis and disease and syndrome combination similar to those of human beings, there is still a big gap with the natural disease state. Further in-depth studies and improvement shall be made in clinical practice in the hope to provide refe-rence for clinical practice and experimental studies of chronic atrophic gastritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastritis, Atrophic , Medicine , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Animal
6.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 40(3): 260-266, Jul-Sep 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144673

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La metaplasia intestinal gástrica y la gastritis atrófica son condiciones precancerosas conocidas (CPCs) del estómago, lo que significa que los pacientes con CPCs están en riesgo de desarrollar cáncer gástrico y, por lo tanto, el diagnóstico y la categorización de riesgo para estos pacientes es un tema relevante. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar una actualización sobre el problema, el diagnóstico y el manejo de las CPCs con énfasis en el papel de la detección endoscópica adecuada.


ABSTRACT Gastric intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis are a known precancerous condition (PCC) of the stomach, meaning that patients with PCC are at risk for gastric cancer and so, diagnosis and risk categorization for these patients is relevant. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the problem, diagnosis, and management of PCCs with an emphasis on the role of appropriate endoscopic detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach/pathology , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Intestines/pathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System , Metaplasia/diagnosis
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 154-160, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131649

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the combination of gastrin-17 (G-17), pepsinogens I and II (PGI and PGII), and anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies (GastroPanel®, BIOHIT HealthCare, Helsinki, Finland) could serve as biomarkers of atrophic gastritis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to ensure the diagnostic accuracy of GastroPanel® and evaluate the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on these biomarkers. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in the present study. Histological findings, which were the gold standard to stratify groups, were as follows: no atrophy (controls); antrum atrophy; corpus atrophy; multifocal atrophy; and neoplasia. G-17, PGI, PGII, and anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies were assayed using commercially available kits. The ratio of PGI/PGII was calculated. RESULTS: Among 308 patients, 159 (51.6%) were PPI users. The overall prevalence of atrophy was 43.8% (n=135). Ninety-two (29.9%) patients were H. pylori positive according to anti-H. pylori IgG levels. G-17 levels were not low in those with antrum atrophy but were high in those with corpus and multifocal atrophies. PGI levels were significantly lower in those with corpus and multifocal atrophies. The sensitivity of PGI <30 µg/L to detect corpus atrophy was 50% (95% CI 27.8-72.1%), with a specificity of 93.2% (95% CI 84.3-97.5%), a positive likelihood ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 2.9-19.2), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8). A small number of subjects (n=6) exhibited moderate to intense atrophy (4%), among whom 66.7% exhibited decreased PGI levels. PPI significantly increased the levels of G-17 and PGI, except in those with corpus and multifocal atrophies, in whom PGI levels were not increased by PPIs. CONCLUSION: GastroPanel® (Gastrin-17, PGI, and PGI/PGII ratio) did not demonstrate high sensitivity for detecting gastric atrophy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Foi proposto que a combinação de gastrina 17 (G-17), pepsinogênios I e II (PGI e PGII), e anticorpos anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) (GastroPanel®, BIOHIT HealthCare), poderiam indicar gastrite atrófica. OBJETIVO: Portanto, o objetivo foi averiguar a acurácia diagnóstica do painel gástrico e avaliar o efeito dos inibidores de bomba de prótons (IBP) nesses marcadores. MÉTODOS: Pacientes dispépticos que se submeteram à endoscopia gastrointestinal entraram no estudo. Os achados histológicos foram o padrão ouro para estratificar os grupos: sem atrofia (controles), atrofia de antro, atrofia de corpo, atrofia multifocal e neoplasia. G-17, PGI, PGII, e anticorpos IgG anti-H. pylori foram determinados por kits comerciais. A razão PGI/PGII foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Entre 308 pacientes que foram incluídos, 159 estavam usando IBP (51,6%). A prevalência de atrofia foi de 43,8% (135 pacientes). H. pylori foi positivo em 92 (29,9%) pacientes por IgG anti-H. pylori. G-17 não estava diminuída na atrofia do antro, mas estava elevada nas atrofias do corpo e multifocal. PGI estava significantemente menor nas atrofias de corpo e multifocal. A sensibilidade da PGI <30 µg/L de indicar atrofia do corpo foi 50% (95%IC 27,8-72,1%) com especificidade de 93,2% (95%IC 84,3-97,5%), razão de verossimilhança positiva de 7,4 (95%IC 2,9-19,2) e razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,5 (95%IC 0,3-0,8). O número de indivíduos com atrofia moderada para intensa foi pequeno (n=6;4%), dos quais 66,7% tinham diminuição dos níveis de PGI. IBP significantemente aumentou os níveis de G-17 e PGI, exceto nas atrofias de corpo e multifocal que não apresentaram aumento de PGI. CONCLUSÃO: O painel gástrico não teve alta sensibilidade de indicar gastrite atrófica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Brazil , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections , Antibodies, Bacterial
8.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 62-73, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098373

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma gástrico hoy en día es una de las principales causas de mortalidad a nivel mundial por neoplasias y especialmente en países como Costa Rica, que se cataloga como un país de alta incidencia. Existen múltiples factores de riesgo, siendo el primero y más importante la infección por Helicobacter pylori, que desencadena una cascada de diferentes lesiones, iniciando en atrofia gástrica, que puede llegar a finalizar en cáncer invasivo. Existen otros factores que pueden influir en un ambiente pro-carcinogénico tales como fumado, obesidad, la dieta, entre otros. Múltiples naciones han desarrollado diferentes guías de tamizaje para disminuir la mortalidad; sin embargo, en países con alta incidencia sigue siendo el estándar realizar estudios de imagen y endoscopia luego de determinada edad dependiendo de factores de riesgo.


Abstract Gastric carcinoma is nowadays one of the main causes of mortality worldwide due to neoplasms and especially in countries such as Costa Rica, which is classified as a high incidence country. There are multiple risk factors, starting with Helicobacter pylori infection being the most important one; after the infection a cascade with different lesions is triggered, first it begins with gastric atrophy and then eventually lead to an invasive cancer. There are other factors that can influence a pro-carcinogenic environment such as smoking, obesity, diet, among others. Multiple nations have developed different screening guidelines to reduce mortality, however in countries with high incidence it is still the gold-standard to perform imaging and endoscopy studies after a certain age and depending on risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Metaplasia
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2668-2676, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828032

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiangsha Yangwei Pills in the treatment of chronic gastritis. Compu-ter retrieval was performed for Cochrane Library, Medline, EMbase, China Knowledge Network Database(CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Service System(SinoMed), Chongqing Weipu Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database(VIP) and WanFang Database(WanFang) randomized controlled trials about Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine in the treatment of chro-nic gastritis. The retrieval time ranged from the establishment of the library to April 26, 2019. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software after two independent researchers conducted literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 1 720 patients were enrolled in 18 RCT. According to the classification of chronic gastritis, they were divided into three subgroups: chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis and chronic superficial gastritis. The results of Meta-ana-lysis showed that the efficacy of Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine in treating chronic gastritis was higher than that of Western medicine. As for the recurrence rate, Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine was lower than Western medicine. And there was no statistical difference about helicobacter pylori(Hp) eradication rate between Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine as well as Western medicine. In terms of the incidence of adverse reactions, Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine was lower than Western medicine, and no serious adverse reaction was reported. The results of this systematic review showed that compared with the conventional Western medicine group, Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine can significantly alleviate clinical symptoms of chronic gastritis, with fewer adverse reactions. However, due to the low methodological quality of the included studies and the reliability of the impact conclusions, high-quality multi-center, large-sample, randomized, double-blind controlled trials are needed for validation.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastritis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(4): 350-355, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092961

ABSTRACT

Resumen Un porcentaje importante de pacientes con gastritis crónica atrófica corporal autoinmune, o gastritis tipo A, desarrollan enfermedad autoinmune tiroidea (enfermedad de Graves o de Hashimoto) y viceversa, situación conocida como síndrome autoinmune tirogástrico (SAT), pero no se conoce su prevalencia, por lo que puede pasarse sin el diagnóstico completo. El desarrollo de la gastritis atrófica limita la absorción de la vitamina B12, lo que lleva a alteraciones hematológicas, neurológicas y metabólicas, por tanto, es importante realizar las pruebas necesarias para su diagnóstico y seguir de cerca la evolución de los pacientes. La detección serológica de los autoanticuerpos contra la glándula tiroides y el cuerpo gástrico muestran la etiología autoinmune y un estado inflamatorio con daño tisular. Todo paciente con enfermedad autoinmune debe ser valorado para descartar la presencia de otras patologías de etiología inmunológica.


Abstract A significant percentage of patients with chronic autoimmune atrophic body gastritis (type A gastritis) develop thyroid autoimmune disease (Graves' disease or Hashimoto's disease) and vice versa. This situation is known as thyrogastric syndrome. Its prevalence is unknown, due to incomplete diagnoses. Since the development of atrophic gastritis limits the absorption of vitamin B12 leading to hematological, neurological and metabolic alterations, it is important to perform necessary diagnostic tests and to closely monitor the evolution of patients. Serological detection of autoantibodies against the thyroid gland and the gastric body show the autoimmune etiology and an inflammatory state with tissue damage. Every patient with autoimmune disease should be evaluated to rule out the presence of other pathologies of immunological etiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases , Syndrome , Hashimoto Disease , Autoantibodies , Thyroid Gland , Helicobacter pylori , Gastritis, Atrophic
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 917-927, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012376

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma gástrico (CG) de tipo intestinal se origina en un epitelio displásico, que a su vez se desarrolla en medio de una atrofia gástrica (AG) y metaplasia intestinal (MI). La infección por Helicobacter pylori (HP) es la causa más frecuente de AG, causando una pangastritis atrófica multifocal. Entre otras condiciones que producen inflamación crónica de la mucosa gástrica se encuentran también la gastritis autoinmune y la anemia perniciosa. El marco conceptual sobre el cual descansa gran parte de la investigación actual y nuestra comprensión de los cambios que ocurren en la mucosa gástrica se debe a la denominada "cascada de Correa"; quien planteó que la mucosa gástrica crónicamente inflamada, da paso a la AG, que va adquiriendo focos de MI y en dicho epitelio se desarrollará finalmente una displasia (DIS). Se ha acuñado el término lesiones preneoplásicas gástricas (LPG), para referirse a: AG, MI y DIS.Después de la erradicación de HP, se ha demostrado una reducción general de la incidencia de CG; efecto que no es tan claro, cuando la pangastritis por HP ha evolucionado a AG extensa. De tal modo que el efecto de la erradicación de HP medido a través de EC, ha sido poco consistente. La AG grave diagnosticada por histología representa la condición de mayor riesgo. Por otra parte, la MI puede ser de tipo intestinal (delgado-entérica ó incompleta) y la colónica (colónica ó completa) considerándose a esta última, como la variedad de peor pronóstico. El diagnóstico histológico de este tipo de lesiones determina que quien las padece, debe someterse a vigilancia endoscópica. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue resumir la evidencia existente respecto de las LPG, en términos de su caracterización morfológica y sus repercusiones diagnóstico-terapéuticas (significado patológico, graduación del riesgo, vigilancia recomendada; y factores de riesgo).


Gastric carcinoma (GC) of intestinal type, originates from a dysplastic epithelium, which in turn develops in the midst of gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the most frequent cause of GA, causing a multifocal atrophic pangastritis. Among other conditions that produce chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa are also autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia. The conceptual framework on which much of current research rests and our understanding of the changes that occur in the gastric mucosa is due to the so-called "Correa waterfall"; who stated that gastric mucosa chronically inflamed, gives way to the GA, which is acquiring foci of IM and in said epithelium a dysplasia (DIS) will eventually develop. The term precancerous conditions (PCC) of the gastric mucosa have been coined to refer to: GA, IM and DIS. After HP eradication, a general reduction in the incidence of GC has been demonstrated; effect that is not so clear, when pangastritis by HP has evolved to extensive GA. Thus, the effect of HP eradication measured through clinical trials has been inconsistent. Severe GA diagnosed represents the highest risk condition. On the other hand, IM can be enteric (grade I), enterocolic (grade II) or colonic (grade III); considering IM III as the variety with the worst prognosis. Histological diagnosis of gastric PCC, determines that the one who suffers them, must undergo endoscopic surveillance. The aim of this manuscript was to update morphological aspects and diagnostic-therapeutic scope of gastric PCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Risk Factors , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Risk Assessment , Gastritis, Atrophic/microbiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/pathology , Intestines/microbiology , Intestines/pathology , Metaplasia/microbiology , Metaplasia/pathology
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 157-171, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038836

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La inflamación del antro gástrico por Helicobacter pylori aumenta el riesgo de úlcera duodenal, y la del cuerpo gástrico puede producir gastritis atrófica e incrementar la probabilidad de cáncer gástrico. Estas reacciones inflamatorias diferenciadas según su localización, podrían explicarse por la composición de la microbiota gástrica asociada con H. pylori. Objetivo. Identificar y comparar la microbiota del antro y del cuerpo del estómago en individuos de dos poblaciones: una con alto riesgo y otra con bajo riesgo de cáncer gástrico en Nariño, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron biopsias del cuerpo y el antro gástrico de pacientes con gastritis no atrófica o con gastritis atrófica y metaplasia. La microbiota se definió por secuenciación de la región V3-V4 del gen 16S del ARNr de H. pylori (illumina-MiSeq™). Las unidades taxonómicas operativas se clasificaron utilizando las bases de datos BLASTn y RDPII. Las diferencias entre las poblaciones microbianas del antro y del cuerpo gástrico se evaluaron mediante el análisis de varianza multivariado con base en permutaciones (Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance, PERMANOVA) y análisis multivariados. Resultados. La clase Epsilonproteobacteria representada por H. pylori fue más abundante en las biopsias del antro y del cuerpo de los individuos con gastritis no atrófica (>50 %), en tanto que, en los individuos con gastritis no atrófica, esta clase correspondió al 20 % con una mayor diversidad metagenómica. La infección por H. pylori disminuyó significativamente la diversidad metagenómica del antro (p=0,005), en comparación con la del cuerpo gástrico. Conclusiones. Los grupos bacterianos involucrados en la disbacteriosis pueden colonizar ambas regiones topográficas del estómago, independientemente de las reacciones sectorizadas de inflamación. La infección por H. pylori asociada con la microbiota gástrica está relacionada con su localización en el estómago, el tipo de lesión y el mayor o menor riesgo de cáncer gástrico, lo que sugiere su importancia en la disbacteriosis y la de esta en la enfermedad gástrica.


Abstract Introduction: Inflammation in the gastric antrum caused by Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of duodenal ulcer while inflammation in the body generates atrophic gastritis and increased risk of gastric cancer. These inflammatory responses according to gastric topography could be explained by the composition of the gastric microbiota associated with H. pylori. Objective: To identify and compare the microbiota of the gastric antrum and body of individuals from two populations, one with high risk and one with low risk of gastric cancer from Nariño, Colombia. Materials and methods: Biopsies of the gastric antrum and body of patients with non-atrophic gastritis or metaplastic atrophic gastritis were included. The microbiota was defined by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, V3-V4 region, (illumina-MiSeq™). The operational taxonomic units were classified using the BLASTn and RDPII databases. The differences among microbial populations were evaluated with the PERMANOVA and multivariate analyses. Results: The Epsilonproteobacteria class represented by H. pylori was more abundant in the antrum and body biopsies of individuals with metaplastic atrophic gastritis (>50%) while in individuals with non-atrophic gastritis it was 20 % and had greater metagenomic diversity. Helicobacter pylori infection significantly decreases the metagenomic diversity of the gastric antrum (p=0.005) compared to that of the body. Conclusions: The bacterial groups involved in the dysbiosis can colonize both topographic regions of the stomach, regardless of the sectorized inflammation responses. Helicobacter pylori infection associated with the gastric microbiota is related to its localization in the stomach, the type of lesion, and the population at risk of gastric cancer, which suggests its importance in microbial dysbiosis and gastric disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastritis/microbiology , Pyloric Antrum/microbiology , Risk , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Ribotyping , Gastric Mucosa/microbiology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastritis/epidemiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/microbiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/epidemiology , Metaplasia
13.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 209-210, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761584

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastritis, Atrophic , Stomach Neoplasms
14.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 115-119, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are sequential consequences of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. These conditions are well known to increase the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is also a malignant consequence of H. pylori infection, but the relationship between gastric MALT lymphoma and atrophic gastritis-intestinal metaplasia has not been a focus of interest. We investigated the clinical characteristics of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was conducted by reviewing the electronic medical records of patients diagnosed as having gastric MALT lymphoma at an academic institute, the Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between January 2001 and December 2018. RESULTS: Fifty-eight subjects were enrolled consecutively during the study period and analyzed retrospectively. The patients' mean age was 56.9 years old. The male-to-female ratio was 1.15 (31/27). On histological examination, background atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were detected in 26.8% (15/58) of cases. Serum pepsinogen I, II and gastrin levels, as serological markers of atrophy, were evaluated in 28 subjects. Three (5.2%) of the 28 cases were compatible with serological atrophic gastritis (pepsinogen I/II ratio of <3 and pepsinogen I level of <70 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, the prevalence of background mucosal atrophy or intestinal metaplasia was 26.8% on histological examination and 5.2% on serological analyses. These rates are lower than those in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. This result suggests a different carcinogenic pathway of gastric MALT lymphoma from that of adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Atrophy , Electronic Health Records , Gastrins , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Korea , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Metaplasia , Pepsinogen A , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Stomach
15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 332-340, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and metaplastic gastritis (MG) are precancerous conditions of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related gastric cancer. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of nodular gastritis (NG) showing CAG or MG after nodule regression. METHODS: H. pylori-infected patients with NG were included after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were excluded if their latest endoscopy had been performed ≤36 months after the initial diagnosis of NG. Small-granular-type NG was defined as the condition with 1–2 mm regular subepithelial nodules. Large-nodular-type NG was defined as those with 3–4 mm, irregular subepithelial nodules. The endoscopic findings after nodule regression were recorded. RESULTS: Among the 97 H. pylori-infected patients with NG, 61 showed nodule regression after a mean follow-up of 73.0±22.0 months. After nodule regression, 16 patients showed a salt-and-pepper appearance and/or transparent submucosal vessels, indicating CAG. Twenty-nine patients showed diffuse irregular elevations and/or whitish plaques, indicating MG. Sixteen patients with other endoscopic findings (14 normal, one erosive gastritis, and one chronic superficial gastritis) showed a higher proportion of H. pylori eradication (12/16, 75.0%) than those in the CAG group (5/16, 31.3%) and MG group (6/29, 20.7%; p=0.001). Patients with small-granular-type NG tended to progress toward CAG (14/27, 51.9%), whereas those with large-nodular-type NG tended to progress toward MG (25/34, 73.5%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a persistent H. pylori infection, NG tended to progress to CAG or MG when the nodules regressed. Small-granular-type NG tended to progress to CAG, whereas large-nodular-type NG tended to progress to MG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Follow-Up Studies , Gastritis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Lymphoid Tissue , Metaplasia , Precancerous Conditions , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(1): 13-20, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103775

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) or chronic atrophic gastritis type A, is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the body and fundus mucosa of the stomach. It is an underdiagnosed entity, whose clinical presentation has a broad spectrum, which may include asymptomatic patients; hematological manifestations such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (so called pernicious); non-specific digestive symptoms like dyspepsia; neurological and psychiatric manifestations. AIG is associated with other autoimmune diseases, mainly hypothyroidism ("Tyrogastric Syndrome") and type 1 diabetes. It is characterized by the development of anti-parietal cell and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies, decrease in pepsinogen I (PGI) level with low PGI/PGII ratio (< 3), and high level of gastrin. Endoscopic findings are not sufficient for the diagnosis of gastric atrophy. The use of the Sydney pathological report protocol and the OLGA/OLGIM system to evaluate the severity of gastritis have improved their diagnosis and the possibility to establish the risk of developing gastric neoplasms. The importance of its diagnosis and surveillance is based on the development of type 1 neuroendocrine gastric neoplasms, in addition to an increased risk of the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently, an individualized endoscopic surveillance seems reasonable, with a minimum interval of 3 years.


La gastritis autoinmune (GAI) o gastritis crónica atrófica tipo A, es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que afecta la mucosa del cuerpo y fondo del estómago. La GAI es una entidad subdiagnosticada, cuya presentación clínica es de amplio espectro, puede incluir pacientes asintomáticos; manifestaciones hematológicas, tales como anemia ferropriva, anemia por déficit de vitamina B12 (anemia perniciosa); digestivas inespecíficas tipo dispepsia; neurológicas y psiquiátricas. La GAI está asociada a otras enfermedades autoinmunes, principalmente hipotiroidismo ("síndrome tirogástrico") y diabetes tipo 1. Se caracteriza por el desarrollo de anticuerpos anti células parietales y anti factor intrínseco, bajo nivel de pepsinógeno I (PGI) con una baja relación PGI/PGII (< 3), e hipergastrinemia. Los hallazgos endoscópicos no son suficientes para el diagnóstico de atrofia gástrica. El uso de protocolo de Sydney de reporte patológico y sistema OLGA/OLGIM para evaluar la severidad de gastritis han mejorado su diagnóstico y objetivado su riesgo de desarrollar neoplasias gástricas. La importancia de su diagnóstico y seguimiento está basada en el desarrollo de neoplasias gástricas neuroendocrinas tipo 1, además de un riesgo incrementado de la incidencia de adenocarcinoma gástrico, entre otros. Actualmente, parece razonable un seguimiento endoscópico individualizado, siendo un intervalo mínimo de 3 años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Gastritis, Atrophic/immunology , Gastritis, Atrophic/therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/physiopathology , Vitamin B 12 , Autoimmunity , Chronic Disease , Helicobacter pylori , Gastritis, Atrophic/physiopathology , Anemia, Pernicious
17.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 66-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the endoscopic features of upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared with those in the healthy controls. METHODS: Data on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in 180 patients with SSc (SSc group) were compared with that from the 181 age- and sex-matched healthy control who underwent EGD for routine check-up (control group). Clinical data of participants at the time of EGD (defined as baseline) were collected from electric medical record. Endoscopic findings were evaluated by two experts with blinded to their clinical features. Primary outcome of the study was prevalence of each endoscopic lesion between the two groups. RESULTS: The mean±standard deviation age and disease duration in the SSc group at baseline were 55.3±11.8 and 2.9±3.7 years, respectively. Compared to the control group, SSc group more frequently showed reflux esophagitis (32.8% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.001). In contrast, prevalence of atrophic gastritis was significantly lower in the SSc group (8.3% vs. 29.3%, p < 0.001). This result was consistent in the multivariable analysis where patients' age and concomitant proton pump inhibitor use were adjusted. There was no case of gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in both groups. However, 29 (16.1%) patients in SSc group showed a clinically significant anemia (hemoglobin < 10 mg/dL), with none of the endoscopic features showed significant associations with the outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with SSc showed significantly lower prevalence of atrophic gastritis. There was no case of GAVE, which suggests that clinical phenotype of the SSc could be different according to the ethnicity or geographic region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagitis, Peptic , Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia , Gastritis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Medical Records , Phenotype , Prevalence , Proton Pumps , Scleroderma, Systemic , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 267-279, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719425

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori infection induces phenotype-stabilizing methylation and promotes gastric mucosal atrophy that can inhibit CpG-island methylation. Relationship between the progression of gastric mucosal atrophy and the initiation of CpG-island methylation was analyzed to delineate epigenetic period for neoplastic transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal-appearing gastric mucosa was biopsied from 110 H. pylori–positive controls, 95 H. pylori–negative controls, 99 gastric cancer patients, and 118 gastric dysplasia patients. Gastric atrophy was assessed using endoscopic-atrophic-border score. Methylation-variable sites of eight CpG-island genes adjacent to Alu (CDH1, ARRDC4, PPARG, and TRAPPC2L) or LTR (MMP2, CDKN2A, RUNX2, and RUNX3) retroelements and stomach-specific TFF3 gene were analyzed using radioisotope-labeled methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Mean ages of H. pylori–positive controls with mild, moderate, and severe atrophy were 51, 54, and 65 years and those of H. pylori–associated TFF3 overmethylation at the three atrophic levels (51, 58, and 63 years) tended to be periodic. Alu-adjacent overmethylation (50 years) was earlier than TFF3 overmethylation (58 years) in H. pylori–positive controls with moderate atrophy. Cancer patients with moderate atrophy showed late Alu-adjacent (58 years) overmethylation and frequent LTR-adjacent overmethylation. LTR-adjacent overmethylation was frequent in cancer (66 years) and dysplasia (68 years) patients with severe atrophy. CONCLUSION: Atrophic progression is associated with gastric cancer at moderate level by impeding the initiation of Alu-adjacent methylation. LTR-adjacent methylation is increased in cancer patients and subsequently in dysplasia patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis, Atrophic , Genes, Essential , Helicobacter pylori , Household Work , Methylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retroelements , Stomach Neoplasms
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 506-514, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The validity of ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT) for Helicobacter pylori detection is influenced by atrophic gastritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid on the accuracy of ¹³C-Urea breath test after H. pylori eradication therapy in a region where atrophic gastritis is common. METHODS: In this prospective study, H. pylori-positive patients received ¹³C-UBT after H. pylori eradication regimen. They were classified into citric acid group and control group. To determine diagnostic accuracy of ¹³C-UBT, patients were offered invasive methods. RESULTS: A total of 1,207 who successfully took H. pylori-eradication regimen received UBT. They were assigned into the citric acid group (n=562) and the control group (n=645). The mean ¹³C-UBT value of the citric acid group was 10.3±26.4‰, which was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of that control group (5.1‰±12.6‰). Of these patients 122 patients were evaluated by endoscopic biopsy methods. Based on invasive tests, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ¹³C-UBT for the citric acid group were 83.3%, 91.7%, 81.3%, 55.0%, and 97.5%, respectively. Those of the control group were 87.7%, 90.9%, 88.2%, 62.5%, and 97.8%, respectively. They were not significantly different between the two groups. Although the presence of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) decreased the accuracy, the decrease was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with high prevalence of atrophic gastritis or IM, false positivity remained common despite the use of citric acid in ¹³C-UBT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Biopsy , Breath Tests , Citric Acid , Diagnosis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Metaplasia , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 332-340, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and metaplastic gastritis (MG) are precancerous conditions of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related gastric cancer. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of nodular gastritis (NG) showing CAG or MG after nodule regression.METHODS: H. pylori-infected patients with NG were included after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were excluded if their latest endoscopy had been performed ≤36 months after the initial diagnosis of NG. Small-granular-type NG was defined as the condition with 1–2 mm regular subepithelial nodules. Large-nodular-type NG was defined as those with 3–4 mm, irregular subepithelial nodules. The endoscopic findings after nodule regression were recorded.RESULTS: Among the 97 H. pylori-infected patients with NG, 61 showed nodule regression after a mean follow-up of 73.0±22.0 months. After nodule regression, 16 patients showed a salt-and-pepper appearance and/or transparent submucosal vessels, indicating CAG. Twenty-nine patients showed diffuse irregular elevations and/or whitish plaques, indicating MG. Sixteen patients with other endoscopic findings (14 normal, one erosive gastritis, and one chronic superficial gastritis) showed a higher proportion of H. pylori eradication (12/16, 75.0%) than those in the CAG group (5/16, 31.3%) and MG group (6/29, 20.7%; p=0.001). Patients with small-granular-type NG tended to progress toward CAG (14/27, 51.9%), whereas those with large-nodular-type NG tended to progress toward MG (25/34, 73.5%; p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a persistent H. pylori infection, NG tended to progress to CAG or MG when the nodules regressed. Small-granular-type NG tended to progress to CAG, whereas large-nodular-type NG tended to progress to MG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Follow-Up Studies , Gastritis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Lymphoid Tissue , Metaplasia , Precancerous Conditions , Stomach Neoplasms
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